Arianism阿里乌斯教

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Arianism was a 4th-century Christian heresy named for Arius (c.250-c.336), a priest in Alexandria. Arius denied the full deity of the preexistent Son of God who became incarnate in Jesus Christ. He held that the Son, while divine and like God ("of like substance"), was created by God as the agent through whom he created the universe. Arius said of the Son, "there was a time when he was not." Arianism became so widespread in the Christian church and resulted in such disunity that the emperor Constantine convoked a church council at Nicaea in 325 (see Councils of Nicaea).阿里乌斯是第四世纪的基督教异端阿里乌斯命名为(c.250 - c.336),一亚历山大牧师英寸arius否认耶稣基督先在儿子满神,神在谁成了肉身。他认为,儿子,而神圣的象神(“像物质”),是由上帝创造的宇宙的代理商,他创建了。 阿里乌斯的儿子说:“有一段时间,他不是。”阿里乌主义变得如此广泛的基督教教会在这种分裂导致了皇帝君士坦丁在尼西亚召集在325一堂议会(见尼西亚议会)。

Led by Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, the council condemned Arianism and stated that the Son was consubstantial (of one and the same substance or being) and coeternal with the Father, a belief formulated as homoousios ("of one substance") against the Arian position of homoiousios ("of like substance"). Nonetheless, the conflict continued, aided by the conflicting politics of the empire after the death of Constantine (337). 亚他那修的带领下,亚历山大的主教,“)理事会谴责阿里乌主义,并指出,儿子是同质的(由一个和相同的物质或者被物质)和coeternal同一个信念,就是父表述为homoousios(”一对阿里安homoiousios位置(简称“样物质”)。尽管如此,冲突不断,)资助君士坦丁(337由帝国的政治冲突后死亡。

Three types of Arianism emerged: radical Arianism, which asserted that the Son was "dissimilar" to the Father; homoeanism, which held that the Son was similar to the Father; and semi-Arianism, which shaded off into orthodoxy and held that the Son was similar yet distinct from the Father.三种类型的出现阿里乌主义: 激进阿里乌主义,它宣称,儿子是“不一样”的父; homoeanism,举行类似的儿子的父亲,和半阿里乌主义,把正统的阴影了,认为儿子相似但来自父亲截然不同。

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After an initial victory of the homoean party in 357, the semi-Arians joined the ranks of orthodoxy, which finally triumphed except in Teutonic Christianity, where Arianism survived until after the conversion (496) of the Franks.经过党的homoean 357初战告捷,半白羊座加入了正统的行列,并最终在条顿除基督教,在那里,直到转换后阿里乌主义(496)的法兰克人存活胜利。Although much of the dispute about Arianism seems a battle over words (Edward Gibbon scornfully observed that Christianity was split over a single iota, the difference between homoousios and homoiousios), a fundamental issue involving the integrity of the Gospel was at stake: whether God was really in Christ reconciling the world to himself.虽然很多关于争端阿里乌斯似乎比舌战(爱德华吉本轻蔑地指出,在一个单一的基督教是丝毫分裂,两者homoousios和homoiousios差),一个根本性的问题,涉及的福音完整性受到威胁:不论是神真正调和基督世界,以自己。

Reginald H. Fuller雷金纳德阁下富勒

Bibliography 参考书目
Gregg, RC, ed., Arianism: Historical and Theological Reassessments (1987); Gwatkin, HM, Studies of Arianism, 2d ed.格雷格,区局,教育署,阿里乌主义:。历史和神学的两点反思(1987); Gwatkin,航模,对阿里乌主义研究,2版。(1900); Newman, John Henry, The Arians of the Fourth Century (1833; repr. 1968). (1900年);纽曼,约翰亨利,白羊座的第四个世纪(1833年;。再版1968)。


Arianism阿里乌主义

Advanced Information先进的信息

The birth date for Arius, the North African priest who gave his name to one of Christianity's most troublesome schisms, is uncertain.对于阿里乌斯,北非神父谁给他的名字的基督教的一个最棘手的分裂,出生日期是不确定的。He seems to have been born in Libya.他似乎已在利比亚出生的。He was in all probability a pupil of Lucien of Antioch.他在所有的概率是安提吕西安的学生。During the bishopric of Peter of Alexandria (300-311) Arius was made a deacon in that city and began the stormy pastoral career which is known to history.在彼得的亚历山大主教(300-311)阿里乌斯被任命为执事,并在这个城市开始了狂风暴雨的田园生涯这是众所周知的历史。 He was in rapid succession excommunicated for his association with the Melitians, restored by Achillas, Bishop of Alexandria (311-12), and given priestly orders and the church of Baucalis.他在他与Achillas,主教亚历山德里亚(311-12)恢复了Melitians,结社驱逐快速继承,并给予祭司命令和Baucalis教堂。 Sometime between 318 and 323 Arius came into conflict with Bishop Alexander over the nature of Christ. 318和323之间的某个时候阿里乌斯来到亚历山大主教的冲突在基督的本性。In a confusing series of synods a truce was attempted between adherents of Alexander and followers of Arius; in March of 324 Alexander convened a provincial synod which acknowledged the truce but anathematized Arius.在一系列的主教混乱之间的停火协议是企图亚历山大信徒和阿里乌斯的追随者,在三月份的324个省级主教亚历山大召开的停战,但它承认anathematized阿里乌斯。 Arius responded with his publication of Thalia (which exists only as it is quoted in refutation by Athanasius) and by repudiating the truce.阿里乌斯回应,其出版的塔利亚(即只存在因为它是在驳斥引述他那修)和批判的停火协议。 In February, 325, Arius was then condemned at a synod in Antioch.今年二月,325,阿里乌斯在当时谴责在安提阿主教。The Emperor Constantine was intervening by this time, and it was he who called the first ecumenical council, the Council of Nicaea.皇帝君士坦丁的干预,这时候,它是谁,他所谓的第一基督教会,理事会的尼西亚。This council met on May 20, 325, and subsequently condemned Arius and his teaching.本会于五月20,325,随后谴责阿里乌斯和他的教学。Present in the entourage of Alexander at this council was Athanasius.在亚历山大一行在本局现被他那修。He took little part in the affairs of the Council of Nicaea, but when he became Bishop of Alexandria in 328, he was to become the unremitting foe of Arius and Arianism and the unflagging champion of the Nicene formula.他参与了安理会的事务的尼西亚小部分,但是当他成为328主教亚历山德里亚,他将成为阿里乌斯和阿里乌斯不懈的敌人和尼西亚公式不懈冠军。

Following his condemnation Arius was banished to to Illyricum.在他谴责阿里乌斯被贬到伊利里库姆。 There he continued to write, teach, and appeal to an ever broadening circle of political and ecclesiastical adherents of Arianism.在那里,他继续写,教授和呼吁的政治和宗教的信徒阿里乌斯不断扩大循环。Around 332 or 333 Constantine opened direct contact with Arius, and in 335 the two met at Nicomedia.大约332或333君士坦丁打开阿里乌斯直接接触,并在335尼科美底亚的两个满足。There Arius presented a confession which Constantine considered sufficiently orthodox to allow for the reconsideration of Arius's case.有阿里乌斯提交了一份供认正统的君士坦丁充分考虑,以便在阿里乌斯的复议。Therefore, following the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem the Synod of Jerusalem declared for the readmittance of Arius to communion even as he lay dying in Constantiople.因此,继在耶路撒冷复活教堂的耶路撒冷主教奉献的阿里乌斯宣布重新接纳共融即使他躺在Constantiople死亡。 Since Arian views were being advanced by many active bishops and members of the court, and Arius himself had ceased to play a vital role in the controversy, his death in 335 or 336 did nothing to diminish the furor in the church.由于阿里安意见被提前了许多积极的主教和法院成员,阿里乌斯自己已不再发挥重要作用的争论,他在335或336没有做任何削弱教会的愤怒死亡。 Instead of resolving the issues, the Council of Nicaea had launched an empire-wide Christological debate by its condemnation of Arius.而不是解决问​​题,理事会的尼西亚发起了一项由其阿里乌斯谴责帝国范围内的基督论的辩论。

Arius was a thoroughgoing Greek rationalist.阿里乌斯是一个地地道道的希腊理性主义者。He inherited the almost universally held Logos Christology of the East.他继承了东方几乎普遍持理性的基督。He labored in Alexandria, the center for Origenist teachings on the subordination of the Son to the Father.他辛劳,在亚历山德里亚,有关的儿子服从父亲Origenist教义的中心。He blended this heritage into a rationalist Christology that lost the balance Origen had maintained in his subordinationist theology by his insistence on the eternal generation of the Son.他融合成一个理性的基督这是失去了俄一直保持在他的坚持他的subordinationist神学上的子一代平衡永恒的遗产。

The guard against the error of Arius and the Arianism erected by the symbol and anathemas adopted by the Council of Nicaea serve as an outline of Arius's fundamental position.反对的阿里乌斯和阿里乌主义错误后卫竖立的标志,由尼西亚充当对阿里乌斯的基本立场理事会通过anathemas的大纲。

Nicaea's "in one Lord Jesus Christ the Son of God, begotten of the Father, only-begotten, that is from the substance of the Father" was to offset Arius's central assertion that God was immutable, unique, unknowable, only one.尼西亚的“一主耶稣基督,上帝的儿子,造​​物主的父亲,只出师不利,即从父的实质是”被抵消阿里乌斯中央断言,上帝是不可改变的,独特的,不可知的,只有一个。 Therefore Arians felt no substance of God could in any way be communicated or shared with any other being.因此白羊座觉得没有上帝的物质可以以任何方式进行沟通,或与任何其他被共享。The council's "true God from true God, begotten not made" set aside Arius's contention that, since God was immutable and unknowable, Christ had to be a created being, made out of nothing by God, first in the created order certainly, but of it.安理会的“真实的真神上帝,造物主没有提出”搁置阿里乌斯的论点是,因为上帝是不变的,不可知的,基督必须是一个被造,做出来的没有任何事是神,在创建的订单肯定第一,但它。 This limited the concept of the preexistence of Christ even while adapting the dominant Logos Christology to Arianism.这限制了基督前世的概念,甚至占主导地位的标志,同时适应基督到阿里乌主义。The Logos, first born, created of God, was incarnate in the Christ but, asserted Arius, "there was when he was not."标识,首先出生,上帝创造的,是在基督的化身,但断言阿里乌斯,“有他小时候没有。”

Nicaea's "of one substance with the Father" made the Greek term homoousios the catchword of the orthodox.尼西亚的“一个物质与父亲”使希腊正统的口号长期homoousios。Arianism developed two parties, one of which felt Christ was of a substance like the Father (homoiousios).阿里乌主义发展两党,其中之一认为基督像父亲(homoiousios)的实质内容。A more extreme wing insisted that as a created being Christ was unlike the Father in substance (anomoios).坚持一个更极端势力,作为一个基督被造物质不同的是父亲(anomoios)了。Arius himself would have belonged to the first or more moderate party.阿里乌斯自己也有属于第一或较温和的政党。

The council's anathemas were extended to all those who claimed "there was once when he was not"; "before his generation he was not"; "he was made out of nothing"; "the Son of God is of another subsistence or substance"; and "the Son of God [is] created or alterable or mutable."该委员会的anathemas的扩大到所有这些谁声称“有一次,他不是”;“之前,他的一代,他是不是”,“他是用什么去”,“神的儿子的另一生活或物质”和“神的儿子[是]创建或可变或可变的。” The last anathema attacked another Arian teaching.最后诅咒攻击另一阿里安教学。Arius and subsequent Arians had taught that Christ grew, changed, matured in his understanding of the divine plan according to the Scriptures, and therefore could not be part of the unchanging God.阿里乌斯和随后的白羊座已经告诉我们,基督的增长,改变了,在他的神圣计划按照圣经的理解成熟,因此不能成为不变的上帝的一部分。 He was not God the Son; rather, He was simply given the title Son of God as an honor.他不是神的儿子,相反,他只是考虑到作为一种荣誉称号上帝的儿子。

An observer in that day might well have thought Arianism was going to triumph in the church.在这一天观察员很可能以为阿里乌主义是要继续在教会的胜利。Beginning with Constantius the court was often Arian.与君初法院往往是阿里安。Five times Athanasius of Alexandria was driven into exile, interrupting his long episcopate.五次亚他那修的亚历山大被迫流亡,打断他的长期主教。A series of synods repudiated the Nicene symbol in various ways, Antioch in 341, Arles in 353; and in 355 Liberius of Rome and Ossius of Cordoba were exiled and a year later Hilary of Poitier was sent to Phrygia.一系列的主教以各种方式否定尼西亚的象征,在341安提阿,阿尔勒在353和355的罗马和Ossius科尔多瓦利比里奥被流放,一年后的波蒂埃希拉里被送往弗里吉亚。 In 360 in Constantinople all earlier creeds were disavowed and the term substance (ousia) was outlawed.在君士坦丁堡360所有早期教义被否定和术语物质(ousia)被取缔。The Son was simply declared to be "like the Father who begot him."儿子在简单宣布为“像爸爸谁生了他。”

The orthodox counterattack on Arianism pointed out that the Arian theology reduced Christ to a demigod and in effect reintroduced polytheism into Christianity, since Christ was worshiped among Arians as among the orthodox.对阿里乌主义正统反击指出,阿里安神学减少到一个半神和基督基督教实际上重新进入多神教,因为基督是其中白羊座的崇拜之间的正统。 But in the long run the most telling argument against Arianism was Athanasius's constant soteriological battle cry that only God, very God, truly God Incarnate could reconcile and redeem fallen man to holy God.但在运行的最有说服力的论据反对阿里乌主义长远亚他那修的不断救世的战斗口号,只有神,神,真正的上帝道成肉身能调和和赎回堕落的人,进入神圣的上帝。 It was the thorough work of the Cappadocian Fathers, Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, which brought the final resolution that proved theologically acceptable to the church.这是彻底的卡帕多西亚父亲的工作,罗勒伟大,格雷戈里的果树,的nazianzus,它带来的最终决议,证明神学教会接受的格雷戈里。 They divided the concept of substance (ousia) from the concept of person (hypostasis) and thus allowed the orthodox defenders of the original Nicene formula and the later moderate or semi-Arian party to unite in an understanding of God as one substance and three persons.他们分为物质从人(本质)的概念(ousia)的概念,从而使原尼西亚公式以及后来的中度或半阿里安党的正统捍卫者在认识上帝团结一心,三人物质。 Christ therefore was of one substance with the Father (homoousion) but a distinct person.因此,基督是与父(homoousion),但一个独特的人的物质。With this understanding the Council of Constantinople in 381 was able to reaffirm the Nicene Creed.有了这种认识会在381君士坦丁堡能够重申尼西亚信条。The able Emperor Theodosius I threw himself on the side of orthodoxy and Arianism began to wane in the empire.能干的皇帝狄奥多西我扔在一边的正统自己和阿里乌主义开始衰落的帝国。

The long struggle with Arianism was not over yet, however, for Ulfilas, famous missionary to the Germanic tribes, had accepted the Homoean statement of Constantinople of 360.与阿里乌主义的长期斗争还没有结束,但是,对于Ulfilas,著名传教的日耳曼部落,接受了360君士坦丁堡Homoean声明。 Ulfilas taught the similarity of the Son to the Father and the total subordination of the Holy Spirit. Ulfilas教的儿子相似的父亲和圣灵总处于从属地位。He taught the Visigoths north of the Danube, and they in turn carried this semi-Arianism back into Italy.他教多瑙河以北的西哥特人,并在此进行的意大利半阿里乌主义背脊他们。The Vandals were taught by Visigoth priests and in 409 carried the same semi-Arianism across the Pyrenees into Spain.汪达尔人教的西哥特人祭司和西班牙409带进同一半跨越比利牛斯阿里乌主义。It was not until the end of the seventh century that orthodoxy was to finally absorb Arianism.这是直到七世纪的正统吸收阿里乌主义,终于结束。Yet Arianism has been reborn in the modern era in the form of extreme Unitarianism, and the Jehovah's Witnesses regard Arius as a forerunner of CT Russell.然而,阿里乌主义已经脱胎换骨,在单一制下的极端形式的现代时代,耶和华见证会认为这是先进的CT罗素阿里乌斯。

VL Walter VL的沃尔特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J. Danielou and H. Marrou, The Christian Centuries, I, chs.j的Danielou和H. Marrou,基督教世纪,我,社区会堂。18-19; JH Newman, The Arians of the Fourth Century; RC Gregg and DE Groh, Early Arianism; TA Kopecek, A History of Neo-Arianism, 2 vols.; HM Gwatkin, Studies in Arianism; E. Boularand, l'Heresie d'Arius et la foi de Nicee, 2 vols. 18-19;纽曼,在公元前4世纪白羊座;钢筋混凝土格雷格和DE格罗,早阿里乌主义;,中新阿里乌主义,第2卷历史助教Kopecek。陛下Gwatkin,在阿里乌主义研究;大肠杆菌Boularand,升' Heresie德阿里乌斯等香格里拉信息公开德Nicee,第2卷。


Semi-Arianism半阿里乌主义

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Semi-Arianism was the doctrine of Christ's sonship as held by fourth century theologians who were reluctant to accept either the strict Nicene definition or the extreme Arian position.半阿里乌主义是基督的教义的sonship由四世纪的神学家谁不愿意接受任何严格的定义或极端尼西亚阿里安职位。 After the Council of Nicaea (AD 325) a single term came to identify each position.经过理事会的尼西亚(公元325年)单个一词来确定每个职位。

Semi-Arians called Christ "Divine," but in effect denied that he is truly God, that he is "equal to the Father as touching his Godhead."半白羊座称为基督的“神”,但实际上否认他是真正的上帝,他是“作为他的神性等于感人的父亲。”

Some students of the controversy have argued that the term "Semi-Arianism" is an unfair term, associating the movement too closely with Arianism, and that "Semi-Nicene" might better represent the movement's tendency toward orthodoxy.的争论有些学生认为,所谓“半阿里乌主义”是一个不公平的任期,联想与阿里乌主义运动太密切,而“半尼西亚”可能更好地代表不结盟运动对正统的趋势。 The term "Ante-Nicene" has been used as often, however, because Semi-Arians did, in fact, deny that Christ was fully one with the Father.所谓“前厅尼西亚”已被用来作为经常,不过,由于半白羊座的那样,实际上,否认基督是完全的父亲。

The Semi-Arian position arose at the Council of Nicaea, called by Emperor Constantine to deal with the Arian question, which had raised enough controversy to threaten the unity of the church.半阿里安位置出现在理事会的尼西亚君士坦丁皇帝称为阿里安处理问题,这已经筹集到足够的争议威胁着教会的合一。All but two of the bishops present at the council signed the orthodox statement, though many did so with reservations.所有的主教,但在安理会提出两个签署了正统的声明,但很多人一样有保留的。Semi-Arians also came to be called "Eusebians" after Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia and later patriarch of Constantinople.半白羊座的人也来到了被称为“Eusebians”之后尤西比乌斯,主教尼科美底亚和后来的君士坦丁堡。 As a young man Eusebius had studied with Arius.作为一个年轻的男子尤西比乌斯已经研究了阿里乌斯。Though he signed the creed at the Council of Nicaea, he later became a key leader in the reaction against it.虽然他签署了理事会的尼西亚信条,他后来成为在反对反应的关键领导者。

The most prominent leader of the Semi-Arians at the Council, however, was Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, the early church historian.该半在安理会白羊座最突出的领导者,但是,尤西比乌斯,该撒利亚,早期的教会历史学家主教。Following the council the Semi-Arian position remained prominent, but a resugence of the Old Arians, seeking to reinstate the original heresy, led to the disintegration of Semi-Arian support.继安理会半阿里安状况仍然突出,但旧白羊座resugence,寻求恢复原来的异端,导致半阿里安支持解体。In August 357, a small but important synod met at Sirmium in Illyricum.八月357,一个小而重要的主教西锡尔米乌姆会见了在伊利里库姆。 The creed that emerged from the synod condemned the term ousia in any form and clearly subordinated the Son to the Father.的信条,从出现主教谴责任何形式的长期ousia并明确服从儿子的父亲。This creed split the opponents of Nicaea so decisively that it turned sentiment in favor of the orthodox view.这种分裂的尼西亚信条的对手如此果断,它上缴的正统观点赞成情绪。Many bishops renounced their errors and subscribed to the Nicene Creed.许多主教放弃他们的错误,并订阅了尼西亚信条。After this point Semi-Arians never existed in significant numbers.在此之后点半白羊座不存在显着的数字。Some became Arian and many reaffirmed orthodoxy at the Council of Constantinople in 381.一些人成为阿里安和381多重申在安理会的君士坦丁堡的正统。

BL Shelley基本法雪莱
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
ER Hardy, ed., Christology of the Later Fathers; JND Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines; GL Prestige, Fathers and Heretics.急诊哈代,海关,基督的后来父亲。JND凯利,早期基督教教义;吉尔珍贵,父亲和异端。


Arianism阿里乌主义

Catholic Information天主教新闻

A heresy which arose in the fourth century, and denied the Divinity of Jesus Christ.一个异端的出现在第四世纪,否认耶稣基督的神性。

DOCTRINE教义

First among the doctrinal disputes which troubled Christians after Constantine had recognized the Church in AD 313, and the parent of many more during some three centuries, Arianism occupies a large place in ecclesiastical history.首先是困扰基督徒间的承认后,君士坦丁在公元313教会教义纠纷,以及许多在一些三百年以上的父母,阿里乌主义在教会历史上占据了大的地方。 It is not a modern form of unbelief, and therefore will appear strange in modern eyes.这不是一个现代形式的不信,因此将出现在现代眼光奇怪。But we shall better grasp its meaning if we term it an Eastern attempt to rationalize the creed by stripping it of mystery so far as the relation of Christ to God was concerned.不过,我们会更好地掌握它的含义是,如果我们长期努力的东方神秘的合理化剥离它作为基督的关系,到目前为止,有关神的信条。 In the New Testament and in Church teaching Jesus of Nazareth appears as the Son of God.在新约,在教会的拿撒勒教学耶稣似乎是上帝的儿子。This name He took to Himself (Matthew 11:27; John 10:36), while the Fourth Gospel declares Him to be the Word (Logos), Who in the beginning was with God and was God, by Whom all things were made.他把这个名字与自己(马太11点27分,约翰10时36分),而第四福音宣布他要字(标志),他在开始时是与神,是上帝,谁所有事情发了言。 A similar doctrine is laid down by St. Paul, in his undoubtedly genuine Epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, and Philippians.类似的学说是定下圣保罗,在他无疑是真正的书信的以弗所,歌罗西书,和腓利。It is reiterated in the Letters of Ignatius, and accounts for Pliny's observation that Christians in their assemblies chanted a hymn to Christ as God.它是在伊格英皇重申,为普林尼的帐户,在观察他们的集会基督徒作为神的吟唱赞美诗基督。But the question how the Son was related to the Father (Himself acknowledged on all hands to be the one Supreme Deity), gave rise, between the years AD 60 and 200, to a number of Theosophic systems, called generally Gnosticism, and having for their authors Basilides, Valentinus, Tatian, and other Greek speculators.但问题是如何与儿子的父亲(他自己承认,对所有的手是一个最高神),引起了公元60年间,200,一Theosophic系统的数目,通常称为诺斯替主义,并且有其作者巴西里德,瓦伦廷,塔蒂安,和其他希腊投机者。 Though all of these visited Rome, they had no following in the West, which remained free from controversies of an abstract nature, and was faithful to the creed of its baptism.虽然所有这些访问罗马,他们没有在西方,它仍然摆脱抽象性质的争议,并忠实于它的洗礼信条以下。

Intellectual centres were chiefly Alexandria and Antioch, Egyptian or Syrian, and speculation was carried on in Greek.知识产权中心,主要是亚历山大和安提阿,埃及和叙利亚,并在希腊进行投机的。The Roman Church held steadfastly by tradition.罗马教会的传统,坚定不移地举行。Under these circumstances, when Gnostic schools had passed away with their "conjugations" of Divine powers, and "emanations" from the Supreme unknowable God (the "Deep" and the "Silence") all speculation was thrown into the form of an inquiry touching the "likeness" of the Son to His Father and "sameness" of His Essence.在这种情况下,当诺斯底学校已经通过与他们的“连词”的神圣权力去,“射气”,从最高不可知的神(“深”和“沉默”)的所有猜测被扔进了一个动人的查询表格“似”的儿子,他的父亲和“同一性”,他的本质。 Catholics had always maintained that Christ was truly the Son, and truly God.天主教徒一直认为基督是真正的儿子,真正的上帝。 They worshipped Him with divine honours; they would never consent to separate Him, in idea or reality, from the Father, Whose Word, Reason, Mind, He was, and in Whose Heart He abode from eternity.他们崇拜神圣的荣誉与他,他们绝不会同意在思想还是现实分开他,从爸爸,他的字,原因,认为他是在,并在其心,他从永恒居留权。 But the technical terms of doctrine were not fully defined; and even in Greek words like essence (ousia), substance (hypostasis), nature (physis), person (hyposopon) bore a variety of meanings drawn from the pre-Christian sects of philosophers, which could not but entail misunderstandings until they were cleared up.但学说的技术条款尚未完全界定;,甚至在希腊的话犹如本质(ousia),物质(本质),自然(骨骺),人(hyposopon)缸径一个从哲学家的前基督教教派绘制各种含义,这可能意味着,直到他们不得不清除了误解。 The adaptation of a vocabulary employed by Plato and Aristotle to Christian truth was a matter of time; it could not be done in a day; and when accomplished for the Greek it had to be undertaken for the Latin, which did not lend itself readily to necessary yet subtle distinctions.由柏拉图,亚里士多德,以基督教真理雇一个词汇适应是一个时间问题,它不可能在一天内完成,而当对希腊完成它必须为拉美地区,这本身并没有提供现成的承诺必要但微妙的区别。 That disputes should spring up even among the orthodox who all held one faith, was inevitable.遍地开花的纠纷应在正统谁所有持有一个信念,甚至是不可避免的。And of these wranglings the rationalist would take advantage in order to substitute for the ancient creed his own inventions.而且,这些纠缠会采取理性的优势,以取代古老的信条他自己的发明。The drift of all he advanced was this: to deny that in any true sense God could have a Son; as Mohammed tersely said afterwards, "God neither begets, nor is He begotten" (Koran, 112).他提出的所有漂移是这样的:否认,在任何真正意义上的上帝可以有一个儿子,正如事后穆罕默德简洁地说,“上帝既不诞生,也不是他造物主”(古兰经,112)。 We have learned to call that denial Unitarianism.我们已经学会了拒绝调用单一制。It was the ultimate scope of Arian opposition to what Christians had always believed.这是阿里安反对什么基督徒一直相信最终范围。But the Arian, though he did not come straight down from the Gnostic, pursued a line of argument and taught a view which the speculations of the Gnostic had made familiar.但阿里安,虽然他没有来直下从诺斯底,奉行一个论点,并教其中的诺斯底的猜测作出了熟悉的景致。He described the Son as a second, or inferior God, standing midway between the First Cause and creatures; as Himself made out of nothing, yet as making all things else; as existing before the worlds of the ages; and as arrayed in all divine perfections except the one which was their stay and foundation.他形容为第二,或下神的儿子,站在之间的第一个原因和生物中途,他自己做出来的任何东西,因为一切的东西,还让;因为现有的年龄之前,世界上和在所有排列神圣除了一波罗蜜这是他们留和基础。 God alone was without beginning, unoriginate; the Son was originated, and once had not existed.只有上帝是无始,unoriginate,儿子是起源,一旦不存在了。For all that has origin must begin to be.对于所有已经开始的起源,必须要。

Such is the genuine doctrine of Arius.这就是真正的阿里乌斯教义。Using Greek terms, it denies that the Son is of one essence, nature, or substance with God; He is not consubstantial (homoousios) with the Father, and therefore not like Him, or equal in dignity, or co-eternal, or within the real sphere of Deity.使用希腊来说,它不同意的儿子一个本质,性质,或与上帝的实质是,他不是同质的(homoousios)与父,因此不喜欢他,或在尊严平等,或共同永恒的,或在真正的神球。 The Logos which St. John exalts is an attribute, Reason, belonging to the Divine nature, not a person distinct from another, and therefore is a Son merely in figure of speech.此标志的圣约翰标榜是一个属性,原因,属于神圣的性质,不是一个人从另一个截然不同的,因此是一个儿子,只是在比喻。 These consequences follow upon the principle which Arius maintains in his letter to Eusebius of Nicomedia, that the Son "is no part of the Ingenerate."这些后果遵循的原则后,在他的信阿里乌斯保持尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚,即子“是没有的Ingenerate的一部分。” Hence the Arian sectaries who reasoned logically were styled Anomoeans: they said that the Son was "unlike" the Father.因此,谁在逻辑上是合理的阿里安的sectaries风格Anomoeans:他们说,儿子是“不像”父亲。And they defined God as simply the Unoriginate.他们定义为简单的Unoriginate神。They are also termed the Exucontians (ex ouk onton), because they held the creation of the Son to be out of nothing.他们也被称为Exucontians(当然ouk ont​​on),因为他们的儿子举行了创建到成为无中生有。


But a view so unlike tradition found little favour; it required softening or palliation, even at the cost of logic; and the school which supplanted Arianism from an early date affirmed the likeness, either without adjunct, or in all things, or in substance, of the Son to the Father, while denying His co-equal dignity and co-eternal existence.但是,视图,以便找到小忙,不像传统的,它需要甚至不惜成本的逻辑软化或缓解,以及学校,取代从早日阿里乌主义肯定了肖像,没有辅助,或在所有的事情,或在任何物质,在给父亲的儿子,同时拒绝他的共同平等的尊严和共同的永恒的存在。 These men of the Via Media were named Semi-Arians.通过媒体对这些人被命名为半白羊座。They approached, in strict argument, to the heretical extreme; but many of them held the orthodox faith, however inconsistently; their difficulties turned upon language or local prejudice, and no small number submitted at length to Catholic teaching.他们走近,严格论证,对邪教的极端,但其中许多人举行了正统的信仰,但不一致;他们的困难后,语言或当地偏见和不小的数目提交的长度为天主教教学转向。 The Semi-Arians attempted for years to invent a compromise between irreconcilable views, and their shifting creeds, tumultuous councils, and worldly devices tell us how mixed and motley a crowd was collected under their banner.半白羊座多年来试图发明一种妥​​协之间不可调和的意见,他们的信条转移,政局动荡,和世俗的设备,并告诉我们怎么混在人群混杂,根据其收集的旗帜。 The point to be kept in remembrance is that, while they affirmed the Word of God to be everlasting, they imagined Him as having become the Son to create the worlds and redeem mankind.将要在我的记忆保存的一点是,虽然他们肯定了神的话是永恒的,他们想象成子已成为创造世界和人类的救赎他。Among the ante-Nicene writers, a certain ambiguity of expression may be detected, outside the school of Alexandria, touching this last head of doctrine.在休息室尼西亚作家,表达一定的模糊性可能会被检测到,学校外的亚历山大,触摸这一学说的最后头。While Catholic teachers held the Monarchia, viz.虽然天主教教师举行的Monarchia,即。that there was only one God; and the Trinity, that this Absolute One existed in three distinct subsistences; and the Circuminession, that Father, Word, and Spirit could not be separated, in fact or in thought, from one another; yet an opening was left for discussion as regarded the term "Son," and the period of His "generation" (gennesis). ,世界上只有一个上帝,在事实上或思想以及Circuminession,神父,Word和精神都不能分开,从彼此;,以及三位一体,这绝对的存在,在三个不同的su​​bsistences尚未开幕把剩下的词作为讨论“儿子”和他的“代”(gennesis)周期。 Five ante-Nicene Fathers are especially quoted: Athenagoras, Tatian, Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus, and Novatian, whose language appears to involve a peculiar notion of Sonship, as though It did not come into being or were not perfect until the dawn of creation.五宰前尼西亚父亲特别引用:那哥拉,塔蒂安,安提,西波吕,并诺瓦蒂安,他们的语言似乎涉及一种奇特的sonship概念西奥菲勒斯,好像没有接触到或没有被创造的黎明,直到完美。 To these may be added Tertullian and Methodius.为了这些可能会增加良和Methodius。Cardinal Newman held that their view, which is found clearly in Tertullian, of the Son existing after the Word, is connected as an antecedent with Arianism.红衣主教纽曼认为,他们认为,这是发现在良显然是现有一词后的儿子,是一个连接阿里乌主义前提。Petavius construed the same expressions in a reprehensible sense; but the Anglican Bishop Bull defended them as orthodox, not without difficulty. Petavius​​解释在意义上相同的表现形式应该受到谴责,但英国圣公会主教牛捍卫正统他们并非没有困难。Even if metaphorical, such language might give shelter to unfair disputants; but we are not answerable for the slips of teachers who failed to perceive all the consequences of doctrinal truths really held by them.即使隐喻,这样的语言可能不公平的争论者提供庇护,但我们是不负责的教师谁没有察觉所有的教义真理其持有的后果真的滑倒负责。 From these doubtful theorizings Rome and Alexandria kept aloof.从这些可疑theorizings罗马和亚历山大保持冷漠。Origen himself, whose unadvised speculations were charged with the guilt of Arianism, and who employed terms like "the second God," concerning the Logos, which were never adopted by the Church -- this very Origen taught the eternal Sonship of the Word, and was not a Semi-Arian.奥利自己的猜测是轻率的家伙与被控有罪的阿里乌主义,谁喜欢“第二上帝”有关的标志,这是从来没有的教会通过聘用条款 - 这个非常奥利教的字永恒的sonship,和不是一个半阿里安。To him the Logos, the Son, and Jesus of Nazareth were one ever-subsisting Divine Person, begotten of the Father, and, in this way, "subordinate" to the source of His being.对他的标志,圣子,耶稣的拿撒勒是一个不断存续的神人,生的父亲,并以这种方式,“下属”给他的源泉。He comes forth from God as the creative Word, and so is a ministering Agent, or, from a different point of view, is the First-born of creation.他来是从神出来的创意字,所以是一个服事的代理,或者从另外一个角度来看,是第一创作诞生。 Dionysius of Alexandria (260) was even denounced at Rome for calling the Son a work or creature of God; but he explained himself to the pope on orthodox principles, and confessed the Homoousian Creed.狄奥尼修斯的亚历山大(260),甚至谴责在罗马工作的儿子打电话或上帝的人,然而他解释自己对正统原则教皇,并供认了Homoousian信条。

HISTORY历史

Paul of Samosata, who was contemporary with Dionysius, and Bishop of Antioch, may be judged the true ancestor of those heresies which relegated Christ beyond the Divine sphere, whatever epithets of deity they allowed Him.保罗萨莫萨塔,谁是当代与修斯和安提阿主教,可能被认为是异端邪说的那些神圣的范围超出了降级,不管他们的神使他的外号基督的真正祖先。 The man Jesus, said Paul, was distinct from the Logos, and, in Milton's later language, by merit was made the Son of God.该名男子耶稣,保罗说,是从不同的标识,并在米尔顿后来的语言,为值得提出的是神的儿子。The Supreme is one in Person as in Essence.最高法院在本质上是作为一个人。Three councils held at Antioch (264-268, or 269) condemned and excommunicated the Samosatene.在安提举行了三次议会(264-268或269)谴责和驱逐的Samosatene。But these Fathers would not accept the Homoousian formula, dreading lest it be taken to signify one material or abstract substance, according to the usage of the heathen philosophies.但这些祖宗不肯接受Homoousian公式,害怕,以免被视为一种材料或抽象意味的物质,根据使用的异教徒哲学。 Associated with Paul, and for years cut off from the Catholic communion, we find the well-known Lucian, who edited the Septuagint and became at last a martyr.与保罗,并切断与天主教共融了几年,我们找到了著名的卢西安,谁编辑七十,最后成为一名烈士。From this learned man the school of Antioch drew its inspiration.从这个教训人的学校安提提请其灵感。Eusebius the historian, Eusebius of Nicomedia, and Arius himself, all came under Lucian's influence.尤西比乌斯历史学家,尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚,和阿里乌斯本人,都受到了卢奇安的影响力。Not, therefore, to Egypt and its mystical teaching, but to Syria, where Aristotle flourished with his logic and its tendency to Rationalism, should we look for the home of an aberration which had it finally triumphed, would have anticipated Islam, reducing the Eternal Son to the rank of a prophet, and thus undoing the Christian revelation.没有,因此,埃及和其神秘的教学,而是叙利亚,亚里士多德与他的逻辑与趋势渐理性,我们应该寻找一个畸变回家了它最后的胜利,应会预期伊斯兰教,减少了永恒儿子,先知的职级,从而解开基督教的启示。

Arius, a Libyan by descent, brought up at Antioch and a school-fellow of Eusebius, afterwards Bishop of Nicomedia, took part (306) in the obscure Meletian schism, was made presbyter of the church called "Baucalis," at Alexandria, and opposed the Sabellians, themselves committed to a view of the Trinity which denied all real distinctions in the Supreme.阿里乌斯,由利比亚血统,带来了在安提阿和以学校为同胞的尤西比乌斯,事后尼科美底亚主教,注册参加了模糊Meletian分裂的一部分(306),是由长老教会称为“Baucalis,”在亚历山大,和反对Sabellians,自己犯了三位一体的最高否认所有真正的区别的看法。 Epiphanius describes the heresiarch as tall, grave, and winning; no aspersion on his moral character has been sustained; but there is some possibility of personal differences having led to his quarrel with the patriarch Alexander whom, in public synod, he accused of teaching that the Son was identical with the Father (319).埃皮法尼乌斯描述为高大,端庄,并赢得了异教,没有对他的品德中伤一直持续下去,但有一些个人差异有可能导致他与人争吵元老亚历山大,在公众的主教,他对被告的教学子与父同在(319)相同。 The actual circumstances of this dispute are obscure; but Alexander condemned Arius in a great assembly, and the latter found a refuge with Eusebius, the Church historian, at Caesarea.这一争​​端的实际情况是模糊的,但在一个伟大的亚历山大大会谴责阿里乌,后者发现尤西比乌斯,教会历史学家,在该撒利亚避难所。 Political or party motives embittered the strife.政治或政党的动机苦的斗争。Many bishops of Asia Minor and Syria took up the defence of their "fellow-Lucianist," as Arius did not hesitate to call himself.小亚细亚和叙利亚的一些主教们拿起他们的国防“老乡Lucianist,”为阿里乌斯毫不犹豫地称自己。 Synods in Palestine and Bithynia were opposed to synods in Egypt.在巴勒斯坦和比提尼亚主教会议在埃及反对主教会议。During several years the argument raged; but when, by his defeat of Licinius (324), Constantine became master of the Roman world, he determined on restoring ecclesiastical order in the East, as already in the West he had undertaken to put down the Donatists at the Council of Arles.经过十多年的争论激烈,但是当他的李锡尼失败(324),君士坦丁成为罗马世界的主人,他就恢复东方教会的顺序决定,因为他已经在西方已承诺放下多纳徒在阿尔勒会。 Arius, in a letter to the Nicomedian prelate, had boldly rejected the Catholic faith.阿里乌斯,在给Nicomedian主教信中,曾大胆地拒绝了天主教信仰。But Constantine, tutored by this worldly-minded man, sent from Nicomedia to Alexander a famous letter, in which he treated the controversy as an idle dispute about words and enlarged on the blessings of peace.但君士坦丁,这个世俗的头脑男子发送尼科美底亚亚历山大一个著名的信,他在其中的话视为闲置约纠纷,对和平的祝福扩大了争议辅导。 The emperor, we should call to mind, was only a catechumen, imperfectly acquainted with Greek, much more incompetent in theology, and yet ambitious to exercise over the Catholic Church a dominion resembling that which, as Pontifex Maximus, he wielded over the pagan worship.皇帝,我们应该想起,只是一个初学者,不完全与希腊熟悉,更不称职的,在神学,但雄心勃勃的天主教教会在行使类似的统治,正如庞修夫鲆,他挥起了异教徒的崇拜。 From this Byzantine conception (labelled in modern terms Erastianism) we must derive the calamities which during many hundreds of years set their mark on the development of Christian dogma.从这个拜占庭概念(在Erastianism现代术语标记)的灾难,我们必须继承的过程中设置了几百年的基督教教义发展的标志。 Alexander could not give way in a matter so vitally important.亚历山大不能让步的事情如此重要途径。Arius and his supporters would not yield.阿里乌斯和他的支持者将不会屈服。A council was, therefore, assembled in Nicaea, in Bithynia, which has ever been counted the first ecumenical, and which held its sittings from the middle of June, 325.阿政局,因此,聚集在尼西亚在庇推尼去,这曾经被算作第一合一,并在六月举行,325中的开庭。(See FIRST COUNCIL OF NICAEA). (见第一届理事会的尼西亚)。It is commonly said that Hosius of Cordova presided.人们普遍表示,科尔多瓦侯休斯主持。The Pope, St. Silvester, was represented by his legates, and 318 Fathers attended, almost all from the East.教皇,圣西尔维斯特,是代表他的使节,和318神父出席,几乎全部来自东方。Unfortunately, the acts of the Council are not preserved.不幸的是,安理会的行为是不保留。The emperor, who was present, paid religious deference to a gathering which displayed the authority of Christian teaching in a manner so remarkable.皇帝,谁也在场,支付尊重宗教的聚会,展出的方式,如此显着的基督教教学权威。From the first it was evident that Arius could not reckon upon a large number of patrons among the bishops.从第一次很明显,阿里乌斯无法估计顾客之间建立在对大量的主教。Alexander was accompanied by his youthful deacon, the ever-memorable Athanasius who engaged in discussion with the heresiarch himself, and from that moment became the leader of the Catholics during well-nigh fifty years.亚历山大是伴随着他年轻的执事,不断难忘的亚他那修在讨论谁从事与异教自己,从那个时候成为天主教徒在良好的几乎五十多年的领导者。 The Fathers appealed to tradition against the innovators, and were passionately orthodox; while a letter was received from Eusebius of Nicomedia, declaring openly that he would never allow Christ to be of one substance with God.父亲呼吁对传统的创新者,并热情正统,而收到了一封信尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚,公开宣布,他将不会允许基督是神的物质之一。 This avowal suggested a means of discriminating between true believers and all those who, under that pretext, did not hold the Faith handed down.这誓词,并提出了一个真正的信徒之间的歧视是指所有谁,根据该借口,没有持有的信念,传世。A creed was drawn up on behalf of the Arian party by Eusebius of Caesarea in which every term of honour and dignity, except the oneness of substance, was attributed to Our Lord.一个信条被绘制在阿里安党的代表由优西比乌的恺撒,其中每一个的荣誉和尊严,除了物质的统一性,期限,是由于我们的主。 Clearly, then, no other test save the Homoousion would prove a match for the subtle ambiguities of language that, then as always, were eagerly adopted by dissidents from the mind of the Church.很明显,那么,没有其他的测试保存Homoousion将证明对语言的使用,这将一如既往,都在急切地持不同政见者通过从心中的教会微妙含糊了比赛。 A formula had been discovered which would serve as a test, though not simply to be found in Scripture, yet summing up the doctrine of St. John, St. Paul, and Christ Himself, "I and the Father are one".被发现了一个公式,以作为一个测试,虽然不能简单地被发现在圣经,但总结的圣约翰,圣保罗教义,基督自己,“我与父原为一”。 Heresy, as St. Ambrose remarks, had furnished from its own scabbard a weapon to cut off its head.异端言论的圣刘汉铨,曾提供从自己出鞘的武器,切断其头。The "consubstantial" was accepted, only thirteen bishops dissenting, and these were speedily reduced to seven.在“同质”被接受,只有十三主教的反对,这些人迅速减少到七个。Hosius drew out the conciliar statements, to which anathemas were subjoined against those who should affirm that the Son once did not exist, or that before He was begotten He was not, or that He was made out of nothing, or that He was of a different substance or essence from the Father, or was created or changeable.侯休斯划出大公报表,其中对那些subjoined了anathemas谁应该肯定,儿子曾经不存在,或者说之前,他是造物主,他没有,或者说,他是出于什么,或者说,他是一个不同的物质或本质来自父亲,或者是创建或改变的。 Every bishop made this declaration except six, of whom four at length gave way.除了每一位主教提出6点声明,其中四,在长度让位。Eusebius of Nicomedia withdrew his opposition to the Nicene term, but would not sign the condemnation of Arius.尤西比乌斯的尼科美底亚撤回其反对尼西亚任期,但不会签署该阿里乌斯的谴责。By the emperor, who considered heresy as rebellion, the alternative proposed was subscription or banishment; and, on political grounds, the Bishop of Nicomedia was exiled not long after the council, involving Arius in his ruin.由皇帝,谁视为异端叛乱,建议的替代是认购或流放,并以政治理由,对尼科美底亚主教被放逐后不久,议会,涉及他的毁灭阿里乌斯。 The heresiarch and his followers underwent their sentence in Illyria.在异教和他的追随者在伊利里亚接受他们的判决。But these incidents, which might seem to close the chapter, proved a beginning of strife, and led on to the most complicated proceedings of which we read in the fourth century.但这些事件中,似乎有可能接近一章,证明了纷争的开始,并导致到最复杂的法律程序,而我们在第四世纪的阅读。While the plain Arian creed was defended by few, those political prelates who sided with Eusebius carried on a double warfare against the term "consubstantial", and its champion, Athanasius.虽然平原阿里安信条是由少数辩护,那些谁与尤西比乌斯片面的政治主教进行反对所谓“同质”双战,它的冠军,他那修。 This greatest of the Eastern Fathers had succeeded Alexander in the Egyptian patriarchate (326).这个东方最伟大的父亲曾成功地在埃及东正教会(326)亚历山大。He was not more than thirty years of age; but his published writings, antecedent to the Council, display, in thought and precision, a mastery of the issues involved which no Catholic teacher could surpass.他不超过30岁,但他发表的著作,先行向安理会,显示在思想和精度,这是任何一个涉及天主教的问题可能超过老师掌握。 His unblemished life, considerate temper, and loyalty to his friends made him by no means easy to attack.他的清白的生活,体贴的脾气,他的朋友和忠诚使他不容易受到攻击。But the wiles of Eusebius, who in 328 recovered Constantine's favour, were seconded by Asiatic intrigues, and a period of Arian reaction set in. Eustathius of Antioch was deposed on a charge of Sabellianism (331), and the Emperor sent his command that Athanasius should receive Arius back into communion.但尤西比乌斯,谁收回328君士坦丁的青睐,被借调的诡计由亚洲尔虞我诈,和一个反应周期英寸阿里安欧斯塔修斯的安提阿一套是基于对Sabellianism负责废黜(331),皇帝派他的命令,他那修应接受阿里乌斯回共融。 The saint firmly declined.圣坚决拒绝。In 325 the heresiarch was absolved by two councils, at Tyre and Jerusalem, the former of which deposed Athanasius on false and shameful grounds of personal misconduct.在325异教被赦免由两个市政局,在轮胎和耶路撒冷,而被废黜的前对个人的不当行为和可耻的虚假理由,他那修。 He was banished to Trier, and his sojourn of eighteen months in those parts cemented Alexandria more closely to Rome and the Catholic West.他被放逐到特里尔,他在这些地方逗留十八个月更紧密合作,以巩固亚历山大和罗马天主教的西方。Meanwhile, Constantia, the Emperor's sister, had recommended Arius, whom she thought an injured man, to Constantine's leniency.与此同时,康士坦奇亚,皇帝的妹妹,曾建议阿里乌斯,其中一名受伤男子,她认为,到君士坦丁的宽大处理。Her dying words affected him, and he recalled the Lybian, extracted from him a solemn adhesion to the Nicene faith, and ordered Alexander, Bishop of the Imperial City, to give him Communion in his own church (336).她临死的话影响了他,他回顾了Lybian,他的一个庄严的粘附提取到尼西亚信,并下令亚历山大主教皇城,让他在自己的教堂(336)共融。 Arius openly triumphed; but as he went about in parade, the evening before this event was to take place, he expired from a sudden disorder, which Catholics could not help regarding as a judgment of heaven, due to the bishop's prayers.阿里乌斯公开胜利,但由于他去游行有关,在此之前的活动晚上将要发生,他突然从过期障碍,其中天主教徒不禁为天上的判断,由于主教的祈祷有关。 His death, however, did not stay the plague.他的死,但是,并没有停留瘟疫。Constantine now favoured none but Arians; he was baptized in his last moments by the shifty prelate of Nicomedia; and he bequeathed to his three sons (337) an empire torn by dissensions which his ignorance and weakness had aggravated.康斯坦丁现在没有,但白羊座的青睐,他是在由缩骨尼科美底亚主教弥留之际洗礼和他留给他的三个儿子(337),其中他的无知和软弱加剧了纠纷撕裂一个帝国。

Constantius, who nominally governed the East, was himself the puppet of his empress and the palace-ministers.君,谁名义上管辖地区,是自己对他的皇后和宫廷大臣的傀儡。He obeyed the Eusebian faction; his spiritual director, Valens, Bishop of Mursa, did what in him lay to infect Italy and the West with Arian dogmas.他服从的Eusebian派,他的神师,瓦伦斯,对Mursa主教,在他做了什么躺在感染与阿里安教条意大利和西方。 The term "like in substance", Homoiousion, which had been employed merely to get rid of the Nicene formula, became a watchword.所谓“一样的物质”,Homoiousion,已被聘用仅仅得到尼西亚公式去掉,成为一个口号。 But as many as fourteen councils, held between 341 and 360, in which every shade of heretical subterfuge found expression, bore decisive witness to the need and efficacy of the Catholic touchstone which they all rejected.但多达十四个议会,341和360之间,每一个借口遮荫的邪教发现表达举行,孔决定性证人的必要性和天主教的试金石,他们都拒绝了疗效。 About 340, an Alexandrian gathering had defended its archbishop in an epistle to Pope Julius.关于340,一亚历山大收集了捍卫其在书信大主教教皇朱利叶斯。On the death of Constantine, and by the influence of that emperor's son and namesake, he had been restored to his people.在君士坦丁,死亡和由该皇帝的儿子和同名的影响,他已经恢复到他的人民。But the young prince passed away, and in 341 the celebrated Antiochene Council of the Dedication a second time degraded Athanasius, who now took refuge in Rome.但年轻的王子去世,并在著名的341安提阿学派理事会第二次降级奉献他那修,谁现在在罗马避难。There he spent three years.在那里,他花了三年时间。Gibbon quotes and adopts "a judicious observation" of Wetstein which deserves to be kept always in mind.长臂猿报价,并采用“一明智的观察”的Wetstein,人们应该永远牢记。From the fourth century onwards, remarks the German scholar, when the Eastern Churches were almost equally divided in eloquence and ability between contending sections, that party which sought to overcome made its appearance in the Vatican, cultivated the Papal majesty, conquered and established the orthodox creed by the help of the Latin bishops.从四世纪起,德国学者的言论,当东方教会几乎同样的口才和能力分为两派争夺部分,即党提出,旨在克服其在梵蒂冈的外观,培育了教皇陛下,征服和建立了正统信条由拉丁美洲主教的帮助。 Therefore it was that Athanasius repaired to Rome.因此,有人认为他那修维修,以罗马。A stranger, Gregory, usurped his place.一个陌生人,格雷戈里,篡夺了他的位置。The Roman Council proclaimed his innocence.罗马议会宣布他无罪。In 343, Constans, who ruled over the West from Illyria to Britain, summoned the bishops to meet at Sardica in Pannonia.在343 Constans,谁统治了西方从伊利里亚英国,号召主教在萨尔迪卡满足潘诺尼亚。Ninety-four Latin, seventy Greek or Eastern, prelates began the debates; but they could not come to terms, and the Asiatics withdrew, holding a separate and hostile session at Philippopolis in Thrace. 94个拉丁文,希腊文七十或东部,主教开始了辩论,但他们不能达成协议,而亚洲人退出,在Philippopolis色雷斯举行单独和敌对会议。 It has been justly said that the Council of Sardica reveals the first symptoms of discord which, later on, produced the unhappy schism of East and West.有人理直气壮地说萨尔迪卡会揭示不和谐的是,后来,产生了不愉快的东西分裂的最初症状。But to the Latins this meeting, which allowed of appeals to Pope Julius, or the Roman Church, seemed an epilogue which completed the Nicene legislation, and to this effect it was quoted by Innocent I in his correspondence with the bishops of Africa.但对拉丁人本次会议,其中上诉得直,教皇朱利叶斯,或罗马教会,似乎是一个尾声,完成了尼西亚立法,并为此它是由无辜的,我引述他在与非洲的主教对应的效果。

Having won over Constans, who warmly took up his cause, the invincible Athanasius received from his Oriental and Semi-Arian sovereign three letters commanding, and at length entreating his return to Alexandria (349).有超过Constans,谁接手他的事业热情,从他那修的无敌东方和半阿里安主权收到三个字母指挥,并在长恳求他回到亚历山大(349)韩元。 The factious bishops, Ursacius and Valens, retracted their charges against him in the hands of Pope Julius; and as he travelled home, by way of Thrace, Asia Minor, and Syria, the crowd of court-prelates did him abject homage.在结党的主教,Ursacius和瓦伦斯,收回教皇朱利叶斯在他的手里反对收费,并且随着他搭乘的色雷斯,小亚细亚和叙利亚,回家的路上的人群,法院主教没有他赤贫致敬。 These men veered with every wind.这些人转向每风。Some, like Eusebius of Caesarea, held a Platonizing doctrine which they would not give up, though they declined the Arian blasphemies.有些人,像优西比乌的恺撒,举行了Platonizing学说,他们不会放弃,但他们拒绝了阿里安亵渎。 But many were time-servers, indifferent to dogma.但许多人的时间服务器,淡泊教条。And a new party had arisen, the strict and pious Homoiousians, not friends of Athanasius, nor willing to subscribe to the Nicene terms, yet slowly drawing nearer to the true creed and finally accepting it.并出现了一个新的政党,严格和虔诚Homoiousians,而不是他那修的朋友,也不愿订阅尼西亚条款,但慢慢地画更接近真实的信条,最终接受它。 In the councils which now follow these good men play their part.在安理会现在遵循这些善良的人们发挥自己的作用。However, when Constans died (350), and his Semi-Arian brother was left supreme, the persecution of Athanasius redoubled in violence.然而,当Constans死亡(350),和他的半阿里安哥哥留下至上,亚他那修加大对暴力迫害。By a series of intrigues the Western bishops were persuaded to cast him off at Arles, Milan, Ariminum.通过一系列的阴谋被说服西方主教投在阿尔勒,米兰,Ariminum送行。It was concerning this last council (359) that St. Jerome wrote, "the whole world groaned and marvelled to find itself Arian".这是关于这最后会(359),圣杰罗姆写道,“整个世界的呻吟和惊奇发现自己阿里安”。For the Latin bishops were driven by threats and chicanery to sign concessions which at no time represented their genuine views.为拉丁美洲主教被驱逐的威胁和欺骗签署让步,在任何时候代表了他们真正的意见。Councils were so frequent that their dates are still matter of controversy.政局如此频繁,他们的日期问题的争议仍在。Personal issues disguised the dogmatic importance of a struggle which had gone on for thirty years.个人问题掩盖了其中的一个去了三十年的奋斗教条式的重要性。The Pope of the day, Liberius, brave at first, undoubtedly orthodox, but torn from his see and banished to the dreary solitude of Thrace, signed a creed, in tone Semi-Arian (compiled chiefly from one of Sirmium), renounced Athanasius, but made a stand against the so-called "Homoean" formulae of Ariminum.当天,利比里奥,勇敢教皇在第一,无疑是正统的,但他看到撕裂和流放到色雷斯沉闷孤独,签署了语气半阿里安(编译西锡尔米乌姆一个主要由)的信条,放弃他那修,但取得对抗所谓的“Homoean”的Ariminum公式立场。 This new party was led by Acacius of Caesarea, an aspiring churchman who maintained that he, and not St. Cyril of Jerusalem, was metropolitan over Palestine.这个新党的领导Acacius撒利亚,一个有抱负的牧师谁主张,他和不圣西里尔耶路撒冷,结束巴勒斯坦大都会。 The Homoeans, a sort of Protestants, would have no terms employed which were not found in Scripture, and thus evaded signing the "Consubstantial".该Homoeans,一个新教徒排序,就没有聘用一些未发现经文,从而回避签订“同体”。A more extreme set, the "Anomoeans", followed Aëtius, were directed by Eunomius, held meetings at Antioch and Sirmium, declared the Son to be "unlike" the Father, and made themselves powerful in the last years of Constantius within the palace.一个更极端的设置,“Anomoeans”,其次Aëtius,得到Eunomius执导,安提阿和西锡尔米乌姆举行会议,宣布子作“不像”父亲,并在皇宫内的最后几年康斯坦丘斯自己强大。 George of Cappadocia persecuted the Alexandrian Catholics.卡帕多西亚亚历山大乔治迫害天主教徒。Athanasius retired into the desert among the solitaries.亚他那修到​​退休之间的孤独的沙漠。Hosius had been compelled by torture to subscribe a fashionable creed.侯休斯已经迫于酷刑认购一个时髦的信条。When the vacillating Emperor died (361), Julian, known as the Apostate, suffered all alike to return home who had been exiled on account of religion.当那动摇不定的皇帝去世(361),朱利安,著名的叛教者,遭受一切都回到了家里谁对宗教帐户流放。A momentous gathering, over which Athanasius presided, in 362, at Alexandria, united the orthodox Semi-Arians with himself and the West.一个重大的聚会,而他那修过主持,在362在亚历山德里亚,团结与自己和西方的正统半白羊座。 Four years afterwards fifty-nine Macedonian, ie, hitherto anti-Nicene, prelates gave in their submission to Pope Liberius.四年后五九马其顿,即迄今为止反尼西亚,在其提交给主教向教宗利比里奥。But the Emperor Valens, a fierce heretic, still laid the Church waste.但皇帝瓦伦斯,一场激烈的邪教,还奠定了教会的浪费。

However, the long battle was now turning decidedly in favour of Catholic tradition.然而,现在转向长期斗争中坚决支持天主教的传统。Western bishops, like Hilary of Poitiers and Eusebius of Vercellae banished to Asia for holding the Nicene faith, were acting in unison with St. Basil, the two St. Gregories [of Nyssa and Nazianzus --Ed.], and the reconciled Semi-Arians.像西方的主教和被流放的普瓦捷举行尼西亚信心亚洲Vercellae尤西比乌斯希拉里,包括署理齐声同圣罗勒,两个圣Gregories [的果树和Nazianzus - 。埃德],并调和半白羊座。As an intellectual movement the heresy had spent its force.作为一个知识分子运动的异端花了它的力量。Theodosius, a Spaniards and a Catholic, governed the whole Empire.狄奥多西,一个西班牙人和一名天主教徒,管辖整个帝国。Athanasius died in 373; but his cause triumphed at Constantinople, long an Arian city, first by the preaching of St. Gregory Nazianzen, then in the Second General Council (381), at the opening of which Meletius of Antioch presided.亚他那修死于373,但他的事业取得胜利在君士坦丁堡,由圣赫勒格雷戈里nazianzen说教长阿里安城市,第一,然后在第二次总理事会(381)开幕,其中的安提阿Meletius主持。 This saintly man had been estranged from the Nicene champions during a long schism; but he made peace with Athanasius, and now, in company of St. Cyril of Jerusalem, represented a moderate influence which won the day.这圣洁的男子已疏远了尼西亚冠军在长期分裂,但他与他那修的和平,而现在,在圣西里尔耶路撒冷的公司,代表了温和的影响力,赢得了胜利。 No deputies appeared from the West.代表们从没有出现西方。Meletius died almost immediately.Meletius几乎立即死亡。St. Gregory Nazianzen, who took his place, very soon resigned.圣格雷戈里nazianzen,谁把自己的位置,很快辞职。A creed embodying the Nicene was drawn up by St. Gregory of Nyssa, but it is not the one that is chanted at Mass, the latter being due, it is said, to St. Epiphanius and the Church of Jerusalem.一个体现了尼西亚信条拟定了由圣格雷戈里的果树,但它不是在群众高呼就是之一,后者是因为,它是说,圣埃皮法尼乌斯和耶路撒冷的教会。 The Council became ecumenical by acceptance of the Pope and the ever-orthodox Westerns.安理会成为普世由教皇和不断接受正统的西部片。From this moment Arianism in all its forms lost its place within the Empire.从这一切形式的时刻阿里乌主义失去其在帝国的地方。 Its developments among the barbarians were political rather than doctrinal.其开发之间的野蛮人是政治,而不是理论。Ulphilas (311-388), who translated the Scriptures into Maeso-Gothic, taught the Goths across the Danube an Homoean theology; Arian kingdoms arose in Spain, Africa, Italy. Ulphilas(311-388),谁翻译成Maeso哥特式的经文,教横跨多瑙河的Homoean神学的哥特人;阿里安王国西班牙,非洲,意大利出现了。 The Gepidae, Heruli, Vandals, Alans, and Lombards received a system which they were as little capable of understanding as they were of defending, and the Catholic bishops, the monks, the sword of Clovis, the action of the Papacy, made an end of it before the eighth century.该Gepidae,Heruli,汪达尔,阿尔斯和伦巴收到一个系统,他们尽可能少的了解,因为他们是有能力保卫,和天主教的主教,僧侣,在克洛维斯,罗马教皇的行动剑作了结束它在第八世纪。 In the form which it took under Arius, Eusebius of Caesarea, and Eunomius, it has never been revived.在形式,它根据阿里乌斯,优西比乌的恺撒,和Eunomius了,它从来没有被恢复。Individuals, among them are Milton and Sir Isasc Newton, were perhaps tainted with it. ,其中个人是弥尔顿爵士和Isasc牛顿,被它污染的可能。But the Socinian tendency out of which Unitarian doctrines have grown owes nothing to the school of Antioch or the councils which opposed Nicaea.但Socinian趋势,其中寻道学说增长欠无关的安提阿学校或议会的反对尼西亚。Neither has any Arian leader stood forth in history with a character of heroic proportions.也没有任何阿里安领导人站在历史与英雄的规定比例的性格。In the whole story there is but one single hero -- the undaunted Athanasius -- whose mind was equal to the problems, as his great spirit to the vicissitudes, a question on which the future of Christianity depended.在整个故事只有一个单一的英雄 - 因为他的伟大精神,以沧桑,一个问题上的基督教的未来取决于其精神是平等的问题, - 他那修的大无畏。

Publication information Written by William Barry.出版信息的书面威廉巴里。Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.转录由安东尼答基林。AMDG The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.AMDG天主教百科全书,体积一发布1907年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



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Athanasius athanasius

Council of Nicaea理事会的尼西亚


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