Benedictines, Saint Benedict本笃,圣本笃

General Information一般资料

St. Benedict, 480-547, was an Italian monk who founded the Benedictines.圣本笃,480-547,是意大利的和尚谁创立了笃。The rule that he wrote for his monks became a model monastic rule.的规则,他写他的僧侣成为一种模式寺院的规则。The only source for his life is the second book of The Dialogues written by Gregory I (the Great).对于他的生命的唯一来源是由格里高利一世(大)的对话写的第二本书。After being a hermit for three years, Benedict gathered disciples around him, first at Subiaco and later at Monte Cassino.经过三年的隐士,笃弟子聚集在他周围,首先在萨伯卡,后来在蒙特卡西诺。Recent scholarship has shown that many passages from the Rule of Benedict were copied from an older monastic rule known as the Rule of the Master, dating from the beginning of the 6th century.最近的学术研究表明,从本笃规则的许多段落是从旧寺院作为著名的法师规则规定,从6世纪开始约会复制。Benedict's rule, however, was more spiritual, more person-oriented, and less narrow in its approach.本笃的统治,但是,更多的精神,更加以人为本,少在方法狭窄。Feast day: July 11 (Western); March 14 (Eastern).盛宴的日子:7月11日(西部); 3月14日(东区)。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单
E-mail电子邮件
Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴维斯,定向结构刨花板

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Chadwick, Owen, Western Asceticism (1958); De Waal, Esther, Seeking God: The Way of Saint Benedict (1984); Saint Gregory I, Life and Miracles of Saint Benedict, trans.查德威克,欧文,西方禁欲主义(1958年);德瓦尔,埃斯特,寻求神:圣本笃(1984)路;圣格雷戈里我,生命和奇迹的圣本笃,跨。 by OJ Zimmerman and BR Avery (1969); Lindsay, TF, Saint Benedict: His Life and Work (1949); Maynard, Theodore, Saint Benedict and His Monks (1964); Von Matt, L., and Hilpisch, S., Saint Benedict (1961).由辛普森齐默尔曼和BR艾弗里(1969年);林赛,转铁蛋​​白,圣本笃:他的生活和工作(1949年);梅纳德,西奥多,圣本笃和他的僧侣(1964年);冯马特,L.和Hilpisch,美国,圣本笃(1961年)。


Benedictines

General Information一般资料

The Order of St. Benedict (OSB) is the oldest order of monks in the West. 本)令圣本笃(定向结构刨花板是西方最古老的顺序僧侣。There are both Roman Catholic and Anglican Benedictines, men and women who base their way of life on the rule written by St. Benedict. 有两个罗马天主教和圣公会笃,男人和女人谁基地由圣本笃的书面规则基于生活方式。

Unlike other religious orders, the Benedictines are not a centralized organization.不像其他宗教命令,笃是不是一个中央集权的组织。Each monastery is independent.每个寺院是独立的。A large monastery is an Abbey headed by an Abbot or an abbess.一个大修道院是由住持或住持率领一个修道院。A small monastery is a priory headed by a Prior or a prioress.一个小修道院是由先前或一女修道士为首的修道院。Individual Benedictine houses are joined with others to form a congregation.房子都加入了个人本笃与他人形成聚集。The various congregations together form a confederation at the head of which is the abbot primate, first among equals of the various abbots.各教会共同组成,其中在头部住持灵长类动物是邦联,第一之间的平等的各种住持。A few houses belong to no congregation and are directly subject to the abbot primate.一些房屋不属于任何教会,并且直接受住持灵长类动物。

The Benedictine life is led within a community in the context of personal recollection and work, interspersed with the public recitation or singing of the Divine Office.本笃生活是导致社区内的办公室中,在个人的回忆和神圣的工作,穿插与公共朗诵或演唱。 Public worship is performed with solemnity and beauty.公共崇拜,是执行的严肃性和美感。Work is essential; it can be manual, intellectual, or service-oriented. Each monastery may vary in its stress on prayer and its type of work without changing the basic orientation. 工作是至关重要的,它可以是手动,智力,或面向服务的方向每个修道院其类型的不同,可能在其胁迫和祈祷没有改变基本的工作。 The Benedictine habit is generally black, composed of tunic, belt, scapular, and hood, and a large flowing garment called the cowl for public worship.本笃习惯通常是黑色,袍,腰带,肩胛,引擎盖组成,并大量流向服装呼吁市民崇拜的整流罩。During the Middle Ages, the Benedictines were called the Black Monks.在中世纪,被称为本笃黑色僧侣。

Until the end of the 11th century, the Benedictines were the only monastic order in the West.直到11世纪末,仅在本笃是西方修道秩序。They played important roles in apostolic activity, in education, and in the arts.他们发挥了重要作用使徒的活动,在教育,和艺术。Peter Abelard, the Venerable Bede, and Pope Gregory VII were Benedictines.彼得阿贝拉尔,老贝代,和罗马教皇格列高利七世被笃。

Cyprian Davis, OSB塞浦路斯戴维斯,定向结构刨花板

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Butler, Cuthbert, Benedictine Monachism: Studies in Benedictine Life and Rule, 2d ed.巴特勒,卡斯伯特,笃Monachism:在本笃生活和规则,2版研究。(1924; repr. 1961); Daly, Lowrie J., Benedictine Monasticism (1965; repr. 1970); Meisel, Anthony C., and Del Mastro, ML, trans., The Rule of St. Benedict (1975); Mork, Wulston, The Benedictine Way (1987). (1924年,再版1961年。)达利,劳里j的,本笃会修道院(1965年;。再版1970年)。迈泽尔,安东尼C.与德尔马斯特罗,毫升,跨,圣本笃规则(1975年);莫克,Wulston,本笃路(1987)。


The Benedictine Order本笃令

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The Benedictine Order comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as "black monks".本笃令包括僧侣生活在圣本笃规则,俗称“黑和尚”之称。The order will be considered in this article under the following sections:该命令将被视为在本节下以下文章:

I. History of the Order;一,历史的秩序;

II.二。Lay brothers, Oblates, Confraters, and Nuns;奠定兄弟,献主会,Confraters,和尼姑;

III.三。Influence and Work of the Order;影响和治安工作;

IV.四。Present Condition of the Order;现状的秩序;

V. Benedictines of Special Distinction;五,本笃特别区分;

VI.六。Other Foundations Originating from, or Based upon, the Order.起源于其他基金会,或依据,订购。

I. HISTORY OF THE ORDER一,历史的秩序

The term Order as here applied to the spiritual family of St. Benedict is used in a sense differing somewhat from that in which it is applied to other religious orders.该术语适用于订购因为这里的圣本笃精神的家庭是用在不同的,在它适用于其他宗教的订单有所感。In its ordinary meaning the term implies one complete religious family, made up of a number of monasteries, all of which are subject to a common superior or "general" who usually resides either in Rome or in the mother-house of the order, if there be one.在其普通含义一词意味着一个完整的宗教家庭,由一个寺庙,所有这些都受到数达一共同的上级或“一般”谁不是通常居住在罗马还是在母亲的命令房子,如果存在的话。 It may be divided into various provinces, according to the countries over which it is spread, each provincial head being immediately subject to the general, just as the superior of each house is subject to his own provincial.它可分为不同的省份,根据对其有蔓延,每个省头部被立即受到广大发展中国家一样每座房子的优越,是受自己的省。 This system of centralized authority has never entered into the organization of the Benedictine Order.这个系统的集中权力从来没有进入本笃治安组织。There is no general or common superior over the whole order other than the pope himself, and the order consists, so to speak, of what are practically a number of orders, called "congregations", each of which is autonomous; all are united, not under the obedience to one general superior, but only by the spiritual bond of allegiance to the same Rule, which may be modified according to the circumstances of each particular house or congregation.有没有对整个秩序比教皇本人一般或其他共同的上级,并命令组成,可以说实际上是一个什么样的订单数量,所谓的“教会”,每一个都是独立的,全是统一的,不属于服从一个一般优越,但只能由效忠相同的规则,这可能会被修改根据每个特定的房子或聚集的情况下精神纽带。 It is in this latter sense that the term Order is applied in this article to all monasteries professing to observe St. Benedict's Rule.这是这个词令在此向所有寺庙信奉遵守圣本笃的规则适用于文章这后一种意义。

Beginnings of the Order该命令的开始

St. Benedict did not, strictly speaking, found an order; we have no evidence that he ever contemplated the spread of his Rule to any monasteries besides those which he had himself established.圣本笃没有,严格来说,找到了一个订单,我们没有证据,他曾经设想的,除了那些他曾亲自建立了自己的规则蔓延到任何寺庙。 Subiaco was his original foundation and the cradle of the institute.萨伯卡是他原来的基础和研究所的摇篮。From St. Gregory we learn that twelve other monasteries in the vicinity of Subiaco also owed their origin to him, and that when he was obliged to leave that neighbourhood he founded the celebrated Abbey of Monte Cassino, which eventually become the centre whence his Rule and institute spread.从我们了解到,圣格雷戈里中12个其他寺院附近的萨伯卡还欠其原产地为他,当他不得不离开他的邻居创立了著名的蒙特卡西诺修道院,最终成为他的规则和中心何处研究所的蔓延。 These fourteen are the only monasteries of which there is any reliable evidence of having been founded during St. Benedict's lifetime.这十四个是其中有任何期间有圣本笃的一生只有寺庙创建可靠的证据。The tradition of St. Placid's mission to Sicily in 534, which first gained general credence in the eleventh century, though accepted as genuine by such writers as Mabillon and Ruinart, is now generally admitted to be mere romance.圣普莱西德的使命西西里534,其中第一次获得了在十一世纪普遍接受为真正的信任,但作为Mabillon和Ruinart这样的作家,传统是现在人们普遍承认仅仅是浪漫。 Very little more can be said in favour of the supposed introduction of the Benedictine Rule into Gaul by St. Maurus in 543, though it also has been strenuously upheld by many responsible writers.很少更可以说在本笃统治的预期介绍到高卢圣毛鲁斯在543的青睐,虽然它也已被许多负责任的作家极力坚持。At any rate, evidences for it are so extremely doubtful that it cannot be seriously regarded as historical.无论如何,因为它非常值得怀疑的证据是如此,它不能被视为严重的历史。There is reason for believing that it was the third Abbot of Monte Cassino who began to spread a knowledge of the Rule beyond the circle of St. Benedict's own foundations.没有理由相信,这是第三住持的Monte稼轩谁开始传播超越了圣本笃的圆了自己的基础规则的知识。It is at least certain that when Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards about the year 580, the monks fled to Rome, where they were housed by Pope Pelagius II in a monastery adjoining the Lateran Basilica.这至少是一定的,当蒙特卡西诺了约580年被解职的伦巴,僧侣们逃到罗马,在那里他们被安置在一个修道院由教皇伯拉纠第二毗邻的拉特兰大教堂。 There, in the very centre of the ecclesiastical world, they remained for upwards of a hundred and forty years, and it seems highly probable that this residence in so prominent a position constituted an important factor in the diffusion of a knowledge of Benedictine monasticism.在那里,非常的教会世界的中心,他们仍然为一百四十年以上的,似乎极有可能,这在如此突出的位置居住构成了一本笃修道知识扩散的一个重要因素。 It is generally agreed also that when Gregory the Great embraced the monastic state and converted his family palace on Apostle, it was the Benedictine form of monachism that he adopted there.人们普遍还商定,当格里高利大寺院拥护国家和他的家人折算使徒宫,这是本笃会的形式,他monachism通过那里。

It was from the monastery of St. Andrew in Rome that St. Augustine, the prior, and his forty companions set forth in 595 on their mission for the evangelization of England, and with them St. Benedict's idea of the monastic life first emerged from Italy.这是从罗马的圣安德鲁修道院,圣奥古斯丁,事先和他的同伴四十载于595年为英国的福传使命,并与他们的圣本笃修道生活的理念,从首次出现意大利。 The arguments and authorities for this statement have been admirably marshalled and estimated by Reyner in his "Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Angliâ" (Douai, 1626), and his proofs have been adjudged by Mabillon to amount to demonstration.的论点和当局的这一声明已经令人钦佩调动和Reyner估计在他的“Apostolatus Benedictinorum在英吉利”(杜埃,1626),和他的证据已被裁定为马毕伦金额示范。[Cf.[比照。Butler, "Was St. Augustine a Benedictine?"管家“,是圣奥古斯丁本笃?”in Downside Review, III (1884).] At their various stopping places during the journey through France the monks left behind them traditions concerning their rule and form of life, and probably also some copies of the Rule, for we have several evidences of its having gradually introduced into most of the chief monasteries of Gaul during the seventh century.在下方评论,三(1884)。]在其各种停车的地方,通过法国在旅途中关于其背后的生活规律和形式,可能也有一些传统规则的副本左边的和尚,因为我们有证据的若干已逐步引入到行政高卢大部分寺庙,在公元7世纪。 Lérins, for instance, one of the oldest, which had been founded by St. Honoratus in 375, probably received its first knowledge of the Benedictine Rule from the visit of St. Augustine and his companions in 596. Lérins,例如,最古老的,它是由圣Honoratus成立于375,一个可能收到的圣奥古斯丁和他的同伴在596访问其本笃规则的第一认识。 Dismayed by the accounts they had heard of the ferocity of the English, the missionaries had sent their leader back to Rome to implore the pope to allow them to abandon the object of their journey.由他们的英语听说帐户凶猛惊惶,传教士派出他们的领导人回到罗马教皇恳求让他们放弃他们的旅程的对象。During his absence they remained at Lérins.在他离港期间,他们仍然在Lérins。Not long after their departure, Aygulph, Abbot of Fleury, was called in to restore the discipline and he probably introduced the full Benedictine observance; for when St. Benedict Biscop visited Lérins later on in the seventh century he received the Benedictine habit and tonsure from the hands of Abbot Aygulph.他们离开后不久,Aygulph,艾博特的弗勒里,被称为在恢复纪律,他大概介绍了充分笃遵守,因为当圣本笃比斯科普访问Lérins稍后在第七世纪,他收到了本笃习惯,从剃度住持Aygulph手中。 Lérins continued through several centuries to supply from its monks bishops for the chief churches of Southern Gaul, and to them perhaps may be traced the general diffusion of St. Benedictine's Rule throughout that country. Lérins继续通过几个世纪以来,以供应其僧侣行政南部高卢教会主教,对他们来说也许可以追溯到该国各地的圣本笃的规则的一般扩散。There, as also in Switzerland, it had to contend with and supplement the much stricter Irish or Celtic Rule introduced by St. Columbanus and others.在那里,这也是在瑞士,它已与和补充更加严格的爱尔兰或凯尔特规则由圣Columbanus和其他介绍。In or practised side by side.或受方实行的一面。Gregory of Tours says that at Ainay, in the sixth century, the monks "followed the rules of Basil, Cassian, Caesarius, and other fathers, taking and using whatever seemed proper to the conditions of time and place", and doubtless the same liberty was taken with the Benedictine Rule when it reached them.格雷戈里的旅行团说,在Ainay,在第六世纪,僧侣“遵循罗勒,卡西安,Caesarius,和其他父亲的规则,采取一切似乎并使用恰当的时间和地点的条件”,无疑是同样的自由采取与本笃规则当它到达它们。 In other monasteries it entirely displaced the earlier codes, and had by the end of the eighth century so completely superseded them throughout France that Charlemagne could gravely doubt whether monks of any kind had been possible before St. Benedict's time.在其他寺庙它完全取代较早的代码,由第八世纪末完全取代了这样他们在整个法国查理曼可能严重怀疑是否有任何形式的僧侣圣本笃前已的时间可能。 The authority of Charlemagne and of his son, Louis the Pious, did much, as we shall presently see, towards propagating the principles of the Father of western monachism.的查理曼和他的儿子,路易斯的虔诚,机关做了很多,正如我们将看到,目前对传播西方monachism的父亲的原则。

St. Augustine and his monks established the first English Benedictine monastery at Canterbury soon after their arrival in 597.圣奥古斯丁和他的僧侣在坎特伯雷建立在597后不久,他们到达第一个英文本笃会修道院。Other foundations quickly followed as the Benedictine missionaries carried the light of the Gospel with them throughout the length and breadth of the land.其他基金会紧接着进行的本笃会传教士与他们整个的长度和广度的土地的福音的光。It was said that St. Benedict seemed to have taken possession of the country as his own, and the history of his order in England is the history of the English Church.据说,圣本笃似乎已为自己的国家拥有,并为他在英格兰的历史是英国教会的历史。Nowhere did the order link itself so intimately with people and institutions, secular as well as religious, as in England.无处没有订购链接本身,以便密切与人民和机构,以及宗教世俗在英国。Through the influence of saintly men, Wilfrid, Benedict Biscop, and Dunstan, the Benedictine Rule spread with extraordinary rapidity, and in the North, when once the Easter controversy had been settled and the Roman supremacy acknowledged (Synod of Whitby, 664), it was adopted in most of the monasteries that had been founded by the Celtic missionaries from Iona.通过对圣洁的人,威尔弗里德,笃比斯科普,和邓斯坦,与本笃规则非凡的速度蔓延,并在北,影响及至复活节争​​议已经解决和罗马至高无上承认(主教惠特,664),它通过在已被由Iona的凯尔特传教士建立的寺庙最多。 Many of the episcopal sees of England were founded and governed by the Benedictines, and no less than nine of the old cathedrals were served by the black monks of the priories attached to them.许多主教英格兰看到的成立,并受本笃,且不得少于九个月的老教堂是由附属于他们的修道院僧侣的黑人担任。Even when the bishop was not himself a monk, he held the place of titular abbot, and the community formed his chapter.甚至当主教是不是自己是一个和尚,他担任名誉住持的地方,与社会各界形成了新篇章。

Germany owed its evangelization to the English Benedictines, Sts.德国欠其福传的英文本笃,STS的。 Willibrord and Boniface, who preached the Faith, there in the seventh and eighth centuries and founded several celebrated abbeys.威利布罗德和博尼法斯,谁鼓吹信仰,有在第七和第八世纪,建立几个著名的修道院。From thence spread, hand in hand, Christianity and Benedictine monasticism, to Denmark and Scandinavia, and from the latter even to Iceland.从那里蔓延,携手并进,基督教和本笃修道,丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚半岛,并从后者甚至冰岛。In Spain monasteries had been founded by the Visigothic kings as early as the latter half of the fifth century, but it was probably some two or three hundred years later St. Benedict's Rule was adopted.在西班牙寺庙已成立由西哥特国王早在五世纪后半期早,但它可能是一些二,三百年后圣本笃的规则获得通过。Mabillon gives 640 as the date of its introduction into that country (Acta Sanctorum OSB, saec. I, praef. 74), but his conclusions on this point are not now generally accepted.马毕伦给作为其进入该国实施的日期640(兽类Sanctorum定向结构刨花板,国家外汇管理局。我praef。74),但在这一点上他的结论是不是现在普遍接受。 In Switzerland the disciples of Columbanus had founded monasteries early in the seventh century, two of the best known being St. Gall's, established by the saint of that name, and Dissentis (612), founded by St. Sigisbert.在瑞士Columbanus创办了寺庙的弟子在七世纪初,有两位最著名的是圣加仑的,由该名圣成立,Dissentis(612),由圣Sigisbert成立。 The Celtic rule was not entirely supplanted by that of St. Benedict until more than a hundred years later, when the change was effected chiefly through the influence of Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne.凯尔特的规则并不完全取代由圣本笃,直至超过一百年之后,当变化是影响通过丕平短,在查理曼的父亲的影响为主。 By the ninth century, however, the Benedictine had become the only form of monastic life throughout the whole of Western Europe, excepting Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, where the Celtic observance still prevailed for another century or two.第九届世纪,然而,本笃已成为寺院的生活贯穿于整个西欧的唯一形式,除苏格兰,威尔士和爱尔兰,那里的凯尔特遵守仍有一个世纪或两个占了上风。 At the time of the Reformation there were nine Benedictine houses in Ireland and six in Scotland, besides numerous abbeys of Cistercians.在时间的改革有九笃房屋在爱尔兰和苏格兰的六除了熙许多修道院。

Benedictine monasticism never took such deep root in the eastern countries of Europe as it had done in the West.本笃修道从来没有发生在欧洲东部的国家,例如深根正如它在西方完成。The Bohemians and the Poles, nevertheless, owed their conversion respectively to the Benedictine missionaries Adalbert (d. 997) and Casimir (d. 1058), whilst Bavaria and what is now the Austrian Empire were evangelized first by monks from Gaul in the seventh century, and later on by St. Boniface and his disciples.的波希米亚人和波兰人,不过,欠他们的转换分别向本笃会传教士阿德尔伯特(四997)和Casimir(草1058),而巴伐利亚州和现在的奥匈帝国被evangelized首先由僧人从高卢在第七世纪,后来由圣博尼费斯和他的弟子。 A few of the larger abbeys founded in these countries during the ninth and tenth centuries still exist, but the number of foundations was always small in comparison with those farther west.一个在这些国家建立在第九和第十世纪仍然存在较大的修道院,但为数不多的基础是与那些一直向西比较小。Into Lithuania and the Eastern Empire the Benedictine Rule never penetrated in early times, and the great schism between East and West effectually prevented any possibilities of development in that direction.进入立陶宛和东罗马帝国本笃规则从来没有在早期侵入,以及东,西部大分裂有效地阻止这个方向发展的任何可能性。

Early Constitution of the Order早期的宪法秩序

During the first four or five centuries after the death of St. Benedict there existed no organic bond of union amongst the various abbeys other than the Rule itself and obedience to the Holy See.在最初的四,五年后的圣本笃的死亡之间不存在几个世纪比其他规则本身和服从罗马教廷各修道院工会有机结合。According to the holy legislator's provisions each monastery constituted an independent family, self-contained, autonomous, managing its own affairs, and subject to no external authority except that of the local diocesan bishop, whose powers of control were, however, limited to certain specific occasions.根据神圣的立法者的规定,每个寺院构成一个独立的家庭,自我控制,自主性,管理自己的事务,不受任何除了当地的教区主教,其权力的控制,但是,外部权力,仅限于某些特定场合。 The earliest departures from this system occurred when several of the greater abbeys began sending out offshoots, under the form of daughter-houses retaining some sort of dependence upon the mother abbey from which they sprang.从这个系统最早离港时发生的几大修道院开始发出下女儿会址保留一些修道院后,母亲从他们的依赖某种形式的兴起分支。 This mode of propagation, together with the various reforms that began to appear in the eleventh and succeeding centuries, paved the way for the system of independent congregations, still a feature peculiar to the Benedictine Order.这种传播模式,随着各项改革,开始出现在第十一届和继承百年来,一起铺平了独立的教会,仍是一个功能独特的笃秩序系统的方式。

Reforms改革

A system which comprised many hundreds of monasteries and many thousands of monks, spread over a number of different countries, without any unity of organization; which was exposed, moreover, to all the dangers and disturbances inseparable from those troublous times of kingdom-making; such a system was inevitably unable to keep worldliness, and even worse vices, wholly out of its midst.一个包括由寺庙和数以千计的僧侣,通过各种不同的一些国家蔓延数以百计的系统,没有任何统一的组织,这是暴露出来,而且,所有的危险和干扰来自英国为使这些艰难的时候分不开的;这种制度是必然无法跟上世故,甚至更糟恶习,完全摆脱了中间。 Hence it cannot be denied that the monks often failed to live up to the monastic ideal and sometimes even fell short of the Christian and moral standards.因此,它不能否认,僧侣往往没有辜负寺院理想,有时甚至低于基督教和道德标准。There were failures and scandals in Benedictine history, just as there were declensions from the right path outside the cloister, for monks are, after all, but men.有失败和在本笃史的丑闻,只是因为有很多来自外面的回廊declensions正确的道路,为僧侣,毕竟不过是人。But there does not seem ever to have been a period of widespread and general corruption in the order.但是,似乎没有以往任何时候都在为了一个普遍和一般腐败的时期。Here and there the members of some particular house allowed abuses and relaxations of rule to creep in, so that they seemed to be falling away from the true spirit of their state, but whenever such did occur they soon called forth efforts for a restoration of primitive austerity; and these constantly recurring reform movements form one of the surest evidences of the vitality which has pervaded the Benedictine Institute throughout its entire history.在这里和那里的一些特定的房子成员滥用职权和规则允许的蠕变松弛了,所以,他们似乎在下降,从他们的国家的真正精神了,但每当他们很快就发生了这样的要求提出了一个简单的恢复工作紧缩政策,而这些不断重复的改革运动构成了最可靠​​的生命力已经弥漫在其整个历史上笃研究所依据之一。 It is important to note, moreover, that all such reforms as ever achieved any measure of success came invariably from within, and were not the result of pressure from outside the order.重要的是要注意,此外,所有这些改革,不断取得任何程度的成功总是来自内部,而不是来自外界压力的结果的顺序。

The first of the reforms directed towards confederating the monastic houses of a single kingdom was set on foot early in the ninth century by Benedict of Aniane under the auspices of Charlemagne and Louis the Pious.在迈向confederating单一王国的寺院房屋执导的改革首先是集徒步笃初由阿尼亚讷根据查理和路易的虔诚的主持下在第九世纪。 Though a Benedictine himself born in Aquitaine and trained at Saint-Seine near Dijon, Benedict was imbued with the rigid austerity of the East, and in his Abbey of Aniane practiced a mode of life that was severe in the extreme.虽然自己是出生在阿基坦和圣第戎附近的塞纳河训练笃,笃是充满了东方的刚性紧缩,并在他的阿尼亚讷实行修道院的生活模式,是在极端严重。 Over Louis he acquired an ascendancy which grew stronger as years went on.他在路易斯的优势获得了成长壮大为年继续进行。At his instigation Louis built for him a monastery adjoining his own palace at Aix-la-Chapelle, which was intended to serve as a model according to which all others were to be reformed, and to bring about this end Benedict was invested with a general authority over all the monasteries of the empire.在他的煽动路易斯为他制造的埃克斯香格里拉- Chapelle的,其目的是作为一种模式,根据所有的其他人进行改革,并实现这个目标的圣本笃修道院毗邻的是他自己的宫殿与一般投资管理局对所有帝国的寺院。 Absolute uniformity of discipline, observance, and habit, after the pattern of the royal monastery, was then the general scheme which was launched at an assembly of all the abbots at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) in 817 and embodied in a series of eighty capitula passed by the meeting.绝对的纪律,遵守和习惯后,皇家寺院格局,均匀度,当时的总计划,该计划推出的所有在亚琛在817(艾克斯香格里拉- Chapelle的)方丈大会和一系列体现八十投降通过了会议。Though by reason of the very minuteness of these capitula, which made them vexatious and ultimately intolerable, this scheme of centralized authority lasted only for the lifetime of Benedict himself, the capitula (printed in full in Herrgott, "Vetus Disciplina Monastica", Paris, 1726) were recognized as supplying a much needed addition to St. Benedict's Rule concerning points not sufficiently provided for therein, and as filling much the same place then as the approved Constitutions of a monastery or congregation do now.虽然由这些投降,这使得他们无理取闹,并最终无法忍受的原因非常微小,这种中央集权的计划只持续了本笃本人,投降一生(全印在Herrgott,“老Disciplina Monastica”,巴黎, 1726年)被确认为提供了急需的除了圣本笃的规则关于其中所规定不够分,并作为填充大致相同的地方,那作为一个修道院或教会现在要做的批准宪法。 A century later, in 910, the first real reform that produced any widespread and general effect was commenced at the Abbey of Cluny in Burgundy, under St. Berno, its first abbot.一个世纪以后,在910,第一次真正的改革,产生任何影响广泛和普遍开始在勃艮第的克吕尼修道院,圣Berno下,其第一住持。 The object was an elaboration of the Benedictine ideal, for the uniform preservation of which a highly centralized system of government, hitherto unknown to Benedictine monachism, except as suggested by St. Benedict of Aniane, was introduced.该对象是一个理想的本笃阐述,为维护统一,其中一个高度集中的政府制度,迄今未知本笃monachism除建议由圣本笃的阿尼亚讷进行了介绍。 It was in fact the establishment of a veritable order, in the common acceptance of that term, within the Benedictine family, the abbot of Cluny retaining an actual headship over all dependent houses, the latter being governed only by priors as his vicars.这实际上是一个名副其实的秩序的建立,在共同接受这一术语,在本笃会家庭,住持克吕尼保留所有相关的房子比实际校长,后者只能作为他的维卡斯先验管辖。 For two centuries or more Cluny was probably the chief religious influence in the Latin Church, as it was also the first abbey to obtain exemption from episcopal oversight.对于两个世纪或更可能是克吕尼行政在拉丁美洲教会宗教的影响,因为它也是第一个修道院主教监督获得豁免。Through the efforts of Berno's immediate successors the congregation grew apace, partly by founding new houses and partly by incorporating those already existing, so that by the twelfth century Cluny had become the centre and head of an order embracing some 314 monasteries in all parts of Europe, France, Italy, the Empire, Lorraine, Spain, England, Scotland, and Poland.通过Berno的直接后继的努力众增长迅速,部分是由新成立的房屋,部分纳入那些已经存在,那么到了十二世纪克吕尼已成为中心和命令头拥抱在欧洲各地的一些314寺庙,法国,意大利,帝国,洛林,西班牙,英格兰,苏格兰,和波兰。 Although the congregation had its own constitutions and was absolutely autonomous, its members always claimed to be and were actually recognized as real Benedictines; hence it was not strictly a new order but only a reformed congregation within the order.虽然聚集了自己的宪法,是完全自主的,其成员一直声称要和本笃,实际上是真正认可,因此它不是严格意义上的新秩序,但只有在改革的顺序众。 (See CLUNY).(见克吕尼)。

Following the example of Cluny, several other reforms were initiated from time to time in different parts during the next three centuries, which while taking the Rule of St. Benedict as a basis, aimed frequently at a greater austerity of life than was practised by the black monks or contemplated by the holy Rule.继克吕尼例如,启动了一些其他方面的改革,在未来的三个世纪,它同时考虑了圣本笃规则为基础,旨在在更大的人生紧缩频繁,不时在不同地区的时间比由实行黑和尚或设想的神圣原则。 Some were even semi-eremitical in their constitution, and one - Fontevrault - consisted of double monasteries, the religious of both sexes being under the rule of the abbess.有些人甚至半,在其宪法eremitical,一个 - 丰特夫罗 - 双寺院组成,两者的住持下的宗教统治的男女。 In dealing with these reformed congregations a distinction must be made between those which, like Cluny, continued to be considered as part of the main Benedictine body, and those which constituted practically new and independent orders, like Cîteaux, and have always been looked upon as outside the Benedictine confederation, though still professing the Rule of St. Benedict in some form or other.在这些改革教会必须区分之间的,像克鲁尼,继续作为主要考虑作出笃身体的一部分,以及那些几乎构成新的,独立的订单,如Cîteaux,并一直看成处理以外的本笃邦联,但仍然信奉的圣本笃在某种形式或其他规则。 Those of the former category are treated here, since they and their successors constitute the order as we understand it at the present day.前职类的待遇在这里,因为他们和他们的继任者构成的命令,我们理解在目前一天。In the latter class the most important were Camaldoli (1009), Vallombrosa (1039), Grammont (1076), Cîteaux (1098), Fontevrault (1099), Savigny (1112), Monte Vergine (1119), Sylvestrines (1231), Celestines (1254), and Olivetans (1319).在后一类最重要的卡马尔多利(1009),瓦伦布罗萨(1039),格拉蒙(1076),Cîteaux(1098),丰特夫罗(1099),萨维尼(1112),蒙地Vergine(1119),Sylvestrines(1231),Celestines (1254),和Olivetans(1319)。All of these will be described in detail under the respective titles.所有这些都将被详细描述了根据各自​​的冠军。The influence of Cluny, even in monasteries which did not join its congregation or adopt any of the other reforms mentioned above, was large and far-reaching.对克吕尼影响,即使是在寺院没有加入其教会或采取上述任何其他方面的改革,又大又深远。Many such abbeys, including Subiaco and Monte Cassino, adopted its customs and practices, and modelled their life and spirit according to the example it set.许多这样的修道院,其中包括萨伯卡和Monte稼轩,通过其习俗和做法,并参照他们的生活和精神,根据它设置的例子。Monasteries such as these often became in turn the centres of revival and reform in their respective neighbourhoods, so that during the tenth and eleventh centuries there arose several free unions of monasteries based on a uniform observance derived from a central abbey.如这些寺院成为反过来往往在各自的街区复兴和改革的中心,在第十和第十一世纪,以便有出现关于从中央修道院派生一个统一的遵守寺院的几个自由工会。 These unions, the germ of the congregational system which developed later on, deserve a somewhat detailed enumeration here.这些工会,公理系统的开发稍后胚芽,应该有一个比较详细列举在这里。In England there had been three distinct efforts at systematic organization.在英格兰出现了三个不同的努力,在系统的组织。 The various monasteries founded by St. Augustine and his fellow-monks had preserved some sort of union, as was only natural with new foundations in a pagan country proceeding from a common source of origin.由圣奥古斯丁和他的同胞,各寺庙僧侣成立了保留某种形式的联盟,因为只有在一个异教徒的国家进行新的基础上,从原产地常见的来源自然。 As Christianity spread through the land this necessity for mutual dependence diminished, but when St. Benedict Biscop came to England with Archbishop Theodore in 669, it fell to him to foster a spirit of uniformity amongst the various Benedictine monasteries then existing.作为基督教通过土地这个相互依存的必要性减少,但传播时圣本笃比斯科普来到英格兰与大主教西奥多在669,下跌给他,以促进之间当时存在的各种本笃会修道院精神的统一性。 In the tenth century St. Dunstan set himself to reform the English monastic houses on the model of Fleury and of what he had seen successfully carried out at Ghent during his exile in Flanders.在十世纪圣邓斯坦自己设置改革对的弗勒模型和英国寺院的房子他所看到的成功地进行了在比利时根特在他流亡在法兰德斯。 With his co-operation St. Ethelwold brought out his "Concordia Regularis", which is interesting as an early attempt to procure a uniform observance in all the monasteries of a nation.随着他的合作带来了他的圣Ethelwold“协和Regularis”,这是作为一个早期尝试所有的采购,一个国家寺院一个统一的遵守有趣。 A century later Lanfranc continued the same idea by issuing a series of statutes regulating the life of the English Benedictines.一个世纪后继续发出兰弗朗克一份规范的英文本笃生活法规系列同样的想法。It should be noted here that these several attempts were directed only towards securing outward uniformity, and that as yet there was apparently no idea of a congregation, properly so called, with a central source of all legislative authority.应当指出的是,这几次试图是针对只有争取向外均匀,而且尚未有显然是不知道的聚集,所谓正确的一切立法与中央权威的来源。 In Fra Chaise-Dieu (Auvergne), St. Victor (Marseilles), St. Claude, Lérins, Sauve-Majour, Tiron, and Val-des-Choux, were all centres of larger or smaller groups of houses, in each of which there was uniformity of rule as well as more or less dependence upon the chief house.法兰克福机场贵妃- Dieu酒店(奥弗涅),圣维克多(马赛),圣克劳德,Lérins,索维- Majour,钛铁试剂,和Val -德- Choux,都是较大的房屋或小团体中心,在每一个有统一的规则,以及或多或少的依赖于行政房子。Fleury adopted the Cluniac reform, as did also St. Benignus of Dijon, though without subjection to that organization; and all were eventually absorbed by the congregation of St. Maur in the seventeenth century, excepting St. Claude, which preserved its independence until the Revolution, Val-des-Choux, which became Cistercian, and Lérins, which in 1505 joined the Italian congregation of St. Justina of Padua.弗勒里通过了克吕尼改革一样,也虽然该组织没有隶属圣第戎Benignus;并全部获得最终被圣Maur在十七世纪众吸收,除圣克劳德,它保留直至其独立革命,缬氨酸,德- Choux,成为修道院,并Lérins,这在1505年加入意大利帕多瓦圣众。In Italy the chief groups had their centres at Cluse in Piedmont, at Fonte Avellana, which united to the Camaldolese congregation in 1569, La Cava, which joined the congregation of St. Justina in the fifteenth century, and Sasso-Vivo, which was suppressed as a separate federation in the same century and its forty houses united to other congregations of the Benedictine family.在意大利的主要团体曾在Cluse其中心在皮埃蒙特,在丰特榛,其中美国在1569年,拉卡瓦,它加入了15世纪的圣贾斯蒂娜众,萨索,体内该Camaldolese众,其中被抑制作为一个独立的联邦同一个世纪和第四房屋团结本笃其他家庭教会。 The monasteries of Germany were divided chiefly between Fulda and Hirschau, both of which eventually joined the Bursfeld Union.该寺院的德国之间的分歧主要是富尔达和Hirschau,两者最终加入Bursfeld联盟。(See BURSFELD.) In Austria there were two groups of monasteries, the abbeys of Melk (Molck or Melek) and Salzburg being the chief houses. (见BURSFELD。)在奥地利有两组寺庙,梅尔克(Molck或Melek)和萨尔茨堡修道院作为主要的房屋。They continued thus until well into the seventeenth century, when systematic congregations were organized in compliance with the Tridentine decrees, as well be described in due course.因此,他们继续,直到进入17世纪,当系统的教会是与德律但丁法令遵守组织,以及在适当时候说明。Other free unions, for purposes of mutual help and similarity of discipline, were to be found also in Scotland, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary, and elsewhere, in which the same idea was carried out, viz., not so much a congregation in its later sense, with a centralized form of government, as a mere banding together of houses for the better maintenance of rule and policy.其他自由工会的相互帮助和相似的纪律,宗旨,都可以看到在苏格兰,斯堪的纳维亚,波兰,匈牙利也和其他地方,在其中进行了同样的想法,即。,没有那么多聚集在其后来意义上说,与一个集中的政府仅仅作为一种形式带,共同为规则和政策更好地维护房屋。

Notwithstanding all these reform movements and unions of monasteries, a large number of Benedictine abbeys in different countries retained to the end of the twelfth century, and even later, their original independence, and this state of things was only terminated by the regulations of the Fourth Lateran Council, in 1215, which were to change materially the whole trend of Benedictine polity and history.尽管所有这些改革运动和工会的寺院,一本笃修道院在不同国家的大量保留到了十二世纪末,甚至后来,他们原来的独立性,这是国家的事情,只有第四的规定终止拉特兰安理会在1215年,这是物质上改变笃政体和历史的整体趋势。 By the twelfth canon of this council it was decreed that all the monasteries of each ecclesiastical province were to unite into a congregation.到本会第十二届佳能这是命令,所有的教会省各寺庙,团结成为一个众。The abbots of each province or congregation were to meet in chapter every third year, with power to pass laws binding on all, and to appoint from amongst their own number "visitors" who were to make canonical visitation of the monasteries and to report upon their condition to the ensuing chapter.每个省或聚集的住持均满足第三章中每一年,有权通过法律对所有具有约束力,并任命自己的号码从中间“游客”谁是使典型探视的寺院,并报告后,其随后的章节条件。 In each congregation one of the abbots was to be elected president, and the one so chosen presided over the triennial chapter and exercised a certain limited and well-defined authority over the houses of his congregation, in such a way as not to interfere with the independent authority of each abbot in his own monastery.在每一个教会的方丈之一是当选总统,所以选择了一个三年期章主持,行使了他的会众的房子一定的限制和明确界定的权力以这样一种方式,以避免干扰每个独立的权威在他自己的寺院的住持。 England was the first and for some time the only country to give this new arrangement a fair trial.英国是第一个在一段时间内的唯一国家给予这项新安排公正的审判。It was not until after the issue of the Bull "Benedictina" by Benedict XII, in 1336, that other countries, somewhat tardily, organized their national congregation in conformity with the designs of the Lateran Council.直到后的公牛“Benedictina”本笃十二,在1336年的问题,即其他国家有点慢慢地,有组织符合安理会的lateran设计本国众。 Some of these have continued to the present day, and this congregational system is now, with very few exceptions and some slight variations in matters of detail, the normal form of government throughout the order.其中有一些已经持续到今天,这个公理系统现在除了极少数例外,并在细节方面有些微差异,政府的整个秩序的正常形式。

Progress of the Order订单进展

At the time of this important change in the constitution of the order, the black monks of St. Benedict were to be found in almost every country of Western Europe, including Iceland, where they had two abbeys, founded in the twelfth century, and from which missionaries had penetrated even into Greenland and the lands of the Eskimo.在这个在宪法秩序的重要变化的时候,圣本笃黑色僧侣将在几乎每一个国家的西欧,包括冰岛,在那里他们有两个修道院,成立于12世纪中发现,从其中传教士已经渗透甚至到格陵兰和爱斯基摩的土地。 At the beginning of the fourteenth century the order is estimated to have comprised the enormous number of 37,000 monasteries.在的14世纪初,估计有秩序构成了巨大数量37000寺院。It had up to that time given to the Church no less than 24 popes, 200 cardinals, 7,000 archbishops, 15,000 bishops, and over 1,500 canonized saints.它已达到当时的教会给予不少于24教皇,200名枢机主教,7000大主教,主教,当时15000,并超过1500册封圣人。 It had enrolled amongst its members 20 emperors, 10 empresses, 47 kings, and 50 queens.它招收其成员20个皇帝,10位皇后,47国王,王后和50。And these numbers continued to increase by reason of the additional strength which accrued to the order form its consolidation under the new system.而这些数字在继续增加的额外力量,因此累积到其订单在新制度下巩固的原因。In the sixteenth century the Reformation and the religious wars spread havoc amongst its monasteries and reduced their number to about 5,000.在十六世纪的宗教改革和宗教战争浩劫之中蔓延的寺庙,减少其数量约5000人。In Denmark, Iceland, and Sweden, where several houses had joined the German (Bursfeld) Union, the order was entirely obliterated by the Lutherans about 1551 and its property confiscated by the crown.在丹麦,冰岛和瑞典,其中几间房屋已经加入了德国(Bursfeld)联盟,该命令是由路德会完全抹杀约1551和其财产由官方没收。 The arbitrary rule of Joseph II of Austria (1765-90) and the French Revolution and its consequences completed the work of destruction, so that in the early part of the nineteenth century, the order numbered scarcely more than fifty monasteries all told.在奥地利的约瑟夫二世(1765年至1790年)和法国革命及其后果的专制统治完成了销毁工作,所以,在十九世纪初,为了编号五十寺院几乎是所有告诉。 The last seventy years, however, have witnessed a remarkable series of revivals and an accession of missionary enterprise, with the result that there are now over one hundred and fifty monasteries of black monks, or, including affiliated congregations and convents of nuns, a total of nearly seven hundred.过去70年,但是,目睹了一系列显着复苏,结果一传教企业的加入,现在有超过一百及黑人僧侣,或包括附属教会和修道院的修女,共五十寺庙近七百名。 These revivals and examples of expansion will now be treated in detail under the headings of the various congregations, which will bring the history of the order down to the present day.这些复兴和扩展的例子,现在被视为下详细的各种聚会,这将带来的秩序下降到目前的一天历史的标题。

(1) The English Congregation.-The English were the first to put into practice the decrees of the Lateran Council.(1)英语Congregation.,英国是第一个付诸实施的lateran理事会法令。Some time was necessarily spent in preliminary preparations, and the first general chapter was held at Oxford in 1218, from which time up to the dissolution under Henry VIII the triennial chapters appear to have been held more or less regularly.有些时候不一定是用在前期准备工作,第一章一般是在牛津大学举行的1218年,从时间到下亨利八世解散三年期的章节似乎已经或多或少定期举行。 (Details of these chapters will be found in Reyner, "Apostolatus Benedictinorum".) At first only the monasteries of the southern province of Canterbury were represented, but in 1338, in consequence of the Bull "Benedictina", the two provinces were united and the English congregation definitely established. (这些章节的详情,将在Reyner发现,“Apostolatus Benedictinorum”。)起初只有南部的坎特伯雷省寺院派代表出席,但在1338年,在公牛“Benedictina”后果,这两个省份都团结起来,英文堂绝对成立。 This system of the union of houses and periodical chapters interfered in the least possible degree with the Benedictine tradition of mutual independence of monasteries, though the Bull "Benedictina" was intended to give some further development to it.这种定期的房屋和工会系统的干扰章在与相互独立的寺庙传统笃至少可能程度,虽然公牛“Benedictina”的目的是提供一些进一步发展它。 In other countries attempts were made from time to time to effect a greater degree of organization, but in England there was never any further advance along the path of centralization.在其他国家进行了尝试从不时影响更大程度的组织,但在英国从来就没有任何集中的道路沿线的进一步推进。 At the time of the dissolution there were in England nearly three hundred houses of black monks, and though the numbers had from one cause or another somewhat declined, the English congregation may truthfully be said to have been in a flourishing condition at the time of the attempt to suppress it in the sixteenth century.在解散时,有在英国近300家黑和尚,虽然数量已经从一个事业或其他有所下降,但英国众可如实说已经在一个繁荣的条件已经在时间试图压制在十六世纪。 The grave charges brought against the monks by Henry VIII's Visitors, though long believed in, are not now credited by serious historians.坟墓控告僧侣亨利八世所带来的游客,虽然长相信,是不是现在记严重的历史学家。This reversal of opinion has been brought about mainly through the researches of such writers as Gasquet (Henry VIII and the English Monasteries, London, new ed., 1899; Eve of the Reformation, London, 1890), and Gairdner (Prefaces to "Calendars of State Papers of Henry VIII").这种意见已被逆转带来的主要是通过研究等作家的加斯凯(亨利八世和寺院的英文版,伦敦,新版,1899年;。夏娃的改革,伦敦,1890年),以及盖尔德纳(谱序“日历国家论文的亨利八世“)。

Throughout the period of suppression the monks were the champions of the old Faith, and when turned out of their homes very few conformed to the new religion.在整个期间镇压僧侣的旧信仰的冠军,而当他们的家园变成极少数符合新的宗教了。Some sought refuge abroad, others accepted pensions and lingered on in England hoping for a restoration of the former state of things, whilst not a few preferred to suffer lifelong imprisonment rather than surrender their convictions and claims.一些国外避难,其他人接受养老金和徘徊在英国的一对事物的希望恢复以前的状态,而不是几个宁愿遭受终身监禁,而不是放弃自己的信念和要求。 In Queen Mary's reign there was a brief revival at Westminster, where some of the surviving monks were brought together under Abbot Feckenham in 1556.在玛丽的统治有人在威斯敏斯特,那里的一些幸存的僧侣被纳入1556年住持Feckenham一起短暂的复苏。Of the monks professed there during the three years of revived existence, Dom Sigebert Buckley alone survived at the beginning of the seventeenth century; and he, after forty years of imprisonment, when nigh unto death, in 1607, invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines of the Italian congregation.自称的僧人恢复过程中存在的三年后,独自存活大教堂Sigebert巴克利在十七​​世纪初,而他入狱后,第四年后几乎要死,在1607年,投资与英文习惯及附属到威斯敏斯特修道院和教会的英文两个英文牧师,已经是意大利众笃。 By this act he became the link between the old and the new lines of English black monks, and through him the true succession was perpetuated.通过这种行为,他成为了新旧之间的黑色僧侣的英语新生产线的联系,并通过他的真正继承了延续。About the same time a number of English monks were being trained abroad, mostly in Spain, for the English mission, and these were in 1619 aggregated by papal authority to the English congregation, though the monasteries founded by them had perforce to be situated abroad.大约在同一时间的英语僧侣被国外培训,主要是在西班牙,对于英语的使命,而这些在1619年由罗马教皇权威的英国众聚集,虽然他们创办的寺庙曾perforce是位于国外。 St. Gregory's at Douai was established in 1605, St. Lawrence's at Dieulouard in Lorraine in 1606, and St. Edmund's at Paris in 1611.圣在杜埃Gregory的成立于1605年,圣老楞佐在迪约卢瓦尔在洛林在1606年,和圣埃德蒙在巴黎在1611年。 The first two of these communities remained on the continent until driven to England by the French Revolution, but the third has only recently returned.这些社区前两个留在大陆,直到法国革命的推动下到英国,但第三个最近才返回。In 1633, by the Bull "Plantata", Pope Urban VIII bestowed upon the restored English congregation "every privilege, grant, indulgence, faculty, and other prerogative which had ever belonged to the ancient English congregation" and also approved of its members taking on oath by which they bound themselves to labour for the reconversion of their country.在1633年,由公牛“Plantata”,教皇乌尔班八世赐予恢复的英国众“每特权,授予,放纵,教师和其他特权曾经属于古英语众”,并批准其成员采取的宣誓由他们约束自己的劳动为自己国家的转型问题。 So zealous were they in this twenty-seven suffered martyrdom for the Faith, whilst eleven died in prison.所以,热心的人,在这二十七个遭受他们的信仰殉道,而11在监狱中死亡。Two other monasteries were added to the congregation, viz., Lamspring in Germany in 1643, and Saint-Malo in Brittany in 1611, the latter, however, being passed over to the French (Maurist) congregation in 1672.另外两个寺院被添加到众,即。,德国Lamspring 1643年,和圣马洛布列塔尼在1611年,后者,然而,被交给法国(Maurist)在1672年聚集。

In 1795 the monks of Douai were expelled from their monastery by the Revolution, and after many hardships, including imprisonment, escaped to England, where, after a temporary residence at Acton Burnell (near Shrewsbury), they settled in 1814 at Downside in Somerset.在1795年杜埃僧侣被赶出修道院的革命,并经过许多困难,包括监禁,逃到英国,在那里,后在阿克顿伯内尔(近什鲁斯伯里)临时住所,他们定居在下方于1814年在萨默塞特。 The monks of Dieulouard were also driven out at the same time and after some years of wandering established themselves in 1802 at Ampleforth in Yorkshire.僧侣的Dieulouard也带动了在同一时间和徘徊后,成立于1802年在约克郡安普尔福思自己好几年。The monks of St. Edmund's, Paris, not successful in making their escape from France, were dispersed for a time, but when, in 1818, the buildings of St. Gregory's at Douai were recovered by the congregation, the remnants of St. Edmund's community reassembled and resumed conventual life there in 1823.圣埃德蒙的,巴黎,而不是使他们摆脱法国成功的僧侣,分散了时间,但时,在1818年,圣Gregory的在杜埃被收回的聚集建筑,圣埃德蒙的残余社区在1823年重新恢复修道院生活。 For eighty years they continued undisturbed, recruited by English subjects and carrying on their school for English boys, until, in 1903, the "Association Laws" of the French government once more expelled them from their monastery; returning to England, they have established themselves at Woolhampton in Berkshire.对于八十年他们继续不受干扰,招募英文科目为英语和他们的男校,携带,直到1903年,“协会法”,法国政府再次驱逐出他们的修道院;回到英格兰,他们确立了自己在伯克希尔Woolhampton。 The Abbey of Lamspring continued to flourish amongst Lutheran surroundings until it was suppressed by the Prussian Government in 1802 and the community dispersed.修道院的Lamspring继续蓬勃发展的环境之间的信义,直到它被压抑在1802年普鲁士政府和社区分散。 In 1828 a restoration of conventual life in a small way was attempted at Broadway in Worcestershire, which lasted until 1841.在1828年的修道院生活在一个小的方式恢复是企图在百老汇在伍斯特郡,这直到1841年之久。The monks then went to other houses of the congregation, though the community was never formally disbanded.僧侣们随后前往其他房屋的会众,虽然社区从未正式解散。Continuity was preserved by the last survivors of Broadway being incorporated in 1876 into the newly founded community of Fort Augustus in Scotland.连续性维护了被纳入1876年在苏格兰的奥古斯堡新成立的社区百老汇的最后的幸存者。In 1859 St. Michael's priory, at Belmont, near Hereford, was established, in compliance with a decree of Pius IX, as a central novitiate and house of studies for the whole congregation. 1859年圣米歇尔修道院,在贝尔蒙,近海福特,成立,在与比约九法令规定,作为一个中央见习和研究,为整个教会的房子。It was also made the pro-cathedral of the Diocese of Newport in England, the bishop and canons of which are chosen from the English Benedictines, the cathedral-prior acting as provost of the chapter.也有人提出了在英格兰教区的新港,主教和从其中选择了大炮英文本笃亲大教堂,大教堂前作为本章的教务长。Up to 1901 Belmont had no community of its own, but only members from the other houses who were resident there either as professors or students; the general chapter of that year, however, decided that novices might henceforth be received for St. Michael's monastery.截至1901年贝尔蒙并没有自己的社区,但是从其他房屋居民,谁是教授或学生,总共只有成员之一,当年的总章,但是,决定从今以后,新手可能为圣迈克尔修道院好评。 In 1899 Leo XIII raised the three priories of St. Gregory's (Downside), St. Lawrence's (Ampleforth), and St. Edmund's (Douai) to the rank of abbeys, so that the congregation now consists of three abbeys, and one cathedral-priory, each with its own community, but Belmont still remains the central novitiate and tyrocinium for all the houses.利奥十三世在1899年提出了圣格雷戈里的(下行),圣老楞佐(安普尔福思)和圣埃德蒙的三个修道院(杜埃),以职级的修道院,使会众已是三个修道院,和一个大教堂组成,小修道院,每个国家都有它自己的社区,但仍然贝尔蒙中央见习和所有的房子tyrocinium。 Besides its regular prelates, the English congregations, by virtue of the Bull "Plantata" (1633), allowed to perpetuate as titular dignities the nine cathedral-priories which belonged to it before the Reformation, viz., Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Coventry, Ely, Worcester, Rochester, Norwich, and Bath; to these have been added three more, Peterborough, Gloucester, and Chester, originally Benedictine abbeys but raised to cathedral rank by Henry VIII.除了其经常主教,英国教会,由公牛“Plantata”美德(1633),允许为永久名誉尊严的九个大教堂,修道院,属前的改革,即到它。,坎特伯雷,温彻斯特,达勒姆,考文垂,伊利,伍斯特市,罗切斯特,诺里奇和浴;这些都增加了3个以上,彼得伯勒,告士打道,和切​​斯特,原本本笃修道院,但提高到亨利八世大教堂军衔。 Six ancient abbacies also, St. Alban's, Westminster, Glastonbury, Evesham, Bury St. Edmunds, and St. Mary's, York, are similarly perpetuated by privilege granted in 1818.六大古都abbacies也,圣阿尔班的,西敏寺,格拉斯顿伯里,伊夫舍姆,伯里街埃德蒙兹和圣玛丽,纽约,也同样延续了1818年授予的特权。

(2) The Cassinese Congregation.-To prevent confusion it is necessary to pint out that there are two congregations of this name.(2)的Cassinese Congregation.,为了防止混淆,有必要品脱指出,有两个教会的这个名字。The first, with Monte Cassino as its chief house, was originally known as that of St. Justina of Padua, and with one exception has always been confined to Italy.与蒙特卡西诺第一次作为其首席房子,原本被称为圣的帕多瓦的,并有一个例外一直局限在意大利。The other is of much later institution and is distinguished by the title of "Primitive Observance".另一个是晚得多机构,并以“原始遵守”称号区别开来。What follows relates to the former of these two.接下来是关于这两个前者。

Most of the Italian monasteries had fallen under the influence of Cluny in the tenth and eleventh centuries, and had adopted its customs, but by the end of the fourteenth century they had so greatly declined that there was then hardly one left in which the Cluniac observance was retained.在意大利的大部分寺庙已经下降下克鲁尼在第十和第十一世纪的影响,并已通过了海关,但到十四世纪结束时,他们有这么大大下降,有那么难一留在遵守该克吕尼被保留。 The Abbey of St. Justina at Padua, which had formerly been Cluniac, was in a very corrupt and ruinous state in 1407 when Gregory XII bestowed it in commendam on the Cardinal of Bologna.在修道院的圣帕多瓦梁魏懋,那些以前曾克吕尼,是在1407年时,格雷戈里十二赋予在commendam对博洛尼亚枢机它是在一个非常腐败和毁灭性的国家。 That prelate, desirous of reform, introduced some Olivetan monks, but the three remaining Cluniac monks appealed to the Venetian Republic against this encoachment on their rights, with the result that the abbey was restored to them and the Olivetans dismissed.这主教,渴望改革,出台了一些欧利夫坦僧侣,但剩下的三个克吕尼僧侣呼吁威尼斯共和国对这个与自己的权利encoachment是修道院就恢复了他们与Olivetans驳回的结果。 The cardinal resigned the abbey to the pope, who thereupon gave it to Ludovico Barbo, a canon regular of St. George in alga.枢机辞职修道院的教宗,谁随即给了卢多维科巴博,佳能圣乔治定期的藻类。He took the Benedictine habit and received the abbatial blessing in 1409.他把本笃习惯,并在1409年收到的abbatial祝福。With the help of two Camaldolese monks and two canons of Alga, he instituted a reformed observance, which was quickly adopted in other monasteries as well.随着两个Camaldolese僧侣和两个大炮的藻类帮助下,他制定了一个改革的遵守,这是迅速通过在其他寺庙以及。Permission was obtained from the pope for these to unite and form a new congregation, the first general chapters of which was held in 1421, when Abbot Barbo was elected the first president.得到许可从这些教皇团结,形成一个新的聚集,其是在1421年,当住持巴博当选首任总统举行的第一章一般。Amongst those that joined were the celebrated abbeys of Subiaco, Monte Cassino, St. Paul's in Rome, St. George's at Venice, La Cava, and Farfa.那些人当中加入的萨伯卡,蒙特卡西诺,圣保罗在罗马著名的修道院,圣乔治在威尼斯,拉卡瓦和Farfa。In 1504 its title was changed to that of the "Cassinese Congregation".在1504年其名称改为了“Cassinese教会”问题。It gradually came to embrace all of the chief Benedictine houses of Italy, to the number of nearly two hundred, divided into seven provinces, Rome, Naples, Sicily, Tuscany, Venice, Lombardy, and Genoa.它逐渐接受了意大利首席笃房屋所有人,对近二百号,分为七个省,罗马,那不勒斯,西西里岛,托斯卡纳,威尼斯,伦巴第大区,和热那亚的分歧。 In 1505 the Abbey of Lérins in Provence together with all its dependent houses joined it.在1505年在普罗旺斯修道院Lérins连同所有依赖于它的房子加入。A highly centralized system of government was developed, modelled on the Italian republics, by which the autonomy of the individual houses was almost entirely destroyed.一个高度集中的政府体制是发达国家,仿照意大利共和国,其中个人住房自治是几乎完全被毁。All power was vested in a committee of "definitors", in whose hands were all appointments, from that of president down to the lowest official in the smallest monastery.一切权力属于的“definitors”,在一个委员会在其双手被所有的任命,从这个总统,下至在最小的寺院最低官员。 But in spite of this obvious departure from the Benedictine ideal and the dangers arising from such a system, the congregation continued in considerable prosperity until the wars of the Revolution period; and the later decrees of the Italian government put a check to its reception of novices and began a series of suppressions which have reduced its numbers enormously and shorn it of much of its former greatness.但在这本笃从理想和危险从这样一个系统产生明显的出发尽管如此,众持续相当繁荣,直到在革命战争时期,以及后来的法令,意大利政府提出的支票,其接待的新手并开始了一系列的suppressions已减少其数量很大,虽然被剥夺了它昔日的辉煌多了。 The formation of the congregation of Primitive Observance from out of its midst has still further diminished the congregation, until it now consists nominally of sixteen monasteries, some entirely without communities, and only three or four with sufficient numbers to keep up full conventual observances.对原始遵守聚集了从它的中间形成,进一步削弱了教会,直到它现在由名义上的16寺庙,有些完全没有社区,只有三,四个足够数量保持充分conventual纪念活动。

(3) The Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance.-In the year 1851 Abbot Casaretto of Subiaco initiated at Genoa a return to a stricter observance than was then in vogue, and several other monasteries of the Cassinese congregation, including Subiaco itself, desiring to unite in this reforming movement, Pius IX joined all such abbeys into one federation, which was called after its chief house, the "Province of Subiaco". (3)原始Observance.,在1851年住持Casaretto的萨伯卡开始在热那亚以更严格的遵守,而这在当时流行的回报,和其他一些寺庙的Cassinese众,其中包括萨伯卡本身,渴望Cassinese教会团结在这个改革运动,加入到一个比约九联合会,这是其首席房子后,有“萨伯卡省”之称所有这些修道院。 Before long monasteries in other countries adopted the same reformed observance and became affiliated to Subiaco.长期在其他国家采取同样的改革寺庙,成为遵守附属萨伯卡。In 1872 this union of monasteries was separated altogether from the original congregation and erected as a new and independent body under the title of the "Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance", which was divided into provinces according to the different countries in which its houses were situated, with the Abbot of Subiaco as abbot-general of the whole federation.在1872年这个寺院联盟是完全分开,从原来的聚集,并作为一个新的和独立的机构设置下的“原始遵守Cassinese教会”,这是为根据不同国家的省份划分其房屋均位于称号,与作为住持,整个联邦总住持萨伯卡。

(a) The Italian Province dates from the original federation in 1851, and comprises ten monasteries with over two hundred religious. (一)意大利省于1851年从原联邦的日期,并包括超过二百十宗教寺庙。One of these is the Abbey of Monte Vergine, formerly the mother-house of an independent congregation, but which was aggregated to this province in 1879.其中之一是修道院的Monte Vergine,前身为母一个独立的教会,但是这是汇总到这个省在1879年。

(b) The English Province was formed in 1858 when certain English monks at Subiaco obtained permission to make a foundation in England. (二)英文省成立于1858年时,在某些英文僧侣萨伯卡获准在英国做了基础。The Isle of Thanet, hallowed by the memory of St. Augustine's landing there twelve hundred and sixty years previously, was selected and a church which Augustus Welby Pugin had built at Ramsgate was placed at their disposal.在萨尼特岛,由圣奥古斯丁的降落有一千二百六十年前的记忆神圣的,被选定一所奥古斯韦尔比普金曾在拉姆斯盖特建立教会他们支配。 By 1860 a monastery had been erected and full conventual life established.到1860年的一个修道院已经竖立,建立完整的修道院生活。 It became a priory in 1880 and in 1896 an abbey.它成为一个修道院于1880年和1896年的修道院。In course of time, in addition to serving several neighbouring missions, the community embarked on work in New Zealand, where Dom Edmund Luck, a Ramsgate monk, was made Bishop of Auckland.在课程的时间,除了几个邻国服务任务,社会各界开始在新西兰,在那里大教堂埃德蒙好运,一个拉姆斯盖特和尚,是奥克兰主教的工作。 They also undertook work in Bengal in 1874, but this has since been relinquished to the secular clergy.他们还承诺于1874年在孟加拉的工作,但现在已经被放弃向世俗的神职人员。

(c) The Belgian Province began in 1858 with the affiliation to Subiaco of the eleventh-century Abbey of Termonde.(三)比利时省于1858年开始的对特尔蒙德十一世纪的修道院从属于萨伯卡。Afflighem followed in 1870, and since then two new foundations have been made in Belgium, and quite recently missionary work has been undertaken in the Transvaal, South Africa. Afflighem随后在1870年,从那时起两个新的基金会已在比利时,和最近的传教工作已在德兰士瓦,南非进行。

(d) The French Province, perhaps the most numerous and flourishing in the congregation, dates from 1859.(四)法国省,也许是最众多的和繁荣在众从1859年的日期。Jean-Baptiste Muard, a parish priest and founder of a society of diocesan missioners, became a monk at Subiaco.让巴蒂斯特Muard,一个教区牧师和社会的教区传教士创办人,当上了萨伯卡和尚。After his profession there in 1849, he returned to France with two companions and settled at Pierre-qui-Vire, a lonely spot amid the forests of Avallon, where a most austere form of Benedictine life was established.之后,他的职业有在1849年,他回到法国与两位同伴和皮埃尔魁-维尔,惨淡的阿瓦隆,凡人生最严峻的形式笃成立了森林孤独当场解决。 After his death in 1854, the abbey he had founded was affiliated to the Cassinese PO congregation and became the mother-house of the French province.之后,他于1854年去世后,他创办的修道院是附属于Cassinese婆众,成为母亲家的法国省。New foundations were made at Béthisy (1859), Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, the ancient Fleury (1865), Oklahoma, Indian Territory, USA with an Apostolic vicariate attached (1874), Belloc (1875), Kerbeneat (1888), Encalcat (1891), Nino-Dios, Argentina (1899), and Jerusalem (1901).新的基础上作了Béthisy(1859),与一个使徒圣伯努瓦卢瓦尔河畔,古老的弗勒里(1865年),俄克拉​​荷马州,印度领土,美国教区附后(1874年),贝洛克(1875),Kerbeneat(1888), Encalcat(1891年),厄尔尼诺-特德迪奥斯,阿根廷(1899年),耶路撒冷(1901年)。In 1880 the French Government annexed Pierre-qui-Vire and expelled the community by force; some of them, however, were able to regain possession a year or two later.在1880年法国政府所附皮埃尔魁,维尔和以武力驱逐社区,其中一些,但是,都能够恢复藏有一年或两年后。The remainder sought refuge in England, where in 1882 they acquired the site of the old Cistercian Abbey of Buckfast, in Devonshire.其余的要求在英格兰,他们在1882年收购了老修道院修道院的巴克法斯特,在德文郡的网站避难。Here they are gradually rebuilding the abbey on its original foundations.在这里,他们正逐渐重建其原有的基础上修道院。The "Association Laws" of 1903 again dispersed the congregation, the monks of Pierre-qui-Vire finding a temporary home in Belgium, those of Belloc and Encalcat going to Spain, and Kerbeneat to South Wales, whilst those of Béthisy and Saint-Benoit, being engaged in parochial work, obtained authorization and have remained in France. “协会法”,1903年再次驱散了聚集,皮埃尔魁-维尔的僧侣找到一个在比利时,这些贝洛克和Encalcat前往西班牙和Kerbeneat临时的家到南威尔士,而对B​​éthisy和圣伯努瓦那些作为从事教会工作,得到授权,并继续留在法国。

(e) The Spanish Province dates from 1862, the year in which the ancient Abbey of Montserrat, founded in the ninth century, was affiliated to the Cassinese PO congregation. (五)省,西班牙的日期从1862年,在这一年中的蒙特塞拉特修道院,在第九世纪建立的,是附属于Cassinese婆众。The old Spanish congregation, which ceased to exist in 1835, is dealt with separately.在古老的西班牙众,其中在1835年停止存在,是分开处理。Other old monasteries which had been restored, St. Clodio in 1880, Vilvaneira in 1883, and Samos in 1888, were, in 1893, joined with Montserrat to form the Spanish province.其他老寺庙已被恢复,圣Clodio于1880年,Vilvaneira于1883年,并于1888年萨摩斯,分别在1893年,形成与蒙特塞拉特加入到了西班牙的省份。 Since then new foundations have been made at Pueyo (1890), Los Cabos (1900), and Solsona (1901), besides one at Manila (Philippines) in 1895.从那时起新的基金会已在Pueyo(1890),在马尼拉洛斯卡沃斯(1900),和索尔索纳(1901),(菲律宾)于1895年,除了之一。 This province also includes the Abbey of New Nursia in Western Australia, founded in 1846 by two exiled monks from St. Martin's Abbey, Compostella, who after the general suppression in 1835 had found a home at La Cava in Italy.这个省还包括在澳大利亚西部的新努尔西亚修道院,成立由两个流亡的僧侣在1846年从圣马丁修道院,Compostella,谁后,一般压制在1835年找到了在意大利的La静脉回家。 Seeing no hope of a return to Spain they had volunteered for foreign mission work and were sent to Australia in 1846.看到没有回到西班牙,他们希望志愿者为外国使团的工作,于1846年被送往澳大利亚。Their names were Joseph Serra and Rudesind Salvado.他们的名字是约瑟夫塞拉和Rudesind萨尔瓦多。They settled amongst the aboriginal inhabitants at a place some seventy miles north of Perth, which they called New Nursia in honour of St. Benedict's birthplace, and there worked as pioneers of civilization and Christianity amongst the natives.他们之间的原住民居民定居在一个地方一些70英里以北的珀斯,他们称为圣本笃的出生地荣誉新品努尔西亚,有作为文明和基督教之间的当地人先驱工作。 Their labours were crowned with success and their abbey gradually became the centre from which a number of outlying mission stations were established.他们的辛勤劳动是成功和他们的修道院加冕逐渐成为它的一个任务的外围建立了中心站的数目。Dom Serra became coadjutor to the Bishop of Perth in 1848, and Dom Salvado was made Bishop of Port Victoria in 1849, though he still remained superior of New Nursia, which was made an abbey in 1867 with a diocese attached.大教堂塞拉成为教区助理主教的珀斯于1848年,萨尔瓦多和大教堂是由维多利亚港主教在1849年,但他仍然对新努尔西亚,这是在1867年与附教区修道院的院长。 It had been aggregated to the Italian province of the congregation in 1864, but was transferred to the Spanish province on its formation in 1893.它已被汇集到了1864年意大利省众,但被转移到其在1893年西班牙省形成。The monks own vast tracts of bushland around their monastery and they rear horses, sheep, and cattle on a large scale.僧侣们围绕他们自己的寺院,他们后方马,羊,牛大规模大片丛林。The community includes a number of aboriginal converts amongst its lay brethren.社区包括原住民之间的转换其奠定兄弟数。

(4) The Bursfeld Union.-Although more fully dealt with in a separate article, something must be said here about this congregation.(4)Bursfeld Union.,虽然更充分地处理一个单独的条款,这里的东西应该说这会众。Formed in 1430, it included all the principal monasteries of Germany, and at the height of its prosperity numbered one hundred and thirty-six houses of men and sixty-four of women.在1430年成立,它包括所有的主要寺庙的德国,并在其繁荣的高度编号一百三十六男子和六十的女性四座房屋。It flourished until the Protestant Reformation, which with the religious wars that followed entirely obliterated it, and most of its monasteries passed into Lutheran hands.它蓬勃发展,直到新教改革,它与随后进行的完全抹杀它,并通过进入信义手中它的大部分寺庙的宗教战争。In 1628 the few remaining representatives of the congregation, having recovered a right to some of their possessions, offered seven monasteries to the newly resuscitated English congregation, on condition that the task of getting rid of the Lutheran occupants should devolve upon the English monks, whilst the monasteries should be restored to the Bursfeld congregation in the event of its ever requiring them.在1628年剩下的几个会众的代表,有恢复了对他们的所有权利,提供了7个寺院到新英语聚集复苏,但条件是得到居民的路德摆脱任务下放后,英国僧侣,而寺院不应再恢复到Bursfeld聚集在其曾经要求他们的事件。 No advantage was taken of this offer except with regard to two houses-Rintelin, which was used as a seminary for a few years by the English Benedictines, and Lamspring, which continued as an abbey of English monks from 1644 to 1802.没有优势是采取了这一提议,除了对于两套房子,Rintelin,这是用了几年的神学院的英文本笃,和Lamspring,作为一个修道院的僧侣英语1644年至1802年仍在继续。 No other monasteries of the Bursfeld Union were ever restored to Benedictine use.在Bursfeld联盟没有其他寺庙曾有恢复到笃使用。(See BURSFELD.) (见BURSFELD。)

(5) The Spanish Congregation.-There were originally two distinct congregations in Spain, that of the "Claustrales" or of Tarragona, formed in 1336, and that of Valladolid, organized in 1489. (5)西班牙Congregation.,原本就有两个不同的教会在西班牙,一些“Claustrales”或塔拉戈纳,成立于1336年,这巴利亚多利德,在1489年举办。 At the time of the general suppression in 1835, the former comprised sixteen abbeys, and the latter fifty, besides one or two priories in Peru and Mexico.在1835年时的一般压制,前者包括十六个修道院,后者50,除了在秘鲁和墨西哥的一个或两个修道院。Belonging to the Claustrales were Our Lady's Abbey, Vilvaneira, St. Stephen's, Rivas del Sil, founded in the sixth century, and St. Peter's, Cardena, which claimed to be the oldest in Spain.属于Claustrales的圣母修道院,Vilvaneira,圣士提反湾,里瓦斯德尔银,在第六世纪建立的,和圣彼得,卡德纳,它自称是西班牙最古老的。 The Valladolid congregation had St. Benedict's, Valladolid (founded 1390), for its mother-house, and amongst its houses were St. Martin's, Compostella (ninth century); St. Benedict's, Sahagún, the largest in Spain; St. Vincent's, Salamanca, famous for its university; Our Lady's, Montserrat; and St. Domingo at Silos.在巴利亚多利德聚集了圣本笃的,巴利亚多利德(创建于1390年),供其母亲家,,而当中其房屋被圣马丁,Compostella(第九世纪);圣本笃,萨阿贡,西班牙最大;圣文森,萨拉曼卡,以其著名的大学,我们的夫人的,蒙特塞拉特岛和圣多明戈在青贮饲料。 Of the sixty-six monasteries suppressed in 1835, five have been restored, viz., Montserrat (1844), St. Clodio (1880), Vilvaneira (1883), and Samos (1888) by the Cassinese PO congregation, and Silos (1880) by the French monks from Ligugé.在六六在1835年镇压寺院,5项已经恢复,即。,蒙特塞拉特(1844年),圣Clodio(1880年),Vilvaneira(1883年),和萨摩斯(1888)由Cassinese婆众,青贮饲料(1880年)由法国僧侣利圭热。 Of the rest, sixteen remain as parish churches, thirteen are now occupied by other religious orders, two or three are used as barracks, two as prisons, one as a diocesan seminary, a few have been converted into municipal buildings or private residences, and the remainder have been destroyed.对其余16仍然是教区教堂,13现在被其他宗教命令,两个或三个被用作军营,两个监狱,作为一个教区神学院之一,有少数人被纳入市政大厦或私人住宅改建,并占领了其余的已被销毁。

(6) The Portuguese Congregation.-In the sixteenth century the monasteries of Portugal were all held by commendatory abbots and consequently were in a very unsatisfactory state as regards discipline. (6)葡萄牙Congregation.,在十六世纪的葡萄牙寺庙都举行的褒义词方丈,从而在一个极不理想的状态是关于纪律。A reform was initiated in 1558 in the Abbey of St. Thirso, monks from Spain being introduced for the purpose.改革开始于1558年开始在圣Thirso修道院,僧侣从西班牙引进的目的。After much difficulty the leaders succeeded in spreading their reform to two or three other houses, and these were formed into the Portuguese congregation by Pius V in 1566.经过很多困难的领导人成功地传播他们的改革,以两个或三个其他房屋,而这些,形成了由比约五成葡萄牙语众在1566年。 The first general chapter was held at Tibaes in 1568 and a president elected.第一章一般是在1568年举行总统选举和Tibaes。 The congregation eventually comprised all the monasteries of Portugal and continued in a flourishing state until the wholesale suppression of religious houses in the early part of the nineteenth century, when its existence came to an abrupt end.会众最终包括所有的寺庙,葡萄牙,并在蓬勃发展的状态一直持续到宗教房子在十九世纪时,它的存在来突然终止早期批发抑制。 Only one Benedictine monastery in Portugal has since been restored-that of Cucujães, originally founded in 1091.只有一本笃修道院在葡萄牙已经被恢复,认为Cucujães,最初在1091年成立。Its resuscitation in 1875 came about in this way: to evade the law forbidding their reception of novices, the Brazilian Benedictines had sent some of the subjects to Rome for study and training in the monastery of St. Paul's, where they were professed about 1870.它在1875年复苏是约以这种方式:为了规避法律禁止其接待的新手,巴西本笃曾派学习和培训的科目一些罗马在圣保罗,在那里他们被约1870年声称寺院。 The Brazilian government refusing them permission to return to that country, they settled in Portugal and obtained possession of the old monastery of Cucujães.巴西政府拒绝允许他们返回该国,他们定居在葡萄牙和取得的Cucujães老寺院占有。After twenty years of somewhat isolated existence there, unable to re-establish the Portuguese congregation, they were, in 1895, affiliated to that of Beuron.经过二十有点孤立存在那里,无法重新建立葡萄牙语众里,观察他们在1895年,下属的伯龙说。Thus Brazil, which had received its first Benedictines from Portugal, became in turn the means of restoring the Benedictine life in that country.因此,巴西,其中已收到来自葡萄牙的第一本笃,成为又恢复在该国的本笃会生活的手段。

(7) The Brazilian Congregation.-The first Benedictines to settle in Brazil came from Portugal in 1581.(7)巴西Congregation.,第一本笃在巴西定居来自葡萄牙在1581年。They established the following monasteries: St. Sebastian, Bahia, (1581); Our Lady of Montserrat, Rio de Janeiro (1589); St. Benedict, Olinda (1640); the Assumption, Sao Paulo (1640); Our Lady's, Parahyba (1641); Our Lady's, Brotas (1650); Our Lady's, near Bahia (1658); and four priories dependent on Sao Paulo.他们设立了以下寺庙:圣塞巴斯蒂安,巴伊亚,(1581);我们的蒙特塞拉特夫人,里约热内卢(1589);圣本笃,奥林达(1640);升天,圣保罗(1640),我们的夫人的,Parahyba (1641年),我们的夫人的,布罗塔斯(1650年),我们的夫人的,近巴伊亚(1658)和四个修道院依赖于圣保罗。All these remained subject to the Portuguese superiors until 1827, when in consequence of the separation of Brazil from the Kingdom of Portugal, an independent Brazilian congregation was erected by Leo XII, consisting of the above eleven houses, with the Abbot of Bahia as its president.所有这些仍然受葡萄牙上级直到1827年,当在巴西从葡萄牙的王国,分离的结果是一个独立的巴西众竖立利奥十二,其中包括上述11家,与作为其总统住持巴伊亚。 A decree of the Brazilian government in 1855 forbade the further reception of novices, and the result was that when the empire came to an end in 1889, the entire congregation numbered only about twelve members, of whom eight were abbots of over seventy years of age.阿的法令,巴西政府在1855年禁止再接收的新手,其结果是,当1889年来到帝国的结束,整个聚集人数只有约十二名成员,其中8人年逾七十年方丈的。 The abbot-general appealed for help to the pope, who applied to the Beuronese congregation for volunteers.住持秘书长呼吁帮助教宗,谁适用于志愿者Beuronese众。In 1895 a small colony of Beuronese monks having spent some time in Portugal learning the language, set out for Brazil and took possession of the abandoned Abbey of Olinda.在1895年一个小殖民地的Beuronese和尚花一点时间在葡萄牙学习的语言,为巴西出来,注意到奥林达废弃修道院占有。 The divine office was resumed, mission work in the neighbourhood commenced, and a school of alumni (pupils destined for the monastic state) established.神圣的办公室得到恢复,团的工作在开始的街区,一所学校的校友(为寺院的国家注定学生)成立。Two new abbeys have also been added to the congregation: Quixada, founded in 1900, and St. Andre at Bruges (Belgium) in 1901, for the reception and training of subjects for Brazil.两个新的修道院也被添加到众:1901年Quixada,成立于1900年,在布鲁日(比利时)和圣安德烈,为接待和巴西科目的训练。 In 1903 Rio de Janeiro was made the mother-house of the congregation and the residence of the abbot-general. 1903年,里约热内卢是作出的众母亲家和住持秘书长官邸。

(8) The Swiss Congregation.-The earliest monasteries in Switzerland were founded from Luxeuil by the disciples of Columbanus, amongst whom was St. Gall, who established the celebrated abbey afterwards known by his name. (8)瑞士Congregation.,在瑞士最早的寺庙分别成立由Columbanus弟子,当中一位是来自Luxeuil圣加仑,谁建立了庆祝修道院后来以他的名字而闻名。 By the end of the eighth century the Benedictine Rule had been accepted in most, if not in all of them.到了年底的8世纪的本笃规则已被接受在大多数,如果不是他们。Some of these monasteries still exist and their communities can boast of an unbroken continuity from those early days.这些寺庙有些仍然存在,他们的社区可以夸耀从当年不间断的连续性。The various monasteries of Switzerland were united to form the Swiss congregation in 1602, through the efforts of Augustine, Abbot of Einsiedeln.瑞士的各寺庙团结,形成于1602年瑞士聚集,通过奥古斯丁,艾因西德伦住持的努力。The political disturbances at the end of the eighteenth century reduced the number of abbeys to six, of which five still continue and constitute the entire congregation at the present day.在十八世纪末期的政治动乱减少了修道院数6个,其中5个仍在继续,并构成,在当今整个聚集。They are as follows: (a) Dissentis, founded in 612; plundered and destroyed by fire in 1799; restored 1880.它们如下:(一)Dissentis,成立于612;掠夺和在1799年毁于火灾;恢复1880年。(b) Einsiedeln, founded 934, the abbey from which the Swiss-American congregation has sprung. (二)艾因西德伦,成立934时,从瑞士,美国教会已涌现修道院。(c) Muri, founded 1027; suppressed 1841; but restored at Gries (Tyrol) 1845. (三)穆里,成立1027年,1841年镇压,但在格里斯(蒂罗尔州)1845年恢复。(d) Engelberg, founded 1082. (四)英格堡,始建1082。(3) Maria Stein, founded 1085; the community was disbanded in 1798, but reassembled six years later; again suppressed in 1875, when the members went to Delle in France; expelled thence in 1902, they moved to Dürnberg in Austria, and in 1906 settled at Bregenz. (3)玛丽亚斯坦,创立1085年,社区是在1798年解散,但六年后重新组装,再在1875年,当成员在法国阿尔去镇压;在1902年被驱逐那里,他们又在奥地利Dürnberg,并在1906年定居在布雷根茨。 The sixth abbey was Rheinau, founded 778, which was suppressed in 1862; its monks, being unable to resume conventual life, were received into other monasteries of the congregation.第六修道院莱瑙,成立778,这是在1862年镇压;的和尚,无法恢复修道院的生活,会众分为收到其他寺庙。

(9) The Congregation of St.-Vannes.-To counteract the evils resulting from the practice of bestowing ecclesiastical benefices upon secular persons in commendam, then rife throughout Western Europe, Dom Didier de la Cour, Prior of the Abbey of St.-Vannes in Lorraine, inaugurated in 1598 a strict disciplinary reform with the full approbation of the commendatory abbot, the Bishop of Verdun. (9)圣- Vannes.聚集到抵制邪恶从赐予教会benefices后世俗人在commendam,然后在整个西欧,大教堂迪迪埃德拉考尔盛行之前的圣修道院,实践结果 - 瓦纳在洛林,在1598年开创了严格与该褒义词住持纪律改革充分认可,在凡尔登主教。Other monasteries soon followed suit and the reform was introduced into all the houses of Alsace and Lorraine, as well as many in different parts of France.很快效仿其他寺庙和改革引入所有的阿尔萨斯和洛林的房屋,以及在法国各地众多。A congregation, numbering about forty houses in all, under the presidency of the prior of St.-Vannes, was formed, and was approved by the pope in 1604.一众,在所有四十左右的房屋编号下的圣-瓦纳前总统,成立,并于1604年由教皇批准。On account of the difficulties arising from the direction of the French monasteries by a superior residing in another kingdom, a separate congregation - that of St.-Maur - was organized in 1621 for the monasteries in France, whilst that of St.-Vannes was restricted to those situated in Lorraine.论从法国的寺庙方向产生由上级居住在另一个国度,一个单独的聚集困难的帐户 - 即圣- Maur - 于1621年在法国举办的寺庙,而这圣,瓦纳是限于那些坐落在洛林。The latter continued with undiminished fervour until suppressed by the French Revolution, but is privileges were handed on by Gregory XVI in 1837 to the newly founded Gallican congregation, which was declared to be its true successor, though not enjoying actual continuity with it.后者继续坚持不懈的热情,直到法国大革命打压,但特权被移交由格里高利十六世在1837年到新成立的高卢众,其中被宣布为它的真正继承者,但不喜欢它的实际的连续性。

(10) The Congregation of St.-Maur.-The French monasteries which had embraced the reform of St.-Vannes were in 1621 formed into a separate congregation named after St. Maur, the disciple of St. Benedict, which eventually numbered on hundred and eighty houses, ie all in France except those of the Cluniac congregation. (10)圣- Maur.,法国的寺庙毕业典礼这已经接受了圣-瓦纳改革在1621年分为圣Maur后,圣本笃弟子,最终上编号命名的一个单独的聚集形成一百八十家,即除了在法国的克吕尼改革众所有这一切。 The reform was introduced mainly through the instrumentality of Dom Laurent Bénard and quickly spread through France.介绍了改革主要是通过媒介的大教堂洛朗Bénard问题,并迅速蔓延到法国。Saint-Germain-des-Prés at Paris became the mother-house, and the superior of this abbey was always the president.圣日耳曼的DES -德培在巴黎成为了母亲的房子,这个修道院的院长是永远的主席。The constitution was modelled on that of the congregation of St. Justina of Padua and it was a genuine return to the primitive austerity of conventual observance.宪法是仿照的圣教会的帕多瓦这一点,这是一个真正回到原始紧缩的conventual遵守。It became chiefly celebrated for the literary achievements of its members, amongst whom it counted Mabillon, Montfaucon, d'Achery, Martene, and many others equally famous for their erudition and industry.它成为其成员主要为著名的文学成就,除谁算Mabillon,蒙福,德Achery,Martene,以及许多其他同样为他们的学识和工业而闻名。 In 1790 the Revolution suppressed all its monasteries and the monks were dispersed. 1790年革命镇压所有的寺院和僧侣被驱散。The superior general and two others suffered in the massacre at the Carmes, 2 September, 1792.优于一般和另外两个人在遭受屠杀Carmes,1792年9月2日。Others sought safety in flight and were received into Lamspring, and abbeys of Switzerland, England, and North America.其他寻求在飞行安全,并为Lamspring收到,瑞士,英国和北美的修道院。A few of the survivors endeavoured to restore their congregation at Solesmes in 1817, but the attempt was not successful, and the congregation died out, leaving behind it a fame unrivalled in the annals of monastic history.一个幸存者的一些努力,以恢复其在1817年索雷姆聚集,但尝试没有成功,众消失了,留下了无与伦比的寺院的历史史册的名声。 (see MAURISTS.) (见MAURISTS。)

(11) The Congregation of St. Placid.-This congregation was also an outcome of the reform instituted at St.-Vannes.(11)圣Placid.,这会众聚集,也是在圣-瓦纳提起的改革成果。The Abbey of St. Hubert in Ardennes, which had been founded about 706 for canons regular but had become Benedictine in 817, was the first in the Low Countries to embrace the reform.在阿登修道院的圣休伯特,已成立了约706门炮,定期但已成为817本笃会,是在低地国家首先要树立改革。To facilitate its introduction, monks were sent from St.-Vannes in 1618 to initiate the stricter observance.为了方便其介绍,僧侣被送往从圣,瓦纳在1618年启动严格遵守。In spite of some opposition from the community as well as from the diocesan, the Bishop of Liège, the revival of discipline gradually gained the supremacy and before long other monasteries, including St. Denis in Hainault, St. Adrian, Afflighem, St. Peter's at Ghent, and others followed suit.在一些社会人士以及来自教区的反对,尽管列日主教,纪律复苏逐渐取得优势,并在不久的其他寺庙,包括圣丹尼斯在埃诺,圣阿德里安,Afflighem,圣彼得在根特,和其他人也纷纷效仿。 These were formed into a new congregation (c. 1630) which was approved by Pope Urban VIII, and existed until the Revolution.这些人形成了一个新的聚集(约1630),它是由教皇乌尔班八世批准,直到革命存在。Two abbeys of this congregation, Termonde and Afflighem, have since been restored and affiliated to the Belgian province of the Cassinese PO congregation.两本教会,特尔蒙德和Afflighem修道院,已经得到恢复和附属于比利时的Cassinese婆众省。

(12) The Austrian Congregations.-For many centuries the monasteries of Austria maintained their individual independence and their abbots acquired positions of much political power and dignity, which, though considerably diminished since medieval times, are still such as are enjoyed by no other Benedictine abbots. (12)奥地利Congregations.对许多世纪以来,奥地利的寺院保持各自的独立性和其方丈收购了很大的政治权力和尊严,地位,虽然大大减少自中世纪时代,仍然如没有其他笃是由享有方丈。 The example of reform set by the congregation of St. Justina in the fifteenth century exercised an influence upon the Austrian monasteries.例如,通过对改革的圣太在15世纪众成立后,奥地利行使一寺院的影响力。Beginning (1418) in the Abbey of Melk (founded about 1089), the reform was extended to other houses, and in 1460 a union of those that had adopted it was proposed.月初在梅尔克修道院(约1089年成立)(1418年),改革扩展到其他房屋,并在1460年对那些已经通过了欧盟提出。 Sixteen abbots were present at a meeting held in 1470, but for some reason this union of abbeys does not seem to have been at all lasting, for in 1623 a new Austrian congregation was projected to consist of practically the same abbeys as the former congregation: Melk, Göttweig, Lambach, Kremsmünster, Vienna, Garsten, Altenburg, Seitenstetten, Mondsee, Kleinck, and Marienberg.十六方丈是在1470年举行了出席会议,但由于某种原因,这个修道院联盟不似乎已在1623年都在一个持久新奥聚集,预计将包括实际上与前相同的修道院众:梅尔克,Göttweig,兰巴赫,克雷姆斯明斯特,维也纳,Garsten,阿尔滕堡,Seitenstetten,月亮湖,Kleinck和玛利恩城堡。 In 1630 it was proposed to unite this congregation, those of Busfeld and Bavaria, and all the houses that were still independent, into one general federation, and a meeting was held at Ratisbon to discuss the scheme.在1630年有人建议,团结这会众,和巴伐利亚州的Busfeld者,以及所有的房子仍然是独立成一个总联合会,并在拉蒂斯邦了一次会议举行,讨论该计划。 The Swedish invitation, however, put an end to the plan and the only result was the formation of another small congregation of nine abbeys, with that of St. Peter's, Salzburg, at its head.瑞典的邀请,但是,杜绝计划和唯一的结果是另一次九修道院形成小众与圣彼得,萨尔茨堡在其头部,那个,。These two congregations, Melk and Salzburg, lasted until towards the end of the eighteenth century, when the despotic rule of Joseph II (1765-90) gave them their death-blow.这两个教区,梅尔克和萨尔茨堡,一直持续到对十八世纪,当专制统治的约瑟夫二世(1765年至1790年)给他们的死亡一击结束。 In 1803 many of the abbeys were suppressed and those that were suffered to remain were forbidden to receive fresh novices.在1803年许多修道院遭到压制和那些遭受仍然被禁止接受新鲜的新手。The Emperor Francis I, however, restored several of them between the years 1809 and 1816, and in 1889 those that still survived, some twenty in number, were formed into two new congregations under the titles of the Immaculate Conception and St. Joseph, respectively.皇帝弗兰西斯一世,然而,恢复他们之间的年数1809年和1816年,并于1889年那些仍然存活,有的在二十号,分别形成了两个新的教区圣母无原罪下和圣若瑟,标题分别为。 The former comprises ten houses under the presidency of the Abbot of Göttweig, and the latter seven, with the Abbot of Salzburg at its head.前者包括在住持的Göttweig总统十家,而后者则七,与在其头部住持萨尔茨堡。The congregation of the Immaculate Conception, in which are Kremsmünster, dating from 777, St. Paul's in Carinthia, and the Scots monastery at Vienna, includes none of later date than the twelfth century; whilst in the congregation of St. Joseph there are Salzburg (before 700), Michaelbeuern (785), four others of the eleventh century, and only one of recent foundation, Innsbruck (1904).圣母无原罪的,其中有克雷姆斯明斯特,聚集来自777,在克恩顿州圣保罗的约会,与设在维也纳苏格兰修道院,包括没有一个比12世纪以后,在圣若瑟堂,同时还有萨尔茨堡(前700),Michaelbeuern(785),4人的11世纪,只有最近的基础之一,因斯布鲁克(1904)。

(13) The Bavarian Congregation.-A reform initiated amongst the monasteries of Bavaria, based upon the Tridentine decrees, caused the erection of this congregation in 1684. (13)巴伐利亚Congregation.给巴伐利亚州之间的法令后,德律但丁的寺庙,发起改革,造成1684年本教会勃起。It then consisted of eighteen houses which flourished until the general suppression at the beginning of the nineteenth century.然后,它包括在其中,直到十九世纪初的一般压制蓬勃发展十八房子。Beginning in 1830, the pious King Ludwig I restored the abbeys of Metten and Ottobeuern (founded in the eighth century), Scheyern (1112), and Andechs (1455), and founded new monasteries at Augsburg (1834), Munich (1835), Meltenburg (1842), and Schäftlarn (1866).在1830年开始,虔诚的国王路德维希一世恢复了梅滕和Ottobeuern(在第八世纪创立),Scheyern(1112),以及Andechs该修道院(1455),并创办新的寺庙在奥格斯堡(1834),慕尼黑(1835年), Meltenburg(1842年),和Schäftlarn(1866)。Pius IX restored the congregation (1858) comprising the above houses, of which the Abbot of Metten is president.比约九恢复了众(1858),其中包括上述房屋,其中,梅滕住持是总统。The abbeys of Plankstetten (1189) and Ettal (1330) were restored in 1900 and 1904, respectively and added to the congregation.对Plankstetten(1189)和Ettal(1330)的修道院是在1900年和1904年恢复,分别添加到众。

(14) The Hungarian Congregation.-This congregation differs from all others in its constitution.(14)匈牙利Congregation.,这不同于聚集在其宪法中所有其他人。It comprises the four abbeys of Zalavar (1919), Bakonybel (1037), Tihany (1055), and Domolk (1252), which are dependent on the Arch-Abbey of Monte Pannonia (Martinsberg), and to these are added six "residences" or educational establishments conducted by the monks.它由Zalavar(1919),Bakonybel(1037),Tihany所(1055)和Domolk(1252)四修道院,这是对拱的Monte潘诺尼亚修道院(Martinsberg)依赖,这些都将六个“住宅“或教育机构所进行的僧侣。 The members of this body are professed for the congregation and not for any particular monastery, and they can be moved from one house to another at the discretion of the arch-abbot and his sixteen assessors.这个机构的成员宣称的会众,而不是为任何特定的修道院,他们可以从一个房子在拱住持和他的十六评审决定到另一个地方。 The arch-abbey was founded by Stephen, the first king of Hungary, in 1001, and together with the other houses enjoys an unbroken succession from the date of foundation.拱-修道院是由斯蒂芬,匈牙利第一位国王,在1001,并与其他房屋共同享有的日期从连续不断的基础。The congregation is affiliated to the Cassinese, though it enjoys a status of comparative independence.会众是附属于Cassinese,尽管它享有相对独立的地位。

(15) The Gallican Congregation.-This, the first of the new congregations of the nineteenth century, was established in 1837 at Solesmes in France by Dom Guéranger. (15)高卢Congregation.,这是十九世纪的第一个新的教区,成立于1837年在法国索雷姆的大教堂Guéranger。He had been professed at St. Paul's, Rome, and though at one time desirous of joining the community of Monte Cassino, was urged by the Bishop of Le Mans to restore the Benedictine Order in France.他曾在圣保罗,罗马宣称,尽管在同一时间参加社区的蒙特卡西诺渴望,敦促由勒芒主教恢复法国本笃秩序。He acquired possession of the old Maurist priory of Solesmes, which Pope Gregory XVI made an abbey and the mother-house of the new congregation.他收购的旧Maurist的索雷姆,教皇格里高利十六世是一个修道院和母亲的新的教会修道院占有。He also declared it to be the true successor to all the privileges formerly enjoyed by the congregations of Cluny, St.-Vannes, and St.-Maur.他还宣称它是真正的继承者所有以前由克鲁尼,圣-瓦纳,和圣- Maur的教会享有的特权。Guéranger was soon joined by numbers of offshoots.Guéranger很快就加入了的分支数。In this way Ligugé, originally founded by St. Martin of Tours in 360, was restored in 1853, Silos (Spain) in 1880, Glanfeuil in 1892, and Fontanelle (St. Wandrille), founded 649, in 1893.在这种方式最初由圣利圭热在360旅游马丁成立,是在1853年恢复,青贮饲料(西班牙)于1880年,1892年Glanfeuil和囟(圣Wandrille),成立649,于1893年。 New foundations were likewise made at Marseilles in 1865, Farnborough (England), and Wisque in 1895, Paris 1893, Kergonan 1897, and a cell from Silos was established in Mexico in 1901.同样在新的基础是马赛在1865年,范堡罗(英格兰),并Wisque于1895年,巴黎1893年,Kergonan 1897年,从筒仓细胞在墨西哥成立于1901年。The community of Solesmes have been expelled from their monastery by the French government no less than four times.社区的索雷姆已被赶出自己的修道院由法国政府不得少于四次少。In the years 1880, 1882, and 1883 they were ejected by force, and, being afforded hospitality in the neighbourhood, kept up their corporate life as far as possible, using the parish church for the Divine Office.在未来的1880年,1882年和1883年他们以武力驱逐,并在附近被给予的款待,保持尽可能的企业生命,使用的神圣的办公室教区教堂。 Each time they succeeded in re-entering their abbey, but at the final expulsion in 1903 they were, in common with all other religious of France, driven out of the country.每一次他们成功地重新进入他们的修道院,但在1903年最终驱逐他们在,与所有其他宗教的法国赶出了国门。The Solesmes monks have settled in the Isle of Wight, England, those of Fontanelle, Glanfeuil, Wisque, and Kergonan have gone to Belgium, those of Ligugé to Spain, and those of Marseilles to Italy. The索雷姆僧侣定居在怀特岛,英国,囟,Glanfeuil,Wisque的岛,并Kergonan去了比利时,利圭热的西班牙,和马赛的意大利。 The Fathers at Paris have been allowed to remain, in consideration of the important literary and history work on which they are engaged.父亲在巴黎被允许留在审议,重要的文学作品和历史上,他们订婚了。This congregation has endeavoured to carry on the work of the Maurists, and numbers many well-known writers amongst its members.本教会一直在努力进行的Maurists工作,和数字很多知名作家其成员之间。The Abbot of Solesmes is the superior general, to which position he has been twice re-elected.住持的索雷姆是优于一般,而他的立场已经两次连任。

(16) The Congregation of Beuron.-This congregation was founded by Dom Maurus Wolter, who, whilst a seminary professor, was fired with the desire of restoring the Benedictine Order in Germany. (16)Beuron.,这会众聚集,由大教堂毛鲁斯沃尔特,谁,而神学院教授,​​以期恢复笃令在德国成立的欲望发射。He went to St. Paul's, Rome, where he was joined by his two brothers, and all were professed in 1856, one dying soon after.他去圣保罗,罗马,在那里他加入了由他的两个兄弟,以及所有在1856年宣称,一不久去世。The two survivors, Maurus and Placid, set out in 1860, with a sum of £40 and the pope's blessing, to reconquer Germany for St. Benedict.两名幸存者,毛鲁斯和普莱西德,载于1860年,拥有40英镑的总和,教宗的祝福,夺回了圣本笃德国。 In 1863, through the influence of the Princess Katharina von Hohenzollern, they obtained possession of the old Abbey of Beuron, near Sigmaringen, which had been originally founded in 777, but was destroyed in the tenth century by Hungarian invaders and later restored as a house of canons regular; it had been unoccupied since 1805. 1863年,通过公主卡塔琳娜冯霍亨索伦的影响,他们获得的伯龙古修道院,近Sigmaringen,已被原先拥有777成立,但毁于侵略者十世纪匈牙利,后来修复的房子定期的大炮,它自1805年已无人居住。 Dom Maurus became the first abbot of Beuron and superior of the congregation.大教堂毛鲁斯成为伯龙首任住持和众优越。In 1872 a colony was sent to Belgium to found the Abbey of Maredsous, of which Dom Placid was first abbot. 1872年一个殖民地被送往比利时发现了马利苏斯修道院,其中大教堂普莱西德首次住持。The community of Beuron were banished in 1875 by the "May Laws" of the Prussian Government and found a temporary home in an old Servite monastery in the Tyrol.作者:伯龙社区被放逐于1875年由“五法”的普鲁士政府,发现在一个旧Servite修道院在蒂罗尔州一个临时的家。 Whilst there their numbers increased sufficiently to make new foundations at Erdington, England, in 1876, Prague in 1880, and Seckau, Styria, in 1883.虽然他们的人数有增加足以使在Erdington,英国新的基础,在1876年,在1880年布拉格,Seckau,施蒂利亚州,于1883年。 In 1887 Beuron was restored to them, and since then new houses have been established at Maria Laach, Germany (1892), Louvain, and Billerbeck, Belgium (1899 and 1901), and in 1895 the Portuguese monastery of Cucujães was added to the congregation.在1887年伯龙就恢复了他们,自此之后的新房子已经在玛丽亚Laach,德国(1892年),鲁汶,并Billerbeck指出,比利时(1899年和1901年)成立,并于1895年Cucujães葡萄牙修道院添加到众。 The founder died in 1900, and his brother, Dom Placid Wolter, succeeded him as Archabbot of Beuron.创办人于1900年去世,他的弟弟,大教堂普莱西德沃尔特,继任伯龙Archabbot他。

(17) The American Cassinese Congregation.-Nothing very definite can be said with regard to the first Benedictines in North America.(17)美国Cassinese Congregation.,没有非常明确的,可以说,关于在北美的第一本笃。There were probably settlements amongst the Eskimo from Iceland, by way of Greenland, but these must have disappeared at an early date.有可能的定居点之间的爱斯基摩来自冰岛,格陵兰的方式通过,但这些必须早日消失。In 1493 a monk from Montserrat accompanied Columbus on his voyage of discovery and became vicar-Apostolic of the West Indies, but his stay was short, and he returned to Spain.在1493年从蒙特塞拉特和尚陪同他的发现之旅哥伦布,成为副主教使徒的西印度群岛,但他的逗留很短,他回到西班牙。 During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries one or two English monks, and at least one of the Maurist congregation, worked on the American mission; and at the time of the French Revolution negotiations had been commenced by Bishop Carroll, first Bishop of Baltimore, for a settlement of English Benedictines in his diocese, which, however, came to nothing.在十七和十八世纪的一个或两个英文僧侣,并至少有一Maurist众,在美国的使命工作,以及在法国大革命的谈判已经开始,由主教卡罗尔,首先巴尔的摩主教,为一解决在他的教区,其中,然而,石沉大海英文本笃。 The Benedictine Order was first established permanently in America by Dom Boniface Wimmer, of the Abbey of Metten, in Bavaria.本笃令首次设立永久在美国的大教堂博尼法斯温默,对梅滕修道院,在巴伐利亚州。A number of Bavarians had emigrated to America, and it was suggested that their spiritual wants in the new country should be attended to by Bavarian priests.人数的巴伐利亚移民到美国,有人认为,他们的精神在新的国家希望应出席巴伐利亚祭司。Dom Wimmer and a few companions accordingly set out in 1846, and on their arrival in America they acquired the church, a house, and some land belong to the small mission of St. Vincent, Beatty, Pennsylvania, which had been founded some time previously by a Franciscan missionary.大教堂温默和几个同伴相应载于1846年,并在他们抵达美国,他们获得了教堂,一所房子,和一些土地属于圣文森特,贝蒂,宾夕法尼亚州,已成立一段时间以前的小任务由方济传教。 Here they set to work, establishing conventual life, as far as was possible under the circumstances, and applying themselves assiduously to the work of the mission.在这里,他们开始工作,建立修道院生活,就如同在这种情况下可能的,并且运用自己的刻苦向特派团的工作。Reinforced by more monks from Bavaria and their poverty relieved by some munificent donations, they accepted additional outlying missions and established a large college.来自德国巴伐利亚州和增强他们的贫困更优厚的捐款缓解一些僧侣,他们接受更多的外围任务,建立了庞大的大学。In 1855 St. Vincent's, which had already founded two dependent priories was made an abbey and the mother-house of a new congregation, Dom Wimmer being appointed first abbot and president. 1855年圣文森的,因为当时已经成立了两个依赖修道院写了一个修道院和母亲的一个新的教会,大教堂温默被任命为第一住持和总裁。Besides St. Vincent's Arch-Abbey, the following foundations have been made: St. John's Abbey, Collegeville, Minnesota, founded 1856, mainly through the generosity of King Ludwig I of Bavaria; connected with the abbey is a large college for boys, with an attendance of over 300; St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison, Kansas, founded 1857, said to possess the finest Benedictine church in America, built in the style of the Rhenish churches of the tenth and eleventh centuries; there is in connexion a school with 150 boys; St. Mary's Abbey, Newark, New Jersey, founded 1857, with a school of 100 boys; Maryhelp Abbey, Belmont, North Carolina, founded 1885, the abbot of which is also vicar-Apostolic of North Carolina; attached to the abbey are two colleges and a school, with over 200 students; St. Procopius's Abbey, Chicago, founded 1887, with a school of 50 boys and an orphanage attached; St. Leo's Abbey, Pasco County, Florida, founded 1889; this abbey has a dependent priory in Cuba; St. Bernard's Abbey, Cullman County, Alabama, founded 1891, with a school of over 100 boys; St. Peter's Priory, established in Illinois in 1892 and transferred to Muenster, Saskatchewan, NWT, in 1903; St. Martin's Priory, Lacey, the State of Washington, founded 1895.除了圣文森的拱修道院,下列基金会已经作出:圣约翰修道院,科莱格维尔,明尼苏达州,成立于1856年主要是通过巴伐利亚国王路德维希我慷慨;与修道院是一个男孩的大学院,有出席会议的300多名;圣本笃修道院,艾奇逊,堪萨斯州,成立于1857年,据说拥有最优秀的本笃教会在美国,在第十和第十一世纪风格建造的教堂的礼贤,那里是一所学校,联接150个男孩;圣玛丽大教堂,纽瓦克,新泽西州,成立于1857年为100男校; Maryhelp修道院,贝尔蒙,北卡罗来纳州,成立1885年,住持也是副主教使徒北卡罗莱纳州隶属修道院有两个学院和一所学校,有超过200名学生;圣普罗科匹厄斯的修道院,芝加哥,1887年成立,为50男校和一所孤儿院重视;圣利奥的修道院,帕斯科县,佛罗里达州,1889年成立,这教堂已经在古巴依赖修道院;圣伯纳德修道院,卡尔曼县,阿拉巴马州,成立于1891年,拥有超过100个男孩上学;圣彼得修道院,在伊利诺伊州成立于1892年和1903年转移到明斯特,萨斯喀彻温省,西北地区;圣。马丁的修道院,莱西,华盛顿州,成立于1895年。

(18) The Swiss American Congregation.-In 1845 two monks from Einsiedeln in Switzerland came to America and founded the monastery of St. Meinrad, in Indiana, serving the mission and conducting a small school for boys. (18)瑞士美国Congregation.在1845年两名僧人从艾因西德伦在瑞士来到美国,并成立了圣Meinrad,在印第安纳州的修道院,服务任务,并进行了小男孩上学。 It became a priory in 1865, and in 1870 was made an abbey and the centre of the congregation which was canonically erected at the same time.在1865年它成为一个修道院,并在1870年写了一个修道院和会众的是canonically同时竖立中心。The first abbot, Dom Martin Marty, became, in 1879, first Vicar Apostolic of Dakota, where he had some years previously inaugurated mission work amongst the Indians.第一住持,DOM的马丁马蒂,成为在1879年,第一副主教使徒的南达科他州,在那里他有一些几年前成立的工作任务之间的印第安人。 The following new foundations were made: Conception Abbey, Conception, Missouri (1873), the abbot of the abbey being president of the congregation; New Subiaco Abbey, Spielerville, Arkansas (1878); St. Benedict's Abbey, Mount Angel, Oregon (1882); St. Joseph's Abbey, Covington, Louisiana (1889); St. Mary's Abbey, Richadton, North Dakota (1899); St. Gall's Priory, Devil's Lake (1893), the last two communities subject to the same abbot.下面的新的基础上发了言:概念修道院,修道院的福祉总统住持观众,密苏里州(1873年),新萨伯卡修道院,Spielerville,阿肯色(1878年);圣本笃修道院,山天使,俄勒冈州(1882年),圣若瑟修道院,卡温顿,路易斯安那州(1889年);圣玛丽修道院,Richadton,北达科他州(1899年);圣加仑的修道院,魔鬼湖(1893年),最后两个社区受到同样的住持。 To all these monasteries are attached numerous missions, in which the monks exercise the cure of souls.所有这些寺庙附设许多任务,其中的僧侣行使治愈心灵。They also have several seminaries and colleges.他们也有一些神学院和大学。

(19) The Congregation of St. Ottilien.-This congregation, specially established for the work of foreign missions, was commenced in 1884 in the Abbey of St. Ottilien, in Bavaria, under the title of the "Congregation of the Sacred Heart". (19)圣Ottilien.,本教会会众,专门为外国使团的工作设立,于1884年开始在修道院的圣Ottilien,在巴伐利亚州下的“众圣心”称号, 。It was not then Benedictine, but in 1897 was affiliated to the Cassinese congregation and in 1904 formally incorporated into the Benedictine Order.这不是那么笃,但在1897年是附属于Cassinese众并于1904年正式投入纳入本笃秩序。The Abbot of St. Ottilien is the superior general and the Beuronese Abbot of Seckau the apostolic visitor.在住持圣Ottilien是优于一般和Seckau Beuronese使徒游客住持。This congregation has been largely recruited from the congregation of Beuron, to which it is bound by close ties.这众已基本招募从伯龙众,因为它需要的密切关系的约束。In 1901 it established a cell at Wipfeld, in Bavaria, and it has also ten mission stations in Central Africa, one of its members being Vicar Apostolic of Zanzibar.在1901年成立于Wipfeld一个细胞,在巴伐利亚州,它也中部非洲,它被副主教使徒的桑给巴尔10个团站的成员之一。 Its roll of honour was opened in August, 1905, by a bishop, two monks, two lay brothers, and two nuns, who suffered martyrdom for the Faith at the hands of the Central African natives.它的光荣榜始建于八月,1905年,由主教,两名僧人,两名业外人士兄弟,和两名尼姑,谁也遭受了中部非洲土人手中的信仰殉难。

(20) Independent Abbeys.-Besides the above congregations there also are two independent abbeys, which belong to no congregation, but are immediately subject to the Holy See; (a) The Abbey of Fort Augustus, Scotland. (20)独立Abbeys.,除了上述的教会也有两个独立的修道院,它不属于任何教会,但立即受到罗马教廷(一)奥古斯堡,苏格兰修道院。Founded in 1876, as a priory of the English congregation, mainly through the munificence of Lord Lovat, its first community was drawn from the other houses of that body.成立于1876年,作为英国教会修道院主要是通过主洛瓦特慷慨,它的首个社区是来自该机构的其他房屋。It was intended partly to continue the community of Sts.它的目的是继续部分社区的STS。Denis and Adrian, originally of Lamspring, which had been dispersed since 1841, and of which there were only one or two surviving members; and partly to preserve continuity with the Scottish monasteries that had from time to time been founded in different parts of Germany and Austria, and of which there was, likewise, only one survivor-Father Anselm Robertson, professed at St. Jame's, Ratisbon, in 1845.丹尼斯和阿德里安,原本Lamspring,其中1841年以来已被驱散,而其中只有一个或两个幸存的成员,以及部分保持与时机已到,从时间以来在德国各地成立的连续性和苏格兰修道院奥地利,其中有,同样,只有一名幸存者,父亲安瑟伦罗伯逊,在圣詹姆的,拉蒂斯邦,声称在1845年。 These monks took up residence with the new community and assisted in the clothing of the first novice received for Fort Augustus.这些僧侣了与新的社区居住并在奥古斯堡收到的第一批新手服装的协助。In order that its members might be exempt from the external mission work with which the English Benedictines are specially charged, the monastery was, in 1883, separated from the English congregation by the Holy See, and in 1888 was made an independent abbey, directly subject to the pope.为了它的成员可能来自外部的工作任务与该豁免英文本笃专门收费,修道院,于1883年,从由罗马教廷英语聚集分离,并在1888年写了一个独立的修道院,直接受于教宗。 A monk of the Beuron congregation, Dom Leo Linse, was at the same time appointed its first abbot.作者:伯龙众,狮子座大教堂林斯,和尚在任命了第一位住持同一时间。The Beuronese constitutions were first adopted, but these have since been replaced by new constitutions.The Beuronese宪法首次通过,但这些已被新宪法所取代。Of late years the community has undertaken the spiritual care of three parishes in the vicinity of the abbey.近来年,社会已承诺在修道院附近的三个教区精神关怀。(b) St. Anselm's Abbey and International Benedictine College, Rome.(二)圣安瑟伦的修道院和国际博立顿大学,罗马。 This was originally founded in 1687 as a college for Benedictines of the Cassinese congregation, but later on monks of other congregations were also admitted.这本来是作为一个成立的Cassinese众笃学院,但后来被其他教会僧侣也承认在1687年。Having ceased to exist in 1846, it was revived on a small scale by the Abbot of St. Paul's, and reconstituted in 1886 as a college and university for Benedictines from all parts of the world by Leo XIII, who at his own expense erected the present extensive buildings.已不再存在于1846年,这是恢复小规模由圣保罗的住持,并于1886年改组为学院和大学的本笃由利奥十三世,谁在他自费竖起所有世界各地的目前广泛的建筑物。 In 1900 the abbey church was consecrated, in the presence of a great gathering of abbots from all over the world, by Cardinal Rampolla, acting as representative of the pope. 1900年,修道院教堂是神圣的,在从世界各地存在一个伟大的聚会住持由枢机主教兰波拉,作为教宗的代表行事。St. Anselm's is presided over by Abbot Hildebrand de Hemptinne (who is also Abbot of Maredsous) with the title of "Abbot Primate" of the whole order.圣安瑟伦的结束由住持希尔德布兰德Hemptinne(谁也马利苏斯住持)主持以“住持灵长类动物”称号的整个秩序。 It has power to grant degrees in theology, philosophy, and canon law, and both professors and students are drawn from all congregations of the order.它有权授予在神学,哲学和教会法学位,教授和学生都来自各教区的顺序绘制。There is accommodation for one hundred students, but the full number in residence at one time has not yet exceeded sixty.有一百名学生住宿,但驻在同一时间全部人数没有超过六十。

II.二。LAY BROTHERS, ORLATES, CONFRATERS, AND NUNS奠定兄弟,ORLATES,CONFRATERS,和修女

(1) Lay Brothers.-Up to the eleventh century in Benedictine houses no distinction of rank was made between the clerical and the lay brethren. (1)列出Brothers.行动中没有等级区分笃之间的文书和所造的十一世纪奠定兄弟。All were on an equal footing in the community and at first comparatively few seem to have been advanced to the priesthood.都是在社会上的平等并在第一次比较少,似乎已经先进去当牧师。St. Benedict himself was probably only a layman; at any rate it is certain that he was not a priest.圣本笃本人很可能只是一个门外汉;无论如何可以确定的是,他不是一个牧师。A monk not in sacred orders was always considered as eligible as a priest for any office in the community, even that of abbot, though for purposes of convenience some of the monks were usually ordained for the service of the altar; and until literary and scholastic work, which could only be undertaken by men of some education and culture, began to take the place of manual labour, all shared alike in the daily round of agricultural and domestic duties.一个和尚在神圣的订单一直被视为不作为任何在社区办公室牧师的资格,甚至是住持,但为了方便一些僧侣目的通常是为服务的祭坛受戒;,直到文学和学术工作,这只能由某些人进行教育和文化,开始采取手工劳动,所有的共享在农业和家务每天一轮的一致好评。 St. John Gualbert, the founder of Vallombrosa, was the first to introduce the system of lay brethren, by drawing a line of distinction between the monks who were clerics and those who were not.圣约翰Gualbert,对瓦伦布罗萨创始人,是第一个引进的画一避之间谁是僧侣神职人员和这些谁没有区分线的弟兄们,系统。 The latter had no stalls in choir and no vote in chapter; neither were they bound to the daily recitation of the breviary Office as were the choir monks.后者没有在唱诗班,没有投票章,也不是他们必然的breviary办公室的日常背诵因为是合唱团僧侣。Lay brothers were entrusted with the more menial work of the monastery, and all those duties that involved intercourse with the outside world, in order that the choir brethren might be free to devote themselves entirely to prayer and other occupations proper to their clerical vocation.莱兄弟与该寺院更粗重工作委托,而所有这些工作涉及与外部世界交往,为了使合唱团的弟兄们可能完全自由地投身祈祷和其他职业恰当的文书职。 The system spread rapidly to all branches of the order and was imitated by almost every other religious order.该系统迅速蔓延到所有分支机构的秩序,被几乎所有其他的宗教秩序模仿。At the present day there is hardly a congregation, Benedictine or otherwise, that has not its lay brethren, and even amongst numerous orders of nuns a similar distinction is observed, either between the nuns that are bound to choir and those that are not, or between those that keep strict enclosure and those that are not so enclosed.目前每天几乎没有一个聚集,笃或其他方式,已不是其奠定兄弟,而当中的一个类似的区别是观察修女甚至许多订单,或者之间的绑定到合唱团和修女那些没有或那些之间保持严格的外壳和那些不那么封闭。 The habit worn by the lay brethren is usually a modification of that of the choir monks, sometimes differing from it in colour as well as in shape; and the vows of the lay brethren are in most congregations only simple, or renewable periodically, in contrast with the solemn vows for life taken by the choir religious.的奠定兄弟穿的习惯,通常是合唱团的僧侣们的修改,有时不同的颜色,以及从它的形状为;和誓言的奠定兄弟在大多数教会只有简单的,或可再生定期对比与庄严誓言终身合唱团所采取的宗教。 In some communities at the present time the lay brothers equal and even outnumber the priests, especially in those, like Beuron or New Nursia, where farming and agriculture are carried out on a large scale.在目前在一些社区,奠定兄弟平等,甚至超过了祭司,尤其是在那些像伯龙或新努尔西亚,其中农业和农业进行大规模的了。

(2) Oblates.-This term was formerly applied to children offered by their parents in a solemn way to a monastery, a dedication by which they were considered to have embraced the monastic state. (2)Oblates.,本术语适用于提供以前在庄严的方式,他们的父母到一个修道院,一个由他们被认为已经接受了寺院的状态奉献的儿童。The custom led to many abuses in the Middle Ages, because oblates sometimes abandoned the religious life and returned to the world, whilst still looked upon as professed religious.自定义导致了中世纪诸多弊端,因为献主有时放弃了宗教生活,回到世界,同时还宣称宗教视为对。The Church, therefore, in the twelfth century, forbade the dedication of children in this way, and the term oblate has since been taken to mean persons, either lay or cleric, who voluntarily attach themselves to some monastery or order without taking the vows of religious.教会,因此,在12世纪,禁止以这种方式对儿童奉献精神,以及长远的扁圆以来已采取的意思的人,要么躺在或神职人员,谁不采取主动附上自己的一些寺院或命令誓言宗教的。 They wear the habit and share all the privileges and exercises of the community they join, but they retain dominion over their property and are free to leave at any time.他们穿的习惯和共享所有的特权和社区,他们参加演习,但他们仍保留着统治他们的财产,并可随时在任何时候离开。They usually make a promise of obedience to the superior, which binds them as long as they remain in the monastery, but it only partakes of the nature of a mutual agreement and has none of the properties of a vow or solemn contract.他们通常做一个服从上级,他们有约束力的承诺,只要他们留在寺院,但只参与大的一个共同协议的性质并具有良好的庄严的誓言或合同的任何属性。

(3) Confratres.-A custom sprang up in the Middle Ages of uniting lay people to a religious community by formal aggregation, through which they participated in all the prayers and good works of the monks, and though living in the world, they could always feel that they were connected in a special way with some religious house or order.(3)Confratres. -自定义兴起,在人民的团结奠定聚集的一份正式的宗教社会,通过它们在所有的祈祷和优秀作品的僧人参加,中世纪,虽然生活在世界上,他们可以总觉得他们是在与一些宗教房子或订购特殊的方式连接。 There seem to have been Benedictine confratres as early as the ninth century.人们似乎已经笃confratres像第九世纪初。 The practice was widely taken up by almost every other order and was developed by the mendicants in the thirteenth century into what are now called "third orders".这种做法被普遍采取了由几乎所有其他秩序,发展于十三世纪由乞丐到现在所谓的“第三个订单。”It was peculiar to Benedictine confratres that they were always aggregated to the particular monastery of their selection and not to the whole order in general, as is the case with others.这是特有的笃confratres,他们总是聚集到他们的选择,而不是一般的整个秩序特别是寺院,因为是与其他人的情况。 The Benedictines have numbered kings and emperors and many distinguished persons amongst their confratres, and there is hardly a monastery of the present day which has not some lay people connected with it by this spiritual bond of union.本笃有编号的其中有他们的confratres帝王和许多杰出人士,而且几乎没有一个至今未曾有的人干脆用它的这一精神纽带的工会人的寺院。

(4) Nuns.-Nothing very definite can be said as to the first nuns living under the Rule of St. Benedict.(4)Nuns.,没有非常明确的,可以说是向主管的圣本笃规则生活的第一修女。St. Gregory the Great certainly tells us that St. Benedict's sister, Scholastica, presided over such a community of religious women who were established in a monastery situated about five miles from his Abbey of Monte Cassino; but whether that was merely an isolated instance, or whether it may be legitimately regarded as the foundation of the female department of the order, is at least an open question.圣高利大肯定告诉我们,圣本笃的妹妹,Scholastica主持这样一个谁是从他在大约五蒙特卡西诺修道院英里远的地方建立了一个修道院的宗教妇女界,但是否只是一个孤立事件,或是否可视为合法的命令女部的基础上,至少是一个悬而未决的问题。 We do not even know what rule these nuns followed, though we may conjecture that they were under St. Benedict's spiritual direction and that whatever rule he gave them probably differed but little, except perhaps in minor details, from that for monks which has come down to us bearing his name.我们甚至不知道什么规则这些修女其次,虽然我们可以推测他们在圣本笃的精神和方向是,无论规则,他给了他们可能不同,但很少,除非是在小细节,从该僧侣已下降我们轴承他的名字。 It seems tolerably certain, at any rate, that as St. Benedict's Rule began to be diffused abroad, women as well as men formed themselves into communities in order to live a religious life according to its principles, and wherever the Benedictine monks went, there also we find monasteries being established for nuns.看来还算肯定的,无论如何,作为圣本笃的规则开始被分散在国外,妇女和男子形成了社区本身,以过宗教生活,根据其原则,何地,本笃和尚去了,那里我们也正在为寻找寺庙僧尼建立。

Nunneries were founded in Gaul by Sts.修女院的成立是在高卢的STS。Caesarius and Aurelian of Arles, St. Martin of Tours, and St. Columbanus of Luxeuil, and up to the sixth century the rules for nuns in most general use were those of St. Caesarius and St. Columbanus, portions of which are still extant. Caesarius和阿尔勒Aurelian的,圣马丁的旅行团,和圣Columbanus的Luxeuil,以及多达六世纪中最普遍使用的规则,修女的圣Caesarius和圣Columbanus,其中的部分中仍存。 These were, however, eventually supplanted by that of St. Benedict, and amongst the earliest nunneries to make the change were Poitiers, Chelles, Remiremont, and Faremoutier.这些人,但最终取代由圣本笃,而当中最早的尼姑庵,以使更改普瓦捷,Chelles的,Remiremont和Faremoutier。 Mabillon assigns the beginning of the change to the year 620 though more probably the Benedictine Rule was not received in its entirety at so early a date, but was only combined with the other rules then in force.马毕伦分配的变化开始到620年,但更可能是本笃规则是不完整收到这么早的日期,但只与当时有效的其他规则相结合。Remiremont became for women what Luxeuil was for men, the centre from which sprang a numerous spiritual family, and though later on it was converted into a convent of noble cannonesses, instead of nuns properly so called, a modified form of the Benedictine Rule was still observed there. Remiremont妇女成为为男性是什么Luxeuil,中心从中孕育出无数家庭的精神,虽然后来它被变成了高贵的cannonesses修道院改建,而不是所谓正确的修女,一个本笃规则修改的形式仍观察到那里。 St. Benedict's Rule was widely propagated by Charlemagne and his son, Louis the Pious, and the Council of Aix-la-Chapelle in 817 enforced its general observance in all the nunneries of the empire.圣本笃的规则被广泛宣扬的查理曼和他的儿子,路易斯的虔诚,以及艾克斯香格里拉- Chapelle的执行理事会在817在所有帝国的尼姑庵普遍遵守。The Abbey of Notre Dame de Ronceray, at Angers, founded in 1028 by Fulke, Count of Anjou, was one of the most influential convents in France in the Middle Ages, and had under its jurisdiction a large number of dependent priories.在圣母院Ronceray修道院,在昂热,成立于1028年由Fulke,安茹伯爵,是在中世纪法国最有影响力的修道院之一,其管辖下有大量的依赖修道院。

The earliest convents for women in England were at Folkestone, founded 630, and St. Mildred's in Thanet, established 670, and it is probable that under the influence of the successors of St. Augustine's monks at Canterbury and elsewhere, these nunneries observed the Benedictine Rule from the first.在英国妇女最早的修道院在福克斯通,成立630,和圣米尔德里德在萨尼特的,建立670,并且很可能,根据在坎​​特伯雷和其他地方的圣奥古斯丁的僧侣接班人的影响,这些本笃会修女院观察从第一个规则。 Other important Anglo-Saxon convents were: Ely, founded by St. Etheldreda in 673, Barking (675), Wimborne (713), Wilton (800), Ramsey, Hants (967), and Amesbury (980).其他重要的盎格鲁撒克逊修道院是:伊利,创办于673,门口由圣Etheldreda(675),温伯恩(713),威尔顿(800),拉姆齐,汉普郡(967)和埃姆斯伯里(980)。 In Northumbria, Whitby (657) and Coldingham (673) were the chief houses of nuns.在诺森布里亚,惠特比(657)和科尔丁厄姆(673)是修女的主要房屋。St. Hilda was the most celebrated of the abbesses of Whitby, and it was at Whitby that the synod which decided the paschal controversy was held in 664.圣希尔达是,对最有名的abbesses惠特比,它是在惠特的主教决定争议的逾越节是在664举行。Most of these convents were destroyed by Danish invaders during the ninth and tenth centuries, but some were subsequently restored and many others were founded in England after the Norman conquest.这些修道院大部分被摧毁,由丹麦入侵者在第九和第十世纪,但有些人后来恢复和许多其他人在英格兰诺曼征服后成立。

The first nuns in Germany came from England in the eighth century, having been brought over by St. Boniface to assist him in his work of conversion and to provide a means of education for their own sex amongst the newly evangelized Teutonic races.在德国的第一个修女来自英格兰在第八世纪,并曾带来圣博尼费斯到协助他工作,他的转换,并为他们之间的新福传日尔曼种族自己的性的教育手段。 Sts.针。Lioba, Thecla, and Walburga were the earliest of these pioneers, and for them and their companions, who were chiefly from Wimborne, St. Boniface established many convents throughout the countries in which he preached. Lioba,Thecla和Walburga人,并为他们和他们的同伴,谁是主要由Wimborne,这些最早的开拓者,圣博尼费斯国家在各地建立了许多修道院,他鼓吹。 In other parts of Europe nunneries sprang up as rapidly as the abbeys for men, and in the Middle Ages they were almost, if not quite, as numerous.在欧洲其他地区的尼寺迅速兴起,作为男性的修道院,并在中世纪,他们差不多,如果不大,因为很多的。In later medieval times the names of St. Gertrude, called the "Great", and her sister St. Mechtilde, who flourished in the thirteenth century, shed a lustre on the Benedictine nuns of Germany.在以后的中世纪时代的圣格特鲁德的名字,叫做“大”,和她的妹妹圣Mechtilde,谁在十三世纪蓬勃发展,揭示了德国的本笃会修女的光泽。 In Italy the convents seem to have been very numerous during the Middle Ages.在意大利的修道院似乎已经在中世纪非常多。In the thirteenth century several were founded in which the reform of Vallombrosa was adopted, but none of these now exist.在十三世纪的几个成立于其中瓦伦布罗萨改革获得通过,但现在这些都不存在。There were also convents belonging to the reforms of Camaldoli and Mount Olivet, of which a few still survive.也有属于修道院的卡马尔多利及摩司科特,这些改革措施,其中少数仍然生存。

Except in the Bursfeld Union, which included houses of both sexes, and in the Cistercian reform, where the nuns were always under the Abbot of Cîteaux, and a few others of minor importance, the congregational system was never applied to the houses of women in an organized way.除了在Bursfeld联盟,其中包括男女房屋,并在修道院的改革,那里的修女住持的Cîteaux下,和其他一些轻微的重要性一如既往的公理系统从来没有应用到妇女的房屋在一组织方式。 The convents were generally either under the exclusive direction of some particular abbey, through the influence of which they had been established, or else, especially when founded by lay people, they were subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in which they were situated.无论是一般的修道院在一些特殊的修道院唯一的指挥通过,他们已经成立,否则,尤其是当信徒创办的影响,他们受的教区主教在他们所管辖位于。 These two conditions of existence have survived to the present day; there are nine belonging to the first and over two hundred and fifty to the second category.这两个条件的存在已存活至今的有9个属于首次超过二百五第二类。

Early in the twelfth century France was the scene of a somewhat remarkable phase in the history of the Benedictine nuns.早在十二世纪法国是一个在历史上的本笃会修女有点显着阶段现场。 Robert of Arbrissel, formerly chancellor to the Duke of Brittany, embraced an eremitical life in which he had many disciples, and having founded a monastery of canons regular, carried out a new idea in 1099 when he established the double Abbey of Fontevrault in Poitou, famous in France for many centuries.罗伯特Arbrissel,原校长向布列塔尼公爵,拥抱一个eremitical生活中,他有许多弟子,并具有建立了定期的大炮寺院,进行了一个新的想法在1099年成立时,他在普瓦图的丰特夫罗双修道院,在法国著名​​的许多世纪。 The monks and nuns both kept the Benedictine Rule, to which were added some additional austerities.僧尼既保持了本笃规则,其中增加了一些额外的苦行。The law of enclosure was very strictly observed.,外壳是非常严格遵守法律。In 1115 the founder placed the entire community, monks as well as nuns, under the rule of the abbess, and he further provided that the person elected to that office should always be chosen from the outside world, as such a one would have more practical knowledge of affairs and capacity for administration than one trained in the cloister.在1115创始人置于整个社会,僧侣和尼姑,根据规则的住持,他还进一步规定,当选这一职位的人应该总是选择从外部世界,因为这样的人会更实际的事务和行政管理能力比一知识培训的回廊。 Many noble ladies and royal princesses of France are reckoned amongst the abbesses of Fontevrault.许多崇高的女士和法国皇家公主之间的丰特夫罗计算的abbesses。(See FONTEVRAULT.) (见丰特夫罗。)

Excepting at Fontevrault the nuns seem at first not to have been strictly enclosed, as now, but were free to leave the cloister whenever some special duty or occasion might demand it, as in the case of the English nuns already mentioned, who went to Germany for active missionary work.在丰特夫罗除在修女似乎在一开始并未得到严格封闭的,和现在一样,但他们能自由离开修道院时,一些特殊的责任或场合可能要求正如已经提到的英国修女,谁去德国的情况吧,为积极传教工作。 This freedom with regard to enclosure gave rise, in course of time, to grave scandals, and the Councils of Constance (1414), Basle (1431), and Trent (1545), amongst others, regulated that all the professedly contemplative orders of nuns should observe strict enclosure, and this has continued to the present time as the normal rule of a Benedictine convent.这方面的外壳自由产生了,随着时间的推移,严重的丑闻,以及康斯坦茨议会(1414),巴塞尔(1431),特伦特(1545),除其他外,规定所有修女自称沉思订单要遵守严格的外壳,这一直延续到作为一个本笃会修道院,目前正常的规则。

The Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century affected the nuns as well as the monks.在十六世纪宗教改革影响的修女以及僧侣。Throughout north-western Europe the Benedictine institute was practically obliterated.在整个西北欧的本笃研究所几乎抹杀。In England the convents were suppressed and the nuns turned adrift.在英格兰的修道院遭到压制和尼姑变成落后。In Germany, Denmark, and Scandinavia the Lutherans acquired most of the nunneries and ejected their inmates.在德国,丹麦和斯堪的纳维亚半岛的lutherans收购了尼寺最多,驱逐他们的囚犯囚犯。The wars of religion in France also had a disastrous effect upon the convents of that country, already much enfeebled by the evils consequent on the practice of commendam.在法国的宗教战争也产生了该国后,已经深受邪恶对commendam实践随之衰弱修道院,灾难性的影响。The last few centuries, however, have witnessed a widespread revival of the Benedictine life for women as well as for men.在过去的几个世纪,然而,目睹了对妇女以及男子笃生活普遍复苏。In France, especially, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, there sprang up several new congregations of Benedictine nuns, or reforms were instituted among those already existing.在法国,尤其是在十七和十八世纪,有兴起的本笃会修女几个新教友,或改革,在那些已经存在的制度化。These were not strictly congregations in the technical sense, but rather unions or groups of houses which adopted a uniform observance, though the individual convents still remained for the most part subject to their respective bishops.这些都是没有严格意义上的毕业典礼,在技术,而是工会或房屋通过了一项统一的遵守,但各单项修道院仍然在很大程度上受制于各自的主教,都群体。 Mention may be made of the reforms of Montmartre, Beauvais, Val-de-Grace, and Douai, and those of the Perpetual Adoration founded at Paris in 1654 and Valdosne in 1701.可以提到的蒙马特,博韦,缬氨酸德宽限期,杜埃和改革,以及永久崇拜那些在巴黎成立于1654年和1701 Valdosne。 The French Revolution suppressed all these convents, but many have since been restored and fresh foundations added to their number.法国大革命镇压所有这些修道院,但许多已经得到恢复和新基金会增加其数量。

The first convent of English nuns since the Reformation was founded at Brussels in 1598; and another was established at Cambrai in 1623 under the direction of the English Benedictine Fathers of Douai, from which a filiation was made at Paris in 1652.英语第一修道院修女自改革是在1598年在布鲁塞尔成立,以及成立于1623年又在康布雷下的英文本笃神父的杜埃,从中亲子关系是在1652年在巴黎的方向。 At Ghent in 1624 a convent was founded under Jesuit guidance, and established daughter-houses at Boulogne in 1652, Ypres in 1665, and Dunkirk in 1662.在根特在1624年成立一个修道院耶稣会的指导下,建立在布洛涅媳妇房屋在1652年,伊普尔在1665年,1662年敦克尔克。 All these communities, except that of Ypres, were expelled at the French Revolution and escaped to England.所有这些社区,除伊普尔说,被驱逐的法国大革命和逃到英国。That of Cambrai is now at Stanbrook and still remains a member of the English congregation under the jurisdiction of its abbot-president.这就是现在的康布雷在斯坦布鲁克,现在仍然是根据其住持总统管辖英国教会的成员。The Brussels community is now at East Bergholt, and the Paris nuns at Colwich, whence an off-shoot has been planted at Atherstone (1842).布鲁塞尔社会正处在东贝霍尔特,并在巴黎科尔威奇尼姑,何处场外拍摄已经在亚瑟斯敦(1842年)种植。Those of Ghent are now at Oulton; Boulogne and Dunkirk, having combined, are settled at Teignmouth.根特那些现在在奥尔顿;布洛涅和敦克尔克,有合成的,是在廷茅斯定居。The convent of Ypres alone remains at the place of its original foundation, having survived the troublous times of the Revolution.修道院的伊普尔仅停留在其原有基础的地方,有存活革命的艰难的时候。There are also small Benedictine convents of more recent foundation at Minster (Thanet), Ventnor, Dumfries, and Tenby, and one at Princethorpe, originally a French community founded at Montargis in 1630, but driven to England in 1792, and now almost exclusively English.也有小本笃修道院更近的基础上大教堂(萨尼特),文特诺,邓弗里斯和滕比,一个在普林斯索普,原来是法国社会在蒙达尼成立于1630年,但驱动英国于1792年,现在几乎完全是英语。 The nuns of Stanbrook, Oulton, Princethorpe, Ventnor, and Dumfries conduct boarding-school for the higher education of young ladies, and those of Teignmouth, Colwich, Atherstone, and Dumfries have undertaken the work of perpetual adoration.斯坦布鲁克的,奥尔顿,普林斯索普,文特诺,和邓弗里斯的修女开展了高等教育的女青年寄宿学校,和廷茅斯,科尔威奇,阿瑟斯和邓弗里斯那些承担了永久的崇敬工作。

In Austria many of the medieval convents have remained undisturbed, and likewise a few in Switzerland.在奥地利的许多中世纪的修道院保持原状,并同样在瑞士几个。In Belgium there are seven dating from the seventeenth century, and in Germany fourteen, established mostly during the last half century.在比利时有7个从十七世纪以来,在德国14个,建立在过去半个世纪居多。In Italy, where at one time they were very numerous, there still remain, in spite of recent suppressions, eighty-five Benedictine convents dating from the Middle Ages, with over a thousand nuns.在意大利,在同一时间,他们非常众多,仍然存在,在最近的镇压,八五本笃会修道院,从中世纪约会超过一千尼姑,怨恨。Holland has three convents of modern date, and Poland one, at Warsaw, founded in 1687.荷兰有三个修道院的现代日期,并在波兰华沙之一,于1687年成立。The convents of Spain numbered thirty at the time of the suppressions of 1835.西班牙的修道院编号为1835的压迫的时间三十。 The nuns were then robbed of all their possessions, but managed to preserve their corporate existence, though in great poverty and with reduced numbers.修女们,然后抢走了所有的财产,但设法保持他们的企业存在,但在极端贫困和减少数字。Ten of the old convents have since been restored, and eleven new ones founded.老修道院,已有十人被恢复,11个新的依据。It is a peculiarity of the Spanish convents that their abbesses who are elected triennially, receive no solemn blessing, as elsewhere, nor do they make use of any abbatial insignia.这是一个特殊性的西班牙修道院,他们abbesses谁当选每三年改选一次,得不到严肃的祝福,与其他地方一样,也没有作出任何abbatial徽章的使用。

Benedictine life in America may be said to be in a flourishing condition.本笃在美国的生活可以说是在一个繁荣的条件。There are thirty-four convents with nearly two thousand nuns, all of which have been founded within the last sixty years.有三四近二千修女,所有这些已在过去的60年创立修道院。The first establishment was at St. Mary's, Pennsylvania, where Abbot Wimmer settled some German nuns from Eichstätt in 1852; this is still one of the most important convents in the United States and from it many filiations have been made.首先是建立在圣玛丽,宾夕法尼亚州,那里住持温默结清爱希施泰特一些德国修女在1852年,这仍然是在美国,从它许多filiations已经做出了最重要的修道院之一。 St. Benedict's convent at St. Joseph, Minnesota, founded in 1857, is the largest Benedictine convent in America.圣本笃在圣若瑟,明尼苏达州,成立于1857年,修道院是美国最大的本笃会修道院。Other important houses are at Allegheny (Pennsylvania), Atchison (Kansas), Chicago (2), Covington (Kentucky), Duluth (Minnesota), Erie (Pennsylvania), Ferdinand (Indiana), Mount Angel (Oregon), Newark (New Jersey), New Orleans (Louisiana), Shoal Creek (Arkansas), and Yankton (South Dakota).其他重要的房子都在阿勒格尼(宾夕法尼亚州),艾奇逊(堪萨斯州),芝加哥(2),温顿(肯塔基州),德卢斯(明尼苏达州),伊利(宾夕法尼亚州),费迪南德(印第安纳州),装入天使(俄勒冈州),纽瓦克(新泽西州),新奥尔良(路易斯安那州),滩河(阿肯色州)和扬克顿(南达科他州)。 The nuns are chiefly occupied with the work of education, which comprises elementary schools as well as boarding school for secondary education.修女们正在主要忙于教育工作,其中包括小学和中学教育的寄宿学校。All the American convents are subject to the bishops of their respective dioceses.所有的美国修道院都受到各自的教区主教。

III.三。INFLUENCE AND WORK OF THE ORDER影响力和治安工作

The influence exercised by the Order of St. Benedict has manifested itself chiefly in three directions: (1) the conversion of the Teutonic races and other missionary works; (2) the civilization of north-western Europe; (3) educational work and the cultivation of literature and the arts, the forming of libraries, etc.由圣本笃订购行使本身的影响主要体现在三个方向:(1)条顿民族和其他传教士的作品转换;(2)西北欧文明;(3)教育工作和文学和艺术修养,形成了图书馆等

(1) Missionary Work of the Order.-At the time of St. Benedict's death (c. 543) the only countries of Western Europe which had been Christianized were Italy, Spain, Gaul, and part of the British Isles. (1)传教工作的Order.,在圣本笃的死亡(角543)西欧已被基督教化的国家只有包括意大利,西班牙,高卢,不列颠群岛和兼职。The remaining countries all received the Gospel during the next few centuries, either wholly or partially through the preaching of the Benedictines.其余国家都收到在未来几个世纪的福音,无论是全部或部分通过本笃说教。 Beginning with St. Augustine's arrival in England in 597, the missionary work of the order can be easily traced.与圣奥古斯丁在英格兰抵达597年初,传教工作的命令可以很容易地追踪。The companions of St. Augustine, who is usually called the "Apostle of England", planted the Faith anew throughout the country whence it had been driven out nearly two centuries previously by the Anglo-Saxon and other heathen invaders.圣奥古斯丁,谁是通常被称为“使徒的英格兰”中,全国各地种植的同伴那里它已被赶出了盎格鲁撒克逊和其他异教徒侵略者近两个世纪以前的信念,重新。 St. Augustine and St. Lawrence at Canterbury, St. Justus at Rochester, St. Mellitus at London, and St. Paulinus at York were Benedictine pioneers, and their labours were afterwards supplemented by other monks who, though not strictly Benedictine, were at least assisted by the black monks in establishing the Faith.圣奥古斯丁和圣劳伦斯坎特伯雷,圣贾斯特斯在罗切斯特,糖尿病在伦敦圣和圣Paulinus在纽约被本笃先锋,他们的劳动是事后的谁,但没有严格笃,补充了其他僧侣至少黑色僧侣的协助下建立的信仰。 Thus St. Birinus evangelized Wessex, St. Chad the Midlands, and St. Felix East Anglia, whilst the Celtic monks from Iona settled at Lindisfarne, whence the work of St. Paulinus in Northumbria was continued by St. Aidan, St. Cuthbert, and many others.因此,圣Birinus evangelized威塞克斯,圣乍得中部,东英吉利亚和圣费利克斯,而从凯尔特僧侣艾奥娜收于林迪斯,那里的圣Paulinus在诺森比亚工作是由圣艾,圣卡斯伯特持续,和许多其他问题。 In 716 England sent forth Winfrid, afterwards called Boniface, a Benedictine monk trained at Exeter, who preached the Faith in Friesland, Alemannia, Thuringia, and Bavaria, and finally, being made Archbishop of Mentz (Mainz), became the Apostle of central Germany.英国派出了716 Winfrid,后来所谓的博尼法斯,本笃会修士在埃克塞特,谁鼓吹在弗里斯兰省,Alemannia,图林根州,巴伐利亚州和信仰,最后的训练,正在门茨大主教(美因茨),成为德国中部使徒。 At Fulda he placed a Bavarian convert named Sturm at the head of a monastery he founded there in 744, from which came many missionaries who carried the Gospel to Prussia and what is now Austria.在富尔达又在一个修道院始建于744头,他在那里,从里面传来了福音,谁进行普鲁士和现在的许多传教士奥地利巴伐利亚转换命斯特姆。 From Corbie, in Picardy, one of the most famous monasteries in France, St. Ansgar set out in 827 for Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, in each of which countries he founded many monasteries and firmly planted the Benedictine Rule.从科必在皮卡,在法国最有名的寺院之一,圣Ansgar载于丹麦,瑞典,挪威,827出在每一个国家,他创立了许多寺庙,坚决种植的本笃规则。 These in turn spread the Faith and monasticism through Iceland and Greenland.这些传播依次通过冰岛和格陵兰岛的信仰和修道。 For a short time Friesland was the scene of the labours of St. Wilfrid during a temporary banishment from England in 678, and the work he began there was continued and extended to Holland by the English monks Willibrord and Swithbert.很短的时间菲仕兰是圣威尔弗里德的劳动场景在从英国的678临时驱逐,而他开始工作,并有继续由英国僧侣威利布罗德和Swithbert扩展到荷兰。 Christianity was first preached in Bavaria by Eustace and Agilus, monks from Luseuil, early in the seventh century; their work was continued by St. Rupert, who founded the monastery and see of Salzburg, and firmly established by St. Boniface about 739.基督教最早鼓吹在巴伐利亚州的尤斯塔斯和Agilus,僧侣从Luseuil,早在公元七世纪,他们的工作是由圣梅,谁创立了寺院,看到萨尔茨堡,并坚决圣博尼费斯创办于约739继续进行。 So rapidly did the Faith spread in this country that between the years 740 and 780 no less than twenty-nine Benedictine abbeys were founded there.如此迅速地做了这个国家的信仰传播岁之间的740和780不低于二九本笃会修道院的成立是那里。

Another phase of Benedictine influence may be founded in the work of those monks who, from the sixth to the twelfth century, so frequently acted as the chosen counsellors of kings, and whose wise advice and guidance had much to do with the political history of most of the countries of Europe during that period.本笃会影响另一阶段可能创立于那些谁,从第六至十二世纪,所以经常担任辅导员国王的选择,其明智的建议和指导有很大的关系与政治历史的大部分工作僧侣在该期间内的欧洲国家。 In more recent times the missionary spirit has manifested itself anew amongst the Benedictines.在最近的时代精神,体现了自己的传教重新跻身笃。During the penal times the Catholic Church in England was kept alive in great measure by the Benedictine missioners from abroad, not a few of whom shed their blood for the Faith.在刑法倍天主教会在英格兰被关在很大程度上从国外活着本笃传教士,而不是少数人的信念,抛头颅,洒血。Still more recently Australia has been indebted to the order for both its Catholicity and its hierarchy.不过最近澳大利亚一直感激为它的共通性和层次结构顺序。The English congregation supplied some of its earliest missionaries, as well as its first prelates, in the persons of Archbishop Polding, Archbishop Ullathorne, and others during the first half of the nineteenth century.众提供的英语在十九世纪上半部分,其最早的传教士,以及波丁的大主教,大主教拉索恩,和其他人的人其第一主教。Later on, the Spanish monks, DD.后来,西班牙僧侣,副署长。Serra and Salvado, arrived and successfully evangelized the western portion of the continent from New Nursia as a centre.塞拉和萨尔瓦多,并成功地抵达了福音来自新努尔西亚为中心的大陆西部的部分。Mention must also be made of the numerous missions amongst the North American Indians by the monks of the Swiss-American congregation from St. Meinrad's abbey, Indiana; and those of the American-Cassinese congregation in various parts of the United States, from St. Vincent's Arch-Abbey, Beatty, Pennsylvania.还必须提及由北美印第安人之间通过从圣Meinrad的修道院,印第安纳瑞士的美国教会的僧侣众多任务,以及美国,Cassinese众那些在美国各地,从圣文森特的拱修道院,贝蒂,宾夕法尼亚州。 Apostolic work was also done by the English Fathers of the Cassinese PO congregation amongst the Hindus in Western Bengal, and amongst the Maoris in New Zealand; and French monks of the same congregation laboured in the Apostolic vicariate of the Indian Territory, USA, from the headquarters at the Sacred Heart Abbey, Oklahoma.使徒工作也做了由Cassinese婆跻身西部孟加拉印度教徒聚集在英国的父亲,并跻身于新西兰毛利人,以及在宗座代牧区的辛劳,同众法国僧侣的印度领土,美国,从总部设在圣心修道院,俄克拉荷马州。 In Ceylon the Sylvestrine Benedictines have undertaken (1883) missionary work amongst the natives in the Diocese of Kandy, the bishop of which is a member of the order; and still more recently the congregation of St. Ottilien, expressly established to provide workers for the foreign mission field, has established missions amongst the native tribes of Central Africa, where the seeds of the Faith have already been watered by the blood of its first martyrs.在锡兰Sylvestrine笃已采取措施(1883年)之间在康提教区主教的是该命令的成员当地人传教工作,以及最近更聚集的圣Ottilien,明确确立了向职工提供外国使团场,建立了中非之间,那里的信仰的种子已经由第一烈士的鲜血浇灌出来的土著部落的任务。

(2) Civilizing Influence of the Order.-Christianity and civilization go hand in hand, and hence we naturally look to North-western Europe for the effects of the civilizing influences exerted by the Benedictine missionaries. (2)文明的影响力的Order.,基督教和文明齐头并进,因此我们自然地寻找本笃会传教士所施加的影响,以文明的影响西北欧。St. Benedict himself began by converting and civilizing the barbarians who overran Italy in the sixth century, the best of whom came and learned the Gospel principles at Monte Cassino.圣本笃本人开始转换和文明的野蛮人谁占领了在第六世纪的意大利,最好的人来了,还学会了蒙特卡西诺福音原则。Previous to the institution of monasticism labour had been regarded as the symbol of slavery and serfdom, but St. Benedict and his followers taught in the West that lesson of free labour which had first been inculcated by the fathers of the desert.在此之前的修道劳工机构已被视为奴隶制和农奴制的象征,但圣本笃和他的追随者在西方教导,自由劳动教训,最初是由沙漠的父亲灌输。 Wherever the monks went, those who were not employed in preaching tilled the ground; thus whilst some sowed in pagan souls the seeds of the Christian Faith, others transformed barren wastes and virgin forests into fruitful fields and verdant meadows.僧人走到哪里,这些谁没有在鼓吹雇用当地耕种,因此在异教徒的灵魂,而一些基督教信仰播下的种子,其他改造贫瘠的废弃物和富有成果的领域和青翠的草地原始森林。 This principle of labour was a powerful instrument in the hands of the monastic pioneers, for it attracted to them the common people who learned form the monasteries thus reared as from object lessons the secrets of organized work, agriculture, the arts and sciences, and the principles of true government.这种劳动的原则是在寺院的先驱们的手中强大的工具,因为它吸引了他们谁知道这样的形式作为对象的经验教训,从饲养的寺庙中的民本组织工作,农业,艺术和科学,以及秘密原则的真正的政府。 Neander (Eccl. Hist.) points out that the profits accruing from the labour of the monks were employed ungrudgingly for the relief of the distressed, and in times of famine many thousands were saved from starvation by the charitable foresight of the monks.尼安德(传道书历史。)指出,利润从劳动力的僧侣被雇用ungrudgingly累积的苦恼的救济,并在许多饥荒饿死数千次是从所救的僧侣慈善远见。 The accounts of the beginnings of abbey after abbey present the same features with recurring regularity.在修道院的修道院的开端户口本和经常性的规律相同的功能。Not only were the marshes drained, sterile plains rendered fertile, and wild beasts tamed or driven away, but the bandits and outlaws who infested many of the great highways and forests were either put to flight or converted from their evil ways by the industrious and unselfish monks.不仅是沼泽地排水,无菌呈现平原肥沃,驯服或赶走野兽,但土匪和不法分子出没的伟大谁公路和森林被付诸许多航班或从他们的恶行转换的勤劳和无私僧侣。 Around many of the greater monasteries towns grew up which have since become famous in history; Monte Cassino in Italy and Peterborough and St. Alban's in England are examples.寺庙周围的许多城镇更大的成长已成为著名的历史以来,在意大利和彼得伯勒蒙特卡西诺和圣阿尔班在英格兰的例子。 Large-hearted abbots, eager to advance the interests of their poorer neighbours, often voluntarily expended considerable annual sums on the building and repairing of bridges, the making of roads, etc., and everywhere exercised a benign influence directed only towards improving the social and material condition of the people amongst whom they found themselves.大善良方丈,急于推进自己的穷邻居的利益,常常自愿花费大量的建设资金和年度桥梁,道路制造,修理等,并指示只对改善社会和到处行使一种良性的影响物质条件的人当中,他们发现自己的人。 This spirit, so prevalent during the ages of faith, has been successfully emulated by the monks of later times, of which no more striking instances in our own day can be cited than the wonderful influence for good amongst the aboriginal inhabitants of Western Australia possessed by the Spanish Benedictines of New Nursia, and the great industrial and agricultural work done amongst the native tribes of South Africa by the Trappists at Mariannhill and their numerous mission stations in Natal.这种精神,所以在信仰的年龄普遍,已成功地仿效了后来的僧侣,这在我们自己的一天没有更惊人的实例可以引为善而具有奇妙的影响,其中包括由西澳大利亚土著居民西班牙新努尔西亚笃,伟大的工业和农业之间的工作由南非在Mariannhill Trappists及其在纳塔尔许多土著部落完成任务站。

(3) Educational Work and the Cultivation of Literature.-The work of education and the cultivation of literature have always been looked upon as belonging by right to the Benedictines.(3)教育工作与Literature.,这项工作的教育和培养文学修养一直看成由本笃权归属。 In the earliest days of the order it was the custom to receive children in the monasteries that they might be educated by the monks.在该命令的初期,这是习惯接受,他们可能会被寺院僧侣教育孩子。At first such children were always destined for the monastic state, and St. Benedict legislated in his Rule for their solemn dedication by their parents to the service of God.首先这些孩子总是注定为寺院的状态,和圣本笃在他的庄严由其父母奉献给上帝的服务规则立法。St. Placid and St. Maur are examples from St. Benedict's own day and amongst other may be instanced the English saint, Bede, who entered the monastery of Jarrow in his seventh year.圣和圣Maur普莱西德从圣本笃的自己每天除其他可实例化的英文圣人,比德,谁进入第七个年头,他的贾罗寺院的例子。The education of these children was the germ out of which afterward developed the great monastic schools.这些儿童的教育是胚芽,其中后来开发的伟大寺院学校。Although St. Benedict urged upon his monks the duty of systematic reading, it was Cassiodorus, the quondam minister of the Gothic kings, who about the year 538 gave the first real impetus to monastic learning at Viviers (Vivarium) in Calabria.虽然圣本笃在他的敦促僧侣系统阅读的责任,这是Cassiodorus,对哥特国王昔日的部长,大约一年538谁给了第一次真正的动力,在Viviers寺院在卡拉布里亚(Vivarium)学习。 He made his monastery a Christian academy, collected a great number of manuscripts, and introduced an organized plan of study for his disciples.他在修道院一基督教学校,收集了大量的手稿,并介绍了为他的弟子学习有组织的计划。The liberal arts and the study of the Holy Scripture were given great attention, and a monastic school was established which became the pattern after which many others were subsequently modelled.文科和研究圣经的神圣给予高度重视,以及寺院学校成立,成为了之后,许多人后来模仿的模式。

In England St. Augustine and his monks opened schools wherever they settled.在英国圣奥古斯丁和他的僧侣学校开设地方他们定居下来。Up to that time the tradition of the cloister had been opposed to the study of profane literature, but St. Augustine introduced the classics into the English schools, and St. Theodore, who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 668, added still further developments.直至那个时候,传统的回廊一直反对亵渎文学研究,但圣奥古斯丁引入英语学校经典和圣西奥多,谁成为坎特伯雷大主教在668,加上仍有进一步的发展。 St. Benedict Biscop, who returned to England with Archbishop Theodore after some years abroad, presided over his school at Canterbury for two years and then, going north, transplanted the new educational system to Wearmouth and Jarrow, whence it spread to Archbishop Egbert's school at York, which was one of the most famous in England in the eighth century.圣本笃比斯科普,谁回到英国后,一些年来,大主教西奥多在国外,他主持了在坎特伯雷学校为两年,然后北上,移植新的教育系统,以韦茅斯和杰诺,从那里蔓延到大主教埃格伯的学校,在纽约,这是最有名的英格兰在第八世纪。 There Alcuin taught the seven sciences of the "trivium" and "quadrivium", ie grammar, rhetoric, and logic, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astronomy.有阿尔昆教的“三学科”和“四艺”,即语法,修辞,逻辑,算术,音乐,几何,天文七个科学。(See THE SEVEN LIBERAL ARTS.) Later on King Alfred, St. Dunstan, and St. Ethelwold did much to foster learning in England, substituting monks for secular canons in several cathedrals and greatly improving the monastic schools. (看到七文科。)后来国王阿尔弗雷德,圣邓斯坦和圣Ethelwold了许多措施来促进在英国学习,在若干代教堂僧侣和世俗大炮大大提高了修道院学校。 Ramsey Abbey, founded by St. Oswald of Worcester, long enjoyed the reputation of being the most learned of the English monasteries.拉姆齐修道院,由圣奥斯瓦尔德伍斯特成立,长期享有的是最寺庙的英语学习的声誉。Glastonbury, Abingdon, St. Alban's, and Westminster were also famous in their day and produced many illustrious scholars.格拉斯顿伯里,阿宾登,圣阿尔班的,威斯敏斯特在日常生活中也产生了许多著名的和杰出的学者。

In France Charlemagne inaugurated a great revival in the world of letters and stimulated the monks of his empire to study, as an essential of their state.在法国查理曼开创了世界上的字母的伟大复兴,刺激他的帝国的僧侣学习,作为其国家的基本。To further this end he brought over from England in 782 Alcuin and several of the best scholars of York, to whom he entrusted the direction of the academy established at the royal court, as well as various other schools which he caused to be started in different parts of the empire.为了进一步为此,他带来了来自英格兰的782阿尔昆和约克最好的学者,有几个人,他委托的在皇家法院确定该学院的方向,以及各种其他学校,他在不同造成的开始部分的帝国。 Mabillon gives a list of twenty-seven important schools in France established under Charlemagne (Acta Sanctorum OSB, saec. IV, praef., 184).马毕伦给出了二七重要的法国查理曼建立了学校,下列表(兽类Sanctorum定向结构刨花板,国家外汇管理局。四,praef。,184)。 Those of Paris, Tours, and Lyons eventually developed into universities.巴黎,旅游,和里昂这些最终发展成为大学。In Normandy, later on, Bec became a great scholastic centre under Lanfranc and St. Anselm, and through them gave a fresh impetus to the English schools.在诺曼底,后来,协会成为下兰弗朗克和圣安瑟伦伟大的学术中心,并通过他们进行了新的动力,英语学校。Cluny also took its share in the work and became in turn the custodian and fosterer of learning in France.克鲁尼还参加了其工作的份额,从而在法国托管人和抚养成为学习。

In Germany St. Boniface opened a school in every monastery he founded, not only for the younger monks, but also for the benefit of outside scholars.在德国圣博尼费斯开设每一个寺院,他创办学校,不仅为年轻的僧人,也为境外学者受益。Early in the ninth century two monks of Fulda were sent to Tours by their abbot to study under Alcuin, and through them the revival of learning gradually spread to other houses.早在第九世纪二富尔达僧侣被送往他们的住持旅游研究根据阿尔昆,并通过他们的学习逐渐蔓延到其他房子复苏。One of the two, Rabanus Maurus, returning to Fulda in 813, became scholasticus or head of the school there, later abbot, and finally Archbishop of Mainz.两个,巴努毛鲁斯,返回在813富尔达之一,成为scholasticus或校长有,后来住持,并最终美因茨大主教。 He was the author of many books, one of which, his "De Institutione Clericorum", is a valuable treatise on the faith and practice of the Church in the ninth century.他是许多书,其中之一,他的“德Institutione Clericorum”,是对信仰和在第九世纪的教会实用价值的论文的作者。This work probably exercised a beneficial influence on all the cloister-schools of the Frankish Empire.这项工作很可能行使了所有的回廊,学校的法兰克帝国有益的影响。Hirschau, a colony sent out from Fulda in 830, became a celebrated seat of learning and survived till the seventeenth century, when both the monastery and its library were destroyed during the Thirty Years War. Hirschau,派出富尔达在830一个殖民地,成为著名的所在地学习,直到十七世纪,当两个修道院和它的图书馆是在三十年战争中被摧毁存活。 Reichenau, which suffered a similar fate at the same time, owed its early celebrity to its school under Walafrid Strabo, who had studied at Fulda and on his return became scholasticus and subsequently abbot.赖歇瑙,在遭受同样的命运同时,欠其早日名人对其根据Walafrid斯特拉波,谁曾在富尔达,在回到学校学习,后来成为scholasticus住持。 In Saxony the monastery of New Corbie also possessed a famous school, which sent forth many learned missionaries to diffuse learning over Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.在萨克森州的修道院新Corbie还拥有著名的学校,这发出了许多教训传教士弥漫丹麦,瑞典和挪威学习。It was founded by Ansgar, the apostle of Scandinavia, who came from Old Corbie in 822, where he had been the favourite disciple of Paschasius Radbertus, a theologian, poet, musician, and author of Scriptural commentaries and an exposition of the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist.它是由Ansgar,斯堪的纳维亚使徒,谁从旧科必排在822,他在那里一直是Paschasius拉得伯土,一个神学家,诗人,音乐家最喜欢的弟子,和作家的圣经评论以及对这项原则的论述圣体圣事。

After the death of Charlemagne the revival of secular learning which he had begun waned somewhat, except in the Benedictine abbeys where the study of letters still remained the prerogative of the monks.去世后,查理曼的复兴世俗的学习,他已开始有所减弱,除了在那里学习的信件仍然是本笃会修道院的僧侣的特权。The Abbey of St. Gall, in particular, during the tenth century drew to its walls numerous students desirous of gaining the knowledge that was imparted there, and produced many celebrated writers.在圣加仑修道院,特别是在10世纪即将墙壁争取认为是传授,并产生了许多著名作家众多渴望知识的学生。The fame of Reichenau also revived, and from it was founded Einsiedeln (934), which helped to carry on the traditions of the past.名利的赖歇瑙也恢复了,并从它成立艾因西德伦(934),它帮助把对过去的传统。Nor was Italy behindhand, as is shown by the history of such monastic schools as Monte Cassino, Pomposia, and Bobbio.也不是意大利落后的,因为是由作为蒙特卡西诺,Pomposia,和博比奥等寺院学校历史中。

Most of the older universities of Europe have grown out of monastic schools.对欧洲的大多数老年人大学发展出来的寺院学校。Paris, Tours, and Lyons have been mentioned; amongst others were Reims and Bologna, and, in England, Cambridge, where the Benedictines of Croyland first set up a school in the twelfth century.巴黎,旅游,和里昂已经提到;当中包括在英格兰,剑桥,那里的克罗兰笃首先成立于12世纪学校兰斯和博洛尼亚,并。 At Oxford, the English Benedictines, though they could not claim to be the founders, took an important part in the university life and development.在牛津,英文本笃,但他们不能声称自己是创始人,采取了一个在大学生活和发展的重要组成部分。Monks had from time to time been sent from different abbeys to study there, but in 1283 a number of the chief monasteries combined in founding a joint college for their members, called St. Benedict's, or Gloucester, Hall, which is now Worcester College.僧侣们不时从不同的修道院学习有发送,但在1283年是行政寺院数量为会员成立一个联合大学合并,称为圣本笃,或告士打道,霍尔,也就是现在伍斯特学院。 In 1290 the cathedral-priory of Durham established for its own monks St. Cuthbert's College, which is now Trinity; and in 1362 another college, now Christ Church, was founded for the monks of Canterbury.在1290大教堂达勒姆修道院的圣库斯伯特建立的学院,现在是三位一体的僧侣,以及另一名大学,现在基督教教会在1362年,是为僧侣的坎特伯雷成立。 The Cistercians had Rewley Abbey just outside the town, founded about 1280, and St. Bernard's College, now St. John's, established in 1436 by Archbishop Chichele.熙曾Rewley修道院外的小镇,大约1280年,和圣Bernard的学院,现在圣约翰,成立于1436大主教Chichele。 All these colleges flourished until the Reformation, and even after the dissolution of the monasteries many of the ejected monks retired to Oxford on their pensions, to pass the remainder of their days in the peace and seclusion of their Alma Mater.所有这些高校蓬勃发展,直到改革,甚至在寺庙的退休养老金牛津其弹出的许多僧侣,解散通过在和平与母校隐居的日子的其余部分。 Feckenham, afterwards Abbot of Westminster under Queen Mary, was the last English Benedictine to graduate at Oxford (about 1537) until, in 1897, the community of Ampleforth Abbey opened a hall and sent some of their monks there to study for degrees. Feckenham,事后西敏寺住持玛丽下,是最后一个英文本笃在牛津大学毕业(约1537),直到1897年,修道院的安普尔福思社区开设了一个大厅,并派出他们的僧侣有一些研究学位课程。

Besides being the chief educational centres during the Middle Ages, the monasteries were, moreover, the workshops where precious manuscripts were collected, preserved, and multiplied.除了在中世纪行政教育中心,寺庙,此外,作坊尤为珍贵手稿收集,保存,并成倍增长。To the monastic transcribers the world is indebted for most of its ancient literature, not only the Scriptures and the writings of the Fathers, but those of the classical authors also.到世界是负债的最古老的文献,不仅经文和著作的父亲,但是,也喜欢古典作家的寺院誊写。(Numerous examples are cited in Newman, Essay on the Mission of St. Benedict, 10.) The monastic scriptoria were the book-manufactories before the invention of printing, and rare manuscripts were often circulated amongst the monasteries, each one transcribing copies before passing the original on to another house. (无数的例子是引用纽曼,征文的圣本笃,10团。)的寺院scriptoria是书籍印刷术发明之前,厂家,和罕见的手稿往往寺院之间传阅,再通过每一个抄录副本关于对另一家原。 Without doubt the copying was often merely mechanical and no sign of real scholarship, and the pride taken by a monastery in the number and beauty of its manuscripts sometimes rather that of the collector than of the scholar, yet the result is the same as far as posterity is concerned.毫无疑问复制往往是机械,也没有真正的学术标志,由一个在数量和美丽的手稿,该寺院比学者收藏家有时相当的自豪,但结果是一样的就后人关注。 The monks preserved and perpetuated the ancient writings which, but for their industry, would undoubtedly have been lost to us.僧人保存和延续了,但对于他们的产业,无疑将已经失去了我们古老的著作。

The copyists of Fontanelle, Reims, and Corbie were especially noted for the beauty of their penmanship, and the number of different manuscripts transcribed by some of their monks was often very large.囟,兰斯,并科必被特别指出的抄写员为他们的书法之美,由他们的一些僧人不同的手稿抄写数往往是非常大的。Full particulars are given by Ziegelbauer (Hist. Lit. OSB, I) of the most important medieval Benedictine Libraries.全部资料都是通过Ziegelbauer(Hist.里拉。定向结构刨花板,我)最重要的中世纪本笃会图书馆。 The following are some of the chief amongst them: In England: Canterbury, founded by St. Augustine, enlarged by Lanfranc and St. Anselm, containing, according to a catalogue of the thirteenth century, 698 volumes; Durham, catalogues printed by the Surtees Society (VII, 1838); Whitby, catalogues still existing; Glastonbury, catalogues still existing; Wearmouth; Croyland, burnt in 1091, containing 700 volumes; Peterborough.以下是一些他们中间负责人:在英格兰:坎特伯雷的圣奥古斯丁,由兰弗朗克和圣安瑟伦,扩大成立载,根据一十三世纪,698册目录;达勒姆,由瑟蒂斯印刷目录社会(七,1838年);惠特,目录仍然存在;格拉斯顿伯里,目录仍然存在;韦茅斯,克罗兰,1091年被烧毁,载有700册;彼得伯勒。 In France: Fleury, manuscripts deposited in the town library of Orléans, 1793; Cobrie, 400 of the most valuable manuscripts removed to Saint-Germain-des-Prés, Paris, 1638, the remainder, partly to the National Library, Paris (1794), and partly to the town library of Amiens; Saint-Germain-des-Prés; Cluny, manuscripts dispersed by the Huguenots, except a few which were destroyed at the Revolution; Auxerre; Dijon.在法国:弗勒里,手稿存放在奥尔良,1793年镇图书馆; Cobrie,拆下来的圣日耳曼的DES -佩区,巴黎,1638年,其余400个最有价值的手稿,部分向国家图书馆,巴黎(1794年),和部分镇图书馆的亚眠;圣日耳曼的DES -德培,克吕尼,手稿分散的胡格诺派除外其中在革命摧毁了数;欧塞尔;第戎。In Spain: Montserrat, the majority of the manuscripts still existing; Valladolid; Salamanca; Silos, library still existing; Madrid.在西班牙:,对仍然存在的大部分手稿蒙特塞拉特;巴利亚多利德;萨拉曼卡,筒仓,图书馆仍然存在;马德里。In Switzerland: Reichenau, destroyed in the seventeenth century; St. Gall, dating from 816, still existing; Einsiedeln, still existing.在瑞士:赖歇瑙在十七世纪被摧毁;圣加仑,可追溯到816,仍然存在;艾因西德伦,仍然存在。

In Germany: Fulda, much indebted to Charlemagne and Rabanus Maurus, with 400 copyists under Abbot Sturm, and containing, in 1561, 774 volumes; New Corbie, manuscripts removed to the University of Marburg in 1811; Hirschau, dating from 837; St. Blaise.在德国:富尔达,感激400住持斯特姆抄写下到查理曼和拉巴努毛鲁斯,并载,在1561年,774卷;新Corbie,删除在1811年到马尔堡大学的手稿; Hirschau,从837约会;街布莱斯。In Austria and Bavaria: Salzburg, founded in the sixth century, and containing 60,000 volumes; Kremsmünster, of the eleventh century, with 50,000 volumes; Admont, the eleventh century, 80,000 volumes; Melk, the eleventh century, 60,000 volumes; Lambach, the eleventh century, 22,000 volumes; Garsten; Metten.在奥地利和巴伐利亚:萨尔茨堡,始建于公元六世纪,并载有60000册;克雷姆斯明斯特,十一世纪,50000卷;,11世纪,80000卷阿德蒙特,梅尔克,11世纪,60000卷;兰巴赫时, 11世纪,22000卷; Garsten;梅滕。In Italy: Monte Cassino, three times destroyed by the Lombards in the sixth century, by the Saracens, and by fire in the ninth, but each time restored and still existing; Bobbio, famous for its palimpsests, of which a tenth-century catalogue is now in the Ambrosian Library, Milan, printed by Muratori (Antiq. Ital. Med. Aev., III); Pomposia, with an eleventh-century catalogue printed by Montfaucon (Diarium Italicum, c. xxii).在意大利:蒙稼轩,三次由六世纪伦巴的这部电影,并在第九,但每一次恢复和仍然存在的火灾摧毁;博比奥,其palimpsests,其中第十个世纪的著名目录在安布罗图书馆,米兰印刷穆拉托(Antiq.医学Aev称作Ital,三。。。),现在,Pomposia,由蒙福印(Diarium Italicum,长二十二)一十一世纪的目录。Besides preserving the writings of the ancient authors, the monks were also the chroniclers of their day, and much of the history of the Middle Ages was written in the cloister.除了保留了古代作家的著作,僧侣亦是他们一天的编年史,以及中世纪的历史中大部分是书面的回廊。English history is especially fortunate in this respect, the monastic chroniclers including St. Bede, Ordericus Vitalis, William of Malmesbury, Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, Matthew Paris, and Eadmer of Canterbury.幸运的是,尤其是英国历史上在这方面,包括圣比德,Ordericus Vitalis,威廉马姆斯伯里,佛罗伦萨的伍斯特市,西麦达勒姆,马修巴黎和坎特伯雷Eadmer寺院的编年史。The rise of the scholastics, for the most part outside the Benedictine Order, in later medieval times, seems to have checked, or at any rate relegated to the background, both the literary and the educational activity of the black monks, whilst the introduction of the art of printing rendered superfluous the copying of manuscripts by hand; at the same time it is worth noticing that many of the earliest printing presses were set up in Benedictine cloisters, eg by Caxton at Westminster, and by some authorities the invention of movable types is also ascribed to the sons of St. Benedict.作者的scholastics上涨,外笃令大部分在以后的中世纪时代,似乎已经检查,或在降级的背景无论如何,无论是文学和黑色僧侣教育活动,虽然引进艺术的印刷变得多余的手手稿的复制;在同时值得注意的是,最早的印刷机许多人在本笃会修道院成立,由卡克斯顿如在威斯敏斯特大教堂,以及一些部门的动产类型的发明也归因于圣本笃的儿子。

The most notable revival of learning in post-Reformation times was that effected by the congregation of St.-Maur in France in the seventeenth century.在后改革时代的学习是最显着的复兴由圣赫勒- Maur聚集在法国在十七世纪影响。Diligent and profound study in all departments of ecclesiastical literature was one of the professed objects of this reform, and a congregation that produced such men of letters as Mabillon, Montfaucon, d'Achery, Menard, Lami, Garnier, Ruinart, Martene, Sainte-Marthe, and Durand needs no further eulogy than a reference to their literary achievements.勤奋而深远的​​所有部门的教会文学研究是这一改革的自称对象之一,并聚集,产生作为Mabillon,蒙福,德Achery,默纳德,拉米,卡尼尔,Ruinart,Martene,圣信这样的人, Marthe,杜兰德需要和不超过其文学成就的参考进一步悼词。Their editions of the Greek and Latin Fathers and their numerous historical, theological, archaeological, and critical works are sufficient evidence of their industry.希腊和拉丁的父亲和众多的历史,神学,考古,和关键工程,其版本是其行业的充分证据。There were not less successful in the conduct of the schools they established, of which those at Soreze, Saumur, Auxerre, Beaumont, and Saint-Jean d'Angely were the most important.有没有少了他们建立的学校,其中在Soreze,索米尔,欧塞尔,博蒙特,和圣​​让德Angely这些都是成功的最重要的行为。 (See MAURISTS.) (见MAURISTS。)

The arts, sciences, and utilitarian crafts also found a home in the Benedictine cloister from the earliest times.艺术,科学,实用工艺品也发现了从最早的时候,本笃修道院一个家。The monks of St. Gall and Monte Cassino excelled in illumination and mosaic work, and the latter community are credited with having invented the art of painting on glass.圣高尔和Monte稼轩僧侣擅长照明和镶嵌的工作,并与后者有社会发明了玻璃上绘画艺术计入。A contemporary life of St. Dunstan states that he was famous for his "writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving of wood and bone, and for work in gold, silver, iron, and brass".阿州的圣邓斯坦当代生活,他是为他的著名的“写作,绘画,在造型蜡,木材和骨雕,以及金,银,铁的工作,和黄铜。” Richard of Wallingford at St. Alban's and Peter Lightfoot at Glastonbury were well-known fourteenth-century clockmakers; a clock by the latter, formerly in Wells cathedral, is still to be seen in the South Kensington Museum, London.理查德的沃林福德在圣阿尔班的莱特富特和彼得在格拉斯顿伯里是著名的十四世纪的钟表匠,一个由后者时钟,以前在韦尔斯大教堂,还是要在南肯辛顿博物馆,伦敦看到。 In modern times the monks of Beuron have established a school of art where painting and design, especially in the form of polychromatic decoration, have been brought to a high stage of perfection.在现代,伯龙的僧侣们在那里建立了艺术绘画和设计,特别是在多色装饰形式,已经带来了一个完美的高阶段学校。 The printing presses of Solesmes and Ligugé (both now confiscated by the French Government) have produced much excellent typographical work, whilst the study and restoration of the traditional plainchant of the Church in the same monasteries, under DD.索雷姆和利圭热的印钞机(现在都被法国政府没收)已经产生了许多优秀的印刷工作,同时根据副署长的学习和教会在同一寺院传统plainchant恢复。 Pothier and Mocquereau, is of world-wide reputation.波蒂埃和莫克罗,是世界范围内的声誉。Embroidery and vestment-making are crafts in which many communities of nuns excel, and others, like Stanbrook, maintain a printing office with considerable success.刺绣和法衣制作的工艺品,其中许多社区修女Excel和其他人一样斯坦布鲁克,维持一个相当大的成功印刷局。

IV.四。PRESENT CONDITION OF THE ORDER令的现状,对

Development of external organization发展的外部组织

A brief sketch of the constitution and government of the order is necessary for a proper understanding of its present organization.对宪法和政府的命令简短的速写是一个正确的认识其目前的组织必要的。

According to St. Benedict's idea, each monastery constituted a separate, independent, autonomous family, the members of which elected their own superior.据圣本笃的想法,每个寺院构成一个单独的,独立,自主的家庭,其成员选出自己的优势。The abbots, therefore, of the different houses were equal in rank, but each was the actual head of his own community and held his office for life.在方丈,因此,不同的房子,都是平等的排名,但每个是他自己的头部和社会实际生活中他的办公室举行。The necessities of the times, however, the need for mutual support, the establishment of daughter-houses, and possibly the ambition of individual superiors, all combined in course of time to bring about a modification of this ideal.时代的必要性,但是,需要相互支持,在女儿家的建立,可能是个别上级野心,所有合并的时间实现这个理想修课程。Although foreshadowed by the Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle) capitula of 817 under St. Benedict of Aniane, the actual results of which died out with their originator, the first real departure from the Benedictine ideal, subjecting the superiors of different houses to one central authority, was made by Cluny in the tenth century.虽然预示了亚琛(艾克斯香格里拉- Chapelle的)投降的817圣本笃的阿尼亚讷下,实际的结果,其中死于他们的鼻祖了,第一次真正离开本笃理想,服从上级的不同的房子一中央权威,是由克吕尼在十世纪。 The plan of the Cluniac congregation was that of one grand central monastery with a number of dependencies spread over many lands.该Cluniac众的计划是,一个宏伟的过度依赖关系的数量很多土地蔓延的中心寺院。It was feudalism applied to the monastic institute.这是封建主义应用到寺院机构。Every prior or subordinate superior was the nominee of the Abbot of Cluny and held office only during his pleasure; the autonomy of the individual communities was destroyed so far, even, that no monk could be professed in any house except by permission of the Abbot of Cluny, and all were obliged usually to spend some years at Cluny itself.每事先或下级对上级是住持,并举行了克鲁尼只在他的办公室被提名人快乐;个人的社区自治被破坏,到目前为止,甚至没有可以自称和尚在任何房子许可的住持惟克鲁尼,并全部责任,通常花费在克吕尼本身的一些年。 But notwithstanding the extent of this departure from Benedictine tradition, the Cluniacs were never considered to have seceded from the main Benedictine body or to have instituted a new order.但是,尽管在本笃会的传统出发,从某种程度上,Cluniacs从未被视为已分离出去的主要笃机构或已设立了一个新秩序。 Hirschau, in Germany, copied Cluny, though with less conspicuous success, and Cîteaux developed the system still further and constituted a new order outside the Benedictine fold, which has ever since been regarded as such. Hirschau,复制在德国,克吕尼,虽然有那么显眼成功,Cîteaux开发的系统仍然进一步构成以外的本笃倍,这曾经被这样认为的新秩序。 The example of Cluny produced imitators and many new unions of monasteries subject to a central abbey resulted.例如克吕尼产生的模仿和寺庙受到中央修道院,导致许多新的工会。The Lateran Council of 1215, perceiving the good points of the system as well as its dangers, set itself to strike the mean between the two.1215年的拉特兰会,感知系统的优点以及它的危险,为自己确定罢工的平均两者之间。 The risks of an ever-widening breach between those which adhered to Benedictine tradition and those which had adopted the Cluniac ideas, were to be minimized, whilst at the same time uniformity of observance and the mutual strength resulting therefrom, were to be fostered.双方之间本笃那些坚持传统与那些不断扩大的违约而通过了克吕尼改革思路,要尽量减少风险,而在同一时间统一的遵守和由此产生的相互力量,是要培育。 The council decreed that the monasteries of each country should be banded together into a congregation; periodical representative chapters were to ensure systematic government after one pattern; the appointment of definitors and visitors was to secure uniformity and cohesion; and the autonomy of the individual monasteries were to be preserved.该委员会颁布法令,每一个国家的寺院应该是樱花一众;期刊代表章,以确保系统的政府后,一个模式; definitors和游客的任命,是确保一致性和凝聚力;和个人的自主权是寺庙予以保留。The plan promised well, but England alone seems to have given it a fair trial.该计划承诺的好,但仅英格兰似乎已经给它一个公正的审判。In some of the countries it was not until the issue of the Bull "Benedictina" in 1336, or even the Tridentine decrees of two centuries later, that any serious attempt was made towards carrying out the proposals of 1215.在一些国家它不是直到公牛“Benedictina”问题在1336年,甚至两个世纪后的德律但丁法令,任何认真的努力正朝着1215年开展提出的建议。 Meanwhile certain Italian reforms had produced a number of independent congregations outside the order, differing from each other in organization and spirit, and in each of which the departure from Benedictine principles was carried a stage further.同时某些改革已经产生了意大利以外的顺序独立的教会,从每个其他不同的组织和精神,并在每个笃原则出发,从一个阶段再进行。 Even in the Cluniac congregation the power of the Abbot of Cluny was, after the twelfth century, somewhat curtailed by the institution of chapters and definitors.即使在克吕尼众住持的克吕尼权力,在12世纪,有些呆滞的章节并definitors机构。The Sylvestrines (1231) preserved the perpetuity of superiors and recognized the advantages of a representative chapter, though its chief superior was something more than a mere primus inter pares.该Sylvestrines(1231)永久保存了上级和公认的有代表性的一章的优点,但它的主要优势是更多的东西不仅仅是一个博智除剥。 The Celestines (1274) adopted a somewhat similar system of centralized authority, but differed from it in that their superior was elected triennially. (1274)通过了中央集权制度有点类似,但是从它不同于在其上级当选每三年改选一次。The Olivetans (1319) marked the furthest point of development by instituting an abbot-general with jurisdiction over all the other abbots as well as their communities.该Olivetans(1319)标志着通过建立超过所有其他方丈以及社区管辖的住持,一般最远点的发展。 The general chapter nominated the officials of all the houses; the monks belonged to no one monastery in particular, but to the whole congregation; and by thus destroying all community rights, and placing all power in the hands of a small committee, the Olivetan congregation approximated nearest to the alter orders like the Dominicans and Jesuits, with their highly centralized systems of government.一般章提名的官员所有的房屋;僧侣属于任何人,尤其是修道院,但整个聚集,从而破坏和所有社区的权利,并将其放置在一个小型委员会的手中所有的力量,欧利夫坦众近似​​最接近改变多米尼加和耶稣像订单与高度集中的政府体制。 The congregation of St. Justina of Padua was modelled on similar lines, though afterwards considerably modified, and some centuries later St.-Vannes and St.-Maur followed in its wake.圣教会的帕多瓦是仿照类似的路线,但后来的修改,几个世纪以后圣,瓦纳和St - Maur在其身后跟着。The Spanish congregation of Valladolid, too, with its abbot-general, and with superiors who were not perpetual and chosen by the general chapters, must be classed with those that represent the line of departure from earlier Benedictine tradition; as must also the resuscitated English congregation of the seventeenth century, which inherited its constitution from that of Spain.西班牙的巴利亚多利德众,也与它的住持秘书长,并与上级谁没有永久的和一般章节选择,必须与那些代表本笃会的传统,从早期到发线归类;作为也必须在复苏英语众的十七世纪,继承了来自西班牙宪法。 In these two latter congregations, however, there were some modifications, which made their dissent from the original ideal less marked than in those previously enumerated.在这两个后者的毕业典礼,但是,有一些修改,这使他们从原来的理想异议不太明显比以前列举的。On the other side, as representing those that preserved the traditional autonomy and family spirit in the individual houses, we have the Bursfeld Union which, in the fifteenth century, made an honest attempt to carry out the Lateran decrees and the provisions of the Bull "Benedictina".在另一边,是代表那些保留了传统的自主权和个人住房家庭的精神,我们有Bursfeld联盟的,在15世纪,作出了诚实的尝试进行拉特兰法令和公牛的规定“ Benedictina“。The Austrian, Bavarian, and Swiss congregations of the same period followed out the same idea, as do also almost all of the more modern congregations, and by the legislation of Leo XIII the traditional principles of government have been revived in the English congregation.同一时期的奥地利,巴伐利亚,瑞士教会遵循了同样的想法一样,也几乎所有的更现代的毕业典礼,并通过立法的利奥十三世的传统原则,政府已在英国教会复兴。 In this way the true Benedictine ideal was restored, whilst by means of general chapters, at which every monastery of the congregation was represented, and by the periodical visitations made by the presidents or others elected for that duty, uniform observance and regular discipline were preserved.这样,真正的本笃会的理想是恢复,以一般章节,在每一个会众,而寺院的代表,以及由总统或该职责,统一的遵守和经常性的纪律当选人提出的定期探访被保留。 The presidents were elected by the other abbots composing the chapter and their office was merely presidential not that of a superior general or abbas abbatum.总统当选由组成该章其他方丈和他们的办公室只不过是总统的阿巴斯abbatum优于一般或没有。

Present System of Government目前政府体制

All the congregations of more recent formation have been constituted, with slight variations, on the same plan, which represents the normal and traditional form of government in the order.所有的教会最近的形成已经构成,有轻微的变异,同样的计划,它代表了政府的正常的和传统的订单。Uniformity in the various congregations is further secured by what are called Constitutions.在各种聚会均匀性进一步巩固了所谓的宪法。These are a series of declarations on the holy Rule, defining its interpretation and application, to which are added other regulations on points of discipline and practice not provided for by St. Benedict.这是一个神圣的规则对一系列的声明,确定其解释和应用,增加对这些学科点的其他规定和做法没有提供由圣本笃的。 The constitutions must be approved at Rome, after which they have binding force upon the congregation for which they are intended.该宪法必须得到在罗马,之后他们在国际上对它们的目的是为众约束力。The capitula of Aachen and the Concordia Regularis were the earliest examples of such constitutions.在亚琛和迪亚Regularis投降是这类宪法最早的例子。Amongst others may be mentioned the "Statues" of Lanfranc, the "Discipline of Farfa", the "Ordo" of Bernard of Cluny, and the "Constitutions" of St. William of Hirschau.除其他可提到的兰弗朗克“雕像”,是“Farfa纪”中,“奥”的克吕尼伯纳德和“宪法”的圣Hirschau威廉。 (The three latter are printed by Herrgott in "Vetus Disciplina Monastica", Paris, 1726.) Since the thirteenth century every congregation has had its own set of constitutions, in which the principles of the Rule are adapted to the particular work of the congregation to which they apply.(三印制Herrgott后者在“老Disciplina Monastica”,巴黎,1726。)自13世纪每一个聚集了其自己的一套宪法,其中规则的原则是适应特殊工作的会众它们适用。Each congregation is composed of a certain number of monasteries, the abbots of which, with other officials and elected representatives, form the general chapter, which exercises legislative and executive authority over the whole body.每一堂是由一个寺庙,其中的方丈,与其他官员和民选代表,形成一般章,行使立法和行政机构的权力在整个一定数量。The power possessed by it is strictly limited and defined in the constitutions.它所拥有的权力是严格限制在宪法规定。The meetings of the chapter are held usually every two, three, or four years and are presided over by one of the members elected to that office by the rest.本章举行的会议通常每两,三年,或四年,并主持选举产生,其余由该职位的成员之一了。Whilst the office of abbot is usually for life, that of the president is generally only for a term of years and the person holding it is not in all cases eligible for continuous re-election.虽然办公室的住持通常是生活,即总统是一般只有一两年,并持有它的人并非在所有情况下连续连选连任。Each president, either by himself or in conjunction with one or more specially elected visitors, holds canonical visitations of all the houses of his congregation, and by this means the chapter is kept informed of the spiritual and temporal condition of each monastery, and discipline is maintained according to the constitutions.每个总统,无论是由他本人或与一个或多个专门选出游客的同时,持有所有的房屋典型探访他的会众,并通过这种方式保持了章的精神和各寺院的时空条件通报情况,纪律坚持按照宪法。

The Abbot Primate住持灵长类动物

In order the better to bind together the various congregations that constitute the order at the present day, Pope Leo XIII, in 1893, appointed a nominal head over the whole federation, with the title of Abbot Primate.为了更好地结合在一起,构成了在目前的一天,教皇利奥十三世,于1893年任命了一个在整个联邦名义上的领导,命令与所有权的住持灵长类动物,各种聚会。 The traditional autonomy of each congregation, and still further of each house, is interfered with in the least possible degree by this appointment, for, as the title itself indicates, the office is in its nature different from that of the general of an order.每个教会传统的自主权,而且还每座房子的进一步,是在尽可能少的程度这一任命,因为正如标题本身就说明,该办事处在其性质从一般的命令,不同的是干扰。 Apart from matters explicitly defined, the abbot primate's position with regard to the other abbots is to be understood rather from the analogy of a primate in a hierarchy than from that of the general of an order like the Dominicans or Jesuits.除了明确界定的事项,住持灵长类动物的其他方面的方丈立场是可以理解的层次结构,而在从一个灵长类动物比喻不是从一个像耶稣的多米尼加人或一般的秩序。

Methods of Recruiting招聘方法

The recruiting of the various monasteries of the order differs according to the nature and scope of the influence exerted by each individual house.该命令的招募各寺庙按照不同的性质和每个人的房子由施加影响的范围。Those that have schools attached to them naturally draw their members more or less from these schools.那些也被赋予了其成员自然吸引更多或更少,从这些学校的学校。The English congregation is recruited very largely from the schools attached to its monasteries; and other congregations are similarly recruited.英国教会在很大程度上是招募从连接到其寺庙学校,以及其他教会也同样聘用。Some educate and train in their monasteries a number of alumni, or pupils provisionally intended for the monastic state, who though not in any way bound to do so, if showing any signs of vocation, are encouraged to receive the habit on reaching the canonical age.一些教育和培养他们的寺庙一的校友,或暂时打算为寺院的国家的学生,谁虽然没有以任何方式约束这样做,如果任何迹象显示天职,鼓励接收年龄达到规范的习惯。

A candidate for admission is usually kept as a postulant for at least some weeks in order that the community he seeks to join may judge whether he is a suitable person to be admitted to the probationary stage.决定录取与否的候选人通常至少保存几个星期,以便为见习者,社会人士加入他的目的,是可以判断他是否是一个合适的人被接纳为见习阶段。 Having been accepted as such, he is "clothed" as a novice, receiving the religious habit and a religious name, and being placed under the care of the novice-master.因此在被接受,他是“衣”作为一个新手,接收的宗教习惯和宗教的名称,并正根据的新手主照料。According to the Rule he has to be trained and tested during his period of noviceship, and canon law requires that for the most part the novice is to be kept apart form the rest of the community.据在他的noviceship期间的规则,他已接受训练和测试,佳能法律规定,对于大部分的新手要分开形成了社会其他成员。 For this reason the novices' quarters are generally placed, if possible, in a different part of the monastery from those occupied by the professed monks.基于这个原因,新手一般都放在宿舍,如果可能,从这些被占领的一个自称和尚在寺院的不同部分。The canonical novitiate lasts one year, at the end of which, if satisfactory, the novice may be admitted to simple vows, and at the conclusion of another three years, unless rejected for grave reasons, he makes his solemn vows of "Stability, Conversion of manners, and Obedience".规范的见习为期1年的,如果令人满意,新手可能会被接纳为简单的誓言,并在另一个三年的结论,除非严重的原因拒绝了年底,他使他的庄严的“稳定,转换誓言礼仪,服从“。 (Rule of St. Benedict.) (规则的圣本笃。)

Habit习惯

With slight modifications in shape in some congregations the habit of the order consists of a tunic, confined at the waist by a girdle of leather or of cloth, a scapular, the width of the shoulders and reaching to the knees or ground, and a hood to cover the head.随着稍作修改形成的一些教会的习惯,该命令由一个中山装,限于在腰间的腰带的皮革或布,一个肩胛骨,肩膀的宽度和伸展到膝盖或地面,并罩套在头上。 In choir, at chapter, and at certain other ceremonial times, a long full gown with large flowing sleeves, called a "cowl", is worn over the ordinary habit.在合唱团,在第一章,并在某些其他仪式的时候,一个长着大流动充分长袍袖子,被称为“罩”,是在普通的习惯穿。The colour is not specified in the Rule but it is conjectured that the earliest Benedictines wore white or grey, as being the natural colour of undyed wool.颜色不是指定的规则,但据推测,最早笃穿白色或灰色,因为这是自然色的染色羊毛。For many centuries, however, black has been the prevailing colour, hence the term "black monk" has come to signify a Benedictine not belonging to one of those separate congregations which has adopted a distinctive colour, eg the Camaldolese, Cistercians, and Olivetans, who wear white, or the Sylvestrines, whose habit is blue.对于许多世纪,然而,黑一直是普遍存在的颜色,因此称为“黑和尚”已经到了不属于本笃意味着对那些已经通过了一项独特的颜色不同的教会之一,如该Camaldolese,熙和Olivetans,谁穿白色,或Sylvestrines,他们的习惯是蓝色的。 The only differences in colour within the Benedictine federation are those of the monks of Monte Vergine, who though now belonging to the Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance, still retain the white habit adopted by their founder in the twelfth century, and those of the congregation of St. Ottilien, who wear a red girdle to signify their special missionary character.彩色的本笃会联合会唯一的区别是僧人的Monte Vergine,虽然现在谁属于Cassinese聚集原始遵守这些,仍然保留了白色的习惯他们在十二世纪的创始人通过,这些会众圣Ottilien,谁穿红色腰带,以显示其特殊的传教性质。

Present Work of the Order当前工作的议事程序

Parochial work is undertaken by the following congregations: Cassinese, English, Swiss, Bavarian, Gallican, American-Cassinese, Swiss-American, Beuronese, Cassinese PO, Austrian (both), Hungarian, and the Abbey of Fort Augustus.狭隘的工作是由以下的毕业典礼:Cassinese,英国,瑞士,巴伐利亚,高卢,在美国Cassinese,瑞士,美国,Beuronese,Cassinese婆,奥地利(均),匈牙利和奥古斯堡修道院。 In the majority of these congregations the mission are attached to certain abbeys and the monks serving them are under the almost exclusive control of their own monastic superiors; in others the monks only supply the place of the secular clergy and are, therefore, for the time being, under their respective diocesan bishops.在这些附加的任务是对某些修道院的僧侣和服务下,上级自己的寺院几乎完全控制他们的毕业典礼是多数;在另一些僧侣不仅供应世俗的地方,是神职人员,因此对时间,目前,根据各自的教区主教。

The work of education is common to all congregations of the order.教育工作是共同的所有教会的秩序。It takes the form in different places of seminaries for ecclesiastical studies, schools, and gymnasia for secondary education not strictly ecclesiastical, or of colleges for a higher or university course.它采用的研究,教会,学校,体育馆不同的地方神中学教育形式,没有严格的教会,或更高的学院或大学课程。In Austria and Bavaria many of the government lycées or gymnasia are entrusted to the care of the monks.在奥地利和巴伐利亚州政府的lycées或体育馆很多都委托给僧侣的照顾。In England and America the Benedictine schools rank high amongst the educational establishments of those countries, and compete successfully with the non-Catholic schools of a similar class.在英国和美国之间的本笃学校排名这些国家的教育机构的高,一个类似的竞争类的非天主教学校的成功。Those of the American Cassinese congregation have already been enumerated; they include three seminaries, fourteen schools and colleges, and an orphanage, with a total of nearly two thousand students.美国Cassinese众那些已经被枚举,他们包括三个神学院,十四所学校和学院,以及一所孤儿院有近二千名学生。 The Swiss American congregation carries on scholastic work at five of its abbeys.瑞士的美国教会在其进行学术工作五个修道院。 At.在。St. Meinrad's, besides the seminary, there is a commercial college; at Spielerville (Arkansas) and Mount Angels (Oregon) are seminaries; and at Conception, Spielerville, Covington (Louisiana), and Mount Angel are colleges.圣Meinrad的,除了神学院,有一个商业学院;在Spielerville(阿肯色州)和芒天使(俄勒冈州)是神学院,并在概念,Spielerville,温顿(路易斯安那州),并安装天使的学院。 The English Benedictines have large and flourishing colleges attached to each of their abbeys, and belonging to Downside are also two other smaller schools, one a "grammar school" at Ealing, London, and the other a preparatory school recently established at Enniscorthy, Ireland.有英文本笃修道院重视对他们的每个大,蓬勃发展的大学,以及属于下方还有两个其他较小的学校,一个是“文法学校”在Ealing,伦敦和其他筹备学校最近在恩尼斯科西,爱尔兰成立。

Foreign Missionary Work外国传教士工作

Besides the congregation of St. Ottilien, which exists specially for the purpose of foreign missionary work, and has ten mission stations in the Apostolic Vicariate of Zanzibar, a few others are also represented in the foreign mission field.除了圣Ottilien,其中存在着专门为外国传教士的工作宗旨,并已在宗座代牧区的桑给巴尔10个团站众,其他几个也派代表参加在外国使团场。 Both American congregations labour amongst the Indians, in Saskatchewan (NWT, Canada), Dakota, Vancouver's Island, and elsewhere.两位美国的教会劳工之间的印度人,在萨斯喀彻温省(新世界电讯,加拿大),南达科他州,温哥华岛,和其他地方。 The Cassinese PO congregation has missions in the Apostolic Vicariate of the Indian Territory (USA) and in Argentina, under the monks of the French province, in New Zealand under the English province, in Western Australia (Diocese of New Nursia and Apostolic Vicariate of Kimberley) and in the Philippines under the Spanish province, and the Belgian province has quite lately made a foundation in the Transvaal, South Africa.于Cassinese婆众已在印度领土(美国)在阿根廷宗座代牧区和任务,根据省僧侣的法国,新西兰根据英国在西澳大利亚省(教区新努尔西亚和宗座代牧区的金伯利, ),并在全省菲律宾在西班牙和比利时省已相当近来在德兰士瓦,南非奠定了基础。The Brazilian congregation has several missions in Brazil, which are under the direction of the Abbot of Rio de Janeiro, who is also a bishop.巴西众有几个代表团在巴西,这下对里约热内卢住持,谁也是一个主教的方向。 In the island of Mauritius the Bishop of Port Louis is generally an English Benedictine.在毛里求斯路易港岛主教通常是一个英文本笃。Mention has already been made of the work of the Sylvestrine Benedictines in Ceylon and of the Cistercians in Natal, South Africa.提到已经取得了工作的Sylvestrine笃在锡兰和纳塔尔熙,南非。

Statistics of the Order订单统计

Notice that these figures were published in 1907.公告表示,这些数字在1907年出版。

Congregation毕业典礼 Monasteries寺院 Monks蒙克斯 Missions and Churches Served曾任使命与教会 No. of Souls第灵魂 Administered to管理,以
Schools学校 Students学生
CassineseCassinese 16 16 188 188 274 274 170,540十七点○五四万 6 6 476 476
English英语 4 4 277 277 79 79 87,32887328 5 5 380 380
Swiss瑞士 5 5 355 355 42 42 34,31934319 7 7 978 978
Bavarian巴伐利亚 11 11 383 383 51 51 78,42278422 10 10 1,7191,719
Brazilian巴西 1 3 1 1064 1064 7 7 70 70
Gallican高卢 1 13 13 74 74 1550 1550 2 2 42 42
American Cassinese美国Cassinese 10 10 753 753 151 151 110,320110320 18 18 1,7021,702
BeuroneseBeuronese 9 9 71 71 11 11 43,81243812 5 5 141 141
Swiss American瑞士美国 7 7 348 348 103 103 35,60535605 10 10 675 675
American美国 7 7 348 348 103 103 35,60535605 10 10 675 675
Cassinese POCassinese婆 36 36 1,0921,092 90 90 115,410115410 17 17 859 859
Austrian: Imm.奥地利:入境事务处。Conc.浓。 11 11 647 647 367 367 460,832460832 11 11 1,8911,891
Austrian: St. Joseph奥地利:圣若瑟 7 7 293 293 61 61 55,06255062 10 10 901 901
Hungarian匈牙利 11 11 198 198 145 145 37,26937269 6 6 1,6681,668
St. Ottilien圣Ottilien 2 2 16 16 310 310 2,8352,835 3 190 190
Fort Augustus奥古斯堡 1 4 4 7 7 8430 8430
St. Anselm's圣安瑟伦的 1 1
TOTAL 总计 155 155 5,940 5940 1,402 1,402 1,192,734 1192734 114 114 12,392 12392

Other其他

Orders and congregations professing the Rule of St. Benedict but not included in the Benedictine Federation are as follows:-订单和教会信奉圣本笃规则,但不包括在本笃会联合会如下: -

Congregation毕业典礼 Monasteries寺院 No. of Religious宗教号
Camaldolese Camaldolese 19 19 241 241
Vallombrosa瓦伦布罗萨 3 60 60
Cistercians (Common Observance)熙(通用遵守) 29 29 1,0401,040
Cistercians (Trappists)熙(Trappists) 58 58 3,6373637
Sylvestrines Sylvestrines 9 9 95 95
OlivetansOlivetans 10 10 122 122
Mechitarists Mechitarists 14 14 152 152
TOTALS 总计 142 142 5,347 5,347

Nuns, Benedictine and others:-修女,本笃及其他: -

>>
Congregation毕业典礼 Convents修道院 No. of Religious宗教号
Benedictine Nuns: 1.本笃会修女:1。Under Benedictine Abbots在本笃阿伯茨 9 9 251 251
Benedictine Nuns: 2.本笃会修女:2。Under Bishops在主教 253 253 7,1567156
Camaldolese NunsCamaldolese尼姑 5 5 150 150
Cistercian Nuns修道院修女 100 100 2,9652965
Olivetan Nuns欧利夫坦尼姑 20 20 200 200
TOTALS 总计 387 387 10,722 10722


The foregoing tables, which are taken from the "Album Benedictinum" of 1906, give a grand aggregate of 684 monasteries, with 22,009 religious of both sexes.上述表格,这是从“相册Benedictinum”的1906年,给出了684与22009寺庙宗教盛大的男女聚集。 The statistics for missions and churches served include those churches and missions over which the monasteries exercise the right of patronage, as well as those actually served by monks.为特派团和教会的统计服务包括教堂和寺庙特派团在行使该权利的乘客量,以及实际的僧人担任。

V. BENEDICTINES OF SPECIAL DISTINCTION特别区分五笃

The following lists are not intended to be in any way exhaustive; they merely profess to include some of the more famous members of the order.下面列出不打算以任何方式详尽,他们只是自称对包括该命令比较著名的一些成员。The names are classified according to the particular sphere of work in which they are most celebrated, but although many of them might therefore have a just claim to be included in more than one of the different classes, when the same individual was distinguished in several different departments of work, from considerations of space and for the avoidance of unnecessary repetition, his name has been inserted only under one head.名字是按所特定领域的工作中,他们最有名的,但尽管其中许多人可能会因此有一个公正声称自己是在以上的,包括不同的类别之一是同一个人时,在几个不同的区别从空间的工作,为避免不必要的重复的考虑,部门,他的名字已被插入只能在一个头。 The lists are arranged more or less chronologically, except where some connecting features seem to call for special grouping.这份名单是按时间顺序排列或多或少,除非一些连接功能似乎在呼吁特殊分组。To most of the names the country to which the individual belonged is added in parenthesis.到该国的名字,个人属于在括号新增的大部分。

Popes波普斯

St. Gregory the Great (Rome); born c.圣格雷戈里大(罗马),生于角540, d.540,四604; one of the four Latin doctors; celebrated for his writings and for his reform of ecclesiastical change; called the "Apostle of England" because he sent St. Augustine to that country in 596.604;的四个拉丁美洲医生之一;他的著作和他的改革教会变化庆祝,所谓的“使徒的英格兰”,因为他送往596圣奥古斯丁该国。 Sylvester II or Gerbert (France), 999-1003; a monk of Fleury.西尔维斯特II或尔贝特(法国),999-1003,一个和尚的弗勒里。 St. Gregory VII or Hildebrand Aldobrandeschi (Tuscany), 1073-85; a monk of Cluny and afterwards Abbot of St. Paul's, Rome.圣格雷戈里七或希尔德布兰Aldobrandeschi(托斯卡纳),一〇七三年至1085年,一个和尚和艾博特的克吕尼圣保罗,罗马之后。 Bl.基本法。Victor III (Benevento), 1087-87; Abbot of Monte Cassino.维克托三世(贝内文托),1087年至1087年,住持蒙特卡西诺。Paschal II (Tuscany), 1099-1118; a monk of Cluny.逾越节二(托斯卡纳),1099年至1118年,一个和尚的克鲁尼。Gelasius II or Giovanni da Gaeta, John Cajetan (Gaeta), 1118-19; historian.格拉西II或乔瓦尼大加埃塔,约翰接cajetan(加埃塔),1118年至1119年,历史学家。St. Celestine V or Pietro di Murrhone (Apulia), b.圣彼得塞莱斯蒂纳V或二Murrhone(阿普利亚)湾1221, d.1221年,四1296; founder of the order of Celestines; was elected pope 1294, but abdicated after reigning only six months.1296;的Celestines秩序的创始人; 1294年被选为教皇,但在位仅六个月后退位。Clement VI (France), 1342-52; a monk of Chaise-Dieu.克莱门特六(法国),1342年至1352年,一个贵妃- Dieu酒店和尚。Bl.基本法。Urban V (France), 1362-70; Abbot of St. Victor, Marseilles.市区五(法国),1362至1370年,圣维克多,马赛住持。Pius VII or Barnaba Chiaramonti (Italy), 1800-23; was taken by force from Rome and imprisoned at Savona and Fontainebleu (1809-14) by Napoleon, whom he had crowned in 1804; returned to Rome in 1814.比约七或Barnaba Chiaramonti(意大利),1800年至1823年,是由部队从罗马和萨沃纳和枫丹白露拿破仑,人,他曾在1804年加冕(1809年至1814年)被监禁;在1814年返回罗马。 Gregory XVI or Maurus Cappellari (Venice), 1831-46, a Camaldolese monk and Abbot of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill, Rome.格里高利十六世或毛鲁斯Cappellari(威尼斯),1831年至1846年,一camaldolese和尚和圣安德鲁的住持在Coelian山,罗马。

Apostles and Missionaries使徒和传教士

St. Augustine (Rome), d.圣奥古斯丁(罗马),四604; Prior of St. Andrew's on the Coelian Hill; the Apostle of England (596); first Archbishop of Canterbury (597).604,在此之前,圣安德鲁对Coelian希尔的;英国使徒(596),第一坎特伯雷大主教(597)。St. Boniface (England), b.圣博尼费斯(英格兰),湾680, martyred 755; Apostle of Germany and Archbishop of Mainz.680,烈属755;使徒德国美因茨大主教。St. Willibrord (England), born c.圣威利布罗德(英格兰),生于角658, d.658,四738; the Apostle of Friesland. 738;使徒的弗里斯兰省。St. Swithbert (England), d.圣Swithbert(英格兰),四713; the Apostle of Holland. 713;使徒荷兰。St. Rupert (France), d.鲁珀特街(法国),四718; the Apostle of Bavaria and Bishop of Salzburg.718,在巴伐利亚州和萨尔茨堡主教的使徒。St. Sturm (Bavaria), d.圣斯特姆(巴伐利亚州),四779; first Abbot of Fulda. 779;第一住持富尔达。St. Ansgar (Germany), b.圣Ansgar(德国),湾801, d.801,四865; monk of Corbie and Apostle of Scandinavia.865;和尚的Corbie和斯堪的纳维亚半岛的使徒。St. Adalbert, d.圣阿德尔伯特,四 997; the Apostle of Bohemia. 997;使徒的波西米亚。Founders of Abbeys and Congregations, Reformers, etc.创始人修道院和聚会,改革者,等等

St. Erkenwald (England), died c.圣Erkenwald(英格兰),死于角693; Bishop of London; founder of Chertsey and Barking abbeys.693;主教伦敦修道院门口的彻特西和创始人。St. Benedict Biscop (England), d.圣本笃比斯科普(英格兰),四690; founder of Wearmouth and Jarrow.690;创始人韦茅斯和杰诺。St. Filbert (France), d.圣菲尔贝特(法国),四684; founder of Jumièges. 684;创始人Jumièges。St. Benedict of Aniane (France), d.圣本笃的阿尼亚讷(法国),四821; reformer of monasteries under Charlemagne; presided at council of abbots, Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), 817.821,根据查理寺院改革者;主持的住持,亚琛(艾克斯香格里拉- Chapelle的),817局。St. Dunstan (England), d.圣邓斯坦(英格兰),四988; Abbot of Glastonbury (c. 945), and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (961); reformer of English monasteries.988;艾博特的格拉斯顿伯里(约945),此后坎特伯雷大主教(961);英语寺院的改革者。St. Berno (France), d.圣Berno(法国),四927; founder and first Abbot of Cluny (909).927年,创始人和第一住持克吕尼(909)。St. Odo or Eudes (France), b.圣厄德或Eudes(法国),湾879, d.879,四942; second Abbot of Cluny. 942;第二艾博特的克吕尼。St. Aymard (France), d.艾马尔圣(法国),四965; third Abbot of Cluny. 965;第三艾博特的克吕尼。St. Majolus or Maieul (France), b.圣Majolus或Maieul(法国),湾906, d.906,四994; fourth Abbot of Cluny; Otto II desired to make him pope in 974 but he refused. 994,第四住持克吕尼;奥托二世理想,使他在974教皇,但他拒绝了。St. Odilo (France), d.圣Odilo(法国),四1048; fifth Abbot of Cluny. 1048年,五住持克吕尼。Bernard of Cluny (France), d.伯纳德的克吕尼(法国),四1109; famous in connexion with the eleventh-century "Ordo Cluniacensis" which bears his name. 1109年,著名的十一世纪的“奥Cluniacensis”他的名字命名联接。Peter the Venerable (France), d.彼得尊者(法国),四1156; ninth Abbot of Cluny; employed by several popes in important affairs of the Church. 1156年,第九届克吕尼住持;受雇于在教会重要事务几个教皇。St. Romuald (Italy), b.圣Romuald(意大利),湾956, d.956,四1026; founder of the Camaldolese congregation (1009).1026年,创始人的该Camaldolese众(1009)。Herluin (France), d. Herluin(法国),四1078; founder of Bec (1040).1078年,创始人BEC的(1040)。St. Robert of Molesmes (France), b.圣罗伯特Molesmes(法国),湾1018, d.1018年,四1110; founder and Abbot of Molesmes (1075); joint-founder and first Abbot of Cîteaux (1098). 1110年,创始人和Molesmes住持(1075),联合创始人和第一住持cîteaux(1098)。St. Alberic (France), d.圣阿伯里克(法国),四1109; joint-founder and second Abbot of Cîteaux.1109年,联合创始人和第二的Cîteaux住持。St. Stephen Harding (England), d.圣士提反哈丁(英格兰),四1134; joint-founder and third Abbot of Cîteaux.1134年,联合创始人和第三的Cîteaux住持。St. Bernard (France), b.圣伯纳(法国),湾1091, d.1091,四1153; joined Cîteaux with thirty other noblemen (1113); founded Clairvaux (1115); wrote many spiritual and theological works; was a statesman and adviser of kings, and a Doctor of the Church; he preached the Second Crusade throughout France and Germany at the request of Eugenius III (1146). 1153年,联同三十(1113)其他贵族Cîteaux;成立克莱尔沃(1115)写了许多精神和神学作品;是一位政治家和国王的顾问,以及医生的教会,他所宣扬的整个法国和德国在第二次东征对叶夫根尼三世(1146)的要求。 St. William of Hirschau (Germany), c.圣威廉Hirschau(德国),角1090; author of "Constitutions of Hirschau".1090年,着有“的Hirschau宪法”。St. John Gualbert (Italy), b.圣约翰Gualbert(意大利),湾999, d.999,四1073; founder of Vallombrosa (1039).1073年,创始人的瓦伦布罗萨(1039)。St. Stephen or Etienne (France), d.圣士提反或艾蒂安(法国),四1124; founder of Grammont (1076).1124年,创始人格拉蒙(1076)。Bl.基本法。Robert of Arbrissel (France), d.罗伯特Arbrissel(法国),四1116; founder of Fontevrault (1099).1116年,创始人的丰特夫罗(1099)。St. William (Italy), d.圣威廉(意大利),四1142; founder of Monte Vergine (1119).1142年,创始人的Monte Vergine(1119)。St. Sylvester (Italy), b.圣西尔维斯特(意大利),湾1177, d.1177,四1267; founder of the Sylvestrines (1231).1267年,创始人的Sylvestrines(1231)。St. Bernard Ptolemy (Italy), b.圣伯纳托勒密(意大利),湾1272, d.1272年,四1348; founder of the Olivetans (1319).1348年,创始人的Olivetans(1319)。Ludovico Barbo (Italy), d.卢多维科巴博(意大利),四1443; first a canon regular, then Abbot of St. Justina of Padua and founder of the congregation of the same name (1409).1443年,第一佳能定期,然后住持圣帕多瓦和同名的(1409)众的创始人。Didier de la Cour (France), b.迪迪埃德拉考尔(法国),湾1550, d.1550年,四1623; founder of the congregation of St.-Vannes (1598).1623年,创始人的圣-瓦纳(1598)众。Laurent Bénard (France), b.洛朗Bénard问题(法国),湾1573, d.1573年,四1620; Prior of Cluny College, Paris, and founder of the Maurist congregation (1618). 1620年,在此之前的克吕尼学院,巴黎和Maurist众(1618)的创始人。José Serra (Spain), b.何塞塞拉(西班牙),湾1811, died c.1811年,死于角 1880; Coadjutor bishop of Perth, Australia (1848); and Rudesind Salvado (Spain), b. 1880年,教区助理主教珀斯,澳大利亚(1848年)和Rudesind萨尔瓦多(西班牙),湾1814, d.1814年,四1900; Bishop of Port Victoria (1849); founders of New Nursia, Australia. 1900年主教维多利亚港(1849年);新努尔西亚,澳大利亚创始人。Prosper Guéranger (France), b.普罗斯珀Guéranger(法国),湾1805, d.1805年,四1875; founder of the Gallican congregation (1837); restored Solesmes (1837); well known as a liturgical writer.1875年,创始人高卢众(1837);恢复索雷姆(1837);有名的礼仪的作家。Jean-Baptiste Muard (France), b.让巴蒂斯特Muard(法国),湾1809, d.1809年,四1854; founder of Pierre-qui-Vire and of the French province of the Cassinese Congregation of the Primitive Observance (1850).1854年,创始人皮埃尔魁,维尔和对原始遵守(1850)法国省Cassinese教会。Maurus Wolter (Germany), b.毛鲁斯沃尔特(德国),湾1825, d.1825年,四1900; founder of the Beuronese congregation (1860); Abbot of Beuron (1868). 1900年,创始人Beuronese众(1860年);住持的伯龙(1868)。Pietro Francesco Casaretto (Italy), b.彼得弗朗西斯Casaretto(意大利),湾1810, d.1810年,四1878; founder and first Abbot-General of Cassinese congregation of Primitive Observance (1851). 1878年,创始人和第一住持秘书长原始遵守(1851年)Cassinese众。Boniface Wimmer (Bavaria), b.博尼法斯温默(巴伐利亚州),湾1809, d.1809年,四1887; founder of American Cassinese congregation (1855).1887年,创始人美国Cassinese众(1855)。Martin Marty (Switzerland), b.马丁马蒂(瑞士),湾1834, d.1834年,四1896; founder of Swiss American congregation (1870); Abbot of St. Meinrad's, Indiana (1870); Vicar Apostolic of Dakota (1879). 1896年,创始人是瑞士美国众(1870年);副主教使徒的南达科他州(1879);圣Meinrad的,印第安纳州(1870年)住持。Jerome Vaughan (England), b.杰罗姆沃恩(英格兰),湾1841, d.1841年,四1896; founder of Fort Augustus Abbey (1878).1896年,创始人奥古斯堡修道院(1878年)。Gerard van Caloen (Belgium), b.吉拉德范斯Caloen(比利时),湾1853; restorer of Brazilian congregation; Abbot of Bahia (1896); titular Bishop of Phocaelig;a (1906).1853;恢复巴西众;住持巴伊亚(1896年);名义上的Phocaelig主教一(1906年)。

Scholars, Historians, Spiritual Writers, etc.学者,历史学家,作家的精神,等等

St. Bede (England), b.圣比德(英国),湾673, d.673,四735; monk of Jarrow, Doctor of the Church, historian, and commentator.735;和尚的贾罗,教会医生,历史学家和评论家。St. Aldhelm (England), d.圣Aldhelm(英格兰),四709; Abbot of Malmesbury and Bishop of Sherborne.709;住持马姆斯伯里和舍伯恩主教。Alcuin (England), d.阿尔昆(英格兰),四804, monk of York; founder of schools in France under Charlemagne.804,约克和尚;所学校在法国查理曼的创始人。Rabanus Maurus (Germany), d.巴努毛鲁斯(德国),四856; Archbishop of Mainz. 856,美因茨大主教。St. Paschasius Radbertus (Germany), d.圣Paschasius拉得伯土(德国),四860; Abbot of Corbie. 6860;住持的Corbie。Ratramnus (Germany), d.Ratramnus(德国),四866; a monk of Corbie, who took part in Sacramentarian controversy. 866,一个的Corbie,谁参加了Sacramentarian争议部分僧人。Walafrid Strabo (Germany), d. Walafrid斯特拉波(德国),四849; a monk of Fulda, and afterwards Abbot of Reichenau.849,一个和尚的富尔达,后来住持的reichenau。Abbon of Fleury (France), tenth century; at one time a monk at Canterbury.的弗勒里(法国),第十世纪Abbon;在同一时间在坎特伯雷和尚。Notker (Switzerland), d. Notker(瑞士),四1022; a monk of St. Gall; theologican, mathematician, and musician.1022,一个和尚的圣加仑; theologican,数学家和音乐家。Guido d'Arezzo (Italy), died c.圭多德阿雷佐(意大利),死于角1028; inventor of the gamut. 1028;发明者域。Hermannus Contractus (Germany), eleventh century; a monk of St. Gall; learned in Eastern languages; author of the "Salve Regina". Hermannus契约缔结,十一世纪(德国),一个和尚的圣加仑,在东方语言的经验教训;的“抚慰里贾纳”的作者。Paul Warnefrid, or Paul the Deacon (Italy), eighth century; historian and teacher (scholasticus) at Monte Cassino.保罗Warnefrid,或保罗的迪肯(意大利),第八世纪的历史学家和教师(scholasticus)在蒙特卡西诺。 Hincmar (France), d.安克马尔(法国),四882; a monk of St. Denis; Archbishop of Reims (845).882,一个和尚的圣丹尼斯;大主教(845)兰斯。St. Peter Damian (Italy), b.圣彼得达米安(意大利),湾988, d.988,四1072; a monk of the Camaldolese reform at Fonte Avellano; Cardinal Bishop of Ostia (1057).1072年,一个在丰特Avellano Camaldolese改革和尚;枢机主教奥斯蒂亚(1057)。Lanfranc (Italy), b.兰弗朗克(意大利),湾1005 in Lombardy, d. 1005在伦巴第,四at Canterbury, 1089; a monk at Beck (1042); founder of the school there; Archbishop of Canterbury (1070).在坎特伯雷,1089年,一个和尚在贝克(1042)的学校有创始人坎特伯雷大主教(1070)。 St. Anselm (Italy), b.圣安瑟伦(意大利),湾1033 in Piedmont, d. 1033在皮埃蒙特,四1109; a monk at Bec (1060); Abbot of Bec (1078); Archbishop of Canterbury (1093); usually considered the first scholastic. 1109年,一个和尚在与Bec(1060);住持BEC的(1078);坎特伯雷大主教(1093),通常认为是第一个学校。Eadmer (England), d. Eadmer(英格兰),四1137; a monk of Canterbury and disciple of St. Anselm, whose life he wrote. 1137年,一个和尚和坎特伯雷圣安瑟伦,他们的生活,他说弟子。The English historians; Florence of Worcester, d.英语历史学家;伍斯特佛罗伦萨,四1118; Simeon of Durham, d. 1118;西蒙达勒姆,四1130; Jocelin de Brakelonde, d.1130;乔斯林德Brakelonde,四1200, a monk and chronicler of Bury St. Edmunds; Matthew Paris, d.1200年,一个和尚和埋葬圣Edmunds的编年史;马修巴黎,四1259, a monk of St. Albans; William of Malmesbury, died c.1259年,一个和尚的圣奥尔本斯;马姆斯伯里的威廉,死于角1143; Gervase of Canterbury, died c.1143;坎特伯雷杰瓦斯,死于角1205; Roger of Wendover, d. 1205;罗杰温多弗,四1237, a monk of St. Albans.1237年,一个和尚的圣奥尔本斯。Peter the Deacon (Italy), died c.彼得的迪肯(意大利),死于角1140; a monk of Monte Cassino. 1140,一个和尚蒙特卡西诺。Adam Easton (England), d.亚当伊斯顿(英格兰),四1397, a monk of Norwich; Cardinal (1380).1397年,一个和尚的诺里奇;枢机主教(1380)。John Lydgate (England), died c.约翰利德盖特(英格兰),死于角1450; a monk of Bury St. Edmunds; poet.1450年,一个和尚的埋葬圣埃德蒙兹;诗人。John Wheathamstead (England), d.约翰Wheathamstead(英格兰),四1440; Abbot of St. Albans. 1440年,住持圣奥尔本斯。Johannes Trithemius (Germany), b.约翰内斯里特米乌斯(德国),湾1462, d.1462年,四1516; Abbot of Spanheim, a voluminous writer and great traveller.1516 1996-04-03 Spanheim,一个多产作家和伟大的旅行家住持。Louis Blosius (Belgium), b.路易Blosius(比利时),湾1506, d.1506年,四1566; Abbot of Liessies (1530); author of the "Mirror for Monks".1566年,住持Liessies(1530)的“僧侣镜”的作者。Juan de Castaniza (Spain), d.胡安德Castaniza(西班牙),四1599; a monk of St. Saviour's, Onna.1599年,一个圣救主,恩纳和尚。Benedict van Haeften (Belgium), b.本笃面包车Haeften(比利时),湾1588, d.1588年,四1648; Prior of Afflighem. 1648年,在此之前的Afflighem。Clement Reyner (England), b.克莱门特Reyner(英格兰),湾1589, d.1589年,四1651; a monk at Dieulouard (1610); Abbot of Lamspring (1643). 1651年,一个和尚在迪约卢瓦尔(1610);住持(1643)的Lamspring。Augustine Baker (England), b.奥古斯丁贝克(英格兰),湾1575; d.1575;四1641; a monk of Dieulouard and author of "Sancta Sophia".1641年,一个和尚的Dieulouard和“Sancta索菲亚”的作者。Augustine Calmet (France), b.奥古斯丁卡尔梅特(法国),湾1672, d.1672年,四1757; Abbot of Senones-en-Vosges; best known for his "Dictionary of the Bible".1757 1996-04-03 Senones恩,孚日住持,最著名的是他的“字典的圣经”。Carolus Meichelbeck (Bavaria), b.卡罗勒斯Meichelbeck(巴伐利亚州),湾1669; d.1669年,四1734; librarian and historian of Benediktbeuern.1734年,图书管理员和Benediktbeuern历史学家。Magnoald Ziegelbauer (Germany), 1689, d.Magnoald Ziegelbauer(德国),1689年,四1750; author of a literary history of the Order of St. Benedict.1750年,笔者一阶的圣本笃的文学史。Marquard Herrgott (Germany), b.马奎德Herrgott(德国),湾1694, d.1694年,四1762; a monk of St.-Blasien. 1762年,一个圣- Blasien和尚。Suitbert Baumer (Germany), b. Suitbert堡盟(德国),湾1845, d.1845年,四1894; a monk of Beuron. 1894年,一个和尚的伯龙。Luigi Tosti (Italy), b.路易吉Tosti(意大利),湾1811, d.1811年,四1897; abbot; Vice-Archivist to the Holy See.1897年,住持,副档案保管员的罗马教廷。JBF Pitra (France), b.JBF Pitra(法国),湾1812, d. 1812年,四1889; a monk of Solesmes; Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati (1863); librarian of the Holy Roman Church.1889年,一个和尚的索雷姆;枢机主教弗拉斯卡蒂(1863)神圣罗马教会的图书管理员。Francis Aidan Gasquet (England), b.弗朗西斯艾加斯凯(英格兰),湾1846; a monk of Downside and Abbot-President of the English Benedictine congregation. 1846年,一个的下跌和艾博特总统的英文本笃教会修士。Fernand Cabrol (France), b.弗尔南Cabrol(法国),湾1855; Abbot of Farnborough (Gallican congregation).1855年,阿博特(高卢众)的范堡罗。Jean Besse (France), b.让贝瑟(法国),湾1861; a monk of Ligugé. 1861年,一个和尚的利圭热。Germain Morin, of the Beuronese congregation, b.Germain的莫林的Beuronese众湾1861.1861年。John Chapman, of the Beuronese congregation, b.约翰查普曼的Beuronese众湾1865.1865。Edward Cuthbert Butler (England), b.爱德华卡斯伯特巴特勒(英格兰),湾1858; Abbot of Downside (1906). 1858年,住持下行(1906年)。

The Congregation of St.-Maur圣- Maur毕业典礼

The following are some of the chief writers of this congregation: Adrien Langlois, d.以下是本教会的首席作家一些:阿德里安彰,四1627; one of the first Maurists. 1627年,一首Maurists。Nicolas Menard, b.尼古拉默纳德湾 1585, d.1585年,四1644.1644。Gregoire Tarrisse, b.格雷瓜尔Tarrisse湾1575, d.1575年,四1648; first Superior General of the congregation.1648年,第一总会长的会众。Luc d'Achery, b.吕克德Achery湾1609, d.1609年,四1685.1685。Antoine-Joseph Mege, b.安东尼约瑟夫Mege湾1625, d.1625年,四1691.1691。Louis Bulteau, b.路易Bulteau湾1625, d.1625年,四1693.1693。Michel Germain, b.米歇尔Germain的湾1645, d.1645年,四1694; a companion of Mabillon. 1694年,一个同伴的马毕伦。Claude Martin, b.克洛德马丁湾1619, d. 1619年,四1707; the greatest of the Maurists.1707年,该Maurists最大。Thierry Ruinart, b.蒂埃里Ruinart湾1657, d.1657年,四1709; a companion and biographer of Mabillon.1709年,一个同伴和马毕伦传记。François Lamy, b.弗朗索瓦拉米湾 1636, d.1636年,四1711.1711。Pierre Coustant, b.皮埃尔Coustant湾1654, d.1654年,四1721.1721。Denis de Sainte-Marthe, b.丹尼斯德圣- Marthe湾1650, d. 1650年,四1725. 1725。Julien Garnier, b.朱利安卡尼尔湾1670, d.1670年,四1725.1725。Edmond Martène, b.爱德蒙Martène湾1654, d.1654年,四1739.1739。Ursin Durand, b. Ursin杜兰德湾1682, d. 1682年,四1773. 1773。Bernard de Montefaucon, b.贝尔纳代Montefaucon湾1655, d.1655年,四1741.1741。René-Prosper Tassin, d.勒内普罗斯珀塔西,四1777.1777。

Bishops, Monks, Martyrs, etc.主教,僧侣,烈士等

St. Laurence (Italy), d.圣劳伦斯(意大利),四619; came to England with St. Augustine (597), whom he succeeded as Archbishop of Canterbury (604). 619;来到英格兰与圣奥古斯丁(597),其中他作为坎特伯雷大主教(604)成功。St. Mellitus (Italy), d.圣糖尿病(意大利),四624; a Roman abbot, sent to England with other monks to assist St. Augustine (601); founder of St. Paul's, London, and first Bishop of London (604); Archbishop of Canterbury (619). 624;罗马住持,发送到英国与其他僧人协助圣奥古斯丁(601);圣保罗,伦敦创始人和第一主教伦敦(604);坎特伯雷大主教(619)。St. Justus (Italy), d.圣贾斯特斯(意大利),四627; came to England (601); first Bishop of Rochester (604) and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury (624). 627;来到英格兰(601),第一主教罗切斯特(604人)和事后坎特伯雷大主教(624)。St. Paulinus of York (Italy), d.圣paulinus的纽约(意大利),四644; came to England (601); first Bishop of York (625); Bishop of Rochester (633). 644;来到英格兰(601),第一约克主教(625);罗彻斯特主教(633)。St. Odo (England), d.圣厄德(英格兰),四961; Archbishop of Canterbury. 961;坎特伯雷大主教。St. Elphege or Aelfheah (England), d.圣Elphege或Aelfheah(英格兰),四1012; Archbishop of Canterbury (1006); killed by the Danes.1012;坎特伯雷大主教(1006),由丹麦人丧生。St. Oswald (England), d.圣奥斯瓦尔德(英格兰),四992; nephew of St. Odo of Canterbury; Bishop of Worcester (959); Archbishop of York (972). 992;侄子圣厄德的坎特伯雷伍斯特主教(959),约克大主教(972)。St. Bertin (France), b.圣贝尔坦(法国),湾597, d.597,四709; Abbot of Saint-Omer. 709;住持圣奥马尔。St. Botolph (England), d.圣博尔夫(英格兰),四655; abbot.655;住持。St. Wilfrid, born c.圣威尔弗里德,生于角634, d.634,四709; Bishop of York. 709;主教纽约。St. Cuthbert, d.圣卡斯伯特,四687; Bishop of Landisfarne. 687;主教Landisfarne。St. John of Beverley, d.圣约翰贝弗利,四721; Bishop of Hexham. 721;主教赫克瑟姆。St. Swithin, d.圣Swithin,四862; Bishop of Winchester. 862;主教74。St. Ethelwold, d.圣Ethelwold,四984; Bishop of Winchester. 984;主教74。St. Wulfstan, d.圣Wulfstan,四1095; Bishop of Worcester. 1095年,伍斯特主教。St. Ælred, b.圣Ælred湾1109, d.1109,四1166; Abbot of Rievaulx, Yorkshire.1166年,住持里韦尔克斯,约克郡。St. Thomas of Canterbury or Thomas Becket, born c.圣托马斯的坎特伯雷或托马斯贝克特,生于角1117, martyred 1170; Chancellor of England (1155); Archbishop of Canterbury (1162). 1117,烈属,1170;校长,英国(1155);坎特伯雷大主教(1162)。St. Edmund Rich, d.圣埃德蒙丰富,四1240; Archbishop of Canterbury (1234); died in exile.1240年,坎特伯雷大主教(1234),死于流亡。Suger (France), b.萨热(法国),湾1081, d.1081年,四1151; Abbot of St. Denis and Regent of France.1151;住持圣丹尼斯和法国的摄政王。Bl.基本法。Richard Whiting, abbot of Glastonbury, Bl.理查德怀丁,的格拉斯顿伯里,基本法住持。Roger James, and Bl.罗杰詹姆斯,和BL。John Thorn, monks of Glastonbury; Bl.约翰索恩,格拉斯顿伯里的僧侣;基本法。Hugh Faringdon, Abbot of Reading, Bl.休灵登,阅读住持,基本法。William Eynon, and Bl.威廉诺,与BL。John Rugg, monks of Reading; and Bl.约翰鲁格,阅读僧侣和BL。John Beche, Abbot of Colchester; all executed (1539) for denying the supremacy of Henry VIII in ecclesiastical matters.约翰贝什,科尔切斯特住持,所有执行(1539)拒绝在教会事务的亨利八世的统治。John de Feckenham (or Howman), d.约翰德Feckenham(或Howman),四1585; last Abbot of Westminster; died in prison.1585年,去年威斯敏斯特住持,在监狱中死亡。Sigebert Buckley, born c. Sigebert巴克利,生于角1517, d. 1517年,四1610; a monk of Westminster; the link between the old and new English congregations. 1610年,一个和尚威斯敏斯特,与新老英国教会的联系。Ven.法师。John Roberts, born c.约翰罗伯茨,生于角1575, martyred 1610; founder of St. Gregory's, Douai.1575年,烈属,1610;的圣格雷戈里的,杜埃的创始人。William Gabriel Gifford, b.威廉加布里埃尔吉福德湾1554, d.1554年,四1629; professor of theology at Reims (1582); Dean of Lille (1597); a monk at Dieulouard (1609); Archbishop of Reims (1622). 1629年,教授神学,在兰斯(1582);里尔院长(1597);在迪约卢瓦尔和尚(1609年),兰斯大主教(1622)。Leander of St. Martin (John Jones), b.利安德圣马丁(约翰琼斯)湾1575, d.1575年,四1635; President of the English congregation and Prior of St. Gregory's, Douai. 1635年,在英国教会的前总统和圣格雷戈里的,杜埃。Philip Ellis, b.菲利普埃利斯湾 1653, d.1653年,四1726; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1688); transferred to Segni, Italy (1708). 1726;牧师使徒西区(1688);转移到Segni,意大利(1708)。Charles Walmesley, b.查尔斯沃尔梅斯利湾1722, d.1722年,四1797; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1764); a Doctor of the Sorbonne and FRS William Placid Morris, b.1797年,西部地区(1764)副主教使徒,一个在索邦大学和FRS医生威廉莫里斯美国普莱西德湾1794, d.1794年,四1872; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic of Mauritius (1832).1872年,一个和尚的下跌;牧师使徒(1832)毛里求斯。John Bede Polding, b.约翰比德波丁湾1794, d.1794年,四1877; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic in Australia (1834); first Archbishop of Sydney (1851). 1877年,一个和尚的下跌;副主教使徒在澳大利亚(1834年),第一悉尼大主教(1851年)。William Bernard Ullathorne, b.威廉伯纳德拉索恩湾1806, d.1806年,四1889; a monk of Downside; Vicar Apostolic of the Western District (1846); transferred to Birmingham (1850); resigned (1888). 1889年,一个和尚的下跌;副主教使徒西区(1846年);转移到伯明翰(1850);辞职(1888)。Roger Bede Vaughan, b.罗杰比德沃恩湾1834, d.1834年,四1883; a monk of Downside; Cathedral Prior of Belmont (1863); coadjutor to Archbishop Polding (1872); succeeded as Archbishop of Sydney (1877). 1883年,一个和尚的下跌;大教堂前的贝尔蒙(1863年);帮手大主教波丁(1872年);作为悉尼大主教(1877年)成功。Cardinal Sanfelice (Italy), b.红衣主教Sanfelice(意大利),湾1834, d.1834年,四1897; Archbishop of Naples; formerly Abbot of La Cava.1897年,大主教那不勒斯;原拉卡瓦住持。Joseph Pothier (France), b.约瑟夫波蒂埃(法国),湾1835; inaugurator of the Solesmes school of plain-chant; Abbot of Fontanelle (1898). 1835年,inaugurator的纯咏索雷姆学校;住持囟(1898年)。Andre Mocquereau (France), b.安德烈莫克罗(法国),湾1849; Prior of Solesmes and successor to Dom Pothier as leader of the school. 1849年,在此之前的索雷姆和接班人作为学校的领导人,大教堂波蒂埃。John Cuthbert Hedley, b.约翰卡斯伯特赫德利湾1837; a monk of Ampleforth; consecrated Coadjutor Bishop of Newport (1873); succeeded as Bishop (1881). 1837年,一个和尚的安普尔福思;奉献教区助理主教新港(1873年);作为主教(1881年)取得了成功。Benedetto Bonazzi (Italy), b.贝内德托Bonazzi(意大利),湾1840; Abbot of La Cava (1894); Archbishop of Benevento (1902).1840年,住持拉卡瓦(1894年);大主教贝内文托(1902)。 Domenico Serafini (Italy), b. Domenico塞拉菲尼(意大利),湾1852; Abbot General of the Cassinese Congregation of Primitive Observance (1886); Archbishop of Spoleto (1900).1852年,住持一般原始遵守(1886年)Cassinese教会;的斯波莱托(1900)大主教。Hildebrand de Hemptinne (Belgium), b.希尔德布兰德德Hemptinne(比利时),湾1849; Abbot Primate of the order; Abbot of Maredsous (1890); nominated Abbot Primate by Leo XIII (1893). 1849年,住持灵长类动物的秩序;住持Maredsous(1890年),由利奥十三世提名住持灵长类动物(1893年)。

Nuns尼姑

St. Scholastica, died c.圣Scholastica,死于角543; sister to St. Benedict. 543;妹妹圣本笃。Among English Benedictine nuns, the most celebrated are: St. Etheldreda, d.在英文本笃会修女,最著名的有:圣Etheldreda,四679; Abbess of Ely. 679;住持的伊利。St. Ethelburga, died c.圣Ethelburga,死于角670; Abbess of Barking. 670;住持的门口。St. Hilda, d.圣希尔达,四680; Abbess of Whitby.680;住持的惠特比。St. Werburgh, d.圣韦堡,四 699; Abbess of Chester. 699;住持的切斯特。St. Mildred, seventh century; Abbess in Thanet.街,七世纪米尔德里德;住持在萨尼特。St. Walburga, d.圣Walburga,四779; a nun of Wimborne; sister to Sts.779,一个尼姑的Wimborne;妹妹街。Willibald and Winnibald; went to Germany with Sts.Willibald和Winnibald;前往德国与STS。Lioba and Thecla to assist St. Boniface c.Lioba和Thecla协助圣博尼费斯角740.740。St. Thecla, eighth century; a nun of Wimborne; Abbess of Kitzingen; died in Germany.圣,第八世纪Thecla,一个尼姑的Wimborne;的Kitzingen住持,死在德国。St. Lioba, d.圣Lioba,四 779; a nun of Wimborne; cousin to St. Boniface; Abbess of Bischofsheim; died in Germany. 779,一个尼姑的Wimborne;表弟圣博尼费斯;住持的Bischofsheim;死在德国。Among other Benedictine saints are: St. Hildegard (Germany), b.在其他笃圣人是:圣希尔德加德(德国),湾1098, d.1098年,四1178; Abbess of Mount St. Rupert; St. Gertrude the Great (Germany), d.1178;住持圣山鲁珀特;街格特鲁德大(德国),四1292; Abbess of Eisleben in Saxony (1251).1292年,住持在萨克森艾斯勒本(1251)。St. Mechtilde, sister to St. Gertrude and nun at Eisleben.圣Mechtilde,姐姐在艾斯勒本圣葛特露和尼姑。St. Frances of Rome, b.罗马的圣弗朗西斯湾1384, d.1384年,四1440; widow; founded order of Oblates (Collatines) in 1425.1440年,寡妇成立于1425献主会(Collat​​ines)的顺序。

VI.六。FOUNDATIONS ORIGINATING FROM OR BASED UPON THE BENEDICTINE ORDER地基源自或致函本笃基于指令

It has already been shown in the first part of this article how the reaction which followed the many relaxations and mitigations that had crept into the Benedictine Order produced, from the tenth century onwards, a number of reforms and independent congregations, in each of which a return to the strict letter of St. Benedict's Rule was attempted, with certain variations of ideal and differences of external organization.它已被证明在本文如何反应,随后的许多松弛和民政事务总署将笃秩序悄悄缓解产自10世纪起,一系列改革和独立的教会,第一部分在每一个一回到圣本笃的规则得到严格信尝试,与某些变化的理想和外部组织的差异。 That of Cluny was the first, and it was followed, from time to time, by others, all of which are deal with in separate articles.克鲁尼这是第一次,这是其次,不时他人,所有这些都是以单独的条文处理。

St. Chrodegang圣Chrodegang

Besides those communities which professedly adhered to the Benedictine Rule in all its strictness, there were others founded for some special work or purpose, which, while not claiming to be Benedictine, took that Rule as the basis upon which to ground their own particular legislation.除了那些自称社区,严格遵守其所有的本笃规则,有一些特殊的工作或目的,它虽然不自称是本笃会,以此作为基础,据以地面自己特定的立法规则创立人。 The earliest example of this was instituted by St. Chrodegang, Bishop of Metz, who in the year 760 brought together his cathedral clergy into a kind of community life and drew up for their guidance a code of rules, based upon that of St. Benedict.这个最早的例子是建立由圣Chrodegang,梅斯的主教,谁在今年760汇聚成为一个社会生活,他的教堂神职人员,并提请他们的指导守则的规则后,圣本笃的基础上,注册。 These were the first "regular canons", and the idea thus started spread very rapidly to almost every cathedral of France, Germany, and Italy, as well as to some in England.这是第一个“经常大炮”,并因此开始的想法非常迅速蔓延到几乎每一个大教堂,法国,德国,意大利以及英国的一些。 In the latter country, however, it was not an entirely new idea, for we learn from Bede's "Ecclesiastical History" (I, xxvii) that even in St. Augustine's time some sort of "common life" was in vogue amongst the bishops and their clergy.在后者的国家,但是,它并非是一个全新的理念,为我们从比德的“教会史”学习(一,二十七),即使在圣奥古斯丁的时间某种“共同生活”的那种最为显着的主教在时尚,他们的神职人员。 St. Chrodegang's institute and its imitations prevailed almost universally in the cathedral and collegiate churches until ousted by the introduction of the Austin Canons.圣Chrodegang研究所和其仿制品盛行于大教堂和教堂几乎普​​遍合议,直至由大炮奥斯汀引进赶下台。

CarthusiansCarthusians

A word must here be said as to the Carthusian Order, which some writers have classed amongst those founded on the Benedictine rule.总之,必须在这里说至于卡尔特秩序,这对一些作家已位居创立的本笃规则的归类。This supposition is based chiefly on the fact that they have retained the name of St. Benedict in their Confiteor, but this was more probably done out of recognition of that saint's position as the Patriarch of Western Monasticism than from any idea that the order was a filiation from the older body.这个假设主要是基于对他们留在自己的圣本笃Confiteor名字的事实,但是这更可能做了该圣人作为西方修道主教位置识别出比任何想法,该命令是亲子关系从老的身体。 Confusion may also have arisen on account of the founder of the Carthusians, St. Bruno, being mistaken for another of the same name, who was Abbot of Monte Cassino in the twelfth century and therefore a Benedictine.也可能出现混乱对的Carthusians,圣布鲁诺,创始人账户被用于相同的名字,谁是蒙特卡西诺住持十二世纪,因此本笃另一个错误的。


Independent Benedictine Congregations独立笃毕业典礼

The various reforms, beginning with Cluny in the tenth century and extending to the Olivetans of the fourteenth, have been enumerated in the first part of this article and are described in greater detail in separate articles, under their respective titles.各项改革,开始与克鲁尼在十世纪,并延伸至第十四的Olivetans,已列举在本文的第一部分,介绍更详细的单独条款中根据各自的职衔。 To these must be added the Order of the Humiliati, founded in the twelfth century by certain nobles of Lombardy who, having rebelled against the Emperor Henry VI, were taken captive by him into Germany.这些必须添加的Humiliati秩序,成立于12世纪的伦巴第某些谁后,对皇帝亨利六世反叛贵族,被带到德国被他俘虏。 There they commenced the practice of works of piety and penance, and were for their "humility" allowed to return to Lombardy.他们在那里展开的虔诚和忏悔工程实践,并为他们的“谦逊”获准返回伦巴第人。The order was definitely established in 1134 under the guidance of St. Bernard, who placed it under the Benedictine rule.该命令是绝对成立于1134下,圣伯纳德,谁把它的本笃规则指导。It flourished for some centuries and had ninety-four monasteries, but through popularity and prosperity corruption and irregularities crept in, and after an ineffectual attempt at reformation, Pope Pius V suppressed the order in 1571.它蓬勃发展的几个世纪,并九四寺院,但通过普及和繁荣的腐败和违规行为悄悄在,并在改造后的无效尝试,教皇庇护五世压制在1571年的订单。 Mention must also be made of the more modern Armenian Benedictine congregation (known as Mechitarists), founded by Mechitar de Petro in the eighteenth century, in communion with the Holy See; this is now reckoned amongst the non-federated congregations of the order.还必须提及的更现代的亚美尼亚笃众(如Mechitarists已知),成立由Mechitar德石油在十八世纪,罗马教廷在共融看,这是牛群的命令,非联合教会忽视。 (See HUMILIATI, MECHITARISTS.) (见HUMILIATI,MECHITARISTS。)

Quasi-Benedictine Foundations准笃基础

(1) Military Orders(1)军事订单

Hélyot enumerates several military orders as having been based upon that of St. Benedict or in some way originating from it.Hélyot列举视为已在圣本笃,或以某种方式从它起源的几个军事订单。 Though founded especially for military objects, as for instance the defence of the holy places at Jerusalem, when not so engaged, these knights lived a kind of a religious life in commanderies or preceptories, established on the estates belonging to their order.虽然成立特别是针对军事目标,例如,在耶路撒冷的圣地防守,当没有那么从事这些骑士过着一个commanderies或preceptories宗教生活在属于他们的订单屋成立,善良。 They were not in any sense clerics, but they usually took vows of poverty and obedience, and sometimes also of chastity.他们不是在任何意义上的教士,但他们通常采取誓言贫穷和服从,有时也贞操。In some of the Spanish orders, permission to marry was granted in the seventeenth century.在西班牙一些订单,允许结婚获得在十七世纪。The knights practised many of the customary monastic austerities, such as fasting and silence, and they adopted a religious habit with the tunic shortened somewhat for convenience on horseback.骑士实行寺院苦行的习惯,如禁食和沉默,很多人,他们通过了马背上的便利缩短了多少宗教的外衣的习惯。Each order was governed by a Grand Master who had jurisdiction over the whole order, and under him were the commanders who ruled over the various houses.每个命令是由一个大师谁拥有超过整个秩序管辖权,并根据他的指挥官在各种房屋谁统治。The following were the military orders connected with the Benedictine Order, but for fuller details the reader is referred to separate articles.以下是与本笃令相连的军事命令,但更详尽的资料,读者是指单独条款。 (a) The Knights Templars, founded in 1118.(一)圣殿骑士团,于1118成立。St. Bernard of Clairvaux drew up their rule, and they always regarded the Cistercians as their brethren.圣伯纳德的克莱尔沃制定了自己的统治,他们总是认为他们的弟兄熙。For this reason they adopted a white dress, to which they added a red cross.为此,他们采取了白色礼服,他们增加了红十字会。 The order was suppressed in 1312.为了压制在1312。In Spain there were: (b) The Knights of Calatrava founded in 1158 to assist in protecting Spain against the Moorish invasions.在西班牙有:(二)卡拉特拉瓦骑士团成立于1158年,以协助保护摩尔人入侵西班牙反对。The Knights of Calatrava owed their origin to the abbot and monks of the Cistercian monastery of Fitero.骑士的卡拉特拉瓦欠其原产地的住持和僧侣的Fitero修道院修道院。The general chapter of Cîteaux drew up a rule of life and exercised a general supervision over them.一般章的Cîteaux制定了规则的生活和行使一般监督着他们。The black hood and short scapular which they wore denoted their connexion with Cîteaux.黑罩和短肩胛骨,他们表示他们的穿着与Cîteaux联接。The order possessed fifty-six commanderies, chiefly in Andalusia.该命令拥有五六commanderies,主要是在安达卢西亚。 The Nuns of Calatrava were established c.修女们的卡拉特拉瓦设立角1219.1219。They were cloistered, observing the rule of the Cistercian nuns and wearing a similar habit, but they were under the jurisdiction of the Grand Master of the knights.他们与世隔绝,遵守规则的修道院修女和戴了类似的习惯,但他们下的骑士大师的管辖范围。(c) Knights of Alcantara, or of San Julian del Pereyro, in Castille, founded about the same time and for the same purpose as the Knights of Calatrava. (三)骑士阿尔坎塔拉,或圣朱利安删除Pereyro,在卡斯蒂利亚大约在同一时间成立,并作为骑士的卡拉特拉瓦同样的目的。They adopted a mitigated form of St. Benedict's Rule, to which certain observances borrowed from Calatrava were added.他们采取了圣本笃的规则减轻形式,从某些纪念活动借用卡拉特拉瓦增加了。They also used the black hood and abbreviated scapular.他们还利用黑罩和略肩胛骨。It was at one time proposed to unite this order with that of Calatrava, but the scheme failed of execution.正是在这个提议团结与卡拉特拉瓦该命令一次,但该计划未能执行。They possessed thirty-seven commanderies.他们拥有三七commanderies。(d) Knights of Montesa, founded 1316, an offshoot from Calatrava, instituted by ten knights of that order who placed themselves under the abbot of Cîteaux instead of their own Grand Master. (四)蒙特萨骑士团,成立于1316年,一位来自卡拉特拉瓦分支,由该命令十骑士谁把的Cîteaux而不是他们自己制定自己的住持大师。(e) Knights of St. George of Alfama, founded in 1201; united to the Order of Montesa in 1399. (五)圣乔治的阿法玛于1201年成立以来,骑士;团结,以在1399年订购的蒙特萨。

In Portugal there were three orders, also founded for purposes of defence against the Moors:- (f) The Knights of Aviz, founded 1147; they observed the Benedictine Rule, under the direction of the abbots of Cîteaux and Clairvaux, and had forty commanderies.在葡萄牙有三个订单,也为摩尔人对防御目的成立时间: - (六)Aviz骑士团,成立于1147年,他们观察到的本笃规则,下和的Cîteaux住持克莱尔沃的方向,有四十个commanderies 。 (g) The Knights of St. Michael's Wing, founded 1167; the name was taken in honour of the archangel whose visible assistance secured a victory against the Moors for King Alphonso I of Portugal. (七)圣米迦勒翼骑士团,成立于1167年,这个名字是在可见的天使长的反担保援助,为国王阿方索葡萄牙我摩尔人采取了胜利的荣誉。The rule was drawn up by the Cistercian Abbot of Alcobaza.该规则拟定由Alcobaza修道院住持。They were never very numerous, and the order did not long survive the king in whose reign it was founded.他们从未非常多,订单没有长期生存的国王在其统治它成立。(h) The Order of Christ, reared upon the ruins of the Templars about 1317; it became very numerous and wealthy.(八)基督的命令,约1317年后的废墟中饲养的圣殿,它变得非常多,而且富有。It adopted the Rule of St. Benedict and the constitutions of Cîteaux, and possessed 450 commanderies.它采用了圣本笃规则与宪法的Cîteaux,并拥有450 commanderies。In 1550 the office of grand master of this order, as well as that of Aviz, was united to the crown. 1550年的大法师这项命令,以及Aviz是,办事处团结的王冠。(I) The Monks of the Order of Christ.(一)基督的命令的僧人。In 1567, a stricter life was instituted in the convent of Thomar, the principal house of the Order of Christ, under this title, where the full monastic life was observed, with a habit and vows similar to those of the Cistercians, though the monks were under the jurisdiction of the grand master of the Knights.在1567年,更严格的生活是建立在对Thomar,对基督秩序的主要房子,在这个称号,在寺院生活的全部,观察,有一种习惯,并誓言类似熙的修道院,虽然僧侣被下的骑士大师管辖权。 This order now exists as one of the noble orders of knighthood, similar to those of the Garter, Bath, etc., in England.这项命令现在存在的骑士作为崇高的命令,类似于那些嘉德勋章,浴缸等在英格兰之一。In Savoy there were the two orders: (k) the Knights of St. Maurice, and (l) those of St. Lazarus, which were united in 1572.在萨伏伊有两个命令:(金)的圣骑士莫里斯,以及(l)圣拉撒路,这是美国在1572人。They observed the Cistercian rule and the object of their existence was the defence of the Catholic Faith against the inroads of the Protestant Reformation.他们观察到修道院的规则和他们的存在目的是信仰天主教的新教改革对国防的侵蚀。They had many commanderies and their two principal houses were at Turin and Nice.他们有许多commanderies和他们的两个主要的房屋在都灵和尼斯的。In Switzerland also the Abbots of St. Gall at one time supported (m) the military Order of the Bear, which Frederick II had instituted in 1213.在瑞士也是在支持(米)的熊,这腓特烈二世曾在1213年实行军事命令一时间圣加仑阿伯茨。

(2) Hospitallers(2)Hospitallers

The Order of the Brothers Hospitallers of Burgos originated in a hospital attached to a convent of Cistercian nuns in that town.作者:布尔戈斯兄弟附加到那个小镇的修道院修女修道院医院起源Hospitallers秩序。There were a dozen Cistercian lay brothers who assisted the nuns in the care of the hospital, and these, in 1474, formed themselves into a new order intended to be independent of Cîteaux.有十几个修道院奠定谁协助在医院护理的修女,而这些,在1474年,形成了拟独立的Cîteaux自己兄弟的新秩序。 They met with much opposition, and, irregularities having crept in, they were reformed in 1587 and placed under the abbess of the convent.他们会见了很多人反对,并已悄悄在违规行为,他们在1587年改革下,在修道院的住持上。

(3) Oblates(3)献主

The Oblates of St. Frances of Rome, called also Collatines, were a congregation of pious women, founded in 1425 and approved as an order in 1433.罗马的圣弗朗西斯,所谓的还Collat​​ines献主会士,是一个虔诚的妇女聚集,成立于1425年和1433年以作为核准。 They first observed the rule of the Franciscan Tertiaries, but this was soon changed for that of St. Benedict.他们首先观察到的济Tertiaries规则,但是这很快就为圣本笃变了。The order consisted chiefly of noble Roman ladies, who lived a semi-religious life and devoted themselves to works of piety and charity.该命令主要包括高尚罗马女士们,谁住一个半宗教生活和投身的虔诚和慈善工作。They made no solemn vows, neither were they strictly enclosed, nor forbidden to enjoy the use of their possessions.他们没有庄严的誓言,也不是他们严格封闭的,也不得享有使用自己的财产。They were at first under the direction of the Olivetan Benedictines, but after the death of their foundress, in 1440, they became independent.他们在根据该欧利夫坦笃方向的,但在他们的青史死亡,在1440年,他们成为独立。

(4) Orders of Canonesses对Canonesses(4)令

Information is but scanty concerning the chapters of noble canonesses, which were fairly numerous in Lorraine, Flanders, and Germany in medieval times.信息是微薄的,但关于崇高canonesses,这在中世纪时期相当在洛林,佛兰德斯,德国众多的章节。It seems certain, however, that many of them were originally communities of Benedictine nuns, which, for one reason or another, renounced their solemn vows and assumed the state of canonesses, whilst still observing some form of the Benedictine Rule.这似乎可以肯定,但是,他们中许多人原来的本笃会修女,其中,由于某种原因,放弃了自己的庄严誓言,并承担了canonesses状态,社区同时还观察了一些形式的本笃规则。 The membership of almost all these chapters was restricted to women of noble, and in some cases of royal, descent.几乎所有这些章节的成员仅限于贵族妇女,以及在某些情况下王室,血统。In many also, whilst the canonesses were merely seculars, that is, not under vows of religious, and therefore free to leave and marry, the abbesses retained the character and state of religious superiors, and as such were solemnly professed as Benedictine nuns.在许多人也,而canonesses只是seculars,即不根据宗教誓言,因此可以自由地离开并结婚,abbesses保留的性质和国家的宗教上级,并因此被庄严地宣称作为本笃会修女。 The following list of houses is taken from Mabillon and Hélyot, but all had ceased to exist by the end of the eighteenth century:-In Lorraine: Remiremont; founded 620; members became canonesses in 1515; Epinal, 983; Pouzay, Bouxières-aux-Dames, and Metz, of the eleventh or twelfth century.在下面列出的房子是从Mabillon和Hélyot,但都已经不复存在了十八世纪末:在洛林:Remiremont;创立620,会员在1515年成为canonesses;埃皮纳勒,983; Pouzay,Bouxières,辅助-达梅斯,和梅斯,第十一届或12世纪。In Germany: Cologne, 689; Homburg and Strasburg, of the seventh century; Lindau, Buchau, and Andlau of the eighth century; Obermunster, Niedermunster, and Essen of the ninth century.在德国:科隆,689;洪堡和斯特拉斯堡第七世纪;林道,Buchau,并Andlau第八世纪; Obermunster,Niedermunster和第九世纪埃森。In Flanders: Nivelles, Mons, Andenne, Maubeuge, and Belisie of the seventh century; and Denain, 764.在佛兰德:尼维尔,蒙斯,Andenne,Maubeuge,并Belisie七世纪和德南,764。The members of the following houses in Germany having renounced their solemn vows and become canonesses in the sixteenth century, abandoned also the Catholic Faith and accepted the Protestant religion: Gandersheim, Herford, Quedlinburg, Gernrode.在德国有以下房子的成员放弃自己的庄严誓言,并成为在十六世纪canonesses,也放弃了天主教信仰,并接受了新教:Gandersheim,黑尔福德,奎德林堡,Gernrode。

Publication information Written by G. Cyprian Alston.出版信息撰稿,由G.塞浦路斯阿尔斯通。Transcribed by Susan Birkenseer.转录由苏珊Birkenseer。Dedicated to Sr. Monica Marie (PJ Kamplain), OSB The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.竭诚为高级莫妮卡玛丽(pj的Kamplain),定向结构刨花板的天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

The Benedictine Order in General一般笃秩序

-Montalembert, Monks of the West (London, 1896), Eng.-蒙塔朗贝尔,西(伦敦,1896年)高僧,英。 Tr., new ed., with preface by Gasquet; Newman, Mission of St. Benedict and Benedictine Schools, in Historical Sketches (London, 1873); Gasquet, Sketch of the Life and Mission of St. Benedict (London, 1895); Maitland, The Dark Ages (London, 1845); Mabillon, Annales OSB (Paris, 1703-39); Id., Acta SS.风帆,新海关,与加斯凯序言。。纽曼,圣本笃隐修院学校和使命,历史素描(伦敦,1873年);加斯奎特,生命与使命的圣本笃(伦敦,1895年)素描;梅特兰,黑暗时代(伦敦,1845年);马毕伦,年鉴定向结构刨花板(巴黎,1703至1739年),标识,学报的SS。。 OSB (Venice, 1733); Yepez, Chronicon generale Ord.定向结构刨花板(威尼斯,1733年); Yepez,Chronicon兴业条例。SPN Benedicti (Cologne, 1603); Hélyot, Histoire des ordres religieux (Paris, 1792); Id., Dict. SPN的Benedicti(科隆,1603年); Hélyot,历史德ordres religieux(巴黎,1792年),身份证,快译通。。 Des ordres religieux (Paris, 1860); Mege, Commentaire sur la regle de S. Benoit (Paris, 1687); Calmet, Commentaire (Paris, 1734); Menard, Codex regularum (Paris, 1638); Besse, Le moine benedictin (Ligugé, 1898); Braunmuller in Kirchenlex., sv; Herzog, Realencyclopadie (Leipzig, 1897), sv; Heimbucher, Die Order und Kongregationen der katholischen Kirche (Paderborn, 1896), I; Ziegelbauer, Hist.德ordres religieux(巴黎,1860年); Mege,评注河畔拉regle德第伯诺伊特(巴黎,1687);卡尔梅特,评注(巴黎,1734年);默纳德,法典regularum(巴黎,1638年),贝斯,乐莫因benedictin(利圭热,1898年)。在Kirchenlex Braunmuller,希沃特;赫尔佐格,Realencyclopadie(莱比锡,1897年),希沃特; Heimbucher,模具订单有限公司Kongregationen明镜katholischen教堂(帕德博恩,1896年),我; Ziegelbauer,组织胺。Lit.点燃。OSB (Augsburg, 1754); Album Benedictinum (St. Vincent's, Pennsylvania, 1880; Rome, 1905); Tanner, Notitia Monastica (London, 1744); Dugdale, Monasticon Anglicanum, with Stevens's continuation (London, 1817-30); Gasquet, Henry VIII and the English Monasteries (London, 1899); Id., The Eve of the Reformation (London, 18990); Gairdner, Prefaces to Calendars of State Papers of Henry VIII; Taunton, English Black Monks of St. Benedict (London, 1897); Dudden, Gregory the Great (London, 1905), I; Eckenstein, Women under Monasticism (Cambridge, 1896); Hope, St. Boniface and the Conversion of Germany (London, 1872); Reyner, Apostolatus Benedictinorum in Anglia (Douai, 1626); Hind, Benedictines in Oxford in Ampleforth Journal, VI, 1901.定向结构刨花板(奥格斯堡,1754年);专辑Benedictinum(圣文森的,宾夕法尼亚州,1880年,罗马,1905年);坦纳,Notitia Monastica(伦敦,1744);达格代尔,Monasticon Anglicanum,与史蒂文斯的延续(伦敦,1817年至1830年);加斯奎特,亨利八世和寺院的英文版(伦敦,1899年); ID,则改革(伦敦,18990)前夕。盖尔德纳,前言到国家论文的亨利八世日历;汤顿,英国黑色僧侣的圣本笃(伦敦,1897年); Dudden,高利大(伦敦,1905年),我; Eckenstein,妇女在修道(剑桥,1896年);希望,圣博尼费斯和德国的转换(伦敦,1872年); Reyner,Apostolatus在英吉利Benedictinorum (杜埃,1626);欣德,本笃在安普尔福思杂志,六,1901年在牛津大学。

Special Congregations.特别的毕业典礼。

-Duckett, Charters and Records of Cluni (Lewes, England, 1890); Sackur, Die Cluniacenser (Halle a S., 1892-94); Janauschek, Origines Cisterciensium (Vienna, 1877); Gaillardin, Les Trappistes (Paris, 1844); Guibert, Destruction de Grandmont (Paris, 1877); Salvado, Memorie Storiche (Rome, 1851); Berengier, La Nouvelle-Nursie (Paris, 1878); Brullee, Vie de P. Muard (Paris, 1855), tr.-达克特,章程和Cluni记录(刘易斯,英国,1890年); Sackur,模具Cluniacenser(哈雷一学,1892年至1894年); Janauschek,Origines Cisterciensium(维也纳,1877年); Gaillardin,莱斯Trappistes(巴黎,1844年) ;吉伯特,破坏德锦泰(巴黎,1877年);萨尔瓦多,Memorie Storiche(罗马,1851年); Berengier,香格里拉中篇小说- Nursie(巴黎,1878年); Brullee,争夺德体育Muard(巴黎,1855年),文。Robot, 1882; Thompson, Life of P. Muard (London, 1886; de Broglie, Mabillon (Paris, 1888); Id., Montfaucon (Paris, 1891); Houtin, Dom Couturier (Angers, 1899); Van Galoen, Dom Maur Wolter et les origines de la cong. De Beuron (Bruges, 1891); Dolan, Succisa Virescit in Downside Review, I-IV.机器人,1882年,汤普森,体育Muard(伦敦,1886年;德布罗意,马毕伦(巴黎,1888年)。标识,蒙福(巴黎,1891年); Houtin,大教堂Couturier联系(昂热,1899年);凡Galoen,大教堂。Maur沃尔特等莱斯origines德拉丛德伯龙(布鲁日,1891年);杜兰,Succisa Virescit在下方评论,第一至第四。


Saint Benedict Biscop圣本笃比斯科普

Benedict Biscop, c.628-690, was a Northumbrian noble who left the service of King Oswy to become a Benedictine monk.本笃比斯科普,c.628 - 690,是一个崇高的诺森伯兰谁离开国王Oswy服务成为本笃会修士。He founded two monasteries, one at Wearmouth and the other at Jarrow.他建立了两个寺庙,一个在韦茅斯和在其他贾罗。The books he collected in Rome and Gaul for the monastery libraries made possible the writings of the Venerable Bede, his pupil.他的书在罗马和高卢收集的修道院图书馆成为可能的老贝代,他的学生的作品。Feast day: Jan. 12.盛宴的日子:1月12日。


Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Cistercians cistercians
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html