Baha'i巴哈伊

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Baha'i is a religious movement founded in the 19th century by the Persian Bahaullah.巴哈伊是一个宗教运动成立于19世纪由波斯Bahaullah。It claims members in practically every country of the world.它声称在世界上几乎每一个国家成员。Objecting to polygamy, slavery of any kind, religious prejudices, and politicized religion, Baha'is call for world peace and harmony.反对一夫多妻制,任何形式的宗教偏见奴役,宗教和政治,巴哈呼吁世界和平与和谐。The ideals of a world federalist government and a new world language are also a part of their teachings.一个世界联邦主义的政府和一个新的世界语言的理想也是他们的教诲的一部分。Recognition of the common ground of all religions is seen as fostering this move toward global unity; Krishna, Buddha, Moses, Zarathustra, Jesus, and Muhammad are all recognized as divine manifestations, a series of prophets culminating in Bahaullah.在所有宗教的共同点识别被认为是促进这个走向全球统一行动;克里希纳,佛陀,摩西,查拉图斯特拉,耶稣,穆罕默德都像神圣的表现,最终导致了在Bahaullah先知系列认可。 Nonresistance, respect for persons, and legal recognition of the equal rights of both sexes constitute additional aspects of Baha'i teaching.不抵抗,尊重人,以及对男女的平等权利的法律承认构成巴哈伊教的其他方面。

By the time of Bahaullah's death in 1892, the Baha'i faith had won adherents throughout the Middle East.由Bahaullah在1892年去世时,巴哈教信仰赢得了整个中东地区的信徒。Under his son Abbas Effendi (or Abdul Baha, 1844 - 1921), who succeeded him as the movement's leader, it spread to Europe and the United States.阿巴斯在他的儿子埃芬迪(或阿卜杜勒巴哈,1844至1921年),谁继任该运动的领导人他,它蔓延到欧洲和美国。 Abbas Effendi was succeeded by his grandson, Shoghi Effendi (1897 - 1957).阿巴斯埃芬迪是接替他的孙子,Shoghi埃芬迪(1897 - 1957)。Since Shoghi Effendi's death, the Baha'is have been governed by elected leaders.由于Shoghi阿凡提的死亡,巴哈已受选举产生的领导人。Divided into more than 130 national assemblies and more than 26,000 local assemblies, they are estimated to number about 2 million worldwide.到130多个国家议会和地方议会超过26000分,他们估计人数约2万。Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 1979, the discrimination to which Baha'is have always been subjected in the country of their origin has escalated into outright persecution.自从伊朗伊斯兰共和国在1979年到这巴哈一直在其原籍国遭受歧视的成立,为直接升级的迫害。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
W Hatcher and JD Martin, The Baha'i Faith (1985); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974); P Smith, The Babi and Baha'i Religions (1987). W哈彻和JD马丁,巴哈伊教(1985);西医米勒,巴哈教信仰:它的历史和教义(1974); P史密斯时,巴比和巴哈伊教(1987)。


Baha'i巴哈伊

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The Baha'i faith aims at a universal community of the human race; unity of all religions; and peace; for the whole world.巴哈伊教的目的,是人类普遍的社会;团结所有的宗教和和平,为整个世界。 Its founder was Baha'u'llah, lived in Persia in the latter half of the nineteenth century.其创始人是巴哈欧拉,在波斯生活在十九世纪后半叶。He and his followers believe in the teachings of Moses and Jesus, Krishna and Buddha, Zoroaster, Muhammed, and the other major religious figures of history.他和他的追随者相信在摩西和耶稣,克里希纳和佛像,琐罗亚斯德,穆罕默德,以及其他主要历史人物的宗教教义。All are considered correct and are to be reconciled into a comprehensive world religion for all men.所有被认为是正确的,成为一个对所有男人的世界宗教综合协调。

Each of the planet's six inhabited continents has one Temple.这个星球上的每个人都有六个有人居住的大陆有一座寺庙。Each has unique architecture, but all have nine - symmetry, with nine identical entry doors so that members of each of the nine major religions of the world are welcomed.每个人都有独特的建筑,但都九 - 对称,与九相同进入大门,使九个世界主要宗教的每个成员都表示欢迎。Services are weekly with meditation available between.服务与冥想之间提供每周一次。The services include readings from scriptures of the world's religions.这些服务包括来自世界的宗教经文读数。

All races, nationalities, and creeds are welcomed into their fellowship, in recognition that we all originated from the same "tree."所有种族,民族和信仰,欢迎到他们的奖学金,以表扬​​,我们都来自同一起源,“树”。There is no ritual and no clergy.没有任何仪式,也没有神职人员。"Teachers" and "pioneers" are unpaid assistance for students.“教师”和“先驱者”是学生的无偿援助。Marriage and funeral services are simple and flexible.婚姻,殡葬服务既简单又灵活。Virtually no buildings or assets are owned (except for the 6 Temples), so there is little emphasis on monetary or worldly concerns.几乎没有任何建筑物或国有资产(除6庙宇),所以对货币或世俗的关注很少强调。Local meetings are generally in constituents' homes, with a few conventions for interspersal of knowledge.当地会议通常在选民家中,与知识interspersal一些公约。

Most religions look for differences in competing religions in order to criticize those believers as having wrong beliefs. 大多数宗教都寻求竞争的宗教分歧,以便在批评错误的信念,这些信徒为有。Baha'i look for agreements with other religions in order to build common foundations for the eventual universal religion.巴哈伊寻求与其他宗教的协议,以建立大一统的宗教共同的基础,为最终。

Funds which are given to the Baha'i go almost exclusively to publishing a large assortment of writings (many written by Baha'u'llah) which generally emphasize the commonalities of beliefs of the world's religions.这是考虑到巴哈的资金将几乎完全为出版的著作大品种(许多是由巴哈欧拉书面),其中一般强调世界的宗教信念的共性。 These writings have been translated into over 700 languages!这些作品已被翻译成700种语言!

Principles原则

Several of these are amazing considering they were espoused about 150 years ago, at a time when, in America, slavery was common and women didn't have the vote.其中一些是令人惊讶的考虑,他们信奉约在150年前,当时,在美国,奴隶制是常见的妇女没有投票。

Some guiding principles are very strict.一些指导原则是非常严格的。Smoking and drinking are absolutely banned.吸烟和饮酒是绝对禁止。So are slavery, asceticism, monasticism.那么,奴隶制,禁欲主义,修道。Idleness is condemned.懒惰是谴责。Monogamy, strict obedience to one's government, and any works performed in the spirit of service are exalted.一夫一妻制,严格服从自己的政府,任何作品中的表现都是崇高的服务精神。


Baha'is巴哈教徒

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Doctrines教义

Baha'is follow the teaching of Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (1817-1892) whose title is Baha Allah ('splendour of God').巴哈教徒遵循米尔扎侯赛因阿里鹦鹉(1817年至1892年),其标题是巴哈真主('上帝的辉煌')教学。Baha Allah believed himself to be the prophet foretold by Sayid Ali Muhammad Shirazi, the founder of the Babi movement.巴哈真主认为自己被赛义德阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的,对巴比运动的创始人预言的先知。Baha Allah taught that God had become manifest in many different forms such as Abraham, Moses, Zoroaster, the Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, the Bab and Baha Allah himself.巴哈真主告诉我们,上帝已经成为如亚伯拉罕,摩西,琐罗亚斯德,许多不同的形式体现了佛陀,耶稣,穆罕默德,真主的巴布和巴哈自己。 Baha Allah is not, however, the final and definitive manifestation of God.巴哈真主是没有,不过,上帝的最后的,决定性的体现。 Other prophets will come, but not for at least 1000 years.其他先知会来,但并非为至少1000年。

There are no initiation rites, priesthood or sacraments in the Baha'i religion.没有启动仪式,神职人员或宗教圣礼巴哈。Baha'is are required to pray every day; to meet at the first day of each Baha'i month for celebration; to fast from dawn to sunset during the month of 'Ala; to avoid drugs or alcohol; to avoid membership of political parties; and to observe particular holy days such as the birth of Baha Allah and the martyrdom of the Bab.巴哈教徒必须祈祷每一天,以满足每一个值得庆祝的巴哈一个月的第一天,快速从黎明到日落期间,'阿拉一个月,以避免药物或酒精,以避免政党成员;和观察,如巴哈真主的诞生和殉难的巴布特别神圣的日子。

Emphasis is placed on the unity of humanity and the absolute equality of men and women.重点是对人类团结和男女绝对平等。Baha'is see themselves working towards the establishment of a world government which will eradicate extremes of wealth and poverty.巴哈教徒看到自己实现一个世界政府将根除极端贫困的财富和建立工作。There is no single Baha'i sacred text.没有单一的巴哈神圣的文字。The writings of Baha Allah are, however, treated as sacred.对巴哈真主的著作,但是,作为神圣的对待。The most important of these are: The Most Holy Book, The Book of Certitude, The Hidden Words, The Seven Valleys, and Epistle to the Son of the Wolf.其中最重要的是:最圣洁的书中,加入购物,隐藏的话,七山谷和书信书到狼的儿子。

History历史

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri was converted as a young man to the teachings of the Babi.米尔扎侯赛因阿里鹦鹉被转换为一个年轻男子的巴比的教诲。In 1852 he was thrown into Tehran prison during the first wave of persecution against the Babis. 1852年,他被关进德黑兰监狱迫害期间,对Babis第一波。On his release in January 1853 he went to Baghdad where he became the de facto head of the Babi community there.他在1853年1月释放,他到巴格达,他成为事实上的巴比社会有头。In 1863 he proclaimed himself to be the messiah foretold by the Bab.1863年他宣布自己将在巴布预言的弥赛亚。Such was his influence that the Ottoman authorities decided to move him from Baghdad to Istanbul and from there to Edirne (in Turkey).这是他的影响力,奥斯曼当局决定将他从巴格达到伊斯坦布尔,从那里埃迪尔内(土耳其)。In 1868 Husayn Ali and many followers were exiled to Acre in Palestine where Husayn Ali was imprisoned for nine years in the fortress in Acre. 1868年侯赛因阿里和众多的追随者,在巴勒斯坦被流放到这里阿克里侯赛因阿里九年监禁在Acre的堡垒。Shortly after his release he went to live in Bahji, near Haifa, where he remained until his death in 1892.出狱后不久他就住在Bahji海法附近,在那里他于1892年去世,直到他依然。

On the death of Baha Allah, the movement came under the leadership of his eldest son 'Abbas Effendi (1844-1921), who acquired the title 'Abd al-Baha ("servant of the glory of God").对巴哈真主死亡,运动遭到了他的长子领导'阿巴斯阿凡提(1844年至1921年),谁获得了冠军'阿卜杜勒巴哈(“神的荣耀的仆人”)。 After a spell in prison under the Ottoman Turks he undertook three missionary journeys: to Egypt (1910), to Europe (1911), and to the United States and Europe (1912-1913).在经历了奥斯曼土耳其人在监狱咒语他进行了三次传教行程:埃及(1910年),欧洲(1911年),以及美国和欧洲(1912-1913)。 Lecturing to large audiences, he both consolidated Baha'ism in these parts of the world and systematised his father's teachings.演讲,大量的观众,他都在世界上的这些地方综合巴哈和系统化他父亲的教诲。

'Abbas Effendi was succeeded by his grandson, Shoghi Effendi (1897-1957), who directed his energies into developing the Baha'i communities in Europe and North America. '阿巴斯埃芬迪是接替他的孙子,Shoghi芬迪(1897年至1957年),谁指示进入发展中国家在欧洲和北美的巴哈伊社区的精力。Under his leadership the Baha'i community came to be organised within a system based on local and national assemblies.在他的领导下,巴哈伊社区内来对地方和国家议会组织为基础的系统。When he died in 1957 he left no heirs, and the movement's organisation was placed under the jurisdiction of a body known as the Council of the Hands of the Cause.当他于1957年去世,他没有留下继承人,以及运动的组织是根据作为对事业的手会知道一个机构管辖。In 1962 the International House of Justice was established in Haifa.在1962年国际法院家成立于海法。This body is reelected every five years.该机构每五年改选。

Today Baha'i communities can be found in almost every country in the world.今天巴哈社区能够在几乎世界上每一个国家。In Iran they continue to represent the largest minority religious group, and have suffered particularly during the period of the Iranian revolution.他们继续在伊朗最大的少数民族代表的宗教群体,在遭受了伊朗革命时期尤其如此。

Symbols符号

Baha'is believe that God's greatest name is Baha (glory, splendour).巴哈教徒相信神的名字是最伟大的巴哈(荣耀,辉煌)。The name is used by Baha'is when they are addressing one another, and is often found on rings or wall hangings.这个名字是巴哈教徒使用时,他们正在解决彼此,往往是在发现戒指或壁挂。A second expression, Ya Baha 'u' -l Abha (O Thou the Glory of the All-Glorious), is represented in the form of calligraphy.第二个表达式,雅巴哈'ü'-升艾卜哈(呵,你这全光辉荣耀),是书法的形式表达。

The number 9 is regarded as possessing important mystical properties and is sometimes used for decoration.9号被视为具有重要的神秘的特性,有时也用于装饰。The Baha'i place of worship is called in Arabic the mashriq al-adhkar (which means the "place where the uttering of the name of God arises at dawn").巴哈的崇拜地点在阿拉伯语中所谓的马什里克基地adhkar(这是指“地方神的名字出现在黎明说出”)。The mashriq is a nine sided building in keeping with the mystical qualities of the number 9.该马什里克是一个九在数字9的神秘特质保持片面建设。

Adherents遗民

There are Baha'i communities in most countries of the world.有在世界上大多数国家巴哈伊社区。It is estimated that there are between 3 to 4 million Baha'is in the world today (Harris et al 1994, 30).据估计,有300至400万之间,在世界巴哈今日(哈里斯等人1994年,30)。The largest Baha'i community is in India with about 1 million members.最大的巴哈伊社区是约1万成员在印度。In Iran the Baha'is remain the largest minority group with about 300,000 adherents (ibid.).在保持与伊朗的巴哈教徒约30万信徒的最大的少数民族组(同上)。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

The international Baha'i centre is located in Haifa, Israel.国际巴哈伊中心设在海法,以色列。JIMcGrathJIMcGrath
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Bahaullah Bahaullah

General Information一般资料

Bahaullah ("Splendor of God") is the title assumed around 1866 by the Iranian religious leader Mirza Husayn Ali, b. Bahaullah(“上帝的辉煌”)是1866年左右的称号所承担的伊朗宗教领袖米尔扎侯赛因阿里湾Nov. 12, 1817. 1817年11月12日。He proclaimed himself to be the person announced by the Bab as the one who would bring his work to completion.他自称是由巴布宣布为一个人谁把他的工作将完成。The Baha'i movement, which arose from Bahaullah's teaching, spread as far as Europe and the United States during the time of Abbas Effendi, the son and successor of Bahaullah.巴哈运动,从Bahaullah的教学产生,传播埃芬迪期间,阿巴斯的儿子和继承人Bahaullah时间尽量欧洲和美国。 The latter died, while in exile in Acre, Palestine, on May 29, 1897.后者死亡,而在阿克里,巴勒斯坦,流亡,在1897年5月29日。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
S Effendi, The World Order of Baha'u'llah (1974); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974).S埃芬迪,巴哈欧拉的世界秩序(1974);,巴哈伊教西医米勒:它的历史和教诲(1974)。


Babism Babism

General Information一般资料

Babism is a religious movement founded by Mirza Ali Muhammad of Shiraz (Iran), who announced his divine election as the Bab in 1844. Babism是一个宗教运动的米尔扎穆罕默德阿里设拉子(伊朗),谁在1844年宣布,他作为巴布神圣的选举成立。This title, meaning "doorway to knowledge," was understood by many to imply that Muhammad of Shiraz claimed to have received a divine manifestation surpassing in significance the revelation granted to the prophet Muhammed, and that his book of revelation, the Bayan, overshadowed the Koran.这个称号,意思是“门口的知识,”是理解许多暗示,设拉子穆罕默德声称已经收到了神圣的意义超越表现在批给先知穆罕默德的启示,那他的书的启示,巴彦,盖过可兰经。

Understandably, serious tensions arose, and the Bab was executed (1850).可以理解的,出现严重的紧张局势,而巴布被处决(1850)。When an attempt to assassinate the Shah failed in 1852, the persecution of the Babis intensified.当一个企图暗杀国王在1852年失败的,该Babis迫害加剧。The Bab's successor fled to Baghdad with his half brother Mirza Husayn Ali, who was later on recognized by most followers as the Bahaullah ("Splendor of God").巴孛的继任者逃到巴格达与他的同父异母兄弟米尔扎侯赛因阿里,谁是后来被作为Bahaullah(“上帝的辉煌”)最追随者认可。 The religious movement led by the Bahaullah became known as Baha'i.的宗教运动所导致的Bahaullah被称为巴哈。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
HM Balyuzi, The Bab (1973); WM Miller, The Baha'i Faith: Its History and Teachings (1974); P Smith, The Babi and Baha'i Religions (1987).陛下Balyuzi,巴孛(1973年);,巴哈伊教西医米勒:它的历史和教义(1974); P史密斯,巴比和巴哈的宗教(1987年)。


Babis Babis

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Doctrines教义

The Babis follow the teaching of Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad Shirazi (1819-50), who is known as the Bab (the "gate").该Babis跟随赛义德阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的教学(1819至1850年),谁是巴布(“门”)而闻名。 He was regarded by his followers as the "Gate of God" and later as the Hidden Imam who would bring to an end Islamic law and inau gurate a new prophetic cycle.他被认为是由他的追随者,因为“上帝之门”,后来作为隐藏伊玛目谁将使结束伊斯兰法和inau gurate一个新的先知周期。 Prior to his death the Bab prophesied the coming of a messianic figure whom he called 'Him whom God shall make manifest'.之前,他死的时候,巴布预言了一个救世主图人,他叫'神人,上帝将昭示'的到来。The holy book of the Babis is the Bayan (Declaration).该Babis圣书是巴彦(宣言)。

History历史

The Babis emerged in a period of great millenarian expectations, for the year 1844 was to mark the 1000th anniversary of the disappearance of the twelfth Imam.该Babis涌现出了很大的期望千禧年期间为一年1844年,是为了纪念失踪的第十二伊玛目1000周年。In this year Sayyid 'Ali Muhammad Shirazi claimed himself to be the Gate to the Hidden Imam.在今年赛义德阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的自称是到隐藏的伊玛目门。Later, he actually identified himself as the Hidden Imam, and gained many followers.后来,他居然发现自己的隐藏伊玛目,并取得了众多的追随者。A series of violent insurrections by the Bab's followers led to his arrest in 1845 and execution in 1850.一种暴力叛乱的巴布的追随者系列导致他在1845年被捕,1850年执行。The movement itself was violently persecuted, with its followers either exiled to Baghdad or imprisoned and executed.这种运动被暴力迫害,其追随者要么被流放到巴格达或监禁和处决。Among those exiled was Mirza Husayn 'Ali Nuri, who in 1864 proclaimed himself to be the prophet foretold by the movement's founder.在那些被流放米尔扎侯赛因阿里努里,谁在1864年宣称自己是由运动的创始人预言的先知。 The movement then split between those who accepted Mirza Husayn's claim (later known as Baha'is) and the minority (the Azalis) who continued to follow the then leader Subh-i Azal.当时的运动之间的分裂谁接受米尔扎侯赛因的索赔(后来称为巴哈)和少数民族(即Azalis)谁继续遵循当时的领导人当做晨礼,我Azal。 Since the 19th century the movement has declined in strength and today perhaps only a few hundred Babis remain.自19世纪的运动实力有所下降,今天也许只有几百Babis依然存在。

Symbols符号

The number 19 assumed an important symbolic value within the Babi tradition, providing the basis upon which communal organization and the Babi calendar is based.数字19巴比内承担了传统的重要象征意义,提供了赖以社区组织和巴比历法是建立基础。Babis also wear talismans and engraved stones around their necks or ringstones in order to protect them from misfortune.Babis也戴护身符,并在脖子上刻在石头或ringstones为了保护他们免遭不幸。

Adherents遗民

There are very few Babis today, perhaps only a few hundred.很少有Babis今天,也许只有几百个。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

The movement has no headquarters as such.该运动并没有为这些总部。Its adherents are dotted around Iran.它的信徒在伊朗点缀。

JIMcGrath JIMcGrath
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