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Atheism, from the Greek a ("without") and theos ("deity"), commonly and loosely refers to the theoretical or practical denial of the existence of a deity.无神论,从希腊的(“无”)和theos(“神”),通常和松散是指神的存在的一个理论或实际剥夺。The concrete meaning of atheism has varied considerably in history: even the earliest Christians were labeled "atheists" because they denied the existence of the Roman deities.无神论的具体含义在历史上有很大差异:即使是最早的基督徒被称为“无神论者”,因为他们否认罗马神的存在。In Western culture, where monotheism has been the dominant mode of religious belief, atheism has generally referred to the denial of the existence of a transcendent, perfect, personal creator of the universe.在西方文化中,一直是一神教信仰宗教的主要模式,无神论已普遍提到的一个超越,完美,个人创造的宇宙存在的否认。 To be an atheist need not mean that one is nonreligious, for there are "high" religions, such as Buddhism and Taoism, that do not postulate the existence of a supernatural being. Atheism should be distinguished from Agnosticism, which means that one does not know whether or not a deity exists.要成为一个无神论者不一定意味着,一个是不信教,因为有“高”的宗教,如佛教和道教,不假设存在的一个神仙。Atheism应区别于不可知论,这意味着他不不知道神是否存在。

Monotheism has been so basic to and compounded with Western moral and philosophical beliefs as well as political institutions that until recently atheism has been widely believed to be both immoral and dangerous to society.一神教已如此基本和与西方的道德和哲学信仰,以及直到最近无神论已被广泛认为是不道德的和危险的两个社会的政治体制更为复杂。 Plato not only viewed atheism as irrational but argued that certain atheists deserved the death penalty.柏拉图不仅被视为不合理的无神论,但认为某些无神论者当之无愧死刑。When Christianity finally became the dominant religion in the West, atheism and heresy were thought to be worthy of exile or death because, as Thomas Aquinas argued, it was a much more serious matter to corrupt the soul than to damage the body.当基督教终于成为在西方,无神论和异端宗教的优势被认为是流放或死亡,因为值得,因为托马斯阿奎那认为,它是一个更严重的腐败问题的灵魂,而不是损害身体。 Atheism was also dangerous to the political authority of Western monarchies that claimed to rest upon divine right.无神论也是危险的休息后,声称西方君主神权政治权威。

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Even during the Enlightenment when the divine right of kings was challenged and religious toleration defended, John Locke, a staunch advocate of toleration, denied free speech to atheists on the grounds that they undermined and destroyed religion.即使是在启蒙运动时,君权神授权受到质疑和宗教宽容辩护,洛克,一个宽容的坚定倡导者,否认关于它们破坏和摧毁宗教的自由发言,无神论者。 It was not until 1869 that atheists were permitted to give evidence in an English court of law, largely as a result of the efforts of Charles Bradlaugh, who for a long time had not been permitted to take his seat in the House of Commons because of his beliefs.直到1869年that无神论者被允许提供的法律英语在法庭作证,这主要是因为查尔斯Bradlaugh,谁很长一段时间没有被允许参加,因为他的座位下议院努力的结果他的信仰。

The believability of atheism seems directly proportionate to the growth of the sciences and the emergence of humanism since the Renaissance. In the 19th century the biological sciences seemed to make theological explanations of the origins of the universe and of the emergence of humankind unnecessary. 在无神论的可信度似乎成正比增长,在科学和文艺复兴以来的人文主义的出现。在19世纪的生物科学似乎使人类的出现不必要的神学解释了宇宙的起源和。 Particularly important were the writings of David Hume and Immanuel Kant, which established that attempts to prove the existence of God from the world order were invalid.尤其重要的是大卫休谟和康德,其中规定,试图证明从世界秩序的上帝存在的著作是无效的。In the mid 19th century, explicitly atheistic and humanistic systems of philosophy appeared.在十九世纪中叶,哲学无神论与人文系统明确出现。Ludwig Feuerbach, Karl Marx, Arthur Schopenhauer, and Friedrich Nietzsche were not only atheists but also militant critics of religion generally and of Christianity particularly.路德维希费尔巴哈,马克思,叔本华,尼采和不仅是无神论者,而且一般的宗教激进的批评者和基督教尤其如此。 In the 20th century there have been influential atheistic thinkers who were Marxists, existentialists, Freudians, and logical positivists, although one may be any of these and not necessarily also an atheist.在20世纪出现了谁是有影响的马克思主义者,存在主义,弗洛伊德学派和逻辑实证主义无神论的思想家,尽管可能是任何这些,未必也是一个无神论者。

Modern philosophical atheism is based on both theoretical and practical reasons.现代哲学无神论是基于理论和实际的原因。Theoretically, atheists argue either that there are no good arguments for believing in the existence of a personal deity, whether this deity be conceived of anthropomorphically or metaphysically, or that the statement God exists is incoherent or meaningless.从理论上说,无神论者认为,要么没有很好的理由在一个个人相信神的存在,这是否神设想的anthropomorphically或形而上学的,或者说,上帝的存在是不连贯的语句或无意义的。 The last type of logical criticism of theism is characteristic of logical positivism and analytic and linguistic philosophy.对有神论的批判逻辑最后一种是逻辑实证主义和分析哲学和语言特点。Practically, some atheists have argued, as did Nietzsche, that belief in a supernatural and supreme being requires a devaluation of this life; or, as Freud did, that the belief is an expression of infantile helplessness.实际上,一些无神论者认为,尼采一样,在一个超自然的和至高无上的需要这样的生活贬值信仰,或者像弗洛伊德那样,认为信仰是一种幼稚的无能表现。

Van A Harvey凡甲哈维

Bibliography: 参考书目:
D Berman, A History of Atheism in Britain (1987); MJ Buckley, At the Origins of Modern Atheism (1987); L Feuerbach, The Essence of Christianity (1957); A Flew, God and Philosophy (1966); S Freud, The Future of an Illusion (1964); F Nietzsche, The Gay Science (1974); J Turner, Without God, Without Creed: the Origins of Unbelief in America (1986). ð伯曼,一个在英国无神论(1987年)的历史;兆焦耳巴克利,在现代无神论(1987年)起源的L费尔巴哈,基督教的本质(1957年);一个飞越,上帝与哲学(1966年)中,S弗洛伊德,一个幻觉(1964)未来,女尼采,快乐的科学(1974); J特纳,如果没有上帝,没有信条:在美国,不信的起源(1986年)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The Greek word atheos, "without God," is found only once in the NT (Eph. 2:12).希腊字atheos,“没有神”,是发现,只有一次在新台币(以弗所书2:12)。There it is used in the plural form to designate the condition of being without the true God.在那里,它是用复数形式向指定的不信真神被条件。It refers to the deepest state of heathen misery (cf. Rom. 1:28).它指的是异教徒的苦难(见光盘。1:28)最深的国家。It is not found in either the LXX or the Apocrypha.这是没有发现任何的LXX或伪经。Both the OT and NT begin with or assume the reality of God, not as some speculative premise, but as universally manifest in nature, man's reason and conscience, and divine revelation.无论是城市旅游局及新台币开始或承担现实的上帝并不像一些投机性的前提,但是,作为普遍的性质,人的理性和良知,和神圣的启示体现。 The normal human state includes the knowledge of God; atheism is thus viewed as abnormal.人体正常状态包括知识的上帝;无神论因此不正常观看。Hebrew has no equivalent word for atheism.希伯来文并没有为无神论等词。In the OT the form of atheism that one encounters is practical atheism, human conduct that is carried out without consideration of God (Pss. 10:4; 14;1; 53:1; cf. Isa. 31:1; Jer. 2:13, 17 - 18; 5:12; 18:13 - 15).在加时赛无神论的形式,一遇到实用无神论,人的行为是没有上帝进行审议(Pss.十点04出,14,1,53:1。比照赛31:1。。耶2 :13,17 - 18; 5:12; 18:13 - 15)。

The Greeks used "atheism" in three senses: (1) impious or godless; (2) without supernatural help; (3) not believing in any god or the Greek conception of god.希腊人用三个意识“无神论”:(1)不虔诚或不信神的;(二)未经超自然的帮助;(三)不得以任何上帝或神的希腊概念相信。 Because Christians denied the popular gods of the day, they were often accused of atheism by the pagans.因为基督徒否认了当天的流行的神,他们经常被指责无神论的异教徒。Protestants at times have been called atheists because of their refusal to deify Mary and to worship saints.有时被称为新教徒因为他们拒绝神化崇拜圣徒玛丽和无神论者。More and more in speculative circles the term came to mean a denial of God or the negation of the spiritual idea.越来越多的投机界一词来指上帝的拒绝或否定的精神理念。

Just as the first century introduced a devotion to theism unique in its scope and depth, so the twentieth century has produced a somewhat parallel commitment to atheism.正如第一世纪推出了献身有神论在其独特的广度和深度,因此,二十世纪产生了无神论有点平行的承诺。This century has seen the development of communism with its devotion to atheism, as well as the establishment in 1925 of the American Association for the Advancement of Atheism.本世纪已经出现了共产主义的无神论与奉献,以及在为美国的无神论学会1925年成立的先进性的发展。The latter organization was formed to attack all religions through the distribution of atheistic literature.后者组织成立攻击通过无神论的文献分布所有宗教。In 1929 its successor was formed, the League of Militant Atheists, with goals of the undermining of the religious foundations of Western society, the establishment of centers for atheistic lectures, the placement of atheistic professors, and the sponsorship of lectureships. 1929年,其前身是成立后,好战的无神论者联盟,与西方社会的宗教基础,对无神论的讲座,无神论的教授介绍中心建立破坏的目标,以及讲师的赞助。 By 1932 this organization claimed a membership of five and a half million.到1932年这个组织的成员声称有五个半万美元。

Twentieth century atheism may be contrasted with older forms in two ways.二十世纪的无神论,可对比与旧形式有两种方式。(1) Today atheism is claimed to be the logical consequence of a rational system that accounts for all human experience without the need to appeal to God. (1)今天,无神论是声称自己是一个合理的制度,对所有人类的经验,而不需要帐户,呼吁上帝的必然结果。Communism is such an organized and integrated system.共产主义是这样一种组织和集成系统。At its heart is a materialistic view of history and the complete secularization of life.在它的核心是唯物主义历史观和生活完全世俗化。(2) Earlier atheists were thought to be vulgar and depraved.(2)早些时候无神论者被认为是庸俗和堕落。Today many serve on the faculties of the most prestigious universities, and more often than not the theist seems to be the obscurantist.今天,许多服务上最负盛名的大学的教学人员,往往不是有神论者似乎是蒙昧主义。

Thus, in modern usage four senses of "atheism" may be identified: (1) Classical atheism.因此,在现代用法四种“无神论”的感觉,可确定:(1)古典无神论。This is not a general denial of God's existence but the rejection of the god of a particular nation.这不是神的存在否定,但一般的特定国家的上帝的拒绝。Christians were repeatedly called atheists in this sense because they refused to acknowledge heathen gods.基督徒被一再呼吁无神论者在这个意义上说,因为他们拒绝承认异教徒神。It was also in this sense that Cicero called Socrates and Diagoras of Athens atheists.正是在这个意义上还西塞罗所谓苏格拉底和Diagoras雅典无神论者。(2) Philosophical atheism. (2)哲学无神论。This position may be contrasted with theism, which affirms a personal, self conscious deity (not a principle, first cause, or force).这一立场可能会对比与有神论,这肯定是个人,自我意识的神(不是原则,第一个原因,或力)。(3) Dogmatic atheism. (3)教条式的无神论。This is the absolute denial of God's existence.这是上帝的存在绝对的否定。This position is more rare than one might think, as people have more often declared themselves agnostics or secularists.这一立场是较罕见的比人们可能认为,人们有更多的往往宣称自己不可知论者或世俗。There have, however, been those who claimed to hold this view (the eighteenth century French atheists).有,但是,谁是那些自称持这种观点(十八世纪法国无神论者)。(4) Practical atheism. (4)实用无神论。While God is not denied, life is lived as if there is no God.而上帝是不否认,生活是生活,好像有没有神。 There is complete indifference to his claims, and often there is outspoken and defiant wickedness (Ps. 14:1).有完整的漠不关心,他的说法,而且往往有坦率和挑衅邪恶(诗篇14:1)。This form of atheism is widely prevalent, as can be seen from the Scriptures cited above.这种无神论的形式广泛流行,可以看出,从经文列举以上。

Numerous arguments for atheism have been given.无神论已获得许多论点。Some of the more important are: (1) The onus of proof is on the theist, since atheism is prima facie a more reasonable position.比较重要的有:(1)举证责任是在有神论者,因为无神论是表面较为合理的位置。(2) Closely related is the belief that theistic proofs are inadequate.(2)密切相关的是相信有神论的证据不足。(3) Theism is harmful to society, as it leads to intolerance and persecution.(3)有神论是有害于社会,因为它会导致不宽容和迫害。 (4) With the advances in modern science there is no need for God as an explanatory hypothesis. (4)随着现代科学的进步是没有上帝作为一个解释性假说的需要。The supernatural is unneeded.超自然是不必要的。(5) Belief in God is psychologically explainable.(5)在上帝的信仰是心理上解释。(6) The logical positivists argue that theism is neither true nor false because it is unverifiable (eg, nothing counts for or against it) by public sense experience. (6)逻辑实证主义认为,有神论,是既不真也不假,因为它是无法证实的公共意义的经验(例如,支持或反对这事计数)。(7) Classical theism is logically contradictory or incoherent.(7)古典有神论在逻辑上是矛盾或不一致。

For instance, it has been claimed that the notion of necessary existence is incoherent and that the existence of an omnipotent, perfectly good God is inconsistent with the presence of evil in the world.例如,它一直声称必要存在的概念是不连贯,而且一个万能的,完美的神的存在是与邪恶的世界的存在不一致。Finally, objections have been raised to atheism in its theoretical form: (1) It is against reason.最后,有人提出反对意见无神论在理论形式:(1)反对的理由是。The existence of something rather than nothing requires God.的东西,而不是没有生存需要的神。(2) It is contrary to human experience, where some knowledge of God, no matter how suppressed and distorted, has universally existed.(2)这是违背人类的经验,一些知识的上帝,无论怎样压抑,扭曲的问题,有普遍的存在。 (3) Atheism cannot account for design, order, and regularity in the universe.(3)无法解释无神论设计,秩序和宇宙中的规律。 (4) It cannot explain the existence of man and mind.(4)它不能解释人与心灵的存在。

PD Feinberg帕金森病范伯格
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
E Borne, Atheism; A Flew, God and Philosophy and The Presumption of Atheism; J Lacroix, Meaning of Modern Atheism; A MacIntyre and P Ricoeur, Religious Significance of Atheism; I Lepp, Atheism in Our Time; C Fabro, God in Exile. é承担,无神论,一个飞越,上帝与哲学和无神论的推定; Ĵ拉克鲁瓦,现代无神论的意义,一个麦金太尔和P吕格尔,无神论的宗教意义,我Lepp,在我们的时代无神论; ç Fabro的,流亡神。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

(a privative, and theos, God, ie without God).(一privati​​ve和theos,上帝,没有上帝即)。

Atheism is that system of thought which is formally opposed to theism.无神论是系统的思想正式反对有神论。Since its first coming into use the term atheism has been very vaguely employed, generally as an epithet of accusation against any system that called in question the popular gods of the day.自第一次投入使用的术语无神论来一直很含糊地雇用,一般作为指控系统,在对任何质疑当天的流行的神称号。Thus while Socrates was accused of atheism (Plato, Apol., 26,c.) and Diagoras called an atheist by Cicero (Nat. Deor., I, 23), Democritus and Epicurus were styled in the same sense impious (without respect for the gods) on account of their trend of their new atomistic philosophy.因此,虽然苏格拉底被控无神论(柏拉图,亚太线上。,26角)和Diagoras西塞罗称为无神论者(Nat. Deor。,我23),德谟克利特和伊壁鸠鲁的风格在同样的意义不虔诚(不尊重对他们自己的新原子论的哲学走向帐户神)。In this sense too, the early Christians were known to the pagans as atheists, because they denied the heathen gods; while, from time to time, various religious and philisophical systems have, for similar reasons, been deemed atheistic.在太多,早期基督徒被称为异教徒作为无神论者,因为他们否认异教徒神这个意义上,同时,不时地,不同的宗教和哲学体系有类似的原因,被认为是无神论的。

Though atheism, historically considered, has meant no more in the past critical or sceptical denial of the theology of those who have employed the term as one of reproach, and has consquently no one strict philisophical meaning; though there is no one consistent system in the exposition of which it has a definite place; yet, if we consider it in its broad meaning as merely the opposite of theism, we will be able to frame such divisions as will make possible a grouping of definite systems under this head. Though无神论,历史上考虑,也意味着没有在过去的关键或持怀疑态度的人谁也获聘为责备一的术语,并已consquently的no一严格的哲学意义更否定神学,虽然没有一个一致的系统中博览会,其中它有一个明确的地方,然而,如果我们考虑在其广泛的含义,仅仅是有神论相反的话,我们将能够帧等部门的负责人将可能根据本系统的明确的分组。 And in so doing so we shall at once be adopting both the historical and the philosophical view.并在这样做,所以我们应立即要通过双方的历史和哲学观点。For the common basis of all systems of theism as well as the cardinal tenet of all popular religion at the present day is indubitably a belief in the existence of a personal God, and to deny this tenet is to invite the popular reproach of atheism.为所有的有神论系统,以及所有在现今流行的宗教枢机宗旨无疑是一个共同的基础,在个人的上帝存在的信仰,并否认这一宗旨是邀请流行无神论的责备。 The need of some such definition as this was felt by Mr. Gladstone when he wrote (Contemporary Review, June 1876):一些像这样的定义的必要性是感受到格拉德斯通先生时,他写道(当代审查,1876年6月):

By the Atheist I understand the man who not only holds off, like the sceptic, from the affirmative, but who drives himself, or is driven, to the negative assertion in regard to the whole unseen, or to the existence of God.由无神论者我了解这个人不仅拥有过谁,像怀疑论者,从肯定的,但谁驱动自己,或者被驱赶,在考虑到整个看不见的,或上帝的存在的负面说法。

Moreover, the breadth of comprehension in such a use of the term admits of divisions and cross-divisions being framed under it; and at the same time limits the number of systems of thought to which, with any propriety, it might otherwise be extended.此外,在这样一个使用这个词的理解广度承认师,跨部门正在根据该框架,并在同一时间限制到其中的思想,与任何礼,否则可能会延长系统的数量。 Also, if the term is thus taken, in strict contradistinction to theism, and a plan of its possible modes of acceptance made, these systems of thought will naturally appear in clearer proportion and relationship.此外,如果因此长期采取​​严格对比有神论,以及对接受其可能的方式作出计划,这些系统的思想,自然会出现在更明确的比例和关系。

Thus, defined as a doctrine, or theory, or philosophy formally opposed to theism, atheism can only signify the teaching of those schools, whether cosmological or moral, which do not include God either as a principle or as a conclusion of their reasoning.因此,作为一种学说,或理论,或正式反对有神论的哲学定义,无神论只能意味着这些学校的教学,无论是宇宙或道德的,其中不包括神无论是作为一个原则,还是作为其推理的结论。

The most trenchant form which atheism could take would be the positive and dogmatic denial existence of any spiritual and extra-mundane First Cause.最犀利的形式无神论可以采取将是任何精神和超世俗的第一个原因,积极的和教条式的拒绝存在。This is sometimes known as dogmatic, or positive theoretic, atheism; though it may be doubted whether such a system has ever been, or could ever possibly be seriously maintained.这有时也被称为教条式的,积极的理论,无神论,虽然它可能会怀疑这种​​系统是否有过或可能永远可能受到严重保留。 Certainly Bacon and Dr. Arnold voice the common judgment of thinking men when they express a doubt as to the existence of an atheist belonging to such a school.当然培根和阿诺德博士的声音时,男人的思维,以表达他们对一个属于这样一所学校的存在无疑无神论者共同的判断。Still, there are certain advanced phases of materialistic philosophy that, perhaps, should rightly be included under this head.尽管如此,仍有一些先进的唯物主义哲学,或许,理应根据这个总目包括阶段。Materialism, which professes to find in matter its own cause and explanation, may go farther, and positively exclude the existence of any spiritual cause.唯物主义,它自称找到了自己的事业和物质的解释,可能会走得更远,积极排除存在任何精神的事业。That such a dogmatic assertion is both unreasonable and illogical needs no demonstration, for it is an inference not warranted by the facts nor justified by the laws of thought.这种教条式的说法既不合理和不合逻辑的,无须论证,因为它是一种推理,没有必要的事实,也没有通过思想的法律理由。 But the fact that certain individuals have left the sphere of exact scientific observation for speculation, and have thus dogmatized negatively, calls for their inclusion in this specific type.但是,某些人已经离开了准确的科学观测领域的投机活动,并就此教条是否定的,实际上要求他们在此特定类型包括在内。Materialism is the one dogmatic explanation of the universe which could in any sense justify an atheistic position.唯物史观是一个宇宙可能在任何意义上证明一个无神论的立场教条式的解释。But even materialism, however its advocated might dogmatize, could do no more than provide an inadequate theoretic basis for a negative form of atheism.但即使是唯物论,但其主张可能独断,可以做不超过提供一个不足一无神论否定形式的理论依据。Pantheism, which must not be confused with materialism, in some of its forms can be placed also in this division, as categorically denying the existence of a spiritual First Cause above or outside the world.泛神论,它绝不能混淆唯物主义,在它的一些形式也可放置在该师作为断然否认以上或以外,世界上存在着一种精神的第一原因。

A second form in which atheism may be held and taught, as indeed it has been, is based either upon the lack of physical data for theism or upon the limited nature of the intelligence of man.第二种形式,无神论可能被追究和教导,事实上它一直以来,无论是基于物理数据后,缺乏对有神论或根据对人类智力的有限性。 This second form may be described as a negative theoretic atheism; and may be furthur viewed as cosmological or psychological, according as it is motived, on the one hand, by a consideration of the paucity of actual data available for the arguments proving the existence of a super-sensible and spiritual God, or, what amounts to the same thing, the attributing of all cosmic change and development to the self-contained potentialities of an eternal matter; or, on the other hand, by an empiric or theoretic estimate of the powers of reason working upon the data furnished by sense-perception.这第二种形式可以被描述为一种消极的理论无神论,并可能被视为宇宙或心理效果furthur,根据它是motived,一方面,由数据缺乏的实际代价为证明存在可用的参数一个超级理智和精神神,或者数额是多少,同样的事情,一切归于宇宙的变化和发展问题的一个永恒的自我包含的潜力,或者,在另一方面,由经验或理论估计理性的权力的工作经感知觉提供的数据。 From whichever cause this negative form of atheism proceeds, it issues in agnosticism or materialism; although the agnostic is, perhaps, better classed under this head than the materialist.从哪个造成这种无神论否定形式的收益,它发出的不可知论或唯物主义,虽然不可知论者,也许,这下好头比唯物主义者归类。 For the former, professing a state of nescience, more properly belongs to a category under which those are placed who neglect, rather than explain, nature without a God.对于前者,自称是nescience状态,属于一个更恰当的放置下,谁忽视,而不是解释范畴,没有上帝的性质。Moreover, the agnostic may be a theist, if he admits the existence of a being behind and beyond nature, even while he asserts that such a being is both unprovable and unknowable.此外,不可知论者可能是一个有神论者,如果他承认了一个玄妙的性质而存在,尽管他声称,这样一个存在既不可证明和不可知。 The materialist belongs to this type so long as he merely neglects, and does not exclude from his system, the existence of God.唯物主义属于这一类型,只要他只是忽略,不排除他的系统,神的存在。So, too, does the positivist, regarding theological and metaphysical speculation as mere passing stages of thought through which the human mind has been journeying towards positive, or related empirical, knowledge.所以,也没有实证主义,认为这仅仅是通过思想神学和形而上学的猜测阶段,通过这些人的心中一直采取积极的,或相关经验,知识痴痴。 Indeed, any system of thought or school of philosophy that simply omits the existence of God from the sum total of natural knowledge, whether the individual as a matter of fact believes in Him or not, can be classed in this division of atheism, in which, strictly speaking, no positive assertion or denial is made as to the ultimate fact of His being.事实上,任何思想或理念,简单地忽略了从自然知识的总和上帝存在的学校系统,无论是作为个人,其实在他或不相信,可以被归类在这个师的无神论,其中严格来说,没有任何积极的断言或拒绝作出以他的存在最终的事实。 There are two systems of practical or moral atheism which call for attention.有两种实际或道义上的无神论系统,需要注意的呼吁。 They are based upon the theoretic systems just expounded.他们所依据的只是阐述了理论体系。One system of positive moral atheism, in which human actions would neither be right nor wrong, good nor evil, with reference to God, would naturally follow from the profession of positive theoretic atheism; and it is significant of those to whom such a form of theoretic atheism is sometimes attributed, that for the sanctions of moral actions they introduce such abstract ideas as those of duty, the social instinct, or humanity.一个系统中正确的道德无神论,在这种人的行动既不是对也不错,不好不坏的,提及上帝,自然会按照从积极的理论无神论专业;,它是那些可以参加这一重要形式有时是由于无神论的理论,即对道德行为的制裁,他们引进的责任,社会的本能,或人类这些抽象的观念。 There seems to be no particular reason why they should have recourse to such sanctions, since the morality of an action can hardly be derived from its performance as a duty, which in turn can be called and known as a "duty" only because it refers to an action that is morally good.人们似乎没有特别的原因,他们应该有这种诉诸制裁,因为道德的行动很难从它的性能,一种责任,这反过来又可以作为一个被称为“义务”之称,只是因为它是指衍生一项行动在道德上是好的。 Indeed an analysis of the idea of duty leads to a refutation of the principle in whose support it is invoked, and points to the necessity of a theisitic interpretation of nature for its own justification.的确是执行任务的想法分析导致了原则上的支持,它被调用,并指出反驳到大自然为自己辩护theisitic解释的必要性。

The second system of negative practical or moral atheism may be referred to the second type of theoretic atheism.负实际或道义上的无神论第二个系统可能被转介到第二种类型的理论无神论。It is like the first in not relating human actions to an extra-mundane, spiritual, and personal lawgiver; but that, not because such a lawgiver does not exist, but because the human intelligence is incapable of so relating them.这就像人的行动中不涉及到一个超世俗的,精神和立法者的第一个人,但是,并不是因为这样的立法者不存在,但由于人类的智慧是如此与他们无能为力。 It must not be forgotten, however, that either negative theoretic atheism or negative practical atheism is, as a system, strictly speaking compatible with belief in a God; and much confusion is often caused by the inaccurate use of the terms, belief, knowledge, opinion, etc. Lastly, a third type is generally, though perhaps wrongly, included in moral atheism.它必须不能忘记的,但是,无论是消极的理论无神论或负实际无神论是,作为一个系统,严格来说与对上帝的信仰兼容;和许多混乱往往是由该条款,信仰,知识不准确use造成的,意见等最后,第三类是一般,虽然也许是错,包括在道义上的无神论。 "Practical atheism is not a kind of thought or opinion, but a mode of life" (R. Flint, Anti-theisitc Theories, Lect. I).“实用无神论是不是思想或见解,而是一种生活的模式”(河火石,反theisitc理论,Lect。一)。This is more correctly called, as it is described, godlessness in conduct, quite irrespective of any theory of philosophy, or morals, or of religious faith.这是更正确调用,因为它是描述,在行为godlessness,相当不论任何哲学,或道德,理论或者宗教信仰。It will be noticed that, although we have included agnosticism, materialism, and pantheism, among the types of atheism, strictly speaking this latter does not necessarily include any one of the former.它将会看到,虽然我们已包括不可知论,唯物主义,无神论和泛神论之间的类型,严格来说,这后者并不包括任何前者。 A man may be an agnostic simply, or an agnostic who is also an atheist.一个人可能仅仅是一个不可知论者,或不可知谁也是一个无神论者。 He may be a scientific materialist and no more, or he may combine atheism with his materialism.他可能是一个科学的唯物主义者,没有更多的,否则他可能与他的唯物主义无神论相结合。It does not necessarilly follow, because the natural cognoscibility of a personal First Cause is denied, that His existence is called in question: nor, when matter is called upon to explain itself, that God is critically denied.它不necessarilly跟随,因为个人的第一个原因自然cognoscibility被拒绝,他的存在是在质疑:也不是,当物质被要求解释本身而言,上帝是批判地否认。 On the other hand, pantheism, while destroying the extra-mundane character of God, does not necessarily deny the existence of a supreme entity, but rather affirms such as the sum of all existence and the cause of all phenomena whether of thought or of matter.另一方面,泛神论,而破坏神的超世俗的性格,并不一定否定一个最高实体的存在,而是如所有存在的总和,是否思想或物质的一切现象的原因肯定。 Consequently, while it would be unjust to class agnostics, materialists, or pantheists as necessarily also atheists, it cannot be denied that atheism is clearly perceived to be implied in certain phases of all these systems.因此,虽然这将是不公正的类不可知论者,唯物论者,或泛神论为一定也无神论者,但不能否认,无神论是清楚的认识到必须在所有这些系统的某些阶段暗示。 There are so many shades and gradations of thought by which one form of a philosophy merges into another, so much that is opinionative and personal woven into the various individual expositions of systems, that, to be impartially fair, each individual must be classed by himself as atheist or theist.有这么多的色彩和思想,其中的一个哲学的形式合并到另一个层次,这么多是opinionative和个人进入系统,即,要公平公正地编织各种单独的论述,每个人必须由他自己归类作为无神论者或有神论者。 Indeed, more upon his own assertion or direct teaching than by reason of any supposed implication in the system he advocated must this classification be made.事实上,在他自己的说法,或直接教学更应该比任何意义原因,在他主张系统必须作出这种分类。And if it is correct to consider the subject from this point of view, it is surprising to find to what an exceedingly small number the supposed atheistic ranks dwindle.如果它是正确的考虑,从这个角度来看这个问题,这是令人惊讶,以找出什么是非常小的数目应该缩小无神论的行列。In company with Socrates, nearly all the reputed Greek atheists strenuously repudiated the charge of teaching that there were no gods.在与苏格拉底的公司,几乎所有知名的希腊无神论者极力否定的教学,有没有神的费用。Even Bion, who, according to Diogenes Laertius (Life of Aristippus, XIII, Bohn's tr.), adopted the scandalous moral teaching of the atheist Theodorus, turned again to the gods whom he had insulted, and when he came to die demonstrated in practice what he had denied in theory.即使比昂,谁,根据第欧根尼Laertius(生活阿瑞斯提普斯,十三,博恩的TR。)通过了可耻的无神论者Theodorus道德教学,又转向了人,他曾侮辱神,当他来到死在实践表明他曾在理论上否认。 As Laertius says in his "Life of Bion", he "who never once said, `I have sinned but spare me --正如Laertius在他的“比昂生活”说,他“从来没有谁曾经说过,'我犯了罪,但饶了我吧 -

Then did this atheist shrink and give his neck那时这个无神论者萎缩,给他的脖子

To an old woman to hang charms upon;一个老女人的魅力后挂;

And bound his arms with magic amulets;用魔法护身符和约束自己的武器;

With laurel branches blocked his doors and windows,与桂树树枝挡住了他的门和窗户,

Ready to do and venture anything准备做什么和创业

Rather than die."而不是死。“

Epicurus, the founder of that school of physics which limited all causes to purely natural ones and consequently implied, if he did not actually assert, atheism, is spoken of as a man whose "piety towards the gods and (whose) affection for his country was quite unspeakable" (ib., Life of Epicurus, V).伊壁鸠鲁,该有限的物理原理,让所有的原因纯天然的,因此暗示,如果他实际上并没有断言,无神论学派的创始人,是口语的,因为一个人的“孝道对神和(其)为他的国家的感情很难以形容的“(同上,伊壁鸠鲁,五生活)。 And though Lucretius Carus speaks of the downfall of popular religion which he wished to bring about (De Rerum natura, I, 79-80), yet, in his own letter to Henaeceus (Laert., Life of Epicurus, XXVII), he states plainly a true theistic position: "For there are gods: for our knowledge of them is indistinct. But they are not of the character which people in general attribute to them."虽然卢克莱修卡斯谈到了民间信仰的衰落,他想实现(德Rerum的Natura,我,79-80),但在他自己的信,Henaeceus(Laert.,伊壁鸠鲁的生活,二十七),他的国家显然是真正的有神论的立场:“因为有神:我们对它们的认识是模糊的,但他们的性格,人们一般不赋予他们的。”。 Indeed, this one citation perfectly illustrates the fundamental historic meaning of the term, atheism.事实上,这完全说明了一个引用这个词,无神论的基本历史意义。

The naturalistic pantheism of the Italian Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) comes near to, if it is not actually a profession of, atheism; while Tomaso Campanella (1568-1639), on the contrary, in his nature-philosophy finds in atheism the one impossibility of thought, Spinoza (1632-77), while defending the doctrine that God certainly exists, so identifies Him with finite existence that it is difficult to see how he can be defended against the charge of atheism even of the first type.在意大利布鲁诺(1548年至1600年)自然泛神论来到近前,如果不是实际上是,无神论专业;而托马索康帕内拉(1568年至1639年),与此相反,在他的自然哲学,无神论找到一种思想是不可能的,斯宾诺莎(1632年至1677年),而卫冕的学说认为,上帝确实存在,所以确定了他的有限的存在,这是很难看到他如何可对无神论的,甚至是第一类收费辩护。 In the eighteenth century, and especially in France, the doctrines of materialism were spread broadcast by the Encyclopedists.早在十八世纪,特别是在法国,唯物主义的教义传播广播的Encyclopedists。La Mettrie, Holbach, Fererbach, and Fleurens are usually classed among the foremost materialistic atheists of the period.香格里拉Mettrie,霍尔巴赫,Fererbach,归类和Fleurens通常在这一时期最重要的唯物主义无神论者。 Voltaire, on the contrary, while undoubtedly helping on the cause of practical atheism, distinctly held its theoretic contrary.伏尔泰,相反,而无疑有助于对实际无神论造成明显举行的理论相反。He, as well as Rousseau, was a deist.他,以及卢梭,是一个自然神论者。Comte, it will be remembered, refused to be called an atheist.孔德,人们将会记得,拒绝被称为无神论者。In the last century Thomas Huxley, Charles Darwin, and Herbert Spencer, with others of the evolutionistic school of philosophy, were, quite erroneously, charged with positive atheism.在上个世纪托马斯赫胥黎,查尔斯达尔文和斯宾塞的哲学与人的evolutionistic学校,是,相当错误的,积极的无神论与费用。 It is a charge which can in no way be substantiated; and the invention andonism of Ernst Hackel, goes far towards forming an atheistic system of philosophy.这是一个电荷,可以在没有办法得到证实;以及恩斯特哈克尔发明andonism,去争取形成一个无神论的哲学远。 But even the last named admits that there may be a God, though so limited and so foreign to the deity of theists that his admission can hardly remove the system from the first category of theoretic atheism.但是,即使最后命名承认,可能有一个上帝,但十分有限,因此外国对有神论者,他承认很难去除的理论体系无神论第一类的神。

Among the unscientific and unphilosophical there have from time to time been found dogmatic atheists of the first type.其中有不科学,unphilosophical不时被发现的第一种教条式的无神论者。Here again, however, many of those popularly styled atheists are more correctly described by some other title.在这里,然而,这些普遍风格的无神论者许多更正确地描述一些其他称号。There is a somewhat rare tract, "Atheism Refuted in a Discourse to prove the Existence of God by TP" -- British Museum Catalogue, "Tom Paine", who was at one time popularly called an atheist.有某种程度的罕见道,“无神论语篇中驳斥总磷来证明上帝的存在” - 大英博物馆目录,“汤姆潘恩”,谁在同一时间被广泛称为无神论者。And perhaps, of the few who have upheld an indubitable form of positive theoretic atheism, none has been taken seriously enough to hav exerted any influence upon the trend of philosophic or scientific thought.也许,谁坚持的一个不容置疑的积极的理论无神论的形式很少,都没有引起足够的重视后,以施加任何的哲学或科学思潮的影响甲肝。 Robert Ingersoll might be instanced, but though popular speakers and writers of this type may create a certain amount of unlearned disturbance, they are not treated seriously by thinking men, and it is extremely doubtful whether they deserve a place in any historical or philosophical exposition of atheism.罗伯特英格索尔可能实例化,但尽管流行的喇叭和这种类型可能会造成一定程度的干扰胸无点墨的作家,他们没有认真对待,以为男人,这是非常令人怀疑他们是否值得在任何历史或哲学的论述,对一个地方无神论。

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.出版信息写弗朗西斯埃夫莱林。Transcribed by Beth Ste-Marie.转录由Beth科技教育,玛丽。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


REIMMAN, Historia atheismi et atheorum .REIMMAN,历史atheismi等atheorum。..(Hildesheim, 1725); TOUSSAINT in Dict.(希尔德斯海姆,1725年);图森特在快译通。de theologie, sv ( a good bibliography); JANET AND SEAILLES, History of the Problems of Philosophy (tr.,London, 1902), II; HETTINGER, Natural Religion (tr., New York, 1890); FLINT, Anti-theistic Theories (New York, 1894); LILLY, The Great Enigma (New York, 1892); DAURELLE, L Atheisme devant la raison humaine (Paris, 1883); WARD, Naturalism and Agnosticism (New York, 1899); LADD, Philosophy of Religion (New York, 1905); II; BOEDDER, Natural Theologh (New York, 1891); BLACKIE, Natural History of Atheism (New York, 1878); The Catholic World, XXVII, 471: BARRY, The End of Atheism in the Catholic World, LX, 333; SHEA, Steps to Atheism in The Am, Cath.德神学,希沃特(好书目); Janet和SEAILLES,对哲学问题(编辑部,伦敦,1902年),第二历史;赫丁格,自然宗教(编辑部,纽约,1890年);火石,反有神论理论(纽约,1894年);礼来公司,大之谜(纽约,1892年); DAURELLE,午Atheisme德旺镧存在humaine(巴黎,1883年);病房,自然主义和不可知论(纽约,1899年);左房,哲学宗教(纽约,1905年);二; BOEDDER,自然Theologh(纽约,1891年);小黑,自然历史的无神论(纽约,1878年);天主教世界,二十七,471:巴里,无神论的,请在结束天主教世界,勒克斯,333;乳木果,采取步骤无神论在AM,蛋白酶。 Quart.夸脱。Rev., 1879, 305; POHLE, lehrbuck d.牧师,1879年,305; POHLE,lehrbuck四Dogmatik (Paderborn, 1907) I; BAUR in Kirchliches Handlexikon (Munich, 1907), sv See also bibliography under AGNOSTICISM, MATERIALISM, PANTHEISM, and THEISM. Dogmatik(帕德博恩,1907年)我;鲍氏东方艺术馆在Kirchliches Handlexikon(慕尼黑,1907年),希沃特另见不可知论,唯物主义,泛神论,与有神论书目。For the refuation of ATHEISM see the article GOD.)对于无神论refuation看到神的文章。)

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