Asian Theology亚洲神学

General Information一般资料

Long ago, missionaries in Asia attempted to introduce and develop Christianity in a form familiar in America but very unpalatable on the Asian continent.很久以前,在亚洲传教士试图引进和发展熟悉的形式在美国,但在亚洲大陆非常难吃基督教。They generally found minimal success.他们普遍认为最小的成功。

Some recent efforts have attempted to first understand Eastern culture and belief systems.最近的一些努力,试图先了解东方文化和信仰体系。With this foundation, it has been possible to develop deeper communication with the residents there which has allowed mutual understanding.有了这个基础,它有可能发展与居民有更深的这些优点使相互了解沟通。 This has allowed much greater effectiveness in the missionary efforts.这使得更大的成效,传教士的努力。

In order to understand Asian theology one must examine distinctions between Eastern and Western cultures.为了了解亚洲神学之一必须审查东方和西方之间的文化差别。Since the end of World War II, Asian theologians have been seeking liberation from Western theologies in order to make the gospel more relevant to their own life situations.自第二次世界大战结束,亚洲神学家一直在寻求摆脱西方theologies为了使福音更贴近自己的生活情况。

Historically, the development of Asian theology is closely related to the development of indigenization in the early twentieth century and to the recent development of the concept of contextualization in missions.从历史上看,亚洲神学发展是密切相关的本土化在二十世纪初发展和特派团的语境化概念的最新发展。The International Missionary Council in Jerusalem in 1930 stressed that the Christian message must be expressed in national and cultural patterns with liturgy, church music, dance, drama, and building structures accentuating national features.国际传教理事会在耶路撒冷在1930年强调说,基督教的信息必须与礼仪,教会音乐,舞蹈,戏剧,建筑结构加剧国家和民族特色的文化模式。 This emphasis on using indigenous art forms and structures was carried over into the area of theology.这在使用本地的艺术形式和结构是结转到该地区的神学。

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The net effect is that the Christianity of the East has absorbed aspects of the local culture (and even some minor aspects of the dominant belief systems).净效果是,东方基督教吸收了当地文化(甚至占主导地位的信仰系统中的一些小问题)方面。Growth of Christianity in Asia has been spectacular in recent decades.基督教在亚洲的增长已经在最近数十年壮观。


Asian Theology亚洲神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

"Theological ideas are created on the European continent, corrected in England, corrupted in America, and crammed into Asia," said one theologian. “神学思想是建立在欧洲大陆英国在美洲损坏,纠正,并在亚洲塞进说,”一个神学家。Because of rising nationalism and reassertion of traditional values in Asia, shoving "the white man's Christianity" upon Asians is no longer advisable.由于增长的民族主义和传统的价值观重新抬头,亚洲,推搡“白人的基督教”对亚洲人不再是可取的。

In order to understand Asian theology one must examine distinctions between Eastern and Western cultures.为了了解亚洲神学之一必须审查东方和西方之间的文化差别。Since the end of World War II, Asian theologians have been seeking liberation from Western theologies in order to make the gospel more relevant to their own life situations.自第二次世界大战结束,亚洲神学家一直在寻求摆脱西方theologies为了使福音更贴近自己的生活情况。

Historically, the development of Asian theology is closely related to the development of indigenization in the early twentieth century and to the recent development of the concept of contextualization in missions.从历史上看,亚洲神学发展是密切相关的本土化在二十世纪初发展和特派团的语境化概念的最新发展。The International Missionary Council in Jerusalem in 1930 stressed that the Christian message must be expressed in national and cultural patterns with liturgy, church music, dance, drama, and building structures accentuating national features.国际传教理事会在耶路撒冷在1930年强调说,基督教的信息必须与礼仪,教会音乐,舞蹈,戏剧,建筑结构加剧国家和民族特色的文化模式。 This emphasis on using indigenous art forms and structures was carried over into the area of theology.这在使用本地的艺术形式和结构是结转到该地区的神学。

For example, Kanzo Uchimura, founder of a noted Non Church Movement in Japan, emphasized a Japanese theology: "If Christianity is literally just one, then what a monotonous religion it is."例如,宽三内村,一个在日本的创始人指出非教会运动,强调日本神学:“。如果基督教在字面上只有一个,那么它是一个单调的宗教” He stated that just as there are German, English, Dutch, and American theologies, Japan should have a Japanese theology.他说,正如有德文,英文,荷兰和美国神学,日本应该有一个日本神学。He wanted Christianity expressed from the viewpoint of the Japanese; he wanted a Japanese Christianity.他想基督教从日本的观点表示,他希望日本基督教。

In the early 1970s the Theological Education Fund introduced a new term, "contextualization," during the Third Mandate Period (1972 - 77).在70年代初期的神学教育基金推出一个新名词,“语境”,在第三个任务期间(1972 - 77)。The concept of indigenization was taken one step further by applying it in the area of mission, theological approach, and educational method and structure.在本土化的概念是通过采取更进一步应用的研究任务,神学的方法,教育方法和结构区域。Contextualization takes into account the processes of secularity, technology, and the struggles for human justice which characterize the history of nations in Asia.考虑到情境化的世俗性,技术工艺,并为人类正义的特点在亚洲国家的斗争的历史。Asian theologians, therefore, have used the concepts of indigenization and contextualization to justify the development of Asian theologies.亚洲神学家,因此,使用了本土化和语境的概念来证明亚洲神学的发展。

Many theologians argue that God's revelation came to us in the Scriptures through a specific cultural form, such as in the NT when God used the Jewish and hellenistic cultures to record his revelation.许多神学家认为,上帝的启示来我们在圣经通过具体的文化形式,如在新台币当上帝用犹太人和希腊文化的记录他的启示。 Therefore the gospel must also be translated today into the particular forms of Asian cultures, and consequently numerous Asian theologies claim to represent Asian cultural forms: pain of God theology (Japan), water buffalo theology (Thailand), third eye theology (for the Chinese), minjung theology (Korea), theology of change (Taiwan), and a score of other national theologies such as Indian theology, Burmese theology, and Sri Lanka theology.因此,福音也必须被翻译成今天的亚洲文化的特殊形式,因此许多亚洲神学宣称代表亚洲文化形式:神神学(日本),水牛神学(泰国),第三只眼睛疼痛神学(为中),minjung神学(韩国),变化(台湾),神学,以及如印度神学,神学缅甸和斯里兰卡等国家神学神学得分。 The proliferation of Asian theologies has escalated markedly since the 1960s and will continue to multiply in the future.亚洲神学的扩散明显升级,并自20世纪60年代将继续增加在将来。This will undoubtedly produce enormous impact on as well as conflict and confusion in theological institutions and Christian churches in Asia.这无疑将产生巨大的影响,以及冲突的神学院校,在亚洲基督教教堂和混乱。

The major proponents of Asian theology have been liberal theologians of mainline denominational seminaries.亚洲神学的主要支持者一直是主流教派的神学院自由派神学家。An increasing number of evangelical theologians have sharply reacted against the concept of Asian theology.福音派神学家的越来越多的急剧反应,对亚洲神学的概念。Other evangelicals are insisting on the necessity of it.其他福音派则坚持在它的必要性。

Due to the existence of very divergent religious cultures in Asia, the content of Asian theology is also diversified.由于在亚洲非常不同的宗教文化的存在,亚洲神学的内容也多样化。It can be classified in four main areas: (1) syncretistic theology, (2) accommodation theology, (3) situational theology, and (4) biblical theology which is relevant to Asian needs.它可分为四个主要方面:(1)融神学,(2)住宿神学,(3)情境神学,(4)圣经神学是有关亚洲的需求。

Syncretistic Theology融神学

Some Christian theologians and other religious thinkers have tried to syncretize Christianity with a national religion (Hinduism, Buddhism, or Islam) in an attempt to contextualize theology into the national situation.一些基督教神学家和其他宗教思想家都试图唐君毅与一个国家的宗教,企图把国家形势的背景情况神学(印度教,佛教或伊斯兰教)基督教。 The Programme Unit on Faith and Witness of the World Council of Churches (WCC) has sponsored a number of religious dialogues with the leaders of other living religions.对信仰和证人的世界基督教协进会(WCC)的节目组主办了宗教对话与其他宗教的领袖生活。Many of these dialogues have resulted in a mutual acceptance of each other's beliefs.许多这些对话导致了彼此的信念彼此接纳。

The scope of Hinduism and Buddhism is large enough to accommodate all other religions including Christianity.印度教和佛教的范围大到足以容纳所有其他宗教,包括基督教。Sri Ramakrishna, founder of the Ramakrishna Mission, meditated on Christ, recognized Christ's divinity as an avatar (incarnation) of the Supreme like Krishna and Buddha, and encourages his disciples to worship Christ.斯里兰卡罗摩克里希,在罗摩克里希团的基督沉思,方正,承认基督的作为像克里希纳和最高法院的化身佛(化身)的神性,并鼓励他的弟子朝拜基督。

The idea of the cosmic Christ which was emphasized during the WCC Assembly in New Delhi in 1961 has become prominent among liberal theologians in India.宇宙的基督的构想,强调在新德里期间,基督教协进会大会于1961年,已成为其中最突出的印度自由派神学家。Raymond Panikkar in his book The Unknown Christ of Hinduism stresses that Christ already indwells the heart of a Hindu and that the mission of the church is not to bring Christ to the Hindu but to bring Christ out of him.雷蒙德潘尼卡在他的著作未知的印度教强调,基督耶稣已经圣灵内住了一个印度教的核心,教会的使命不是把基督印度教而是使他的基督的。

Klaus Klostermaier, a Roman Catholic theologian from German, visited Vrindaban, one of the Hindu sacred places in India, to have dialogue with Hindu gurus.克劳斯Klostermaier,来自德国的罗马天主教神学家,参观Vrindaban,在印度的印度教圣地之一,有与印度教大师对话。 After his spiritual experiences with Hindu scholars he testified, "The more I learned of Hinduism, the more surprised I grew that our theology does not offer anything essentially new to the Hindu."在与印度的学者他的精神经验,他作证说:“我学到更多的印度教,更惊讶我长大,我们的神学基本上不提供任何新的印度教的。”

MM Thomas, a prominent church leader both in India and in the WCC, expanded the cosmic Christ into a form of secular humanism. MM的托马斯,一个无论是在印度和世界基督教协进突出的教会领袖,扩展成一种世俗的人文主义形成宇宙的基督。He interpreted salvation as man finding his true humanness so that it is no longer suppressed by social injustice, war, and poverty.他解释为寻找他的真实人性,使其不再受到社会的不公正,战争和贫穷压抑的人得救。Thomas said, "I cannot see any difference between the accepted missionary goal of a Christian Church expressing Christ in terms of the contemporary Hindu thought and life patterns and a Christcentered Hindu Church of Christ which transforms Hindu thought and life patterns within."托马斯说,“我不能接受看到传教士之间的任何一个基督教教会表达了当代印度教的思想和生活模式和Christcentered印度教基督教会的变换印度教的思想和生活模式,在净胜球方面基督。”

Accommodation Theology住宿神学

Accommodation is another subtle attempt to contextualize theology in Asia.住宿是另一种微妙的企图在亚洲神学的背景情况。Just as a hotel or a family accommodates a guest, so theological accommodation considers prevailing customs and religious practices of another culture and accommodates good ideas from other religions.正如一家酒店或家庭可容纳客人,所以当时的神学住宿认为另一种文化习俗和宗教习俗,可容纳其他宗教的好点子。 Christian attempts to accommodate other religious ideas are observable particularly in Buddhist countries.基督教试图容纳其他宗教思想是佛教国家,特别是在观察。

The Thailand Bible Society selected the word dharma (law, duty, virtue, teaching, gospel) for the word Logos in John 1:1, because the dharma in Thai Buddhist culture is as meaningful as the Logos in the hellenistic world of NT times.泰国圣经协会选定在约翰1:1字标识字佛法(法律,责任,道德,教学,福音),因为在泰国佛教文化佛法是像在希腊世界的新台币时代的标志意义。 In the same way Matteo Ricci, Roman Catholic Jesuit missionary to China in the sixteenth century, chose the words Tien Chu (Heavenly Lord) as the name for God because that was the popular Chinese Buddhist concept of God.以同样的方式利玛窦,罗马天主教耶稣会传教士在十六世纪到中国,选择了作为神的名的话天厨(天上的上帝),因为这是流行的中国佛教概念的上帝。

Kosume Koyama, a former Japanese missionary professor at Thailand Theological Seminary, in his Waterbuffalo Theology opposes syncretism for not doing justice to both parties.Kosume小山,前日本在泰国神学院传教士教授,在他的Waterbuffalo神学反对不公平对待双方当事人做合一。 He advocates accommodation instead.他主张,而不是住宿。Koyama believes that one cannot mix Aristotelian pepper with Buddhist salt in the North Thailand theological "kitchen."小山认为,不能混在一起,在泰国北部的佛教神学胡椒盐亚里士多德的“厨房”。One must, therefore, emphasize good "neighborology" rather than mere Christology, because Koyama believes that every religion has positive as well as negative points and that Thai Christians must accept the positive elements of Buddhism in Thailand in order to change their life style.一因此,必须强调好“neighborology”,而不是单纯的基督,因为小山认为,每一种宗教具有积极和消极的百分点,而泰国的基督信徒必须接受佛教在泰国的积极因素,以改变他们的生活方式。

Song Choan - Seng of Taiwan stresses a "third dimensional theology" as seen from an Asian perspective in his book Third Eye Theology.宋漳泉 - 恒生台湾讲的“第三维神学”作为一个在他的书中,从第三只眼亚洲神学的角度来看。He says, for example, that just as the Holy Spirit works in a Westerner's consciousness to bring about Christian conversion, so he works in the Zen Buddhists of Japan to bring about satori (enlightenment of the mind).他说,例如,就如同圣灵在西方人的意识,使基督教的转换工作,所以他在日本的佛教禅宗工程带来顿悟(心灵的启示)。Since the same Spirit is working in both religions, the objective of Christian missions should not be evangelization, but rather the interaction of Christian spirituality with Asian spirituality.由于同样的精神在这两个宗教工作,基督教的任务目标不应是福音,而是与亚洲基督教灵性灵性的互动。

Two noted theologians in Sri Lanka have had a similar interest in accommodating Buddhist terminologies and ideas to Christian theology.两位指出,斯里兰卡的神学家们在适应了一个佛教术语和基督教神学思想类似的兴趣。DT Niles, one of the key leaders in the East Asia Christian Conference (now Christian Conference of Asia), did not hesitate to use word such as dharma and sangha to describe Christian "doctrines" and the "body of Christ" in his Buddhism and the Claims of Christ. dt的奈尔斯,在东亚基督教会议(现为亚洲基督教会议)的主要领导人之一,他毫不迟疑地使用这个词,如佛法僧来形容基督教的“主义”与他的佛教“基督的身体”基督的索赔。 Lyn de Siva, a Methodist minister in Sri Lanka, believes that the teaching of earlier Buddhism on the three basic characteristics of existence, anicca (impermanence), dukkha (suffering), and anatta (no - self), provides comprehensive analysis of the human predicament that can become a basis for Christian theology.林恩德湿婆,在斯里兰卡卫部长,认为存在的三个,无常的基本特征教学早期佛教(无常),苦(痛苦),和无我(无 - 自我),提供了人的全面分析困境,可以成为基督教神学的基础。Anicca affirms the status of constant change of all conditional things; dukkha affirms that attachment is the cause for human suffering; and anatta affirms no soul or any permanent entity in man.无常申明,所有有条件的东西不断变化的状态;苦申明,附件是对人类苦难的原因,以及无我肯定没有灵魂的人或任何永久性的实体。 The concepts of anicca and dukkha can be easily accommodated into Christian theology, but anatta proves more difficult due to the biblical concept of immortality.的无常和苦的概念可以很容易地安置到基督教神学,但无我证明了更加困难,因为不朽的圣经中的概念。

The accommodation of Asian religious terminologies and concepts such as dharma, Tien Chu, anicca, dukkha, and annatta into Christian theology can be accepted to a certain extent by many Christians as long as the biblical interpretation and meaning are added to such words and concepts.亚洲宗教术语,如佛法,天厨,无常,苦,进入基督教神学annatta住宿可以接受的概念,在一定程度上像圣经的解释和含义被添加到这样的词语和概念,长许多基督徒。 Yet the question of where to draw the line between syncretism and accommodation depends on whether the person is willing to accept the unique revelation of God in Jesus Christ and in the Scriptures in his accommodation.然而,在哪里画线之间的融合和住宿问题,取决于该人是否愿意接受上帝在耶稣基督和他的住所中独特的启示圣经。 A person's answer to a question such as "Do Buddhists need to be converted to Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of their sins?"一个人的回答问题,如“你需要转换佛教徒为他们的罪孽宽恕耶稣基督?”will reveal whether or not he believes that Jesus Christ is the only way to God.将揭示他是否相信耶稣基督是上帝的唯一途径。

Situational Theology情境神学

Another type of Asian theology derives directly from a particular situation.另一种类型派生亚洲神学直接从一个特殊情况。This situational theology may not be in agreement with the biblical and historical doctrines of the Christian church, and yet it speaks to concrete situations in Asia.这情景神学可能不符合圣经的基督教教堂和历史理论的协议,但它表明,在亚洲的具体情况。Kazoh Kitamori's pain of God theology in Japan is an excellent illustration.Kazoh Kitamori的神在日本神学疼痛是一种极好的例证。He tried to demonstrate to the suffering people in Japan after their defeat in World War II that the God revealed in the Bible is the God of suffering and pain who could identify with the suffering Japanese.他试图证明他们的失败后,在第二次世界大战中的上帝发现圣经是上帝的苦难和痛苦谁能够识别和苦难的日本,在日本遭受苦难的人民。

The minjung theology (theology of the mass of the people) is another typical illustration.该minjung神学(对人民群众神学)是另一个典型的例子。The main thrust of ecumenical theology today in Asia is toward the liberation of persons from social injustice, economic exploitation, political oppression, and racial discrimination.在亚洲基督教神学今天的主旨是对从社会不公正,经济剥削,政治压迫和种族歧视的人的解放。The minjung theology is a Korean version of liberation theology and teaches that Jesus Christ is the liberator of these oppressed people.该minjung神学解放神学是一个韩文版,并教导,耶稣基督是这些被压迫人民的解放者。 The major papers from a conference on the minjung theology, October 22, 1979, were edited by Yong - Bock Kim, director of the Christian Institute for the Study of Justice and Development in Seoul, and published as Minjung Theology: People as the Subjects of History.从上minjung神学,1979年10月22日,会议的主要文件是编辑勇 - 博克金,基督教研究所所长为正义与发展在汉城的研究,并作为minjung神学出版:人民为学科历史。

Need for Biblically Oriented Asian Theology.需要为主导的亚洲圣经神学。Theology in Asia has been taught by Western missionaries.亚洲神学已被教导西方传教士。The West has its own theological formulations derived out of its own cultural background, Calvinism, Arminianism, death of God, etc. Yet in Asia the circumstances facing Christians differ from the West.西方有自己的神学所得其自身的文化背景,加尔文主义,亚米纽斯主义,上帝,但在亚洲等死的情况下进行配方基督徒面临来自西方不同。 Asian Christians must make their theologies relevant to their living situations in Asia.亚洲基督信徒必须使他们的神学在亚洲有关他们的生活情况。Some of the main issues which Christians in Asia are facing today are communism, poverty, suffering, war, idolatry, demon possession, bribery, and cheating.这在亚洲的基督徒今天所面临的一些主要问题是共产主义,贫困,苦难,战争,偶像崇拜,妖藏,贿赂,欺骗。

Most evangelical theologians see the value of Asian theology in allowing Asians to express their theological thoughts within their own contexts.大多数福音派神学家看到让亚洲人在他们自己的环境中表达他们的神学思想的亚洲神学的价值。Nevertheless, they are also very apprehensive of the danger of syncretism and of minimizing fundamental scriptural teachings during the process of contextualization.不过,他们也很忧虑的融合过程中尽量减少危险和过程的基本的语境圣经的教义。

At the Sixth Asia Theological Association Consultation in Seoul, Korea, 1982, some eighty evangelical theologians discussed Asian theology and jointly produced a twenty page Asian evangelical theologians' declaration, The Bible and Theology in Asia Today.在第六届亚洲神学协会协商在韩国汉城,1982年,大约有82000福音派神学家,共同探讨亚洲神学产生了二十页的亚洲'福音派神学宣言,圣经和神学在今日亚洲。 Although there is no particular Asian theology with an evangelical label which is widely accepted by evangelical theologians, this joint evangelical declaration has laid down a few guiding principles for theology in different religious contexts of Asia.虽然没有特别是与一个福音标签被广泛接受的福音派神学家亚洲神学,这项联合声明福音已奠定了亚洲不同宗教背景为神学几个指导原则。 (1) The authority of the Bible is reaffirmed as the only infallible, inerrant Word of God: "The Bible, not theologians, is to speak in our theology." (1)圣经的权威,是重申作为唯一的万无一失,无误的神的话:“圣经,而不是神学,是讲我们的神学。”(2) Jesus Christ, the only incarnate Son of God, is unique.(2)耶稣基督,神的化身唯一的儿子,是独一无二的。(3) Mission centered theology aiming to communicate the gospel to the lost is the best protection against syncretism.(3)任务为中心的神学旨在传达福音的损失是对合一的最好保护。(4) Love should be the essential part of an Asian theology; only as Christians identify themselves with the needy do they contextualize the gospel. (4)爱应该是一个亚洲神学的重要组成部分,只有作为基督徒认同有需要他们自己的背景情况福音。

Conclusion结论

The key issue in the whole argument around developing an Asian theology is whether in the process of contextualization the biblical and historical doctrines of the Christian church can be preserved without compromise.围绕发展中的亚洲神学整个论点的关键问题是无论是在语境化过程中的基督教教会圣经和历史的学说可毫不妥协地保留下来。 An analogy can be made with carrying the ark of the covenant in the OT.打个比方,可与携带的约柜在加时赛。In OT times the ark was carried by ox cart.在加时赛倍方舟是由牛车。Today in several Asian countries the ark would be carried by rickshaw, horse, motorcycle, or car.在一些亚洲国家今天的方舟将进行的人力车,马车,摩托车或汽车。Yet the meaning of the ark must not be changed.然而,方舟的意思不能改变。Many liberal theologians are trying to change the ark itself.许多自由派神学正试图改变自己的方舟。

Asian Christians must listen to, evaluate, and be open minded to different Asian theological views on contextualization and yet, without compromise, be faithful to the gospel and proclaim it in love, as the apostle Paul exhorts: "Be on the alert, stand firm in the faith, act like men, be strong. Let all that you do be done in love" (1 Cor. 16:13 - 14).亚洲基督徒必须倾听,评估,并以开放的态度不同,但亚洲的情境化神学观点,不妥协,忠于福音,并宣布在爱它,因为使徒保罗劝告:“要提高警觉,坚定立场在信仰,行为像男人一样,要坚强,让你做的一切在爱做“(林前16:13 - 14。)。。

BR Ro商业登记罗

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
GH Anderson, ed., Asian Voices in Christian Theology; DJ Elwood, ed., What Asian Christians Are Thinking; DJ Elwood and EP Nakpil, eds., The Human and the Holy; K Kitamori, Theology of the Pain of God; K Klostermaier, Hindu and Christian in Vrindaban; C Michalson, Japanese Contributions to Christian Theology.生长激素安德森,教育署,亚洲之声在基督教神学;。。DJ试听埃尔伍德,教育署,亚洲的基督徒都在思考什么; DJ试听埃尔伍德和EP Nakpil合编,人与神圣。K表Kitamori,神的疼痛神学; K表Klostermaier,印度教和基督教Vrindaban; ç Michalson,日本基督教神学的贡献。



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