Comparing The Bible's Old Testament With The Talmud比较圣经的旧约圣经与犹太法典

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Rabbinic Theology and Literature拉比神学与文学

(From Appendix 5 of Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah(从附录五耶稣生活和时代的救世主
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886)由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年)

1. 1。The Traditional Law传统法

The brief account given in vol.在简短的帐户中提供的第一卷。ip 100, of the character and authority claimed for the traditional law may here be supplemented by a chronological arrangement of the Halakhoth in the order of their supposed introduction or promulgation.知识产权100的性质和对传统的法律要求的权威,可能会在这里补充了在其所谓引进或颁布命令Halakhoth时间顺序安排。

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In the first class, or 'Halakhoth of Moses from Sinai,' tradition enumerates 55, [The numbers given by Maimonides, in his Preface to the Mishnah, and their arrangement, are somewhat different, but I prefer the more critical (sometimes even hypercritical) enumeration of Herzfeld.在第一类或'摩西从西奈Halakhoth,'传统列举了55条,[由迈蒙尼德给出的数字,在他的序言中米示拿,他们的安排,有些不同,但我更喜欢更重要(有时甚至是吹毛求疵)枚举的赫兹费尔德。 They are also enumerated in Peiser's Nachlath Shimoni, Part I. pp. 47 - 49 b.] which may be thus designaterd:他们还列举了Peiser的Nachlath希莫尼,第一部分第47 - 49乙]这可能是这样designaterd:
18 ordinances are ascribed to Joshua, of which only one is ritual, the other 17 being agrarian and police regulations.18约书亚条例是认定,其中只有一个是礼,其他17个是农业和警察条例。[Baba K 81a; Tos. [巴巴K表81A条;服务条款。Baba M 11; Jer.巴巴男性11例;哲。Baba K 3:2.巴巴K表3:2。

Among the police regulations is this curious one, that all were allowed to fish in the Lake of Galilee, but not to lay down nets, so as not to impede the navigation.] The other traditions can only be briefly noted.在警方的规定是这样的奇怪,所有被允许鱼在加利利湖,而不是放下蚊帐,以免妨碍导航。]另外传统只能简述。Boaz, or else 'the tribunal of Samuel,' fixed, that Deut.波阿斯,否则,法庭的塞缪尔,'固定,即申。23:3 did not apply to alliances with Ammonite and Moabite women.23:3并不适用于与亚扪人和摩押人妇女联盟。Two ordinances are ascribed to David, two to Solomon, one to Jehoshaphat, and one to Jehoida.两个条例是归因于大卫,所罗门两个,一个约沙法,一到Jehoida。

The period of Isaiah and of Hezekiah is described as of immense Rabbinic activity.在以赛亚和希西家时期被称为巨大拉比活动。To the prophets at Jerusalem three ritual ordinances are ascribed.在耶路撒冷三礼条例的先知是认定。Daniel is represented as having prohibited the bread, wine and oil of the heathen (Dan. 1:5).丹尼尔表示为有禁止的面包,葡萄酒和异教徒(Dan. 1:5)油。Two ritual determinations are ascribed to the prophets of the Exile.两仪式的认定是归因于流亡的先知。

After the return from Babylon traditionalism rapidly expanded, and its peculiar character more and more clearly developed.迅速扩大后,从巴比伦的传统主义,它的特殊性质的回报越来越清楚地发展。 No fewer than 12 traditions are traced back to the three prophets who flourished at that period, while four other important legal determinations are attributed to the prophet Haggai individually.不少于12个传统,是追溯至三个谁先知在那个时期蓬勃发展,而其他四个重要的法律认定是由于个别先知哈。 It will readily be understood that Ezra occupied a high place in tradition.这将很容易理解的是,在传统以斯拉占领高处。15 ordinances are ascribed to him, of which some are ritual.15条是认定他,其中一些仪式。

Three of his supposed ordinances have a general interest.他应该有一个条例三个普遍利益。They enjoin the general education of children, and the exclusion of Samaritans from admission into the Synagogue and from social intercourse.他们责成儿童的一般教育,以及撒玛利亚进入犹太教堂和社会交往入场排斥。If only one legal determination is assigned to Nehemiah, 'the men of the great Synagogue' are credited with 15, of which 6 bear on important critical and exegetical points connected with the text of the Scriptures, the others chiefly on questions connected with ritual and worship.如果只有一个法律上确定分配给尼希米,'伟大的犹太教堂男子15记,其中6负的重要关键,训诂连接的圣经文本,其仪式和连接问题的其他主要分崇拜。 Among the 'pairs' (Zugoth) which succeeded the 'Great Synagogue,' three 'alleviating' ordinances (of a very punctilious character) are ascribed to Jose, the son of Joezer, [According to tradition (Sot. 47a, b) the Eshkoloth, or 'bunches of grapes,' ceased with Jose.其中'对'(Zugoth),它继承了'伟大的犹太教堂,'三个'减轻'条例(一个非常拘泥形式的字符)是归因于圣何塞的Joezer儿子,[根据传统(Sot. 47A条,二) Eshkoloth,或'串葡萄,'停止与何塞。

The expression refers to the Rabbis, and Herzfield ingeniously suggests this explanation of the designation, that after Jose they were no longer undivided in their opinions.该表达式引用的拉比,并巧妙地表明这Herzfield在指定的解释,何后,他们不再在他们的意见,不可分割。 For other explanations comp.对于其他的解释比赛。Deren'ourg, us pp. 88, 456 - 458.] and two, intended render all contact with heathens impossible, to him and his colleague.Deren'ourg,美第88,456 - 458]和两个,打算提供一切与异教徒是不可能的,他和他的同事。。 Under the Maccabees the feast of the dedication of the Temple was introduced.在马加比对圣殿奉献盛宴进行了介绍。To Joshua the son of Perachya, one punctilious legal determination is ascribed.对约书亚的Perachya儿子,一个一丝不苟的决心是法律赋予。Of the decrees of the Maccabean High - Priest Jochanan we have already spoken in another place; similarly, of those of Simon the son of Shetach and of his learned colleague.该法令的Maccabean高 - 牧师Jochanan我们已经在另一个地方说,同样对那些对Shetach西蒙和他的同事的儿子学习。Four legal determinations of their successors Shemayah and Abhtalion are mentioned.四其继任Shemayah和Abhtalion法律认定是提及。Next in order comes the prohibition of Greek during the war between the Maccabean brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus.接下来是为了在兄弟之间的Maccabean按蚊和亚里斯多布鲁斯战争中的希腊禁止。This brings us to the time of Hillel and Shammai, that is, to the period of Jesus, to which further reference will have to be made in another place.这给我们带来的希勒尔和Shammai时间,也就是说,耶稣的时期,为进一步引用将不得不在另一个地方作出。

2. 2。The Canon of Scripture佳能的经文

Reference has been made in the text (vol. ip 107) to the position taken by Traditionalism in reference to the written as compared with what was regarded as the oral Revelation.参考已取得的文本(第一卷知识产权107),以采取参考传统主义的立场,比书面的口头什么启示认为。Still, nominally, the Scriptures were appealed to by the Palestinians as of supreme authority.不过,名义上,念经人提出上诉的巴勒斯坦人,作为最高权力机构。The views which Josephus expresses in this respect, although in a popular and Grecianised form, were substantially those entertained by the Rabbis and by his countrymen generally (comp. Ag. Apion, i. 7, 8).约瑟夫表示的意见,在这方面,尽管是在流行和Grecianised的形式,分别大幅受理的拉比和他的同胞的普遍(可比银。阿皮翁,一7,8)。 [For a detailed account of the views of Josephus on the Canon and on Inspiration, refer to the article in 'Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography,' vol.如需对佳能和启示约瑟夫的意见详细说明[,请参阅文章在'史密斯的基督教传记辞典,'卷。iii pp 453, 454.] A sharp distinction was made between canonical and non canonical books.三,453页,454。]之间的区别是一个尖锐的规范和非规范的书籍制成。

The test of the former was inspiration, which had ceased in the time of Artaxerxes, that is, with the prophet Malachi.前者的测试灵感,已停止了在亚达薛西的时间,也就是与先知玛拉基。Accordingly, the work of the elder Jesus the son of Sirach (Jeshua ben Sira, ben Eliezer) was excluded from the Canon, although it is not unfrequently referred to by Rabbinic authorities in terms with which ordinarily only Biblical quotations are introduced.因此,老耶稣的西拉奇(耶书亚的本西拉,本埃利泽)被排除在外工作的儿子从佳能,虽然它没有unfrequently当局所说的拉比通常只有在那些与圣经报价的术语。 [Comp.[可比。Zunz, Gottesd Vortr.聪茨,Gottesd Vortr。pp. 101, 102, and c.第101,102和CSeligmann, d Buch d Weish d.格曼,布赫Ð Weish四ðJesus Sirach.耶稣西拉奇。The Talmudic quotations from the work of the elder Jesus have been repeatedly collated.从耶稣的工作,在塔木德老年报价已多次整理。Refer to the collection translation of them in Append.参考在追加他们收集翻译。II.二。to the 'History of the Jewish Nation.'] According to the view propounded by Josephus, not only were the very words inspired in which a prediction was uttered, but the prophets were unconscious and passive vehicles of the Divine message (Ant. iv. 6. 5, comp generally, Ant ii. 8. 1; vi. 8, 2; viii. 13, 3; ix. 3, 2, 8, 6; x. 2, 2; 4, 3).以'犹太民族的历史。']根据约瑟夫propounded的观点,不仅是每一个字的启发,其中一个预测是一声,但先知,在神圣的讯息(Ant.四无意识和被动的车辆。 。6 5,比赛一般,蚂蚁二8 1。。六,八,2;。第八13日,3;。九3,2,8,6;。十,2,2,4,3)。

Although pre eminence in this respect was assigned to Moses (Ant. iv. 8, 49), yet Divine authority equally attached to the sayings of the prophets, and even, though perhaps in a still inferior degree, to the 'Hymns,' as the Hagiographa generally were called from the circumstance that the Psalter stood at the head of them (comp. Philo, De Vita contempl., ed. Mangey, voi. ii. p. 475; Luke 24:44).虽然在这方面的卓越被分配到前摩西(Ant.四。八,49),但神圣的权力同样重视先知的话,甚至,虽然也许在仍然劣势的程度,到'赞美诗,作为通常被称为的Hagiographa从psalter的情况下,该引导他们在站(可比斐洛,德简历contempl编Mangey,沃伊第二页475。。。。路加福音24:44)。 Thus the division of the Bible into three sections, the Law, the Prophets, and the other 'Writings', which already occurs in the prologue to the work of Jesus the son of Sirach, [Comp.因此,划分为三个部分,法律,先知,和其他'写作',这已经在向耶稣的西拉奇,[可比儿子工作的序幕发生的圣经。also Macc.也排雷。2:13, 14.] seems to have been current at the time.2:13,14。]似乎已在当前的时间。And here it is of great interest, in connection with modern controversies, that Josephus seems to attach special importance to the prophecies of Daniel as still awaiting fulfillment (Ant. x 10. 4; 11. 7).在这里,这是极大的兴趣,与现代的争论方面,即约瑟夫似乎仍有待履行作为附加特别重视但以理的预言(Ant. × 10 4。11 7。)。

That the Rabbis entertained the same views of inspiration, appears not only from the distinctive name of 'Holy Writings' given to the Scriptures, but also from the directions that their touch defiled the hands, [The general statement that this decree was intended to prevent a common or profane use of the Scripture does not explain its origin.这拉比受理的灵感同样的观点,似乎不仅从独特的名称'神圣的著作'给出的圣经,但也从他们的接触方向,玷污了手,[一般的声明,这项法令是为了防止一个共同的经文或亵渎的使用并不说明其来源。 The latter seems to have been as follows: At first the priests in the Temple were wont to deposit the Terumah near the copy of the Law there kept (Shabb 14a).后者似乎已被如下:首先在圣殿祭司不会存入附近的法复制Terumah牢里(Shabb 14A条)。But as mice were thereby attracted, and damage to the Sacred roll was apprehended, it was enacted that the Sacred Roll in the Temple rendered all meat that touched it unclean.但随着小鼠从而吸引,损坏被逮捕的神圣辊,它是通过在这个神圣的寺庙呈现辊肉,感动了所有不洁净。This decree gave rise to another, by way of further precaution, that even the hands which touched the Sacred Roll, or any other part of the Bible became unclean (so that, having touched the latter they could not touch the Terumah).该法令引起了另一个,通过进一步的预防,连手碰了神圣的滚动或任何其他部分的圣经成为不洁的方式(这样,后者有感动他们无法接触Terumah)。

Then followed (in the course of development) a third decree, that such touch defiled also outside the Temple.接踵而来的(在发展的过程中)第三法令,认为这样触摸庙外也玷污。Finally, the first decree was modified to the effect that the Sacred Roll in the Temple did not defile the hands., while all other Scriptures (anywhere else) defiled them (Chel 15:6) The explanation offered to the Sadducees by R Jochanan b.最后,第一个法令进行了修改,其大意是在寺庙辊没有玷污神圣的手中。,而所有(其他地方)其他经玷污他们(Chel的15:6)提供由R Jochanan的撒都该人的解释b 。Zakkai is evidently intended to mislead (Yad iv. 6), Comp.Zakkai显然是有意误导(亚德瓦四。6)比赛。Levy, Neuhebr Worterb.利维Neuhebr Worterb。vol.第一卷。ii.二。pp. 163, 164.] and that it was duty on the Sabbath to save them from conflagration, and to gather them up if accidentally scattered, and that it was not lawful for heirs to make division of a sacred roll (Comp. Shabb. 16:1; Erub. 10:3; Kel. 15:6; Yad. 3:2 - 5; 4:5 [where special reference is made to Daniel] 6).第163,164。],它是责任在安息日大火拯救他们,并收集他们,如果不小心散了,这是不合法的继承人,使神圣的一滚(可比Shabb表决。 16:1; Erub 10时03分,凯尔15时06分;亚德瓦3:2 - 5。。。4:5 [其中特别提到了丹尼尔] 6号)。

From what we know of the state of feeling, we might have inferred, even if direct evidence had not existed that a distinctive and superior place would be ascribed to the Books of Moses.从我们所知道的感觉状态,我们可能推断,即使没有直接的证据存在一个独特和优越的地方将是归因于摩西的书。In point of fact, no amount of ingenuity can conciliate the Maccabean application of Da.就事实而言,没有独创性的金额能够调解的大马加比的应用。9:24 - 27 with the chronology of that period, [This is admitted even by Mr. Drummond ('Jewish Messiah,' pp. 246, 245 - 257, 260).9:24 - 随着27年代这一时期,[这是连先生承认德拉蒙德('犹太人的弥赛亚,'第246,245 - 257,260)。Mr. Drummond's book is quoted as representing the advocacy by a distinguished English scholar of Maccabean theory of the authorship of Daniel.] while the messianic interpretation fits in with it, [Drummond, usp 261.] other, and seemingly insuperable difficulties are in the way of the theory impugned.德拉蒙德先生的书是引述一位杰出代表对著作权的丹尼尔马加比英国学者的理论宣传。],而救世主的解释与它适合,[德拉蒙德,美国药典261。]等,而且似乎无法克服的困难是在该理论的方式受到指责。

It implies, that the Book of Daniel was not an Apocryphal, but a Pseudepigraphic work; that of all such works it alone has come down to us in its Hebrews or Chaldee original; that a Pseudepigraphic work, nearly contemporary with the oldest portion of the Book of Enoch, should not only be so different from it, but that it should find admission into the Canon, while Enoch was excluded; that a Pseudepigraphon younger that Jesus the Son of Sirach should have been on the Khethubhim; and, finally, that it should have passed the repeated revision of different Rabbinic 'Colleges', and that at times of considerable theological activity, without the suspicion being even raised that its authorship dated from so late a periods as a century an a half before Christ.这意味着,这但以理书不是猜测,而是一个Pseudepigraphic工作,所有这些作品流传下来独自在希伯来人或沙尔原来给我们,这一个Pseudepigraphic工作,几乎与当代的最古老的部分以诺书,不应只从它是如此不同,但它应该找到进入佳能承认,而以诺被排除在外,这一个Pseudepigraphon年轻,耶稣的儿子西拉奇应该已经对Khethubhim,以及最后,这它应该通过不同的拉比高等专科学校的反复修改,并在相当大的神学活动时间没有怀疑,甚至被它的作者提出,这么晚给一个时期为公元前一世纪半。 And we have evidence that since the Babylonish exile, at least four revisions of the Canon took place within periods sufficiently distant from each other.而我们有证据表明,自巴比伦流亡,至少有四个版本的佳能期间发生在彼此充分遥远的地方。

The question hitherto treated has been exclusively of the date of the composition of the Book of Daniel, without reference to who may have been its author, whether its present it exactly the same as its original form, and finally, whether it ever belonged to those books whose right to canonicity, though not their age, was in controversy; that is, whether it belonged, so to speak, to the Old Testament.对待这个问题迄今一直独占的但以理书组成之日起,如果没有提及谁可能被它的作者,无论其目前它完全一样的原始形式,最后,无论是属于那些曾经正规的图书的权利,但不是他们的年龄,是在争论,即是否属于,可以这么说,到旧约。 As this is not the place for a detailed discussion of the canonicity of the Book of Daniel, or, indeed, of any other in the Old Testament canon, we shall only add, to prevent misunderstanding, that no opinion is here expressed as to possible, greater or less, interpolations on the Book of Daniel, or in any other part of the Old Testament.由于这并非是一对的丹尼尔,图书正规详细的讨论,或者实际上任何其他,在旧约正典的地方,我们只添加,以防止误解,没有任何意见在这里就可能的表示,或多或少,在但以理书,或以任何其他的旧约部分插值。

We must here bear in mind that the moral view taken of such interpolations, as we would call them, was entirely different in those times from ours; and it may perhaps be an historically and critically unwarranted proposition, that such interpolations were, to speak moderately, not all unusual in ancient documents.在这里,我们必须牢记,道德观等采取插,我们会打电话给他们,完全是从我们那个时代不同,它可能是一个历史和批判无理主张,认为这样插了,说话温和,并非所有不寻常的古代文献。 In each case the question must be separately critically examined in the light of internal and (if possible) external evidence.在每一种情况下,问题必须分开审慎研究在内部和(如果可能的话)的外部证据,。But it would be a very different thing to suggest that there may be an interpolation, or, it may be, a rearrangement in a document (althoug at present we make no assertions on the subject, one way or the other), and to pronounce a whole document a fabrication dating from a much later period.但是,这将是一个非常不同的事情表明,有可能是插,或者,它可能是,文档中的一个重排(althoug目前我们就这个问题,单程或其他任何断言),并宣告整个文件捏造的历史可以追溯到一个更晚的时期。 The one would, at any rate, be quite in the spirit of those times; the other implies, beside insuperable critical difficulties, a deliberate religious fraud, to which no unprejudiced student could seriously regard the so called Pseudepigrapha as forming any real analog on.一会,无论如何,相当在这些时代精神,另一方面意味着关键困难无法克服的旁边,故意宗教欺诈,这是任何不带偏见的学生到可能严重认为已经形成任何真正的模拟上所谓Pseudepigrapha。

But as regards the Book of Daniel, it is an important fact that the right of the Book of Daniel to canonicity was never called in question in the ancient Synagogue.但至于但以理书,这是一个重要的事实,对但以理书到正规的权利从来没有在质疑在古老的犹太教堂。The fact that it was distinguished as 'versions' (Chezyonoth) from the other 'prophecies' has, of course, no bearing on the question, any more than the circumstance that later Rabbinism, which, naturally enough, could not find its way through the Messianic prophecies of the book, declare that even Daniel was mistaken in, and could not make anything of the predictions concerning the 'latter days' (Ber. R 98).认为它作为'版本'从其他'预言'(Chezyonoth)杰出的事实,当然,就这个问题没有关系,任何多的情况下,后来Rabbinism,其中,自然不够,无法通过更多的方式找到其这本书的弥赛亚的预言,丹尼尔声明,即使是错误的,不能使有关的'后日(Ber. ř 98)预测任何事情。[And yet there are frequent indications that Rabbinism sought guidance on these very subjects in the prophecies of Daniel. [然而,有迹象表明,Rabbinism寻求在丹尼尔的预言这些科目的指导非常频繁的迹象。

Thus, in the Pirqe de R Eliezer there are repeated references to the four monarchies, the Persian, Median, Macedonian, and Roman, when, in the time of the fifth monarchy, that of the children of Ishmael, after a terrible war against Rome, the Messiah would come (comp. Pirqe de R El. 19, and especially 28, 30, and 48).] On the other hand, Daniel was elevated to almost the same pinnacle as Moses, while it was said that, as compared with heathen sages, if they were all placed in one scale, and Daniel in the other, he would outweigh them all.因此,在Pirqe德ř埃利泽有反复引用的四个君主制,波斯,中位数,马其顿和罗马的时候,在第五君主立宪制的时间,即以实玛利的孩子后,对罗马可怕的战争,弥赛亚会来(可比Pirqe德ř萨尔瓦多。十九,尤其是28,30和48)。另一方面],丹尼尔被提升到几乎与摩西一样的顶峰,而有人说,相比与异教徒的圣人,如果他们都在同一个规模的人选,而丹尼尔在另一方面,他将超过他们。 We can readily understand that, in times of national sorrow or excitement, these prophecies would be eagerly resorted to, as pointing to a glorious future.我们很容易理解,在国家的悲哀或兴奋的时候,将这些预言热切诉诸为指向一个辉煌的未来。

But although the Book of Daniel was not among the Antilegomena, doubts were raised, not indeed about the age, but about the right to canonicity of certain other portions of the Bible.不过,尽管但以理书是最早Antilegomena没有,提出了疑问,不确实的年龄有关,但有关的权利的圣经某些其他部分正规。

Thus, certain expressions in the prophecies of Ezekiel were questioned as apparently incompatible with statements in the Pentateuch [Among them the following may be mentioned (Chull. 37b): Ezek.因此,在以西结的预言某些词语已经遭到质疑,其中显然不符合以下可能会提到的五[报表(Chull.第37B):以西结书。 4:14 etc., and (Mop 45a), Ezek. 4:14等,(澳门币45A条),以西结书。14:31 were regarded as suggesting that these prohibitions applied only to priests; (Moed. K 5a) Ezek. 14:31被视为表明这些禁令只适用于祭司(Moed. K表5A条)以西结书。44:19, seemed to imply that an ordinary Israelite might perform sacrifical service, while Ezek. 44:19,似乎在暗示,以色列可能会执行一个普通的祭祀服务,而以西结书。14:18 appeared to enjoin a sacrifice nowhere mentioned in the Pentateuch.] (Men. 45a), and although a celebrated Rabbi, Chananyah, the son of Chizkuyah, the son of Garon (about the time of Christ), with immense labour, sought to conciliate them, and thus preserved the Book of Ezekiel (or, at least, part of it) from being relegated among the Apocrypha, it was deemed safest to leave the final exposition of the meaning of Ezekiel, 'till Elijah come,' as the restorer of all things. 14点18似乎无处嘱咐,在pentateuch。](Men. 45A条)条所述的牺牲,虽然著名的拉比,Chananyah,对Chizkuyah,对Garon的儿子(约基督的时间),与巨大的劳动的儿子,他们试图调解,从而保存中的伪经被降级的以西结书(或至少是其中的一部分),它被认为是最安全的方式离开了最后的论述以西结的意思,'直到以利亚来,'作为万物的恢复。

The other objections to canonicity apply exculsively to the third division of the Old Testament, the Kethubhim of Hagiorgrapha.到正规的其他反对申请exculsively到旧约第三师,Hagiorgrapha Kethubhim。 Here even the Book of Proverbs seems at one time to have been called in question (Ab. R Nathan 1), partly on the ground of its secular contents, and partly as containing 'supposed contradictory statements' [For ex.在这里,即使是箴言似乎已被质疑(Ab. ř弥敦道一),部分原因是其世俗内容的地面上,部分原因是为前含有'应该相互矛盾的陈述'[在同一时间。Prov.省。26:4, 5] (Shabb. 30b). 26:4,5](Shabb. 30B条)。Very strong doubts were raised on the Book of Ecclesiates (Yad. 3:5; Eduy. 5:3), first, on that ground ot its contradiction of some of the Psalms [As for ex.提出了非常强烈的怀疑对传道书书(Yad. 3:5;。Eduy 5:3),第一,在该地为城市旅游局为前它的诗篇[一些矛盾。Ps.聚苯乙烯。115:17 compared with Eccl. 115:17与传道书。4:2 and 9:4.] (Sabb. 30a); secondly, on that of its inconsistencies [For Eccl. 4:2和9:4](Sabb. 30A条)。第二,关于传道书[它的不一致。2:2 comp.2:2比赛。with 7:3; and again, 7:15, or 4:2 comp.与7:3,并再次,7:15,或4:2比赛。with 9:4] (Shabb. 30b); and thirdly, because it seemed to countenance the denial of another life, and, as in Eccl.与9:4](Shabb. 30B条);第三,因为它似乎相貌的另一个生命的否定,正如传道书。11:1, 3, 9, other heretical views (Vayyikra R 28, at the beginning).11时01分,3,9,其他邪教的意见(在开始Vayyikra ř 28日)。[The school of Shammai was against, that of Hillel in favour of the Canonicity of Ecclesiastes (Eduy. 5:3).[沙买学校反对,认为希勒尔在传道书(Eduy. 5:3)正规的青睐。

In Tos.在服务条款。Yad.亚德瓦。ii.二。Ecclesiates is said to be uninspirited, and to contain only the wisdon of Solomon.] But these objections were finally answered by great ingenuity, while an appeal to Eccl.传道书据说是uninspirited,并只包含了所罗门。]但是,这些反对wisdon终于回答了巨大的创造力,而一到传道书上诉。 12: 12, 13, was regarded as removing the difficulty about another life and future rewards and punishments. 12:12,13,被认为是消除对他人生命和未来的奖励和惩罚的困难。And as the contradictions in Ecclesiastes had been conciliated, it hopefully argued deeper study would equally remove those in the Book of Proverbs (Shabb. 30b).正如传道书已调解的矛盾,它希望更深入的研究论证将同样消除了谚语(Shabb. 30B条)预订的。[But it must be admitted that some of these conciliations are sufficiently curious.] Still, the controversy about the canonicity of Ecclesiastes continued so late as the second century of our era (comp. Yad. 3:5). [但必须承认,这些调解一些有足够的好奇。]尽管如此,有关争议传道书正规继续作为我们时代(可比亚德瓦。3:5)的第二个世纪这么晚。That grave doubts also existed about the Song of Solomon, appears even from the terms in which its canonicity is insisted upon (Yad. us), not to speak of express statements in opposition to it (Ab. de. R Nathan 1).这一严重的疑虑也对存在的雅歌,甚至出现在其中的正规坚持的是(Yad.我们)的条款,不要发言,表示反对的声明,它(Ab. 210-211。ř弥敦道1)。

Even when by an allegorical interpretation, it was shown to be the 'wisdom of all wisdom, the most precious gem, the holy of holies, tradition still ascribed its composition to the early years of Solomon (Shir haSh. R 1).即使由一个寓言的解释,它被证明是'所有的智慧,最珍贵的宝石,至圣所的智慧,传统仍然归咎于其组成,所罗门(哈希事儿。R 1)与早年。It had been his first work, and was followed by Proverbs, and finally by Ecclesiastes.这是他的第一部作品,被谚语其次,并最终由传道书。[But on this subject opinion differs very widely (see Shir haSh. R 1, ed Warshan 3b, 4a) the only point on which all are agreed being that he wrote Ecclesiastes last, Rabbi Jonathan irreverently remarking that when a man is old he utters dibhre hadhalim, vain words!] [但不同于非常广泛(见事儿哈希。R 1的,海关Warshan第3B,4A)条的唯一一点上大家都同意,他说正在传道书最后,拉比乔纳森不敬的议论,当一个人就是到老他吐出这个主题发表意见dibhre hadhalim,虚话!]

But perhaps the greatest objections were those taken to the Book of Esther (Meg. 7a).但也许是最伟大的异议被带到了以斯帖(Meg. 7A条)书籍的。It excited the enmity of other nations against Israel, and it was outside the canon.它激发了其他国家对以色列的敌意,而且外面的佳能。Grave doubts prevailed whether it was canonical or inspired by the Holy Spirit (Meg. us; Yoma 29a).严重怀疑它是否规范盛行或由圣灵启发(Meg.我们;山脉29A条)。The books of Ezra and Nehemiah were anciently regarded as one, the name of the latter author being kept back on account of his tendency to self exaltation (Shanh. 93b).以斯拉和尼希米的书籍被视为一种古时,后者的作者的名字被保存在考虑他的倾向,自我提高(Shanh. 93b)返港。 Lastly, the genealogical parts of the Book of Chronicles were made the subject of very elaborate secret commentation (Pes. 62b).最后,对方志家谱部分图书进行了非常详细的秘密commentation主体(Pes. 62b)。

Two points still require brief mention.两点仍需要简要地提到。Even from a comparison of the LXX Version with our Hebrew text, it is evident that there were not only many variations, but that spurious additions (as Daniel) were eliminated.即使从我们的LXX希伯来文版本的比较,很明显,不仅有许多变化,但虚假的增加(如丹尼尔)被淘汰。This critical activity, which commenced with Ezra, whose copy of the Pentateuch was, according to tradition, placed in the Temple, that the people might correct their copies by it, must have continued for many centuries.这个关键的活动,它开始与以斯拉,其副本五是,根据传统,放置在寺庙,那人可能是他们的份纠正,必须有持续了许多世纪。 [In Jer.[在哲。Tann.坦恩。68a we read three codices of the Pentateuch, respectively named after one word in each codex, the reading of which was either rejected or adopted on comparison with the others.] There is abundant evidence of frequent divergences, though perhaps minute, and although later Rabbinism laid down the most painfully minute directions about the mode of writing and copying the rolls of the Law, there is such discrepancy, even where least it might be expected. 68A条,我们读到三抄本的五,后分别在每一个字命名的法典,其阅读要么拒绝或与别人比较获得通过。]有大量证据表明频繁的分歧,虽然也许分钟,虽然后来Rabbinism上下左右的写作和复制该法的滚动模式的方向奠定了最痛苦的一刻,有这样的差异,甚至在它至少可以预料。

[ Thus, we have different notices about the number of verses in the Bible, the arrangement of the psalter, the medial letter and medial word in the Pentateuch, and the number of its sections and chapters (Kidd. 30a; Yalkut i 855).[ 因此,我们有不同数目的五通知有关的经文在圣经中,安排的psalter,内侧字内侧信,以及一些章节的章节和 (Kidd. 30A条; Yalkut我855)。But the sum total of verses in the Bible (23,199) differs by 99 from that in our present text. Similarity, one of the most learned Rabbinic critics of the third century declares himself at a loss about the exact medial letter, word, and verse of the Pentateuch, while in Palestine that Pentateuch seems to have been arranged into 1,085, in Babylonia into 378 chapters (comp. Furst, Kultur - u. Liter. Gesch. p. 62)] as to show that the purification of the text was by no means settled. 但是,23199)的总和总共圣经经文(由99个不同的文字,在我们的礼物。相似,世纪其中一个最了解第三拉比评论家在自己的声明字,损失的确切内侧信,诗的五,而在巴勒斯坦的摩西五似乎已安排到1085的东风,到378章(可比弗斯特,文化传播 - 。。美国升Gesch第62页)],以表明文本的纯化绝非解决。Considering the want of exegetical knowledge and historical conscientiousness, and keeping in view how often the Rabbis, for Haggadic purposes, alter letters, and thus change the meaning of words, we may well doubt the satisfactory character of their critical labours.考虑到训诂知识和历史责任感想要的,鉴于拉比频率,为阿haggadic目的,改变字母,从而改变含义的话,我们很可能怀疑其关键的劳动维持令人满意的性格。

Lastly, as certain omissions were made, and as the Canon underwent (as will be shown) repeated revision, it may have been certain portions were added as well as left out, and words changed as well as restored.最后,因为某些疏漏发了言,并作为佳能经历(我们将会看到)反复修改,它可能已被添加以及排除在外的某些部分,言语改变,以及恢复。

For, ancient tradition ascribes a peculiar activity to certain 'College', as they are termed, in regard to the Canon.因为,一个古老的传统赋予某些学院的罕见的活动,因为他们被称为,在考虑到佳能。 In general, the well known Baraita (Baba B 14b, 15a) bears, that:一般来说,知名baraita的(巴巴乙14B条,15A条)承担,即:

['History of the Jewish Nation,' p.['历史的犹太国家,'页418.]418。]

Loose and uncritical as these statements may appear, they so far help our investigations as to show that, according to tradition, certain portions of Scripture were compiled or edited by one or another Rabbinic 'College,' and that there were several 'College' which successively busied themselves with the codification and revision of the Canon.松散的,不带偏见,因为这些陈述可能出现,他们到目前为止的调查,以帮助我们表明,按照传统,圣经的某些部分进行了汇编或编辑一个或另一个拉比学院,'和有几个'学院'这先后忙于编纂和修订的佳能自己。 By these 'College,' we are not to understand gatherings of certain members, who discussed and decided a question at one or more of their meetings.通过这些学院,'我们不理解某些成员,讨论和决定谁在一个或更多的问题他们的会议聚会。They rather indicate the learned activity of the authorities during a certain period, which are respectively designated by the generic names of 'the Sanhedrin of Hezekiah,' 'The men of the Synagogue,' the 'Legal Court of the Maccabees,' and finally, 'Chananayah and his College.'他们相当指示当局获悉在一定时期,分别是由通用名称指定的活动'的公会希西家','管会堂的人,'的'法律法院的马加比',最后, 'Chananayah和他的大学。'

We have thus somewhat firmer historical ground.我们就此有所坚实的历史基础。If in Prov.如果在省。25: 1, we read of the activity about the Canon of 'the Men of Hezekiah,' and bear in mind the Scriptural account of the religious revival of that reign (for ex. 2 Chron. 29: 25 - 30; 2 Chron. 30:1), we scarely required the frequent and elaborate glorification of tradition to lead us to infer that, if the collection of the Book of Proverbs was due to their activity, they must have equally collated the other protions of Scripture then existing, and fixed the Canon at their time. 25:1,我们读到了关于佳能活动'的希西家人间来,并牢记为前二专栏的那个时期宗教复兴圣经帐户(29:。。25 - 30; 2专栏。 30:1),我们scarely需要频繁的传统和阐述颂扬带领我们推断,如果藏书的谚语,是由于他们的活动,它们必须有同样的经文,然后整理现有其他protions,和他们的时间固定在佳能。 Again, if we are to credit the statement that they equally collected and edited the Prophecies of Isaiah, we are obliged to infer that the contiuance of that College was not limited to the life of Hezekiah, since the latter died before Isaiah (Tos. Baba Bathra; Yeb. 49b).同样,如果我们的信贷,他们同样收集和编辑了以赛亚的预言发言,我们有责任推断,该学院是contiuance不限于希西家的生活,因为后者在以赛亚(Tos.巴巴去世Bathra; Yeb第49B)。。

What has just been indicated is fully confirmated by what we know of the activity of Ezra (Ezra 7:6, 10), and of his successors in the great Synagogue.刚刚表示什么完全由我们所知道的以斯拉活动(以斯拉7时06分,10),并在他的继任者confirmated伟大犹太教堂。 If we are to attach credit to the notice in 2 Macc.如果我们要重视信贷在2排雷通知。2:13, [The expression 'the epistles of the kings concerning the holy gifts' must refer ot the official Persian documents concerning gifts to the Temple, etc.] it points to such literary activity as tradition indicates. 2:13,[表达'的神圣礼物关于国王的书信,必须是指城市旅游局的正式文件,关于礼物波斯寺等]它指向等文学活动作为传统指示。That the revision and determination of the Canon must have been among the main occupations of Ezra and his successors of 'the Great Synagogue', whatever precise meaning may be attached to that institution, seems scarcely to require proof.这是修订和佳能的决心必须已跻身以斯拉和他的继任者的主要职业'大灾病痊愈了,不管确切含义可能会附加到该机构,似乎很少需要证明。

The same remark applies to another period of religious reformation, that of the so called Asmonaean College.同样适用于另一种说法宗教改革时期,​​即所谓的Asmonaean学院。Even if we had not the evidence of their exclusion of such works as those of Ben Sirach and others, there could be no rational doubt that in their time the Canon, as presently existing, was firmly fixed, and that no work of comparatively late date could have found admission into it.即使我们完全没有料到他们作为本西拉奇和排斥他人的这类作品的证据,不可能有任何合理的疑问,在他们的时间,佳能,因为目前现有的,被牢牢固定,而没有工作起步较晚可以发现到它入场。 The period of their activity is sufficiently known, and too near what may be called the historical times of Rabbinism, for any attempt in that direction, without leaving traces of it.活动期间,他们有足够的认识,太靠近可能是所谓的任何企图在这个方向的Rabbinism的历史时期,它不留痕迹。Lastly, we come to the indications of a critical revision of the text by 'Chananyah and his College,' [Shabb.最后,我们来到一个由'Chananyah和他的大学,'[Shabb关键文字修改的迹象。13b; Chag.13B条; Chag。 13a; Men.13A条;男性。45a.] shortly before the time of our Lord.第45A条。]之前,我们的主时间不久。Thus we have, in all, a record of four critical revisions of the Canon up to time of Christ.因此,我们在全部的四个关键的佳能修改记录最多的基督的时间。

3. Any attempt to set forth in this place a detailed exposition of the Exegetical Canon of the Rabbis, or of their application, would manifestly be impossible. It would require almost a treatise of its own; and a cursory survey would neither be satisfactory nor instructive.3。 任何企图在这个地方提出一个详细的阐述及其应用佳能的拉比的训诂,或将显然是不可能的。它需要它的论文几乎拥有和一个粗略的调查,既不是令人满意的,也不启发性。 Besides, on all subjects connected with Rabbinic exegesis, a sufficient number of learned treatises exists, which are easily accessible to students, while the general reader can only be interested in such general results as have been frequently indicated throughtout these volumes.此外,与拉比注释有关的所有科目,一个经验足够数量的论文存在,这很容易接触到学生,而一般读者只能作为被频繁表示throughtout这些卷的一般结果感兴趣。

Lastly, the treatment of certain branches of the subject, such as a criticism of the Targumim, really belongs to what is known as the science of 'Introduction,' either to the Old Testament, in manuals of which, as well as in special treatises, all such subjects are fully discussed.最后,某些部门的主题,如批评的Targumim,治疗,真正属于所谓的科学称为'言'要么旧约,其中手册中,以及在特殊的论文所有这些主题是充分讨论。 Besides these the student may be referred, for a general summary, to the labours of Dr. Hamburger (Real - Encycl.).除了这些学生可转介,对于一般的摘要,汉堡包的劳动力博士(真实 - 。Encycl)。Special works on various branches of the subject cannot here be named, since this would involve an analysis and critical disquisition.对各分支学科专着不能在这里被命名,因为这将涉及分析与关键探究。But for a knowledge of the Rabbinic statements in regard to the Codices and the text of the Old Testement, reference may here be made to the short but masterly analysis of Professor Strack (Prolegomena Critica), in which, first, the various codices of the Old Testament, and then the text and existing in Talmudical times, are discussed, and the literature of the subject fully and critically given.但是,对于一个方面知识的拉比发表声明,手抄本和旧Testement文本,参考可能会在这里向教授施特拉克(绪论Critica),其中,第一,各抄本短,但精湛的分析旧约中,然后在文本和现有Talmudical倍,进行了讨论,这一问题的全面和审慎考虑文献。

The various passages are also mentioned in which the Biblical quotations in the Mishnah and Gemara differ from our present text. 各章节中也提到这mishnah和革马拉圣经引文的文本不同于我们的礼物。

[there are in the Mishnah 16 variations: Lev.[有16个在mishnah变化:列夫。11:33; 25:36; Numb. 11:33,25:36;麻木。28:5; 32:22; Deut.28:5; 32:22;申命记。24:19; Josh.24:19;乔什。 8:33; 2 Sam.8:33; 2萨姆。 15:6; Isa.15:6;伊萨。10:13; Ezek.10:13;以西结书。 46:21; Amos 9:14: Mal. 46:21;阿莫斯21:14:玛。3:16, 23; Ps.3:16,23;诗。 68:27; Job 1:1; Prov. 68:27,职业1:1;省。22:28; 2 Chron.22:28; 2专栏。28:15.28:15。

In the Talmud 105 such variations occur, viz.,在这种变化发生塔尔穆德105,即。,

Gen. 7:8, 23; 15:2; 25:6, 35:18;创世纪7:8,23岁; 15时02分,25:6,35:18;

Ex.惠。12:3, 6; 13:16; 24:5; 25:13; 31:1;12时03分,6; 13:16,24:5,25:13,31:1;

Lev.列夫。4:25, 30, 34; 10:12; 15:10; 18:18;4时25分,30,34; 10点12分,15时10; 18:18;

Numb.麻木。5:19; 18:16;5:19,18:16;

Deut.申。6:7, 9, 20; 23:1; 25:7; 33:27; 34:6;6时07分,9,20,23:1,25:7,33:27,34:6;

Josh.乔什。3:17; 10:11; 14:7, 10; 16:6; 23:15;3:17,10:11,14:7,10; 16:6; 23:15;

Judg. Judg。15:20; 16:31; 1Sam.15点20; 16:31; 1Sam。2:24; 2 Sam.2:24; 2萨姆。 3:25; 24:15;3:25,24:15;

2 Kings 17:31; 23:17; Is 2:3; 38:16; 42:5; 68:7;2国王17点31分,23点17分;是2:3; 38:16,42:5,68:7;

Jer.哲。3:22; 29:11; Ezek. 3点22分,29:11,以西结书。11:48; 44:9; 47:1; Hos. 11时48分,44:9,47:1;居屋。4:11;4:11;

Amos.阿莫斯。4:6; 8:11; 9:14; Hag. 4:6,8:11,9:14;女巫。2:8; Mich. 4:2; Zech. 2:8;密歇根州四点02分;撒加利亚。12:10;12:10;

Mal.玛。2:12; Ps.2:12;诗。5:5; 16:10 (where the difference is important);5:5; 16:10(其中的差别很重要);

26:5, 6; 37:32; 56:11; 62:12; 68:21; 95:5; 97:7; 127:5; 139:5;26:5,6; 37:32,56:11,62:12,68:21,95:5,97:7,127:5,139:5;

6; 8; 13:4; 14:16; 36:5, 11; Ruth, 3:15; 4:11;6,8,13点04分,14时十六分,36:5,11;露丝,3:15; 11分;

Eccl.传道书。9:14, 15; 10:5; Dan.9:1​​4,15; 10:5;丹。2:29; 4:14; 6:18; 10:13;2:29,4:14,6:18,10:13;

Ezr. Ezr。4:3; Neh. 4:3;尼。4:16; 8:8 (bis), 15, 17;4:16; 8:8(之二),15,17;

1 Chron.一专栏。3:17; 4:10; 5:24; 16:5; 17:9; 26:8, 23; 27:34;3:17,4:10,5:24,16:5,17:9,26:8,23; 27:34;

2 Chron.二专栏。26:2; 31:5, 13] 26:2,31:5,13]

Most of them are, however, of no exegetical importance.他们大多是,但是,没有训诂的重要性。On the exegesis of the Rabbis generally, refer to the sketch of it given in the 'History of the Jewish Nation,' ch.在一般的拉比注释,指的是它在CH素描的犹太民族,历史上获得。xi., and especially in App.十一。,特别是在应用。V, on 'Rabbinical Exegesis,' where all its canons are enumerated.五,关于'犹太教训诂',其中列举所有的大炮。Some brief notices connected with Rabbinic Commentaries quoted in this work will be found at the beginning of vol.在这项工作中引述拉比评的几个简短的告示会被发现,在卷的开头。i.

4. Somewhat similar observations must be made in regard to the mystical Theology of the Synagogue, or the so called Kabbalah. Its commencement must certainly be traced to, and before, the times described in these volumes.4。 有点类似的意见,必须考虑到在卡巴拉的神秘神学的犹太教堂,或所谓的。生效日期一定要追查到,之前,这些卷中所描述的时代。For a discussion of its origin and doctrines, refer to the account given in the 'History of the Jewish Nation' (pp. 435, etc.).对于它的起源和教义的讨论,指在(第435等),'犹太民族的历史'人的说法。The whole modern literature of the subject, besides much illustrative matter, is given in the Italian text annexed to David Castelli's edition of Sabbatai Donnolo's Hebrew Commentary on the Book Yetsirah, or the Book of Creation.整个现代文学的主题,除了说明很多问题,是由于在所附大卫Castelli的版,萨瓦塔伊Donnolo的希伯来文评论书Yetsirah,或图书的创作,意大利文本。 For, the Kabbalah busies itself with these two subjects: the History of the Creation (Yetsirah, perhaps rather 'formation' than Creation), and the 'Merkabhah,' or the Divine apparition as described by Ezekiel.因为,忙碌的卡巴拉与这两个主题本身:必须创造历史(Yetsirah,也许比较'形成'比创作),而'Merkabhah,'或神圣的幻影如以西结描述。

Both refer to the great question, underlying all theosophic speculation: that of God's connection with His creatures.指的是大问题,潜在的所有theosophic猜测:那就是神与他的生物连接。They treat of the mystery of Nature and of Providence, with especial bearing on Revelation; and the question, how the Infinite God can have any connection or intercourse with finite creatures, is attempted to be answered.他们对待自然和普罗维登斯神秘的启示与特殊轴承;和问题,如何在无限的神可以有任何联系或与有限的动物性交,是试图得到回答。 Of the two points raised, that of Creation is of course the first in the order of thinking as well as of time, and the book Yetsirah is the oldest Kabbalistic document.在这两个提出的问题,这当然是创作中的,以及第一顺序的时间思考,这本书Yetsirah是最古老的卡巴拉文件。

The Sepher Yetsirah is properly a monologue on the part of Abraham, in which, by the contemplation of all that is around him, he ultimately arrives at the conviction of the Unity of God.正确的Sepher Yetsirah对亚伯拉罕的部分由他周围的一切,他最终在神的统一信念到达沉思,其中独白。

We distinguish the substance and the form of creation; that which is, and the mode in which it is.我们区分的内容和形式的创造,这是,和模式,它是。We have already indicated that the original of all that exists is Divine.我们已经表明,所有原始的存在是神圣的。1st, We have God; 2nd, God manifest, or the Divine entering into form; 3rd, That Divine in its form, from which in turn all original realities are afterwards derived.第一,我们有上帝;第二,神表现,或神到形式进入;第三,在这神圣的形式,由这反过来所有原始现实是事后而得。In the Sepher Yetsirah, these Divine realities (the substance) are represented by the 10 numerals, and their form by the 22 letters which constitute the Hebrew alphabet, language being viewed as the medium of connection between the spiritual and the material; as the form in which the spiritual appears.在Sepher Yetsirah,这些神圣的现实(物质)是由10个数字,他们由22个字母构成的希伯来文字母表,语言被视为之间的精神和物质连接介质视为形式,为形式在其中的精神出现。

At the same time, number and language indicate also the arrangement and the mode of creation, and, in general, its boundaries.在同一时间,数字和语言的安排也表明和创作模式,在一般情况下,它的边界。 "By 32 wonderful paths," so begins the Sepher Yetsirah, "the Eternal, the Lord of Hosts, the God of Israel, the Living God, the King of the World, the merciful and gracious God, the glorious One, He that inhabiteth eternity, Whose Name is high and holy, has created the world."“通过32个精彩的路径”,因此开始了Sepher Yetsirah,“永恒,万军之耶和华以色列的神,是活神,世界,仁慈和亲切的神王,光荣之一,他说inhabiteth永恒的,他的名字是高和神圣的,创造了世界。“ But these 10 numerals are in reality the 10 Sephiroth, or Divine emanations, arranged in triads, each triad consisting of two opposites (flowing or emanating from a superior triad until the Divine Unity is reached), and being reconciled in a middle point of connection.但是,这10个数字是在现实中的10个Sephiroth,或神圣的emanations,在黑社会排列,每个黑社会的两个对立面(流动或从上级黑社会直到达到统一的神圣产生)组成,并成为在中间的连接点不甘心。 These ten Sephiroth, in the above arrangement, recur everywhere, and the sacred number 10 is that of perfection.这十个Sephiroth的,在上述安排,重现无处不在,神圣的10号是完美的。Each of these Sephiroth flows from its predecessor, and in this manner the Divine gradually evolves.每一个从它的前身这些Sephiroth的流动,并在这神圣的方式逐渐演变。

This emanation of the 10 Sephiroth then constitutes the substance of word; we may add, it constitutes everything else.这10个Sephiroth气则构成物质的话,我们可能会增加,它构成一切。 In God, in the world, in man, everywhere we meet these 10 Sephiroth, at the head of which is God manifest, or the Memra (Logos, the Word).上帝,在世界上,在人,我们会在世界各地,其中头部明显是上帝,或为门拉(标志,字)这10个Sephiroth。If the ten Sephiroth give the Substance, the 22 letters are the form of creation and of revelation.如果十个Sephiroth的给予物质,22个字母,是创造和形式的启示。"By giving them form and shape,. and by interchanging them, God has made the soul of everything that has been made, or shall be made."“通过给他们的形式和形状。以及通过交换他们,神使的一切已经取得,或应作出的灵魂。”"Upon those letters, also, has the Holy One, Whose Name be praised, founded His holy and glorious Name." “当这些信函中,也有圣地之一,他的名字被称赞,创办了他的神圣和光荣的名字。”These letters are next subdivided, and their application in all the departments of nature is shown.这些信件是下一个细分,并在所有的性质的部门应用程序显示。In the unit creation, the triad; world, time and man are found.在单位创造,黑社会,世界,时间和男子被发现。Above all these is the Lord.上述这些都是主。Such is a very brief outline of the rational exposition of the Creation, attempted by the Sepher Yetsirah.'这样是合理的创作博览会由Sepher Yetsirah尝试,非常简要概述。'['History of the Jewish Nation,' pp. 435, 436.]['历史的犹太国家,'第435,436。]



Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者edersheim指许多参考来源,在他的作品中。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的edersheim参考名单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他的所有括号内的参考资料显示页号,在工程参考。


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