Black Muslims黑色穆斯林

General Information一般资料

Black Muslims is a widely used name for the adherents of an American black nationalist religious movement whose self designation changed in 1976 from "The Lost - Found Nation of Islam" to "The World Community of Islam in the West." The movement traces its beginnings to the enigmatic figure of Wallace D Fard (Wali Farad), known as "Prophet Fard," "The Great Mahdi" or "The Savior," who attracted 8,000 followers in the short period between his appearance in Detroit in 1930 and his disappearance in June 1934.黑穆斯林是在1976年广泛使用的名称更改为指定的信徒,一个美国的黑人民族主义宗教运动自我“迷失-发现伊斯兰国家的”,“伊斯兰教的世界社区”在西方。该运动的历史可追溯到在神秘的消失图华莱士ð副主命(洼里他和法拉),被称为“先知副主命”,“伟大的救世主”或“救世主他的外表,”短期谁期间吸引了8000名追随者于1930年在底特律之间1934年6月。

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The movement, with its present headquarters in Chicago, gained ground significantly under Fard's successor, Elijah Muhammad, who exercised strong leadership until his death in 1975.在芝加哥的运动,目前其总部,抬头拜,严重不足的继任者,以利亚穆罕默德,谁行使坚强领导下于1975年直到他去世。 He saw himself as the "prophet and apostle of Allah," claiming that God had appeared in the figure of Fard. Preaching an anti integrationist message, Elijah Muhammad frequently voiced warnings about "the human beast. . . the people or race known as the white." He called "every Black Man in America to be reunited with his own" and urged a sense of black self reliance and separation from the white society, even economically.他看到了自己是“使徒先知和真主的”,声称神拜,出现在图中。 鼓吹的反种族隔离的消息,以利亚穆罕默德经常提出有关警告野兽“的人。。。的人或种族的被称为白色的。“他所谓的”美国每一个黑人男子被自己的回归他的“,并敦促社会的责任感和自力更生的黑白色的分离,即使经济。 One of the best known Black Muslim ministers during this period was Malcolm X, converted while he was in prison in 1947, who broke with the movement in March 1964 and was assassinated 11 months later.最好的时期之一的著名黑人在这个穆斯林部长是马尔科姆X,转化而来,而他在监狱于1947年,谁打破了与该运动1964年3月和11个月后遭暗杀。

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation.相信宗教信息来源网站没有连接,在此演示中描述的组织。This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.这种情况将有哪些是相信包括1000名宗教科目之一。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses.我们的小基督教新教,创造和维护相信网站,没有接触该组织介绍在这里,所以我们不能帮助提供接触或地址。 In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.此外,由于相信没有“卖”什么,我们不能帮助寻找书籍,图标或纪念品。

A radically different phase began under Elijah Muhammad's son and successor, Warith Deen (or Wallace D) Muhammad. He called for a new sense of patriotism, urging blacks to "identify with the land and flag."一种完全不同的阶段开始在以利亚穆罕默德的儿子和继承人,Warith迪恩(或华莱士四)穆罕默德。他呼吁爱国意识新,敦促黑人“确定与土地和国旗。” Advocating the "religious unification of the world's Muslims," WD Muhammad abandoned unorthodox notions and expressions that had presented obstacles for many other Muslims' recognition of this movement as being authentically Islamic.鼓吹“世界穆斯林的宗教统一”的WD穆罕默德放弃非正统观念,并提出了作为真正的伊斯兰被许多其他穆斯林对这项运动识别障碍的表达。 In May 1985 he announced the dissolution of the American Muslim Mission to unify its members with the worldwide Muslim community.1985年5月,他宣布解散的美国穆斯林代表团与全球统一穆斯林社区的成员。

A splinter group led by Louis Farrakhan, however, retains the earlier separatist principles and the name "Nations of Islam." During the 1984 presidential campaign Farrakhan's racial comments stirred controversy.一个领导的分裂集团法拉坎路易斯,但保留了早期分裂原则,并命名为“伊斯兰国家的。”在1984年总统竞选法拉坎的评论激起种族争议。 In subsequent years, he repeated anti-Semitic remarks at large rallies, but he did not inject himself into the 1988 presidential campaign.在随后的几年,他多次在大型集会反犹太人言论,但他并没有注入到自己1988年总统竞选。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 参考书目:
JR Howard, Becoming a Black Muslim: A Study of Commitment Processes in a Deviant Political Organization (1965); CE Lincoln, The Black Muslims in America (1973); LE Lomax, When the Word is Given: A Report on Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm X, and the Black Muslim World (1963); CE Marsh, From Black Muslims to Muslims: The Transition from Separatism to Islam, 1930 - 1980 (1984); E Muhammad, Message to the Blackman in America (1965). Jr的霍华德,成为黑人穆斯林:一个政治组织中的偏差问题的承诺过程研究(1965年);行政长官林肯,美国的黑穆斯林(1973年);乐洛马克斯,当这个词是由于:对以利亚穆罕默德,马尔科姆报告X和黑人穆斯林世界(1963年);行政长官沼泽,从黑色穆斯林穆斯林:从伊斯兰分离主义过渡,1930 - 1980(1984),电子商务穆罕默德,消息,到美国布莱克曼(1965)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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