Saint Athanasius圣亚他那修

General Information一般资料

Athanasius, bc295, d.亚他那修,bc295,四373, was bishop of Alexandria and a defender of the Christian faith during the 4th-century crisis of Arianism.373,是亚历山大的主教和基督教信仰阿里乌斯期间,4世纪的危机后卫。He received a classical and theological education in Alexandria, where he was also ordained deacon and appointed secretary to Bishop Alexander.他获得了亚历山大,在那里他还祝圣执事,并任命主教秘书亚历山大经典和神学教育。As a theological expert at the Council of Nicaea, which gathered in 325 to condemn the Arian rejection of Christ's divinity, Athanasius defended the unity of Christ as both God and man (see Councils of Nicaea).作为一个在理事会的尼西亚,在325聚集谴责基督的神性阿里安拒绝神学专家,他那修捍卫了基督作为上帝和人的统一(见尼西亚议会)。 In 328 he succeeded Alexander as bishop of the see over which he was to preside for 45 years.在328他接任主教看到过,他是45年来主持亚历山大。Seventeen of them were spent in exile, imposed on him on five separate occasions between 335 and 366, largely through the maneuverings of the Arianizing party.其中17人花了五个不同场合强加在他身上335和366之间的流亡,主要是通过Arianizing党的花招。

Athanasius vigorously opposed the views of his Arian opponents in his writings in defense of Nicene orthodoxy. These were written for the most part between 336 and 359 and include three Discourses Against the Arians (c.358). 亚他那修他坚决反对他的著 ​​作中阿里安对手的意见,在正统防御尼西亚。这些都是书面的,359和336之间的大部分,包括三)话语反对白羊座(c.358。An earlier work, On the Incarnation of the Word (c.318), brought to its fullest expression the orthodox doctrine of redemption.早先的工作,在化身字(c.318),提请其充分表达正统学说的赎回。His Life of St. Antony (c.356) is an important source for early Monasticism.他的圣安东尼(c.356)生命是早期修道的重要来源。 After his final restoration to office, Athanasius spent his last years in peace and died in 373.之后,他的最后恢复到办公室,用他那修生前最后几年在和平和373死亡。His feast day is May 2.他的节日是5月2日。

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In reaction to those who denied both the full humanity and full divinity of Jesus Christ, Athanasius explained how the Logos, the Word of God, was united with human nature and how his death and resurrection overcame death and sin. He worked out the implications of biblical passages on the Incarnation and asserted the unity of the Logos and the human nature in Christ. He held that if Christ were not one in being (homoousios, "having the same being") with God the Father, then Salvation could not be possible; and if Christ were not fully man, then human nature could not be saved. 在反应的同时谁否认充满人性和耶稣基督full神性,解释了他那修的标志,上帝的话语,是团结人的本性,以及如何与他的死亡和复活战胜死亡和罪恶。他制定了的启示圣经段落的化身,并断言基督团结的标志与自然关系的人。 他认为,如果基督没有一个人正在被具有相同“)与神的父亲(homoousios,”,那么可能无法拯救;如果基督没有得到充分的人,那么人类的本性无法储存。

Ross Mackenzie罗斯麦肯齐

Bibliography 参考书目
Cross, FL, The Study of St. Athanasius (1945).交叉,佛罗里达州,圣亚他那修(1945)的研究。


Saint Athanasius圣亚他那修

Advanced Information先进的信息

(ca. 296-373)(约公元296-373)

Bishop of Alexandria from 328 to 373.亚历山大主教由328至373。An uncompromising foe of Arianism, Athanasius was particularly instrumental in bringing about its condemnation at the Council of Nicaea.阿里乌主义不妥协的敌人,尤其是在他那修是关于其在理事会的尼西亚谴责带来的工具。 He is regarded as the greatest theologian of his time.他被认为是当时最伟大的神学家。

Athanasius grew up within the order of the imperial church, an institution to which he held fast throughout his life.亚他那修内长大的帝国教会秩序,一个机构,他举行了他的生活节奏。Of his early years little is known.他早年所知甚少。It is said that he was the son of well-to-do parents, but in later years he made it clear that he was a poor man.有人说,他是小康做父母的儿子,但在以后的几年,他明确表示,他是一个穷人。As a youth he attracted the notice of Alexander, who presided over the see of Alexandria.作为一个青年,他吸引了亚历山大的通知,谁主持见亚历山大。At an early age Athanasius was taken into the household of the bishop and was provided the best training that the times could afford.在幼年时他那修被带到主教的家庭,并提供了最好的训练,能买得起的时代。His education was essentially Greek; he was a "classicist" and never seems to have acquired any knowledge of Hebrew.他的教育基本上是希腊,他是一个“古典派”,并似乎从来没有获得任何知识的希伯来文。He demonstrated, of course, the influence both of his patron, Alexander, and of the earlier Alexandrian thinker, Origen.他证明,当然,影响他的赞助人,无论亚历山大,和较早的亚历山大思想家,奥利。He numbered among his earlier acquaintances and tutors some who had suffered in the great persecutions, and he no doubt drew some of the intensity of his belief from the fervency engendered in those crucial years.他数在他以前的熟人和导师的一些谁曾在遭受迫害的伟大,他毫无疑问引来的关键年龄所产生的热情,他的信仰的一些强度。 Not long after he turned twenty, Athanasius plunged into writing and produced theological works of lasting importance.不久后,他20岁出头,他那修陷入持久的写作和制作的神学作品的重要性。One was the Contra Gentiles, a defense of Christianity against paganism; another was the De incarnatione, an attempt to explain the doctrine of redemption.其一是魂斗罗外邦人,是基督教对异教国防;另一个是德incarnatione,试图解释,赎回的教义。

During this period of writing Athanasius was acting as the secretary and confidant of his bishop, by whom he was personally made deacon.在这种写作他那修是担任秘书和他的主教知己是谁,他亲自做执事,期限。It was in this capacity that he attended the first general council held in Nicaea in 325.正是在这种身份,他出席了第一次总理事会在尼西亚举行的325。At the council the anti-Arian party led by Bishop Alexander won a resounding victory over Arian subordinationism.在安理会的反阿里安党领导的主教亚历山大赢得了超过阿里安subordinationism大胜。 The council affirmed that the Son of God was "of one substance with the Father," which means that both share alike in the fundamental nature of deity.理事会重申,神的儿子是“一个与父亲,物质”,这意味着双方的份额都在神的根本性质。After the council concluded, Athanasius returned with his bishop to Alexandria and continued to work with him in establishing the faith that had been defined at Nicaea.理事会结束后,返回他那修与他的主教亚历山德里亚,并继续与他合作建立的定义已在尼西亚信。In 328 Alexander died and Athanasius succeeded him in the see.亚历山大在328死亡,亚他那修成功地在看他。

The tenure of Athanasius as Bishop of Alexandria was marked by five periods of exile.该亚他那修权作为主教亚历山德里亚的标志是五个流亡时期。His vigorous defense of the Nicene formula caused him to be a target for the supporters of Arius, who rallied after the council.他对积极防御的尼西亚公式使他成为了阿里乌斯的支持者,谁后,会反弹的目标。However, during his forty-six years as bishop there were enough years of relative peace in the empire and the church for Athanasius to accomplish much as a theologian.然而,在他的四十六年作为主教有相对和平的帝国和他那修教堂作为一个神学家,完成足够多岁。Admittedly he was a churchman and a pastor rather than a systematic or speculative theologian.无可否认他是一个牧师和一名牧师,而不是一个系统或投机的神学家。However, this does not mean that his thought is not cogent, but that his work developed in response to the needs of each moment rather than on the basis of the requirements of a system.但是,这并不意味着他的思想并不令人信服,但他的工作,应对每一个时刻,而不是对一个系统的要求的基础上发展的需要。 His works are pastoral, exegetical, polemical, and even biographical; there is no single treatise that attempts to present the totality of his theology.他的作品是牧区,训诂,论战,甚至传记,没有单一的论文,试图目前,他的神学的总和。Nevertheless, for Athanasius the truth or falsity of a doctrine is to be judged on the basis of the degree in which it expresses two basic principles of the Christian faith: monotheism and the doctrine of salvation.然而,要对学位它表示两个基本原则的基督教信仰基础的判断,他那修的真理或谬误的学说:一神论和救赎的教义。 These are the foci for his theological reflection.这些都是他的神学思考的重点。

In Contra Gentiles, Athanasius discusses the means by which God can be known.在魂斗罗外邦人,他那修讨论,其中神可以被称为手段。These are principally two: the soul and nature.这是主要两个:灵魂和本质。God may be known through the human soul, for "although God Himself is above all, the road which leads to Him is not far, nor even outside ourselves, but is within us, and it is possible to find it by ourselves" (30.1).上帝可能会通过被称为人类的灵魂,“虽然上帝是最重要的是道路,这导致他的不远处,甚至也不是我们自己以外,但在我们的,它是由我们自己可能找到它”(30.1 )。That is to say, by studying the soul we may infer something about the nature of God.这就是说,通过研究的灵魂,我们可以推断对上帝的性质。The soul is invisible and immortal; therefore, the true God must be invisible and immortal.灵魂是无形的,不朽的,因此,真正的上帝必须是无形的,不朽的。To be sure, sin prevents the soul from perfectly attaining the vision of God, but the soul was made according to the divine image and it was intended to be like a mirror in which that image, which is the Word of God, would shine.可以肯定的是,防止罪恶完全达到神的视觉灵魂,而灵魂是神圣的根据作出的形象,它的​​目的是像一面镜子,它的形象,这是神的话,会发亮。 This is a Platonic theme that had become part of the Alexandrian tradition since Origen.这是一个柏拉图式的主题,已成为传统的一部分,因为奥利亚历山大。

It is also possible to know God through his creation, which, "as though in written characters, declares in a loud voice, by its order and harmony, its own Lord and Creator" (Contra Gentiles, 34.4).它也可能知道,通过他的创作,其中,神“,好像在写的字,就大声宣布,其秩序与和谐,自己的上帝和造物主”(魂斗罗外邦人,34.4)。 But the order of the universe shows not only that there is a God but also that he is one.但是,宇宙的秩序不仅表明有一个上帝,而且他是其中之一。If there were more than one God, the unity of purpose that can be perceived throughout the cosmos would be impossible.如果有一个以上的神,目的是要能在整个宇宙认为是不可能的团结。Moreover, the order and reason within nature show that God has created it and rules it through his Word.此外,秩序和内部性质表明,上帝创造了他的话,并通过规则的原因。For Athanasius, the Word of God who rules the world is the living Logos of God, that is, the Word who is God himself.对于他那修,上帝的话谁统治世界是上帝,那就是,这个词,谁是神自己的生活标志。This view of God indicates that Athanasius, even before becoming involved in the Arian conflict, had developed an understanding of the Word that was different, not only from the Arians, but also from that view held by many earlier theologians.这个神的观点表明,亚他那修,甚至在成为卷入冲突的阿里安,已经制定了一个字的理解是不同,不仅从白羊座的人,但也从早期的许多神学家认为看法。 Before Athanasius there was a tendency to establish the distinction between the Father and the Word on the basis of the contrast between the absolute God and a subordinate deity.之前他那修有一种趋势是建立在上帝之间的绝对和对比的基础上下级之间的神父和Word的区别。This was, Athanasius insisted, incompatible with Christian monotheism.这次,他那修坚称,与基督教一神论是不相容的。

The other pillar of Athanasius's theology was soteriology.在他那修的神学等支柱是救世神学。The salvation of which humanity stands in need is continuous with creation, for it is in fact a re-creation of fallen humanity.其中人类的救恩需要随时与创造连续的,因为它实际上是一个重新创造人类的堕落。In sin, man abandoned the image of God; an element of disintegration was introduced within creation through sin.在罪中,人抛弃了上帝的形象,一个解体的因素是建立在通过引进罪。It can be expelled only through a new work of creation.它可以被驱逐出境,只有通过创造新的工作。Consequently, the core of Athanasius's doctrine of redemption is that only God himself can save mankind.因此,对他那修的救赎学说的核心是,只有上帝自己可以拯救人类。If the salvation that we need is really a new creation, only the Creator can bring it.如果救赎,我们需要的是真正的新的创造,不仅可以把它的创造者。This requires the Savior to be God, for only God can grant an existence similar to his.这就需要救世主是上帝,只有上帝能给予他一个存在类似。

The principles of monotheism and the doctrine of redemption influenced Athanasius in his formulation of arguments against the Arians.一神,赎回的原则和教义的影响,他对他那修的白羊座参数制订。Whereas they usually appealed to logical analysis and subtle distinctions, Athanasius constantly referred to the two great pillars of his faith.而他们通常呼吁逻辑分析和微妙的区别,他那修不断提到的两个大柱子,他的信仰。In this sense, the importance of Athanasius lies not so much in his writings themselves as in the things he defended and preserved in a life full of tension and disturbance.在这个意义上说,他那修的重要性不在​​于他的著作很多,所以在自己的事情,他在捍卫和生活中的紧张和干扰full保存。 In a critical moment in the church's history he maintained the essential character of Christianity in his struggles with Arians and emperors.在一个教会的历史关键时刻,他保持了他与白羊座和皇帝的斗争基督教的本质特征。 But for him, Harnack has said (History of Dogma, II), the church would probably have fallen into the hands of the Arians.但对他来说,哈纳克说(教条,史II),教会可能已经进入了白羊座的手里。

JF Johnson怡富约翰逊
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 参考书目
H. von Campenhausen, The Fathers of the Greek Church; JWC Wand, Doctors and Councils; FL Cross, The Study of Athanasius.每小时冯坎彭豪森,希腊教会从祖先JWC魔杖,医生和议会;佛罗里达州交叉,那修的研究。


St. Athanasius圣亚他那修

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Bishop of Alexandria; Confessor and Doctor of the Church; born c.主教亚历山大;忏悔和医生的教会,生于角296; died 2 May, 373.296; 5月2日死亡,373。Athanasius was the greatest champion of Catholic belief on the subject of the Incarnation that the Church has ever known and in his lifetime earned the characteristic title of "Father of Orthodoxy", by which he has been distinguished every since.亚他那修是最大的天主教信仰上的化身主题,教会迄今所知,在他一生中赢得了“正统之父”,由他一直尊敬以来的每一个冠军头衔的特点。 While the chronology of his career still remains for the most part a hopelessly involved problem, the fullest material for an account of the main achievements of his life will be found in his collected writings and in the contemporary records of his time.虽然他的职业生涯年表仍是一个复杂的问题毫无希望,对他一生的主要事迹材料将在充分收集他的著作和在他那个时代的同期记录发现的大部分。 He was born, it would seem, in Alexandria, most probably between the years 296 and 298.他出生时,它看来,最有可能在亚历山大之间的年296和298。An earlier date, 293, is sometimes assigned as the more certain year of his birth; and it is supported apparently by the authority of the "Coptic Fragment" (published by Dr. O. von Lemm among the Mémoires de l'académie impériale des sciences de S. Péterbourg, 1888) and corroborated by the undoubted maturity of judgement revealed in the two treatises "Contra Gentes" and "De Incarnatione", which were admittedly written about the year 318 before Arianism as a movement had begun to make itself felt.一个较早的日期,293,有时指派为他的出生更明确的一年,这显然是支持的“科普特片段”机构(澳博士冯姆出版之间的Mémoires德欧莱雅琪皇家德德第Péterbourg,1888年版)和成熟度的判断不容置疑的佐证揭示了两个论文“魂斗罗氏族”和“德incarnatione”,这是无可否认的书面大约一年318阿里乌斯作为一个运动之前已经开始,使自己感觉。 It must be remembered, however, that in two distinct passages of his writings (Hist. Ar., lxiv, and De Syn., xviii) Athanasius shrinks from speaking as a witness at first hand of the persecution which had broken out under Maximian in 303; for in referring to the events of this period he makes no direct appeal to his own personal recollections, but falls back, rather, on tradition.必须记住,但是,在两个不同的段落,他的著作(Hist.氩。,lxiv和去的SYN。,十八)缩小,从他那修为在这场迫害的第一手见证下玛西打破了讲出303;在谈到这一时期的活动,他是没有自己的个人回忆直接上诉,但回落,而是对传统。 Such reserve would scarcely be intelligible, if, on the hypothesis of the earlier date, the Saint had been then a boy fully ten years old.这种准备金将几乎可以理解的,如果在较早的日期假说,然后圣男孩已经完全十岁。 Besides, there must have been some semblance of a foundation in fact for the charge brought against him by his accusers in after-life (Index to the Festal Letters) that at the times of his consecration to the episcopate in 328 he had not yet attained the canonical age of thirty years.此外,一定有一些实际上为基础的外表对他提出离职后的生活由他的指控(指数在节日的信)的电荷,在328年,他奉献给他的主教时代尚未取得三十年典型的时代。 These considerations, therefore, even if they are found to be not entirely convincing, would seem to make it likely that he was born not earlier than 296 nor later than 298.这些因素,因此,即使它们被发现并不完全令人信服,似乎使他很可能出生在不早于296或不迟于298。

It is impossible to speak more than conjecturally of his family.这是不可能的发言比他的家人conje​​cturally更多。Of the claim that it was both prominent and well-to-do, we can only observe that the tradition to the effect is not contradicted by such scanty details as can be gleaned from the saint's writings.索赔的,这是两个突出和富裕的事情,我们只能观察到的效果是不会受到这些传统一知半解,可从圣人的著作中收集到的资料相矛盾。 Those writings undoubtedly betray evidences of the sort of education that was given, for the most part, only to children and youths of a better class.这些作品无疑是出卖的教育给予的那种,在大多数情况下,只有对儿童和青少年的一个较好的一类证据。It began with grammar, went on to rhetoric, and received its final touches under some one of the more fashionable lecturers in the philosophic schools.它始于语法,修辞学上了,并获得下一些在学校的更时髦的哲学讲师之一的最后润色。It is possible, of course, that he owed his remarkable training in letters to his saintly predecessor's favour, if not to his personal care.这是可能的,当然,他欠他的圣洁前任的赞成信其出色的训练,如果不是他个人的护理。But Athanasius was one of those rare personalities that derive incomparably more from their own native gifts of intellect and character than from the fortuitousness of descent or environment.但他那修是那些从自己获得无比的智慧和性格的天赋更不是从血统或环境偶然性罕见的人物之一。His career almost personifies a crisis in the history of Christianity; and he may be said rather to have shaped the events in which he took part than to have been shaped by them.他的职业生涯几乎拟人化了的基督教的历史灾难,他可以说是相当有型的事件中,他用了不到有被他们塑造的一部分。Yet it would be misleading to urge that he was in no notable sense a debtor to the time and place of his birth.然而,它会产生误导,敦促他在没有明显的感觉是对的时间和他的出生地债务人。The Alexandria of his boyhood was an epitome, intellectually, morally, and politically, of that ethnically many-coloured Graeco-Roman world, over which the Church of the fourth and fifth centuries was beginning at last, with undismayed consciousness, after nearly three hundred years of unwearying propagandism, to realize its supremacy.他的少年时代的亚历山大是一个缩影,智力,道德,政治,种族许多该颜色的希腊罗马世界,在其中的第四和第五世纪教会终于开始,与undismayed意识,经过近三百多年的unwearying作宣传,以实现其霸权。 It was, moreover, the most important centre of trade in the whole empire; and its primacy as an emporium of ideas was more commanding than that of Rome or Constantinople, Antioch or Marseilles.这是,此外,在整个帝国最重要的贸易中心,以及它作为一个商场的想法是至高无上的罗马或超过君士坦丁堡,安提阿或马赛的指挥。 Already, in obedience to an instinct of which one can scarcely determine the full significance without studying the subsequent development of Catholicism, its famous "Catechetical School", while sacrificing no jot or tittle or that passion for orthodoxy which it had imbibed from Pantænus, Clement, and Origen, had begun to take on an almost secular character in the comprehensiveness of its interests, and had counted pagans of influence among its serious auditors (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., VI, xix).目前,在服从一种直觉判断哪一个可以几乎不研究天主教的后续发展,其著名的“慕道学校”的全部意义,而没有记牺牲或闲聊,或激情,为正统,它已经从Pantænus,克莱门特吸胀,和奥利,已开始采取对一个几乎在其利益的全面性世俗的性格,并算作其严重影响异教徒核数师(尤西比乌斯,历史。传道书。,六,十九)。

To have been born and brought up in such an atmosphere of philosophizing Christianity was, in spite of the dangers it involved, the timeliest and most liberal of educations; and there is, as we have intimated, abundant evidence in the saint's writings to testify to the ready response which all the better influences of the place must have found in the heart and mind of the growing boy.已出生并成长在这样一个哲思基督教在的危险,参与,尽管大气层最及时,最教育自由和存在,正如我们已经暗示,在圣人的著作丰富的证据来证明在准备答复,所有的影响,必须有更好的地方,在心脏和头脑中长大的孩子找到。 Athanasius seems to have been brought early in life under the immediate supervision of the ecclesiastical authorities of his native city.亚他那修似乎已经带来了生命的早期在他的家乡城市的教会当局的直接监督。Whether his long intimacy with Bishop Alexander began in childhood, we have no means of judging; but a story which pretends to describe the circumstances of his first introduction to that prelate has been preserved for us by Rufinus (Hist. Eccl., I, xiv).无论是他的长期亲密亚历山大主教在童年开始,我们没有办法判断,但有个故事,假装来形容他的第一个引进该主教的情况已为我们保存了Rufinus(Hist.传道书,我,十四。 )。The bishop, so the tale runs, had invited a number of brother prelates to meet him at breakfast after a great religious function on the anniversary of the martyrdom of St. Peter, a recent predecessor in the See of Alexandria.主教,所以故事运行时,邀请了兄弟数主教在早餐后,以满足对一个伟大的圣彼得,在最近的亚历山大见的前身他殉难周年的宗教功能。 While Alexander was waiting for his guests to arrive, he stood by a window, watching a group of boys at play on the seashore below the house.虽然亚历山大正在等待他的客人到来,他站在窗口,看着就在房子下面的海边玩了一群男孩。 He had not observed them long before he discovered that they were imitating, evidently with no thought of irreverence, the elaborate ritual of Christian baptism.他没有注意到他们,不久他发现,他们模仿,显然没有想到的不敬,阐述了基督教的洗礼仪式。(Cf. Bunsen's "Christianity and Mankind", London, 1854, VI, 465; Denzinger, "Ritus Orientalium" in verb.; Butler's "Ancient Coptic Churches", II, 268 et sqq.; "Bapteme chez les Coptes", "Dict. Theol. Cath.", Col. 244, 245). (参见本生的“基督教与人类”,伦敦,1854年,六,465,登青格,“Ritus Orientalium”的动词。巴特勒的“古代科普特教堂”,二,268等sqq。“Bapteme桑切斯莱斯Coptes”,“快译通。Theol。蛋白酶。“上校244,245)。 He therefore sent for the children and had them brought into his presence.因此,他发出的儿童,并让他们到他的出现引起。In the investigation that followed it was discovered that one of the boys, who was no other than the future Primate of Alexandria, had acted the part of the bishop, and in that character had actually baptized several of his companions in the course of their play.在随后的调查发现,这是男孩,没有谁比其他灵长类动物的亚历山大将来之一,曾担任主教的一部分,实际上在那个角色的洗礼,在他们的游戏过程中他的同伴数。 Alexander, who seems to have been unaccountably puzzled over the answers he received to his inquiries, determined to recognize the make-believe baptisms as genuine; and decided that Athanasius and his playfellows should go into training in order to fit themselves for a clerical career.亚历山大,谁似乎已经莫名其妙地收到了满意的答案,他对他的调查,决定承认化妆相信,真正的洗礼困惑,并决定athanasius和他的playfellows应纳入培训去,以适合自己的职业生涯一个办事员。 The Bollandists deal gravely with this story; and writers as difficult to satisfy as Archdeacon Farrar and the late Dean Stanley are ready to accept it as bearing on its face "every indication of truth" (Farrar, "Lives of the Fathers", I, 337; Stanley, "East. Ch." 264).该bollandists处理严重这一故事,以及作为作家难以满足作为副主教法拉和已故院长斯坦利准备接受其作为事关面子“每一个真理的指示”(法拉,“生命的父亲”,我吧, 337,赤柱,“东通道。。”264)。But whether in its present form, or in the modified version to be found in Socrates (I, xv), who omits all reference to the baptism and says that the game was "an imitation of the priesthood and the order of consecrated persons", the tale raises a number of chronological difficulties and suggests even graver questions.但是,无论在其目前的形式,或在修改后的版本中可以找到苏格拉底(一,XV)号,谁忽略了所有提及的洗礼,并表示,该游戏是“一个神职人员模仿和奉献者的命令”,故事的时间顺序提出了一些困难,并提出更严重的问题。

Perhaps a not impossible explanation of its origin may be found in the theory that it was one of the many floating myths set in movement by popular imagination to account for the marked bias towards an ecclesiastical career which seems to have characterized the early boyhood of the future champion of the Faith.也许,它的起源不是不可能的解释中可以找到的理论,它是由大众的想像在运动中占了显着的事业迈向一个教会的偏见,这似乎有特点的少年时代,未来的许多早期神话一浮冠军的信念。 Sozomen speaks of his "fitness for the priesthood", and calls attention to the significant circumstance that he was "from his tenderest years practically self-taught". Sozomen谈到他的“为神职人员健身”,并要求注意的重大情况,他是“从他的温柔年几乎无师自通”。"Not long after this," adds the same authority, the Bishop Alexander "invited Athanasius to be his commensal and secretary. He had been well educated, and was versed in grammar and rhetoric, and had already, while still a young man, and before reaching the episcopate, given proof to those who dwelt with him of his wisdom and acumen" (Soz., II, xvii). “在这之后不久,补充说:”同样的权威,主教亚历山大“邀请他那修是他的共生和秘书。他曾受过良好教育,在精通语法,修辞,并已,而仍然是一个年轻的男人,才到达主教,谁给证明那些与他的智慧和敏锐“(Soz.,二,十七)他那里住。 That "wisdom and acumen" manifested themselves in a various environment.这种“智慧和敏锐”表现在各种环境本身。While still a levite under Alexander's care, he seems to have been brought for a while into close relations with some of the solitaries of the Egyptian desert, and in particular with the great St. Anthony, whose life he is said to have written.而仍然是一个在亚历山大的照顾利未人,他似乎已经有一段时间带进与埃及沙漠中的孤独者有密切的关系,在与伟大的圣安东尼,他的生命,他说,写方面。 The evidence both of the intimacy and for the authorship of the life in question has been challenged, chiefly by non-Catholic writers, on the ground that the famous "Vita" shows signs of interpolation.在双方的亲密关系,为有问题的生活著作权的证据受到了挑战,主要由非天主教作家,理由是著名的“简历”显示插值的迹象。 Whatever we may think of the arguments on the subject, it is impossible to deny that the monastic idea appealed powerfully to the young cleric's temperament, and that he himself in after years was not only at home when duty or accident threw him among the solitaries, but was so monastically self-disciplined in his habits as to be spoken of as an "ascetic" (Apol. c. Arian., vi).不管我们认为对这一问题的争论,这是无法否认该寺院的想法呼吁有力的年轻神职人员的气质,而他自己在以后的岁月是在不在家,只有当责任或意外丢among的孤独的他,但如此monastically自给纪律,以他的习惯是口语的,因为一个“苦行僧”(Apol.角阿里安。,六)。 In fourth-century usage the word would have a definiteness of connotation not easily determinable today.在第四世纪的使用,世界将有一个定性的内涵今天不容易确定。(See ASCETICISM). (见禁欲主义)。

It is not surprising that one who was called to fill so large a place in the history of his time should have impressed the very form and feature of his personality, so to say, upon the imagination of his contemporaries.这并不奇怪,一个谁被称为填补了他那个时代的历史,这么大的地方应该有非常深刻的印象的形式和他的个性特点,所以说后,他同时代的想象。 St. Gregory Nazianzen is not the only writer who has described him for us (Orat. xxi, 8).圣格雷戈里nazianzen不是唯一的作家谁曾形容他为我们(Orat.二十一,8)。A contemptuous phrase of the Emperor Julian's (Epist., li) serves unintentionally to corroborate the picture drawn by kindlier observers.作者:朱利安皇帝的(Epist.,李)轻蔑的词语来担任无意中证实了可爱的观察员画的画。 He was slightly below the middle height, spare in build, but well-knit, and intensely energetic.他略低于中间的高度,全力打造,但严密的,充满活力和强烈。He had a finely shaped head, set off with a thin growth of auburn hair, a small but sensitively mobile mouth, an aquiline nose, and eyes of intense but kindly brilliancy.他有一个细形头,设置与赤褐色的头发,一个小而灵敏的移动口,鹰钩鼻薄增长OFF时,紧张而慈祥的辉煌和眼睛。 He had a ready wit, was quick in intuition, easy and affable in manner, pleasant in conversation, keen, and, perhaps, somewhat too unsparing in debate.他有一个现成的智慧,很快在直观,方便,和蔼可亲的态度,愉快的交谈中,敏锐的,而且,也许有点太不留情的辩论。(Besides the references already cited, see the detailed description given in the January Menaion quotes in the Bollandist life. Julian the Apostate, in the letter alluded to above sneers at the diminutiveness of his person -- mede aner, all anthropiokos euteles, he writes.) In addition to these qualities, he was conspicuous for two others to which even his enemies bore unwilling testimony. (除了已经提到的引用,请详细说明在一月Menaion刊载于Bollandist生活报价朱利安的叛教者,在信中提到在他的人diminutiveness以上冷笑 - 。米德亚乃,所有anthropiokos euteles,他写道: 。)除了这些品质,他是突出了两个别人,连他的敌人膛不愿作证。He was endowed with a sense of humour that could be as mordant -- we had almost said as sardonic -- as it seems to have been spontaneous and unfailing; and his courage was of the sort that never falters, even in the most disheartening hour of defeat.他被赋予了幽默感,可作为媒 - 我们几乎是嘲讽说 - 因为它似乎已被自发的和始终如一的,他的勇气是永远上不去的那种,即使在最令人沮丧的时刻,失败。There is one other note in this highly gifted and many-sided personality to which everything else in his nature literally ministered, and which must be kept steadily in view, if we would possess the key to his character and writing and understand the extraordinary significance of his career in the history of the Christian Church.还有另外一个注意在这个极具天赋的和多方面的个性,这一切在他的天性字面上侍奉,并鉴于必须保持稳定,如果我们将拥有对他的性格和写作和理解非常关键的意义他的职业生涯中的基督教教会的历史。 He was by instinct neither a liberal nor a conservative in theology.他本能地既不是自由的,也不是一个保守的神学。Indeed the terms have a singular inappropriateness as applied to a temperament like his.事实上,有一个独特的不当条款适用于一个像他的气质。From first to last he cared greatly for one thing and one thing only; the integrity of his Catholic creed.从开始到最后,他关心一件事,一件事不仅极大地;在他的天主教信仰的完整性。The religion it engendered in him was obviously -- considering the traits by which we have tried to depict him -- of a passionate and consuming sort.这是在他的宗教产生明显 - 考虑一些我们试图描绘出他的特征 - 一个充满激情和消费排序。It began and ended in devotion to the Divinity of Jesus Christ.它开始和献身精神神耶稣基督结束。 He was scarcely out of his teens, and certainly not in more than deacon's orders, when he published two treatises, in which his mind seemed to strike the keynote of all its riper after-utterances on the subject of the Catholic Faith.他几乎从他十几岁,而且肯定比执事的命令,当他出版了两本专着,在他的脑子里似乎所有的罢工更成熟的基调更不后的天主教信仰主题话语。 The "Contra Gentes" and the "Oratio de Incarnatione" -- to give them the Latin appellations by which they are more commonly cited -- were written some time between the years 318 and 323.在“魂斗罗氏族”和“Oratio德incarnatione” - 给他们,使他们有较普遍提及的拉丁原产地名称 - 写之间的一些318和323年的时间。St. Jerome (De Viris Illust.) refers to them under a common title, as "Adversum Gentes Duo Libri", thus leaving his readers to gather the impression which an analysis of the contents of both books certainly seems to justify, that the two treatises are in reality one.圣杰罗姆(德viris插画。)指的是他们在一个共同的称号,被誉为“Adversum氏族铎利布里”,从而让他的读者,收集的印象,对两书的内容分析,似乎清楚地证明,这两个论文在现实之一。

As a plea for the Christian position, addressed chiefly to both Gentiles and Jews, the young deacon's apology, while undoubtedly reminiscential in methods and ideas of Origen and the earlier Alexandrians, is, nevertheless, strongly individual and almost pietistic in tone.作为一个基督徒的立场呼吁,主要是解决这两个外邦人和犹太人,年轻的执事的道歉,同时无疑方法和奥利和较早的亚历山大,思想reminiscential是,然而,强烈的个人和语气几乎虔诚。 Though it deals with the Incarnation, it is silent on most of those ulterior problems in defence of which Athanasius was soon to be summoned by the force of events and the fervour of his own faith to devote the best energies of his life.虽然它与交易的化身,它是沉默的关于在国防,其中他那修是即将由事件的力量和他自己的信仰奉献了他一生中最好的精力热情召唤不可告人的大部分问题。 The work contains no explicit discussion of the nature of the Word's Sonship, for instance; no attempt to draw out the character of Our Lord's relation to the Father; nothing, in short, of those Christological questions upon which he was to speak with such splendid and courageous clearness in time of shifting formularies and undetermined views.工作中没有对这个词的的sonship性质,例如,明确讨论,没有试图绘制出我们的主的关系性格的父亲,没有什么,总之,这些后,他的发言与基督的问题,例如辉煌清晰的和勇敢的处方和转移时间未定意见。 Yet those ideas must have been in the air (Soz., I, xv) for, some time between the years 318 and 320, Arius, a native of Libya (Epiph., Haer., lxix) and priest of the Alexandrian Church, who had already fallen under censure for his part in the Meletian troubles which broke out during the episcopate of St. Peter, and whose teachings had succeeded in making dangerous headway, even among "the consecrated virgins" of St. Mark's see (Epiph. Haer., lxix; Soc., Hist. Eccl., I, vi), accused Bishop Alexander of Sabellianism.然而,这些想法必须已在空中(Soz.,我十五)的,有些之间的年318和320,阿里乌斯,一个利比亚本地时间(Epiph.,Haer。,lxix)和亚历山大教会牧师,谁已经落入了谴责,他在这期间爆发的圣彼得主教,且其在作出危险的进展成功教义Meletian麻烦的一部分,即使其中“圣处女”的圣马克见(Epiph. Haer 。,lxix。。。系统芯片,历史传道书,我,六),被告主教Sabellianism亚历山大。Arius, who seems to have presumed on the charitable tolerance of the primate, was at length deposed (Apol. c. Ar., vi) in a synod consisting of more than one hundred bishops of Egypt and Libya (Depositio Ar., 3).阿里乌斯,谁似乎对慈善宽容的灵长类动物推定,是在长度废黜(Apol.角氩。,六)在超过一百主教的埃及和利比亚组成的主教(沉降的氩。,3) 。The condemned heresiarch withdrew first to Palestine and afterwards to Bithynia, where, under the protection of Eusebius of Nicomedia and his other "Collucianists", he was able to increase his already remarkable influence, while his friends were endeavouring to prepare a way for his forcible reinstatement as priest of the Alexandrian Church.该谴责异教撤回首次对巴勒斯坦和事后庇推尼去,在那里,根据对尼科美底亚和他的其他“Collucianists”尤西比乌斯的保护,他能够增加他的已经显着影响,而他的朋友们努力准备他的方式强行复职作为亚历山大教会牧师。 Athanasius, though only in deacon's order, must have taken no subordinate part in these events.亚他那修,虽然只在执事的命令,必须采取任何从属这些活动的一部分。He was the trusted secretary and advisor of Alexander, and his name appears in the list of those who signed the encyclical letter subsequently issued by the primate and his colleagues to offset the growing prestige of the new teaching, and the momentum it was beginning to acquire from the ostentatious patronage extended to the deposed Arius by the Eusebian faction.他是值得信赖的秘书和顾问亚历山大,他的名字在这些谁签署了通谕信随后由灵长类动物和他的同事们发来抵消不断增长的新的教学声望列表中,它的势头已开始收购从豪华的乘客量扩大到由被废黜阿里乌斯Eusebian派别。 Indeed, it is to this party and to the leverage it was able to exercise at the emperor's court that the subsequent importance of Arianism as a political, rather than a religious, movement seems primarily to be due.事实上,这是这个党和杠杆它能够在皇帝的法院行使后认为,阿里乌主义作为政治的重要性,而不是一个宗教,运动似乎主要是,将到期。

The heresy, of course, had its supposedly philosophic basis, which has been ascribed by authors, ancient and modern, to the most opposite sources.异端,当然,理应有其哲学基础,它被赋予作者,古代和现代,最相反的来源。St. Epiphanius characterizes it as a king of revived Aristoteleanism (Haer., lxvii and lxxvi); and the same view is practically held by Socrates (Hist. Eccl., II, xxxv), Theodoret (Haer. Fab., IV, iii), and St. Basil (Adv. Eunom., I, ix).圣埃皮法尼乌斯定性为一种恢复Aristoteleanism国王(Haer.,lxvii和lxxvi)条;(。Hist.传道书,二,三十五)。及持有同样的观点实际上是由苏格拉底,Theodoret(Haer.厂,四,三),和圣罗勒(2002上海高考Eunom。,我,九)。 On the other hand, a theologian as broadly read as Petavius (De Trin., I, viii, 2) has no hesitation in deriving it from Platonism; Newman in turn (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 109) sees in it the influence of Jewish prejudices rationalized by the aid of Aristotelean ideas; while Robertson (Sel. Writ. and Let. of Ath. Proleg., 27) observes that the "common theology", which was invariably opposed to it, "borrowed its philosophical principles and method from the Platonists." (。德草,一,八,2)另一方面,作为大致Petavius​​读神学家没有在计算柏拉图它毫不犹豫地;纽曼反过来(。。第四次以上白羊座的,4版,109)认为在它的由亚里士多德思想援助合理化犹太人的偏见的影响,而罗伯逊(。。。。Sel.令状及让阿特前脚,27)指出,“共同神学”,这是必然反对的,“借它的哲学原理和方法从柏拉图。“ These apparently conflicting statements could, no doubt, be easily adjusted; but the truth is that the prestige of Arianism never lay in its ideas.这些显然矛盾的声明可能,毫无疑问,很容易调整,但事实是,从来没有威信阿里乌斯在于它的想法。From whatever school it may have been logically derived, the sect, as a sect, was cradled and nurtured in intrigue.无论从任何学校有可能已被逻辑推导,该教派,作为一个教派,是摇篮和阴谋熏陶。Save in some few instances, which can be accounted for on quite other grounds, its prophets relied more upon curial influence than upon piety, or Scriptural knowledge, or dialectics.保存在某些少数情况下,可对其他原因占相当,它的先知,更多地依赖于curial影响比对虔诚,或圣经知识,或辩证法。 That must be borne constantly in mind, if we would not move distractedly through the bewildering maze of events that make up the life of Athanasius for the next half-century to come.这必须承担经常想到,如果我们不动的事件,通过弥补未来半世纪来的亚他那修生活扑朔迷离的迷宫心烦意乱。It is his peculiar merit that he not only saw the drift of things from the very beginning, but was confident of the issue down to the last (Apol. c. Ar., c.).这是他独特的优点,他不仅看到了从一开始漂移的事情,但这个问题的信心下降到最后(Apol.角氩。角)。His insight and courage proved almost as efficient a bulwark to the Christian Church in the world as did his singularly lucid grasp of traditional Catholic belief.他的洞察力和勇气,证明在世界上几乎没有他的奇传统的天主教信仰清晰把握一个堡垒高效的基督教堂。His opportunity came in the year 325, when the Emperor Constantine, in the hope of putting an end to the scandalous debates that were disturbing the peace of the Church, met the prelates of the entire Catholic world in council at Nicaea.他在325年的机会来了,当皇帝君士坦丁进行研究,结束了被扰乱了可耻的辩论,教会和平的希望,会见了主教的整个天主教世界会议在尼西亚。

The great council convoked at this juncture was something more than a pivotal event in the history of Christianity.大议会在这个时候召集了一个不是在基督教历史的关键事件的更多。Its sudden, and, in one sense, almost unpremeditated adoption of a quasi-philosophic and non-Scriptural term -- homoousion -- to express the character of orthodox belief in the Person of the historic Christ, by defining Him to be identical in substance, or co-essential, with the Father, together with its confident appeal to the emperor to lend the sanction of his authority to the decrees and pronouncements by which it hoped to safeguard this more explicit profession of the ancient Faith, had consequences of the gravest import, not only to the world of ideas, but to the world of politics as well.它的突然出现,而且,从某种意义上说,几乎过失一个准哲学和非长期采用圣经 - homoousion - 来表达对正统信仰中的基督的人的历史性人物,他是通过定义在相同的物质或合作至关重要,与父亲,连同其信心呼吁皇帝借给他的权力制裁的法令和声明,希望通过它来保障这一古老的信仰更明确的专业,有最严重的后果进口,不仅对世界的想法,但对政治的世界。 By the official promulgation to the term homoöusion, theological speculation received a fresh but subtle impetus which made itself felt long after Athanasius and his supporters had passed away; while the appeal to the secular arm inaugurated a policy which endured practically without change of scope down to the publication of the Vatican decrees in our own time.由官方公布的长期homoöusion,神学的猜测得到了新的动力,但它使自己微妙后感到他那修和他的支持者已经去世很久,虽然在世俗的手臂落成的政策,经历了没有范围的变化,切实上诉在我们自己的时间,梵蒂冈出版法令。 In one sense, and that a very deep and vital one, both the definition and the policy were inevitable.从某种意义上说,这是非常深刻和重要的一个,无论是定义和政策是不可避免的。It was inevitable in the order of religious ideas that any break in logical continuity should be met by inquiry and protest.这是在宗教观点的顺序逻辑的必然,任何连续性中断,应通过调查和抗议满足。It was just as inevitable that the protest, to be effective, should receive some countenance from a power which up to that moment had affected to regulate all the graver circumstances of life (cf. Harnack, Hist. Dog., III, 146, note; Buchanan's tr.).这正如不可避免的抗议,是有效的,应该得到一些权力,从面容的那一刻就已经影响到管理所有的生活更严重的情况下(参见哈纳克,组织胺。狗。,三,146,注;布坎南的TR)。。 As Newman has remarked: "The Church could not meet together in one, without entering into a sort of negotiation with the power that be; who jealousy it is the duty of Christians, both as individuals and as a body, if possible, to dispel" (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 241).作为纽曼曾说过:“教会不能满足集中在一个没有进入一个谈判sort进入的权力是这样,,谁嫉妒它是基督徒的责任,作为个人和作为一个机构,如果可能的话,打消“(白羊座第四次以上。,4版。,241)。 Athanasius, though not yet in priest's orders, accompanied Alexander to the council in the character of secretary and theological adviser.亚他那修,但尚未在牧师的命令,亚历山大的陪同下,在局长的性格和神学顾问委员会。He was not, of course, the originator of the famous homoösion.他没有,当然,著名的homoösion鼻祖。The term had been proposed in a non-obvious and illegitimate sense by Paul of Samosata to the Father at Antioch, and had been rejected by them as savouring of materialistic conceptions of the Godhead (cf. Athan., "De Syn.," xliii; Newman, "Arians of the Fourth Cent.," 4 ed., 184-196; Petav. "De Trin.," IV, v, sect. 3; Robertson, "Sel. Writ. and Let. Athan. Proleg.", 30 sqq.).这个词已经提出一个由萨莫萨塔保罗非显而易见的和非法意识,在安提父亲,并一直拒绝为他们的神性(参见Athan唯物主义观念品味。“者的SYN。”四十三,纽曼,“白羊座第四美分。”4版,184-196。。Petav“。德草,”四,五,三节。。。罗伯逊,“选择令状及让Athan前脚。。。 “,30 sqq。)。

It may even be questioned whether, if left to his own logical instincts, Athanasius would have suggested an orthodox revival of the term at all ("De Decretis", 19; "Orat. c. Ar.", ii, 32; "Ad Monachos", 2).它甚至有可能质疑,如果留给他自己的逻辑的本能,他那修会建议在所有(“德Decretis”,19日恢复正统的任期;“。。由于以下原因造成三氩”,第二章,32;“广告Monachos“,2)。 His writings, composed during the forty-six critical years of his episcopate, show a very sparing use of the word; and though, as Newman (Arians of the Fourth Cent., 4 ed., 236) reminds us, "the authentic account of the proceedings" that took place is not extant, there is nevertheless abundant evidence in support of the common view that it had been unexpectedly forced upon the notice of the bishops, Arian and orthodox, in the great synod by Constantine's proposal to account the creed submitted by Eusebius of Caesarea, with the addition of the homoösion, as a safeguard against possible vagueness.他的著作,在四六重要的年份,他主教组成,表现出对这个词非常节约使用,虽然,作为纽曼(。。第四次以上白羊座的,4版,236)提醒我们,“正宗的帐户诉讼“的发生不是现存的,有不过,在共同的支持,大量证据表明,它已被意外地强加的主教,阿里安和正统的注意,在伟大的主教,由君士坦丁的建议,考虑的信条提交该撒利亚尤西比乌斯,随着homoösion此外,为防范可能的含糊。 The suggestion had in all probability come from Hosius (cf. "Epist. Eusebii.", in the appendix to the "De Decretis", sect. 4; Soc., "Hist. Eccl.", I, viii; III, vii; Theod. "Hist. Eccl.", I, Athan.; "Arians of the Fourth Cent.", 6, n. 42; outos ten en Nikaia pistin exetheto, says the saint, quoting his opponents); but Athanasius, in common with the leaders of the orthodox party, loyally accepted the term as expressive of the traditional sense in which the Church had always held Jesus Christ to be the Son of God.这项建议已经从侯休斯来(参见“Epist Eusebii。。”所有的概率,在附录中的“德Decretis”,第4节。。系统芯片,“历史传道书。。”,第一,第八,第三,第七章。Theod“。。组织胺传道书”,我Athan。“第四次以上白羊座的。”,6,注42; outos十恩Nikaia皮什廷exetheto说,圣引述他的对手),但他那修,在与党的领导人的共同正统,忠实地接纳为传统意义上的教会一直持有耶稣基督是上帝的儿子表现的术语。 The conspicuous abilities displayed in the Nicaean debates and the character for courage and sincerity he won on all sides made the youthful cleric henceforth a marked man (St. Greg. Naz., Orat., 21).引人注目的能力,在Nicaean辩论展示,以及他的勇气和诚意,赢得了各方的个性使年轻的教士今后一个显着男子(圣格雷格。纳兹。,由于以下原因造成。,21)。 His life could not be lived in a corner.他的生活简直是生活在一个角落里。Five months after the close of the council the Primate of Alexandria died; and Athanasius, quite as much in recognition of his talent, it would appear, as in deference to the deathbed wishes of the deceased prelate, was chosen to succeed him.五年后的安理会的亚历山大灵长类动物亲密个月内死亡,以及他那修,相当多的承认他的天赋,似乎在尊重死者的临终愿望主教,被选为接替他。 His election, in spite of his extreme youth and the opposition of a remnant of the Arian and Meletian factions in the Alexandrian Church, was welcomed by all classes among the laity ("Apol. c. Arian", vi; Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", II, xvii, xxi, xxii).他的当选尽管他的极端青年和一个在亚历山大教会派系阿里安和Meletian残反对,表示欢迎各俗人(所有类别,六“亚太线上角阿里安。”;索兹,“历史。 。传道书。“第一,二,十七,二十一,二十二)。

The opening years of the saint's rule were occupied with the wonted episcopal routine of a fourth-century Egyptian bishop.圣人统治的最初几年与惯例的被占领的四分之一世纪的埃及主教主教的程序。 Episcopal visitations, synods, pastoral correspondence, preaching and the yearly round of church functions consumed the bulk of his time.主教访视,主教,田园通信,说教和功能的教会每年消耗圆了他的大量时间。The only noteworthy events of which antiquity furnishes at least probable data are connected with the successful efforts which he made to provide a hierarchy for the newly planted church in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) in the person of St. Frumentius (Rufinus I, ix; Soc. I, xix; Soz., II, xxiv), and the friendship which appears to have begun about this time between himself and the monks of St. Pachomius.其中古代的唯一可能的数据furnishes至少值得注意的事件都与他作出的提供,为在埃塞俄比亚(阿比西尼亚)新种植教会在圣弗鲁门齐乌斯层次的成功人士的努力(Rufinus我,九;芯片。一,十九。索兹,二,二十四),以及友谊似乎对此他本人和僧侣的圣帕科谬斯时开始。 But the seeds of disaster which the saint's piety had unflinchingly planted at Nicaea were beginning to bear a disquieting crop at last.但是,灾难的是圣人的虔诚坚定不移地种植在尼西亚种子开始承担最后一个令人不安的作物。 Already events were happening at Constantinople which were soon to make him the most important figure of his time.事件已经发生在君士坦丁堡其中很快使他成为他那个时代最重要的人物。Eusebius of Nicomedia, who had fallen into disgrace and been banished by the Emperor Constantine for his part in the earlier Arian controversies, had been recalled from exile.对尼科美底亚,谁已陷入耻辱和被流放的皇帝君士坦丁,他在前面的阿里安争议的一部分,尤西比乌斯已召回流放。After an adroit campaign of intrigue, carried on chiefly through the instrumentality of the ladies of the imperial household, this smooth-mannered prelate so far prevailed over Constantine as to induce him to order the recall of Arius likewise from exile.经过巧妙的阴谋活动,主要是通过对通过对宫内的女士工具性,这顺利彬彬有礼主教至今压倒君士坦丁,以诱使他下令从流亡的阿里乌斯同样召回。 He himself sent a characteristic letter to the youthful Primate of Alexandria, in which he bespoke his favour for the condemned heresiarch, who was described as a man whose opinions had been misrepresented.他本人发出的一个特点信青春灵长类动物的亚历山大,他在定制的谴责异教,谁是一个人的意见已被歪曲描述了他的青睐。 These events must have happened some time about the close of the year 330.这些事件必须发生一些关于今年330关闭时间。Finally the emperor himself was persuaded to write to Athanasius, urging that all those who were ready to submit to the definitions of Nicaea should be re-admitted to ecclesiastical communion.最后,皇帝本人也写信给他那修说服,敦促所有这些谁是准备提交到尼西亚的定义应该重新接纳为教会的共融。This Athanasius stoutly refused to do, alleging that there could be no fellowship between the Church and the one who denied the Divinity of Christ.这亚他那修坚决拒绝这样做,声称不可能有教会与一个谁否认基督的神相交。

The Bishop of Nicomedia thereupon brought various ecclesiastical and political charges against Athanasius, which, though unmistakably refuted at their first hearing, were afterwards refurbished and made to do service at nearly every stage of his subsequent trials.尼科美底亚的主教随即提起他那修,这虽然明白无误地在其第一次听证会上驳斥了各种宗教和政治指控,是事后做翻新并在他后来的几乎每一个试验阶段的服务。 Four of these were very definite, to wit: that he had not reached the canonical age at the time of his consecration; that he had imposed a linen tax upon the provinces; that his officers had, with his connivance and authority, profaned the Sacred Mysteries in the case of an alleged priest names Ischyras; and lastly that he had put one Arenius to death and afterwards dismembered the body for purposes of magic.其中四个是非常明确的,即:说,他没有达到时,他奉献的典型年龄,他已经实行了省亚麻税时,他就与他的纵容官员和权威,亵渎了神圣奥秘在被指控的神父名Ischyras情况;最后,他把一Arenius死刑,后来被肢解的身体神奇的目的。 The nature of the charges and the method of supporting them were vividly characteristic of the age.该指控和支持他们的方法自然是生动的时代特征。The curious student will find them set forth in picturesque detail in the second part of the Saint's "Apologia", or "Defense against the Arians", written long after the events themselves, about the year 350, when the retractation of Ursacius and Valens made their publication triumphantly opportune.好奇的学生将会发现他们设置在风景如画的详细规定中的圣人的“纵容”的第二部分,或“对白羊座的国防”,长在事件发生后写下的一切,对今年350,当Ursacius和瓦伦斯收回讲话作出他们的出版物胜利的时机。 The whole unhappy story at this distance of time reads in parts more like a specimen of late Greek romance than the account of an inquisition gravely conducted by a synod of Christian prelates with the idea of getting at the truth of a series of odious accusations brought against one of their number.全在这时候距离不愉快的故事听起来更像是一晚比严重的一个基督教主教进行了宗教裁判所的帐户希腊浪漫标本同在一个可恶的指控提起的一系列事实的想法得到部分地区的主教他们的一个号码。 Summoned by the emperor's order after protracted delays extended over a period of thirty months (Soz., II, xxv), Athanasius finally consented to meet the charges brought against him by appearing before a synod of prelates at Tyre in the year 335.由皇帝的命令召唤后超过三十个月(Soz.,二,二十五)延长长期拖延,终于同意他那修,以满足对他提出的前主教的主教在轮胎在今年335出现的费用。 Fifty of his suffragans went with him to vindicate his good name; but the complexion of the ruling party in the synod made it evident that justice to the accused was the last thing that was thought of.他suffragans五十的他同去,以维护他的好名声,但在主教执政党肤色明显,使正义的被告是最后的事情是想到的。It can hardly be wondered at, that Athanasius should have refused to be tried by such a court.你不可能不知道的,那他那修应拒绝被这​​样一个法庭受审。He, therefore, suddenly withdrew from Tyre, escaping in a boat with some faithful friends who accompanied him to Byzantium, where he had made up his mind to present himself to the emperor.因此,他突然退出提尔,在与一些谁陪他到拜占庭,在那里他已经下定决心到目前自己的皇帝忠实的朋友船逃逸。

The circumstances in which the saint and the great catechumen met were dramatic enough.在何种情况下圣和伟大初学者会见了戏剧性。Constantine was returning from a hunt, when Athanasius unexpectedly stepped into the middle of the road and demanded a hearing.康斯坦丁是返回从狩猎时意外地踏进他那修了路中间,并要求举行听证会。The astonished emperor could hardly believe his eyes, and it needed the assurance of one of the attendants to convince him that the petitioner was not an impostor, but none other than the great Bishop of Alexandria himself. The惊讶皇帝简直不敢相信自己的眼睛,它需要得到保证的服务员一说服他说,请愿人没有一个骗子,但没有一个比自己伟大的亚历山大主教等。"Give me", said the prelate, "a just tribunal, or allow me to meet my accusers face to face in your presence." “给我”,主教说,“公正的法庭,或允许我满足我的原告面对面地在你面前。”His request was granted.他的请求得到了批准。An order was peremptorily sent to the bishops, who had tried Athanasius and, of course, condemned him in his absence, to repair at once to the imperial city.的命令,是断然发送到主教,谁曾试图athanasius和,当然,在他缺席谴责他,要立即修复皇城。The command reached them while they were on their way to the great feast of the dedication of Constantine's new church at Jerusalem.该命令到达他们,而他们的道路上了君士坦丁的新教堂的奉献精神,在耶路撒冷的伟大节日。 It naturally caused some consternation; but the more influential members of the Eusebian faction never lacked either courage or resourcefulness.这自然引起了一些惊恐,但更多的Eusebian派别有影响力的成员从来不缺乏勇气或机智要么。 The saint was taken at his word; and the old charges were renewed in the hearing of the emperor himself.圣是发生在他的字,和旧的收费在皇帝本人听证会延期。Athanasius was condemned to go into exile at Treves, where he was received with the utmost kindness by the saintly Bishop Maximinus and the emperor's eldest son, Constantine.亚他那修被判处流亡在特雷韦斯,在那里他以最大的善意收到圣洁主教Maximinus和皇帝的长子,君士坦丁。 He began his journey probably in the month of February, 336, and arrived on the banks of the Moselle in the late autumn of the same year.他开始很可能在二月,336月的旅程,并在银行的摩泽尔抵达同年深秋。His exile lasted nearly two years and a half.他流亡历时近两年半。Public opinion in his own diocese remained loyal to him during all that time.市民在自己的教区仍忠于他认为在所有的时间。 It was not the least eloquent testimony to the essential worth of his character that he could inspire such faith.这不是最雄辩地证明了他的性格基本价值,他可以激发这种信念。Constantine's treatment of Athanasius at this crisis in his fortunes has always been difficult to understand.君士坦丁的治疗他那修他的命运在这个危机一直很难理解。Affecting, on the one hand, a show of indignation, as if he really believed in the political charge brought against the saint, he, on the other hand, refused to appoint a successor to the Alexandrian See, a thing which he might in consistency have been obliged to do had he taken seriously the condemnation proceedings carried through by the Eusebians at Tyre.影响,一方面,一个愤怒的表演,好像他真的在圣所带来的对政治负责,相信他,另一方面,拒绝任命一位继任者亚历山大见的事情,他可能在一致性已经做了,他不得不认真对待的谴责通过法律程序在提尔Eusebians进行。

Meanwhile events of the greatest importance had taken place.同时最重要的事件已经发生。Arius had died amid startlingly dramatic circumstances at Constantinople in 336; and the death of Constantine himself had followed, on the 22nd of May the year after.阿里乌斯中死亡336君士坦丁堡在戏剧性的惊人情况;和死亡的君士坦丁本人也遵循了关于5月22日,后年。Some three weeks later the younger Constantine invited the exiled primate to return to his see; and by the end of November of the same year Athanasius was once more established in his episcopal city.约三个星期后,年轻的君士坦丁邀请流亡灵长类有权返回他见;以及由11月的亚他那修是同年年底再次在他的主教市成立。His return was the occasion of great rejoicing.他的回归是大喜的日子。The people, as he himself tells us, ran in crowds to see his face; the churches were given over to a kind of jubilee; thanksgivings were offered up everywhere; and clergy and laity accounted the day the happiest in their lives.的人,因为他本人告诉我们,跑在人群中看到他的脸;的教堂被交给一类的银禧;感恩节共提供了无处不在;和神职人员和信徒占一天中最快乐的生活。 But already trouble was brewing in a quarter from which the saint might reasonably have expected it.但麻烦的是已经在从其中圣可能合理地期望四分之一酝酿。The Eusebian faction, who from this time forth loom large as the disturbers of his peace, managed to win over to their side the weak-minded Emperor Constantius to whom the East had been assigned in the division of the empire that followed on the death of Constantine.派谁的Eusebian从这个时候,提出了织机大作为他的和平设法争取到他们那边去弱志同道合皇帝君向谁东方已经在帝国的分裂,关于死亡后分配扰动,康斯坦丁。 The old charges were refurbished with a graver ecclesiastical accusation added by way of rider.翻新旧收费用刻刀教会宗教自由方式添加的骑手。Athanasius had ignored the decision of a duly authorized synod.亚他那修忽略了被正式授权主教的决定。He had returned to his see without the summons of ecclesiastical authority (Apol. c. Ar., loc. cit.).他已经回到他没有教会权威(Apol.角氩。,同上。同上。)传票看到的。In the year 340, after the failure of the Eusebian malcontents to secure the appointment of an Arian candidate of dubious reputation names Pistus, the notorious Gregory of Cappadocia was forcibly intruded into the Alexandrian See, and Athanasius was obliged to go into hiding.在今年340后的Eusebian不满者未能获得一个可疑的声誉名Pistus阿里安候选人的任命,臭名昭著的格雷戈里的卡帕多西亚被强行闯入亚历山大看见,他那修不得不躲藏起来。 Within a very few weeks he set out for Rome to lay his case before the Church at large.在极少数星期,他订出的罗马奠定前的教堂大他的案件。He had made his appeal to Pope Julius, who took up his cause with a whole-heartedness that never wavered down to the day of that holy pontiff's death.他提出了他的上诉,教皇朱利叶斯,谁负责与全仁从未动摇了这个神圣的教皇的一天,他的死亡原因。The pope summoned a synod of bishops to meet in Rome.教宗召集主教会议,以满足在罗马举行。After a careful and detailed examination of the entire case, the primate's innocence was proclaimed to the Christian world.经过整个案件认真和详细的检查,灵长类动物的无辜被宣布为基督教世界。

Meanwhile the Eusebian party had met at Antioch and passed a series of decrees framed for the sole purpose of preventing the saint's return to his see.同时党的Eusebian会见了在安提阿和通过了为防止圣重返诬陷他看到一系列法令的唯一目的。Three years were passed at Rome, during which time the idea of the cenobitical life, as Athanasius had seen it practised in the deserts of Egypt, was preached to the clerics of the West (St. Jerome, Epistle cxxvii, 5).三年来,通过在罗马,在这段时间的cenobitical生活的想法,因为看见了他那修在埃及沙漠的实践,是对西方鼓吹的神职人员(圣杰罗姆,书信cxxvii,5)。 Two years after the Roman synod had published its decision, Athanasius was summoned to Milan by the Emperor Constans, who laid before him the plan which Constantius had formed for a great reunion of both the Eastern and Western Churches.两年后,罗马主教出版了决定,他那修被传唤到米兰的皇帝Constans,谁在他面前的君已奠定了一个双方的东部和西部教会大团圆形成的计划。 Now began a time of extraordinary activity for the Saint.现在开始为圣非凡的活动时间。Early in the year 343 we find the undaunted exile in Gaul, whither he had gone to consult the saintly Hosius, the great champion of orthodoxy in the West.在年初我们找到了343大无畏流亡在高卢,着他去征询圣洁侯休斯,在西方正统伟大的冠军。The two together set out for the Council of Sardica which had been summoned in deference to the Roman pontiff's wishes.两者规定了该委员会的萨尔迪卡已在尊重罗马教皇的愿望召唤。At this great gathering of prelates the case of Athanasius was taken up once more; and once more was his innocence reaffirmed.在这个伟大的搜集主教的情况下被带到了他那修一次,并再次重申了自己的清白。Two conciliar letters were prepared, one to the clergy and faithful of Alexandria, and the other to the bishops of Egypt and Libya, in which the will of the Council was made known.两个字母conciliar的准备,一到亚历山大神职人员和信徒,以及对埃及和利比亚,在该会理事会作出的其他已知的主教。 Meanwhile the Eusebian party had gone to Philippopolis, where they issued an anathema against Athanasius and his supporters.同时党的Eusebian Philippopolis去了,在那里他们发表对他那修和他的支持者的诅咒。 The persecution against the orthodox party broke out with renewed vigour, and Constantius was induced to prepare drastic measures against Athanasius and the priests who were devoted to him.反对正统党迫害爆发了新的活力,并诱导君准备采取严厉措施对付他那修和他谁是致力于祭司。Orders were given that if the Saint attempted to re-enter his see, he should be put to death.订单获得,如果圣试图重新进入他看,他应该被处死。Athanasius, accordingly, withdrew from Sardica to Naissus in Mysia, where he celebrated the Easter festival of the year 344.亚他那修,因此,退出萨尔迪卡到Naissus在每西亚,他在那里庆祝节日复活节344年。After that he set out for Aquileia in obedience to a friendly summons from Constans, to whom Italy had fallen in the division of the empire that followed on the death of Constantine.之后,他订出的阿奎服从从Constans,在友好的传票,其中意大利已经在对帝国君士坦丁去世后分裂下降。 Meanwhile an unexpected event had taken place which made the return of Athanasius to his see less difficult than it had seemed for many months.同时突发事件已经发生从而提出了他那修回他看到那么困难比它似乎很多个月。Gregory of Cappadocia had died (probably of violence) in June, 345.格雷戈里的卡帕多西亚已经死亡(可能的暴力)6月,345。 The embassy which had been sent by the bishops of Sardica to the Emperor Constantius, and which had at first met with the most insulting treatment, now received a favourable hearing.装置已被送往其萨尔迪卡的主教君皇帝,并曾在第一次用最侮辱的待遇会见了使馆,现在已经收到了良好的听力。Constantius was induced to reconsider his decision, owing to a threatening letter from his brother Constans and the uncertain condition of affairs of the Persian border, and he accordingly made up his mind to yield.君诱导重新考虑他的决定,因为从他的弟弟Constans恐吓信和边境事务的波斯不确定状态,他因此下定决心屈服。But three separate letters were needed to overcome the natural hesitation of Athanasius.但是,三个独立的信件需要克服自然的亚他那修犹豫。He passed rapidly from Aquileia to Treves, from Treves to Rome, and from Rome by the northern route to Adrianople and Antioch, where he met Constantius.他通过迅速从阿奎莱亚to特雷韦斯,从特雷韦斯到罗马,并从北线罗马阿德里安堡和安提,他在那里会见康斯坦丘斯。 He was accorded a gracious interview by the vacillating Emperor, and sent back to his see in triumph, where he began his memorable ten years' reign, which lasted down to the third exile, that of 356.他受到了热情的采访时优柔寡断皇帝,并送回他的胜利,在那里他开始了他难忘的十年'统治,这一直持续到第三流亡,看到356。 These were full years in the life of the Bishop; but the intrigues of the Eusebian, or Court, party were soon renewed.这些都是主教的生活满二年的;但的Eusebian,或法院的阴谋,党很快就延长。Pope Julius had died in the month of April, 352, and Liberius had succeeded him as Sovereign Pontiff.教皇朱利叶斯死于四,352个月,并已成功地利比里奥作为主权教宗他。For two years Liberius had been favourable to the cause of Athanasius; but driven at last into exile, he was induced to sign an ambiguous formula, from which the great Nicene test, the homoöusion, had been studiously omitted.两年来利比里奥已利于他那修的原因,但最后被迫流亡,他被诱导签署暧昧公式,从这些伟大的尼西亚试验,homoöusion,一直故意忽略。 In 355 a council was held at Milan, where in spite of the vigorous opposition of a handful of loyal prelates among the Western bishops, a fourth condemnation of Athanasius was announced to the world.在355一会在米兰举行,凡在一间西主教极力反对一小撮忠实的主教,尽管第四谴责了他那修是向全世界宣布。With his friends scattered, the saintly Hosius in exile, the Pope Liberius denounced as acquiescing in Arian formularies, Athanasius could hardly hope to escape.与他的朋友分散,在圣洁的侯休斯流亡政府表示,教宗利比里奥谴责默许在阿里安处方,希望他那修难以逃脱。On the night of 8 February, 356, while engaged in services in the Church of St. Thomas, a band of armed men burst in to secure his arrest (Apol. de Fuga, 24).在2月8日,356夜,而在圣托马斯教堂,乐队的武装人员闯入从事服务,以确保他的逮捕(Apol.德风雅,24)。It was the beginning of his third exile.这是他的第三次流亡的开始。Through the influence of the Eusebian faction at Constantinople, an Arian bishop, George of Cappadocia, was now appointed to rule the see of Alexandria.通过在君士坦丁堡,一个阿里安主教,乔治的卡帕多西亚,影响Eusebian派别现在委任统治见亚历山大。 Athanasius, after remaining some days in the neighbourhood of the city, finally withdrew into the deserts of upper Egypt, where he remained for a period of six years, living the life of the monks and devoting himself in his enforced leisure to the composition of that group of writings of which we have the rest in the "Apology to Constantius", the "Apology for his Flight", the "Letter to the Monks", and the "History of the Arians".亚他那修,后留在该城附近的一些天,终于撤回到上埃及,他在那里的六年期间仍是沙漠,生活的僧侣生活,在他的强迫休闲奉献自己的那组成集团的著作中,我们有在休息“道歉君”,“为他的飞行道歉”外,“信僧”的,和“的白羊座的历史”。 Legend has naturally been busy with this period of the Saint's career; and we may find in the "Life of Pachomius" a collection of tales brimful of incidents, and enlivened by the recital of "deathless 'scapes in the breach."传说,自然是与此圣人的事业忙碌中,而我们可能会发现在“生命的帕科谬斯”的故事发生满满的集合,由演奏会搞活“不死在违反花茎。” But by the close of the year 360 a change was apparent in the complexion of the anti-Nicene party.但是到了近360年的变化是在反尼西亚党的肤色明显。The Arians no longer presented an unbroken front to their orthodox opponents.该白羊座不再向他们提出了一个完整正统的对手面前。The Emperor Constantius, who had been the cause of so much trouble, died 4 November, 361, and was succeeded by Julian.君皇帝,谁一直是这么多麻烦的原因,11月4日死亡,361,是由朱利安成功。The proclamation of the new prince's accession was the signal for a pagan outbreak against the still dominant Arian faction in Alexandria.新王子加入宣言是为一对仍然占主导地位的派系阿里安在亚历山德里亚异教徒爆发的信号。 George, the usurping Bishop, was flung into prison and murdered amid circumstances of great cruelty, 24 December (Hist. Aceph., VI).乔治,篡夺了主教,猛地被关进监狱和中大残忍杀害,12月24日(Hist. Aceph。,六)。An obscure presbyter of the name of Pistus was immediately chosen by the Arians to succeed him, when fresh news arrived that filled the orthodox party with hope.一种模糊的Pistus名长老立即选择了白羊座接替他,当新的消息到来,填补了希望的正统党。An edict had been put forth by Julian (Hist. Aceph., VIII) permitting the exiled bishops of the "Galileans" to return to their "towns and provinces".已提出一项法令规定由朱利安(Hist. Aceph。,八)允许的“加利利”的流亡主教回到自己的“城镇和省份。”Athanasius received a summons from his own flock, and he accordingly re-entered his episcopal capital 22 February, 362.亚他那修收到了他自己的羊群传票,他因此再次进入他的主教资本2月22日,362。With characteristic energy he set to work to re-establish the somewhat shattered fortunes of the orthodox party and to purge the theological atmosphere of uncertainty.随着能源的特点,他着手重新建立党的正统有点破灭的命运,并清除不确定性神学的气氛。To clear up the misunderstandings that had arisen in the course of the previous years, an attempt was made to determine still further the significance of the Nicene formularies.要清除了,民政事务总署在过去几年中出现的误解,有人企图以确定进一步的尼西亚处方的意义。In the meanwhile, Julian, who seems to have become suddenly jealous of the influence that Athanasius was exercising at Alexandria, addressed an order to Ecdicius, the Prefect of Egypt, peremptorily commanding the expulsion of the restored primate, on the ground that he had never been included in the imperial act of clemency.在此同时,朱利安,谁似乎突然变得对他那修的影响,则是在亚历山德里亚行使嫉妒,解决在当地,他从来没有就Ecdicius,埃及省长,一股脑儿地指挥了恢复的灵长类动物驱逐,秩序被列入英国法令的宽大处理。 The edict was communicated to the bishop by Pythicodorus Trico, who, though described in the "Chronicon Athanasianum" (xxxv) as a "philosopher", seems to have behaved with brutal insolence.该法令是传达给了Pythicodorus特里科,谁,但描述的“Chronicon Athanasianum”为“哲学家”(三十五),似乎与野蛮的傲慢表现主教。On 23 October the people gathered about the proscribed bishop to protest against the emperor's decree; but the saint urged them to submit, consoling them with the promise that his absence would be of short duration. 10月23日收集到的有关的人被禁止的主教,以抗议国王的法令,但圣敦促它们提交,安慰并许诺,他的缺席将是短期的他们。The prophecy was curiously fulfilled.预言是好奇地履行。Julian terminated his brief career 26 June, 363; and Athanasius returned in secret to Alexandria, where he soon received a document from the new emperor, Jovian, reinstating him once more in his episcopal functions.朱利安终止他短暂的职业生涯6月26日,363;和亚他那修返回秘密亚历山大,在那里他很快得到了新皇帝的文件,木星,恢复他再一次在他的主教职能。 His first act was to convene a council which reaffirmed the terms of the Nicene Creed.他的第一个行动是召开一次理事会,重申了尼西亚信条的条款。Early in September he set out for Antioch, bearing a synodal letter, in which the pronouncements of this council had been embodied.9月初,他订出的安提阿,轴承主教会议的信中,本会的声明已体现。At Antioch he had an interview with the new emperor, who received him graciously and even asked him to prepare an exposition of the orthodox faith.在安提阿,他有一个与新皇帝,谁接待他的优雅,甚至问他准备一个正统的信仰博览会的采访。But in the following February Jovian died; and in October, 364, Athanasius was once more an exile.但是,死在次年二月木星,并在十月份,364,他那修再次被流放。

With the turn of circumstances that handed over to Valens the control of the East this article has nothing to do; but the accession of the emperor gave a fresh lease of life to the Arian party.随着情况反过来交给瓦伦斯东这篇文章的控制无关,但皇帝的生活加入了新鲜的租赁阿里安党。 He issued a decree banishing the bishops who has been deposed by Constantius, but who had been permitted by Jovian to return to their sees.他颁布了一项法令驱逐被废黜的谁由君,但谁已被木星获准返回自己看到的主教。The news created the greatest consternation in the city of Alexandria itself, and the prefect, in order to prevent a serious outbreak, gave public assurance that the very special case of Athanasius would be laid before the emperor.创造了这个消息在亚历山大市本身最大的惊愕,和知府,以防止严重的疫情,保证了公众的非常特殊的情况下他那修之前将皇帝身上。 But the saint seems to have divined what was preparing in secret against him.但是,圣似乎已经了解到什么是对他秘密准备。 He quietly withdrew from Alexandria, 5 October, and took up his abode in a country house outside the city.他悄悄地退出了亚历山大,10月5日,并于城外的乡间别墅住处。It was during this period that he is said to have spent four months in hiding in his father's tomb (Soz., "Hist. Eccl.", VI, xii; Doc., "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xii).正是在这个时候,据说他已经花了他父亲的墓藏四个月期间(Soz.,“历史传道书。。”,六,十二;。医生,“历史传道书。。”,四,十二)。 Valens, who seems to have sincerely dreaded the possible consequences of a popular outbreak, gave order within a very few weeks for the return of Athanasius to his see.瓦伦斯,谁似乎有一种流行的真诚可怕的爆发可能产生的后果,给了极少数的几个星期内就恢复了他那修他看到秩序。And now began that last period of comparative repose which unexpectedly terminated his strenuous and extraordinary career.现在开始是比较静止的最后期限内意外终止他的艰辛和非凡的职业生涯。He spent his remaining days, characteristically enough, in re-emphasizing the view of the Incarnation which had been defined at Nicaea and which has been substantially the faith of the Christian Church from its earliest pronouncement in Scripture down to its last utterance through the lips of Pius X in our own times.他花了重新强调了已被定义在尼西亚并查看他的化身,特点不够,剩下的日子已经从最早的大幅下降到圣经最后的声音宣告通过嘴唇的基督教教会的信仰比约X在我们自己的时代。 "Let what was confessed by the Fathers of Nicaea prevail", he wrote to a philosopher-friend and correspondent in the closing years of his life (Epist. lxxi, ad Max.). “让什么是由尼西亚的父亲承认占上风”,他写信给一位哲学家朋友,在他生命的最后几年代理行(Epist. lxxi,广告最多。)。That that confession did at last prevail in the various Trinitarian formularies that followed upon that of Nicaea was due, humanly speaking, more to his laborious witness than to that of any other champion in the long teachers' roll of Catholicism.这是最后获胜供认并在随后的各种后认为是由于尼西亚,力所能及讲三位一体的处方,更要看到他的辛苦比任何在'长教师天主教辊其他冠军的。 By one of those inexplicable ironies that meet us everywhere in human history, this man, who had endured exile so often, and risked life itself in defence of what he believed to be the first and most essential truth of the Catholic creed, died not by violence or in hiding, but peacefully in his own bed, surrounded by his clergy and mourned by the faithful of the see he had served so well.通过对那些满足我们无处不在人类历史上一个令人费解的讽刺,这名男子,谁曾流亡忍受如此频繁,冒着生命危险是什么,他认为是天主教教义的第一和最重要的真理辩护生活本身,不是死暴力或躲起来,但和平在自己的床上,他的神职人员包围和哀悼的忠实看到他曾担任这么好。 His feast in the Roman Calendar is kept on the anniversary of his death.他在罗马日历盛宴,是保持对他的逝世纪念日。

[Note on his depiction in art: No accepted emblem has been assigned to him in the history of western art; and his career, in spite of its picturesque diversity and extraordinary wealth of detail, seems to have furnished little, if any, material for distinctive illustration. [注意他的描写在艺术:没有公认的标志已被分配在西方的艺术史,他和他的职业生涯中,尽管风景如画的多样性和细节非常丰富,似乎已经提供的很少,如果有的话,材料独特的例子。 Mrs. Jameson tells us that according to the Greek formula, "he ought to be represented old, bald-headed, and with a long white beard" (Sacred and Legendary Art, I, 339).]詹姆森夫人告诉我们,根据希腊的公式,“他应该是代表老,秃头,和一个长长的白胡子”(神圣和传奇的艺术,我,339)。]

Publication information Written by Cornelius Clifford.出版信息撰稿科尼利厄斯克利福。Transcribed by David Joyce.转录由大卫乔伊斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

All the essential materials for the Saint's biography are to be found in his writings, especially in those written after the year 350, when the Apologia contra Arianos was composed.所有的圣人的传记基本材料是被发现在他的著作,特别是在350年后,当纵容禁忌Arianos组成编写的。Supplementary information will be found in ST.补充资料会被发现,在ST。EPIPHANIUS, Hoer., loc.埃皮法尼乌斯,Hoer。,同上。cit.; in ST.同前。在ST。GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS, Orat., xxi; also RUFINUS, SOCRATES, SOZMEN, and THEODORET. 。格雷戈里的nazianzus,由于以下原因造成,二十一,也RUFINUS,苏格拉底,SOZMEN和THEODORET。The Historia Acephala, or Maffeian Fragment (discovered by Maffei in 1738, and inserted by GALLANDI in Bibliotheca Patrum, 1769), and the Chronicon Athanasianum, or Index to the Festal Letters, give us data for the chronological problem.该史记羽衣,或Maffeian片段(马菲在1738年发现的,由GALLANDI插入书目Patrum,1769年),以及Chronicon Athanasianum,或指数的节日信函,使我们对问题数据的时间顺序。All the foregoing sources are included in MIGNE, PG and PL The great PAPEBROCH'S Life is in the Acta SS., May, I. The most important authorities in English are: NEWMAN, Arians of the Fourth Century, and Saint Athanasius; BRIGHT, Dictionary of Christian Biography; ROBERTSON, Life, in the Prolegomena to the Select Writings and Letters of Saint Athanasius (re-edited in Library of the Nicene and post-Nicene Fathers, New York, 1903); GWATKIN, Studies of Arianism (2d ed., Cambridge, 1900); MOHLER, Athanasius der Grosse; HERGENROTHER and HEFELE. 。以上所有的代码在米涅,PG和特等伟大PAPEBROCH的生活在学报的SS包括在内,日,一,在英语中最重要的部门是:纽曼,白羊座的第四个世纪,圣亚他那修,明亮,词典基督教传记;罗伯逊,生活,在绪论的选择创作与圣亚他那修(重新编辑在图书馆的尼西亚和后尼西亚的父亲,纽约,1903年)信件; GWATKIN,对阿里乌主义研究(2版。 ,剑桥,1900年);莫赫勒,他那修明镜格洛斯; HERGENROTHER和黑弗勒。



Also, see:此外,见:
Athanasian Creed阿他那修信经信条


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