Bar Mitzvah or BarMiẓwah成年礼

General Information一般资料

A bar mitzvah ("son of the commandment") is a male Jew who has reached his 13th birthday and is recognized as fully responsible for his own religious and moral actions.一个成年礼(“的诫子”)是男性的犹太人谁已经达到了13岁生日,并作为全面负责他承认自己的宗教和道德的行动。 A bat mitzvah is the corresponding female Jew.蝙蝠成人礼是对应的女性犹太人。A rite in the synagogue, which is also commonly referred to as bar mitzvah, marks the attainment of the status of bar mitzvah.中的一个犹太教堂,这也是通常所说的成年礼,仪式标志着地位获得的成年礼。In Conservative and Reform Judaism, a similar rite is used for the bat mitzvah as well.在保守与改革犹太教,一个类似的仪式是用于蝙蝠mitzvah以及。When reaching puberty, a young man or woman is called upon to read a prophetic passage from Scripture to the synagogue congregation.当到达青春期时,一个年轻的男人或女人被要求阅读圣经预言通行犹太教堂聚集。

Thereupon, he or she is recognized as a full member of the congregation, able to count as a member of the required quorum of ten.于是,他或她是公认的正式成员的聚集,能指望作为十法定人数的成员。On that occasion the parents say a blessing: "Blessed is God who has now freed me from bearing full responsibility for this person."在那个场合,父母说的祝福:“祝福是上帝谁已经摆脱轴承这个人我承担全部责任。”In the 19th century, Reform Judaism created the rite of confirmation, either instead of, or in addition to, the bar mitzvah celebration.在19世纪,犹太教改革创造了确认仪式,要么不是,或除,酒吧成人礼的庆祝活动。It is held on the festival of Shavuoth, or Pentecost, which marks the revelation of the Torah.它举行了关于Shavuoth,或圣灵降临节,这标志着节日的律法启示。This rite is now common in Reform and Conservative synagogues.这个仪式是目前改革的共同与保守犹太教堂。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
AI Katsh, ed., Bar Mitzvah (1955); S Schoenfeld, et al., Bar Mitzvah (1985).人工智能Katsh,教育署,成年礼(1955年);。。S舍恩等人,成年礼(1985年)。


Bar Miẓwah酒吧Miẓwah

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Religious Maturity.宗教的成熟。

Hebrew term applied to a boy on completing his thirteenth year, who has then reached the age of religious duty and responsibility.希伯来语术语适用于一个男孩完成他的第十三年,谁进而达到对宗教义务和责任的年龄。The name "Bar Miẓwah" occurs in BM 96a, where it is applied to every grown Israelite; but in the sense now used it can not be clearly traced earlier than the fourteenth century, the older rabbinical term being "gadol" (adult) or "bar 'onshin" (son of punishment); that is, liable to punishment for his own misdoings; see Rashi Nid.命名为“酒吧Miẓwah”发生在骨髓的第96A条,它是适用于每一个以色列人增长,但现在在这个意义上使用它不能清楚追溯到早于十四世纪,老犹太教来说是“gadol”(成人)或“酒吧'onshin”(惩罚的儿子),即承担自己misdoings处罚,见赖希安居。 45b, on the word .第45B上的字。The age of puberty being attained at about the fourteenth year, the boy that is over thirteen years of age has the power of making vows or of consecrating property to holy purposes (Nid. v. 6); he is held to account for his own sins, whereas a child before that age may die on account of his father's sins (Midrash Zuṭṭa, Ruth, ed. Buber, p. 47; Yalḳ., Ruth, 600); and, according to some, the father's merit confers benefits upon the son only until he has reached his "pereḳ"; that is, the age of maturity (Tosef., 'Eduy. i. 14).青春期的年龄是十四年左右达到,男孩超过13岁,是具有决策权或财产的供奉(Nid.五,六)神圣誓言的目的,他是为自己举行到帐户罪,而一个孩子在这个年龄可能死在考虑他父亲的罪孽(米德拉士Zuṭṭa,露丝,教育署布伯,第47页。。Yalḳ,露丝,600),以及根据一些,父亲的功绩授予权益提出唯一的儿子,直到他达到他的“pereḳ”,即成熟年龄(Tosef.,'Eduy一14。)。

The solemnization of the attainment of the age of religious maturity takes place on the first Sabbath of the fourteenth year, when the Bar Miẓwah is called up (see 'Aliyah) to read a chapter from the weekly portion of the Law, either as one of the seven men or as the eighth, where it is customary to read the closing chapter and the Hafṭarah; and if he be unable to read, to recite at least the benediction before and after the reading, while the father offers silently the rather strange benediction: "Blessed be He who has taken the responsibility for this child's doing from me" (see Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, ccxxv. 2, note of Isserles, and "Magen Abraham," cclxxxii., note 18).作者对宗教成熟年龄达到solemnization发生在今年的14首安息日,当酒吧Miẓwah是打电话(见'阿利亚)改为从法律每周一章的部分地方,无论是作为一个该七名男子或第八,它是习惯,以阅读闭幕章节和先知书,如果他不能阅读,背诵至少阅读前后祝福,而父亲很奇怪提供默默祝福:“愿他是谁租了这个孩子的责任由我做”(见Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,ccxxv 2,伊塞莱斯注意到,与“马根亚伯拉罕,”cclxxxii,附注18。。)。

Celebration of Event.庆祝活动。

This event is celebrated by joyous festivity, the Bar Miẓwah boy delivering on this occasion a learned discourse or oration at the table before the invited guests, who offer him presents, while the rabbi or teacher gives him his blessing, accompanying it at times with an address (see Solomon Luria, "Yam Shel Shelomoh" to B. Ḳ. vii. 37, and other authorities in "Magen Abraham," lc; Löw's "Lebensalter," pp. 210-217, 410-412).此事件是由欢乐的节日庆祝,大律师Miẓwah男孩提供这次被邀请的客人面前,谁给他介绍了学会的话语,或在餐桌上致辞,而法师或老师给他的祝福,伴随有时与IT地址(见所罗门卢里亚,“山药谢尔Shelomoh”第七章第37到B K表,并在“马根亚伯拉罕,”立法会其他机构。。低的“Lebensalter,”页210-217,410-412)。Henceforth he is reckoned among the adults to fill the Minyan, or required number of ten (Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, lv. 9 et seq.).此后,他被忽视的成年人,以填补民谚,或需要数十个(Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,吕。9起。)。 Regarding the time when the boy's initiation into his religious duties is to commence, when he is to begin putting on the tefillin, or when to fast on the Day of Atonement, see Yoma 82a; Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, xxxvii.至于何时男孩开始了他的宗教义务,是开始,当他开始对tefillin,或何时在赎罪日快速推杆,看到山脉82A条;Shulḥan'Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,三十七。 3, cxvi.3,cxvi。2).2)。Leopold Löw (lc) has shown that the Bar Miẓwah rite had become a fixed custom only in the fourteenth century in Germany.利奥波德低(立法会)已经表明,大律师公会Miẓwah仪式已成为在德国只有在十四世纪固定的风俗。

How It Originated.它是如何起源。

Nevertheless there are many indications, overlooked by Löw, that its origin must be sought in remote antiquity.然而有许多迹象表明,由低忽略,认为其起源于远古时代,必须寻求。Samuel ha-Kaṭan, at the close of the first century, gives in his saying on the Ages of Man in the Baraita attached to Abot v. 21 (see Maḥzor Vitry, p. 549) the completion of the thirteenth year as the age for the commandments ("le-miẓwot"); and the commentary to the passage refers to Levi, the son of Jacob, who, at thirteen, is called "ish" (= man; Gen. xxxiv. 25).塞缪尔公顷,咯痰,在第一个世纪结束时,给出了在他的年龄说所附abot诉21日在baraita的人(见Maḥzor维特里,第549章)第十三随着年龄的一年完成诫命(“乐miẓwot”),以及这篇文章的评论是指列维,雅各的儿子,谁,在十三,被称为“原位杂交”(=人;。将军三十四25)。 Simon Ẓemaḥ Duran, in his "Magen Abot" to the Baraita, quotes a Midrash interpreting the Hebrew word (= "this") in Isa.西蒙Ẓemaḥ杜兰在他的“马根Abot”,给baraita的,报价一米德拉士解释希伯来字在伊萨(=“这个”)。xliii.四十三。21-"This people have I formed for myself, they shall pronounce [AV "set forth"] my praise"-as referring by its numerical value to those that have reached the age of thirteen.21 - “这是我为自己的人组成,他们要定[视听”规定“]我的赞美”作为其数值指那些已达到十三岁。This seems to imply that at the time the Midrash was composed the Bar Miẓwah publicly pronounced a benediction on the occasion of his entrance upon maturity.这似乎意味着,在当时的米德拉士组成大律师Miẓwah公开宣判对他的祝福到期之际入口。This is confirmed by the Midrash Hashkem (see Grünhut's "Sefer ha-Liḳḳuṭim," i. 3a): "The heathen when he begets a son consecrates him to idolatrous practises; the Israelite has his son circumcised and the rite of 'pidyon ha-ben' performed; and as soon as he becomes of age he brings him into the synagogue and school ('bet ha-keneset' and 'bet ha-midrash'),in order that henceforth he may praise the name of God, reciting the 'Bareku' (Benediction) preceding the reading from the Law."这是由米德拉士Hashkem确认(见Grünhut的“之书公顷Liḳḳuṭim,”岛3A)条:“异教徒的时候,他能生出儿子供奉他盲目崇拜的习俗;以色列人有他的儿子割礼和'pidyon公顷仪式, Ben的演出,并尽快成为他的年龄,他带来了他进了会堂,学校('赌公顷keneset'和'赌公顷米德拉士'),以便今后他可能赞美上帝的名义,背诵'Bareku'(祝福)从法律上阅读。“ Masseket Soferim xviii.Masseket Soferim十八。5 is even more explicit: "In Jerusalem they are accustomed to initiate their children to fast on the Atonement Day, a year or two before their maturity; and then, when the age has arrived, to bring the Bar Miẓwah before the priest or elder for blessing, encouragement, and prayer, that he may be granted a portion in the Law and in the doing of good works. Whosoever is of superiority in the town is expected to pray for him as he bows down to him to receive his blessing."五是更加明确:“在耶路撒冷的人都习惯于自己的孩子开始上的赎罪日,一年或到期日前两个快,然后,当时代已经到来,将问题提交神父或长者的酒吧Miẓwah加持,鼓励和祈祷,他可能被授予在法律和做的优秀作品的一部分。凡从镇的优势,可望为他祈祷,因为他鞠躬,向他要接受他的祝福。 “

This then helps to illustrate the Midrash (Gen. R. lxiii.), which, in commenting upon the passage (Gen. xxv. 27), "and the boys grew," says: "Up to thirteen years Esau and Jacob went together to the primary school and back home; after the thirteen years were over, the one went to the bet ha-midrash for the study of the Law, the other to the house of idols. With reference to this, R. Eleazar remarks, 'Until the thirteenth year it is the father's duty to train his boy; after this he must say: "Blessed be He who has taken from me the responsibility [the punishment] for this boy!"'" "Why is the evil desire ('yeẓer hara'') personified as the great king? (Eccl. ix. 14). Because it is thirteen years older than the good desire ('yeẓer haṭob')."这就有助于说明米德拉士(将军河lxiii。),其中,在通过后评论,“和两个孩子渐渐长大,说:”(创二十五27。):“到十三年以扫和雅各一同在小学和回家;后已超过十三年,一个去了该法的,对偶像的房子其他研究的赌注公顷米德拉士参照本,河埃莱亚萨备注'。直到十三年,是父亲的责任,训练他的男孩,在此之后,他必须说:“愿他是谁租了我的责任[处罚]这个孩子!”'“”为什么是邪恶的愿望(' yeẓer原'')化身为伟大的国王吗?(传道书九。14)。因为它是十三岁,比的良好愿望('yeẓerhaṭob')老。“That is to say, the latter comes only with the initiation into duty (Ab. RN, A. xvi., B. xxx.; Midr. Teh. ix. 2; Eccl. R. ix. 15).这就是说,后者只涉及到税启动(Ab.护士,答:十六,二xxx。。。。Midr的第九届二。。。传道书河九15)。 According to Pirḳe R. El.据pirḳe传译下午。xxvi., Abraham rejected the idolatry of his father and became a worshiper of God when he was thirteen years old.二十六。亚伯拉罕拒绝了他父亲的偶像崇拜,成为神的崇拜者,当他十三岁。In the light of these facts the story related in Luke ii.在这些事实相关的故事在路加福音二。42-49, as observed by the elder Lightfoot, Wetstein, and Holtzmann in their commentaries to the passage, finds its true significance: The child Jesus when only twelve years of age, having not yet attained the religious maturity, joined, of his own accord, the teachers of the Law, and astonished all by his understanding and his answers, being, as he said, concerned only about the things of his Father in heaven (, "Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?"). 42-49,作为观察由长辈娜莱,Wetstein,和Holtzmann在评论这篇文章,发现其真正的意义:耶稣的时候,孩子只有十二岁,以前没有达到成熟的宗教,加入了他自己,协议,该法律的老师,惊讶他的理解和他的全部答案,存在,正如他所说,只有在天堂,他父亲的东西(而言,“作岂不知我应当在我父亲的事业?” )。Compare with this what Josephus writes of himself: "When I was a child about fourteen years old, I was commended by all for the love I had for learning, on which account the high priest and principal men of the city came to me in order to know my opinion regarding the accurate understanding of points of the Law" ("Vita," 2).比较这就是对自己约瑟夫写道:“当我还是个十四岁左右的孩子,我被所有赞扬的爱,我的学习,在哪个帐户大祭司和城市的主要男子向我走来,以知道我的意见关于法律问题的准确理解“(”简历,“2)。

In Morocco the boy becomes Bar Miẓwah when he has passed the age of twelve years.在摩洛哥,成为酒吧Miẓwah男孩时,他已通过了十二岁。He usually learns one of the Talmudical treatises by heart, and after he has passed an examination, the rabbis and the parnasim of the congregation, together with his relatives and friends, are invited to a dinner the Wednesday before the Sabbath on which he is to be "called up" to the Law.他通常得知,由心脏,Talmudical论文之一,并已通过后,他的考试,拉比和众parnasim,连同他的亲戚和朋友,请在安息日前的晚宴上,他是在周三被“征召”的规定。 The following morning (Thursday), at the service which takes place in the boy's house, the chief rabbi puts the tefillin upon his arm, and his father those upon his head, while the choir accompanies the initiation rite with a hymn.第二天早上(星期四),在服务,发生在男孩的房子的地方,在他的首席拉比把胳膊tefillin,他的父亲在他头上的,而伴随着合唱团与赞美诗启动仪式。 He is then "called up" to the Law; and before the close of the service he delivers a discourse, partly in the vernacular, for the benefit of the women who are present.他是那么“叫起来”,以法律;和服务之前,他提供了一个话语结束时,部分在白话文为在场的妇女谁得益。The rabbis follow with a discussion, and the Bar Miẓwah is then blessed aloud by the whole assembly.拉比跟进讨论,酒吧Miẓwah祝福,然后由整个大会出声来。After this he goes around with his tefillinbag, and first the men, then the women, and finally his parents throw silver coins into the bag, which he then presents to his teacher.这之后,他绕着他tefillinbag,和第一的男子,则妇女,最后他的父母扔入袋,他然后介绍了他的老师银币。 A breakfast follows, in which all take part.早餐如下,其中所有参与。On the next Sabbath, the Bar Miẓwah reads the "Hafṭarah."在接下来的安息日,大律师Miẓwah读“先知书”。When he is called up to the Law, a piyyuṭ is recited, the text of which is given in the "Allgemeine Zeitung des Judenthums," 1839, p.当他打电话给法,piyyuṭ是背诵,其中的文字,是刊载于“总汇报德Judenthums”,1839年,第278, whence the above account has been taken.278,何时上述帐户已被占用。See also Banquets.另见宴会。

Regarding a strange custom of cutting a boy's hair when he became Bar Miẓwah, see Abrahams' "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," p.关于一切一个男孩的头发时,他成为酒吧Miẓwah奇怪的习惯,见亚伯拉罕'“在中世纪犹太人生活”,第144, note 2.144,注2。 For Bar Miẓwah in modern times, see Confirmation.对于近代Miẓwah酒吧,看到确认。

Marcus Jastrow, Kaufmann Kohler马库斯贾斯特罗,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Leopold Löw, Die Lebensalter, in Jüdische Literatur, pp. 210-217, Szegedin, 1875; JCG Bodenschatz, Kirchliche Verfassung der Heutigen Juden, iv.利奥波德低,模具Lebensalter,在Jüdische文学Literatur,第210-217页,Szegedin,1875年;日本信用保证Bodenschatz,Kirchliche Verfassung明镜Heutigen犹太人,四。94, 95, Erlangen, 1748; Güdemann, Geschichte des Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der Juden in Deutschland, p.94,95,埃尔兰根,1748; Güdemann,史德Erziehungswesens und明镜文化视角在德国,德国犹太人页111, Vienna, 1888; idem, Quellenschriften zur Geschichte des Unterrichts und der Erziehung bei den Deutschen Juden, p.111,维也纳,1888年;同上,Quellenschriften楚历史馆万Unterrichts und明镜Erziehung北德意志犹太人巢穴,第143, Berlin, 1891, where R. Jair Ḥaim Bacharach's Rules of Study for the Bar Mizwah boy are given; Hamburger, RBT sv Miẓwah; Schürer, Gesch. 143,柏林,1891年,在河睚哈伊姆的男孩为取得律师资格Mizwah研究巴哈拉赫的规则发出;汉堡,仙踪林希沃特Miẓwah; Schürer,Gesch。des Jüdischen Volkes, ii.德Jüdischen Volkes,二。426; Ch.426;通道。Taylor, Sayings of the Jewish Fathers, 1897, pp. 97, 98; I. Abrahams, as above.J.泰勒,熟语的犹太父亲,1897年,第97,98;一,亚伯拉罕,为above.J。Sr. K.高级光



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