Buddhism佛教

Gautama Buddha (563 - 483 BC) (Siddhartha)释迦牟尼佛(563 - 公元前483)(悉达多)

General Information一般资料

Buddha was a Hindu born in northern India.佛陀是一个印度教在印度北部出生。He formed a school of religious thought that was primarily designed to reform Brahmanism (Hinduism) and especially to overthrow the caste system.他成立了一个学校的宗教思想主要是旨在改革婆罗门教(印度教),尤其是要推翻种姓制度。

Siddhartha Gautama was born the son of a prince.乔达摩悉达多诞生了一位王子的儿子。He grew up in wealth and luxury and married happily.他从小生长在财富和奢华和幸福的婚姻。Meditating about the evils of the world led him to abandon his wife, his children, and his wealth and to wander about India as a beggar in search of truth.对世界的罪恶沉思使他放弃他的妻子,孩子,和他的财富,并作为对印度徘徊在寻求真理的乞丐。After many years of wandering and meditation, he found what he thought was truth.经过多年的徘徊和沉思,他找到了他认为是真理。The people who followed him called him Buddha, which means the Enlightened One.谁的人跟着他叫他佛,这意味着开明之一。They later wrote down his sayings and established a canon.后来,他们写下了他的说法,并建立了佳能。

Buddhism appealed especially to the poor and unlettered who could not comprehend the scholarly teachings of Confucius. It taught that life was suffering, that suffering was caused by desire, and that one must overcome desire to gain peace and happiness.佛教呼吁特别是对穷人和胸无点墨谁无法理解孔子学说的学术。 它告诉我们,生活很痛苦,这种痛苦是由于欲望,而且必须克服企求和平和幸福。It taught mercy and patience and kindness to all. The extreme importance of close ties to family caused nearly all Buddhists to remain in their birth town all their lives. 它告诉仁慈和耐心和爱心给所有。极端紧密的家庭关系的重要性,造成几乎所有的佛教徒留在其出生全城的生活。

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Importance is placed on escaping from the material life and of extinguishing desire.重要的是放在从物质生活的逃避和灭火的愿望。Buddhism is based upon the equality of all in the religious life, women as well as men.佛教是基于对所有的宗教生活,妇女和男子一样的平等。The aim of the Buddhist, to obtain eternal life (Nirvana) by extinguishing all desire for material existence, is attained by following the在佛教的目的,取得了灭火物质存在的所有渴望永生(涅磐),是由以下的达到

'Eightfold Path':'八正道':

The northern school (Great Wheel) regarded Buddha as a god; The southern school (Little Wheel) regarded him as a teacher.北派(大车轮)视为神佛,南部学校(小轮)把他当老师。

The northern school (of India) was the source of the Buddhism which became China's greatest religion (where he was considered a god.) The other (text) entries which follow are from the northern school.北派(印度)是佛教的这成为中国最大的宗教源(在那里,他被认为是一个神。)其他(文字)项而按照从北派的。Their texts include 'Lotus of True Laws', 'Book of Exploits', 'Lives of Buddha.'他们的文本包括'莲花真法','图书的攻击','生命。佛陀

The southern school used different texts in their 'Tripitaka.'南部的学校采用不同的文本在其'大藏经。'It included the 'History of Buddhism', 'Questions of King Milinda', 'Commentaries of Buddhaghosa.'它包括'历史的佛教','弥兰陀王问题','评的觉音。'

Buddhism does not believe in an immortal self. Karma tells that the acts of a previous existence determines the value of the present existence (the value of reincarnation).佛教不相信一个不朽的自我。噶玛告诉说,以前存在的行为的决定)价值目前存在(轮回的价值。


Buddhism佛教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Buddhism, one of the major religions of the world, was founded by Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, who lived in northern India from c.佛教,在世界上的主要宗教之一,是由释迦牟尼,佛,谁住在印度北部的从C560 to c.560到C480 BC.公元前480年。The time of the Buddha was one of social and religious change, marked by the further advance of Aryan civilization into the Ganges Plain, the development of trade and cities, the breakdown of old tribal structures, and the rise of a whole spectrum of new religious movements that responded to the demands of the times.佛陀的时间是一种社会和宗教的变化由雅利安文明的进一步推进到恒河平原明显,贸易和城市,旧部落结构瓦解的发展,和一个新的宗教全谱上升运动,回应了时代的要求。 These movements were derived from the Brahmanic tradition of Hinduism but were also reactions against it.这些运动均来自印度教的婆罗门教的传统,但也反对反应。Of the new sects, Buddhism was the most successful and eventually spread throughout India and most of Asia.在这些新教派,佛教是最成功的,并最终传遍印度和亚洲大部分地区。

Today it is common to divide Buddhism into two main branches.今天,它是常见的分为两个主要分支佛教。The Theravada, or "Way of the Elders," is the more conservative of the two; it is dominant in Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand.上座部,或“长老道”是两个较为保守的,它是占主导地位,在斯里兰卡,缅甸和泰国。The Mahayana, or "Great Vehicle," is more diverse and liberal; it is found mainly in Taiwan, Korea, and Japan, and among Tibetan peoples, where it is distinguished by its emphasis on the Buddhist Tantras.大乘,或“大汽车”,是更加多样和自由,它主要是在台湾,韩国,日本,和西藏人民的,它是通过对重点坦陀罗佛教杰出的发现。 In recent times both branches, as well as Tibetan Buddhism, have gained followers in the West.在最近两个分支,以及藏传佛教,获得了在西方追随者。

It is virtually impossible to tell what the Buddhist population of the world is today; statistics are difficult to obtain because persons might have Buddhist beliefs and engage in Buddhist rites while maintaining folk or other (Shinto, Confucian, Taoist, Hindu) religions.这几乎是不可能的,告诉世界什么样的人口是佛教徒今天统计数据很难获得,因为人可能有佛教信仰和佛教仪轨进行,同时保持民间或其他(神道教,儒家,道教,印度教)的宗教。 Such persons might or might not call themselves or be counted as Buddhists.这些人可能会或可能不会自称为佛教徒,或计算。Nevertheless, the number of Buddhists worldwide is frequently estimated at more than 300 million.然而,世界各地的一些佛教徒往往估计超过300亿美元。

The Teachings of the Buddha佛陀的教诲

Just what the original teaching of the Buddha was is a matter of some debate.究竟是原来的教学是佛陀是一些有争议的问题。Nonetheless, it may be said to have centered on certain basic doctrines. The first of the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha held, is suffering (duhkha). By this, he meant not only that human existence is occasionally painful but that all beings - humans, animals, ghosts, hell - beings, even the gods in the heavens - are caught up in samsara, a cycle of rebirth, a maze of suffering in which their actions (Karma) keep them wandering.它可以说已经集中某些基本教义。尽管如此第一,四圣谛佛举行,痛苦(duhkha)。,通过这一点,他不仅意味着人类的生存是痛苦的,但偶尔的众生-人类,动物,鬼,地狱 - 人,即使是在天上的神 - 都陷入了轮回,一个轮回,一个迷宫的痛苦,使他们各自的行动(噶玛)让他们徘徊。

Samsara and karma are not doctrines specific to Buddhism.轮回和因果报应的教义是不特定于佛教。The Buddha, however, specified that samsara is characterized by three marks: suffering, impermanence, and no - self (anatman).佛陀,但是,指定的轮回,是由三马克特点是:痛苦,无常,无 - 自我(anatman)。Individuals not only suffer in a constantly changing world, but what appears to be the "self," the "soul," has no independent reality apart from its many separable elements.个人不仅受到在不断变化的世界,但似乎是“自我”的“灵魂”,并没有从它的许多内容可分独立的现实分开。

The second Noble Truth is that suffering itself has a cause. At the simplest level, this may be said to be desire; but the theory was fully worked out in the complex doctrine of "dependent origination" (pratityasamutpada), which explains the interrelationship of all reality in terms of an unbroken chain of causation. 第二圣谛,痛苦本身所具有的事业。在最简单的层面,这可以说是欲望,但工作的理论是完全出在复杂的相互关系的学说的“缘起”(pratityasamutpada),这说明所有在一个完整的因果链方面的现实。

The third Noble Truth, however, is that this chain can be broken - that suffering can cease. The Buddhists called this end of suffering Nirvana and conceived of it as a cessation of rebirth, an escape from samsara. 第三圣谛,然而,就是这个链可以被打破-痛苦可以停止。说,佛教徒称之为涅槃结束它的痛苦和设想作为再生停止,一轮回逃离。

Finally, the fourth Noble Truth is that a way exists through which this cessation can be brought about: the practice of the noble Eightfold Path. This combines ethical and disciplinary practices, training in concentration and meditation, and the development of enlightened wisdom, all thought to be necessary. 最后,第四个圣谛是,通过此方式存在,可以带来停止:实践。八正道的这种道德和纪律的做法相结合,集中培训和冥想,智慧发展的开明,都以为是必要的。

For the monks, the notion of offering extends also to the giving of the Dharma in the form of sermons, to the chanting of scriptures in rituals (which may also be thought of as magically protective and salutary), and to the recitation of sutras for the dead.为僧,但提供的概念也延伸到了给予佛法的说教形式,在仪式经文(这也可能被认为是神奇的保护和有益)诵经,并能背诵的佛经为死者。

All of these acts of offering are intimately involved in the concept of merit making.对提供这些行为都密切参与了优异决策的概念。By performing them, individuals, through the working of karma, can seek to assure themselves rebirth in one of the heavens or a better station in life, from which they may be able to attain the goal of enlightenment.通过执行它们,通过工作的缘份个人,可以寻求以确保在天空或一个更好的生活,从中他们可以达到自己的目标一新生的启示。

The Development of Buddhism对佛教的发展

With the death of the Buddha, the community of his followers (the sangha) immediately faced a crisis: what were they to do in the absence of the master?随着佛,他的追随者(僧)社区死刑立即面临危机:哪些是他们做主人的情况下?The lay followers who had remained householders undertook to honor his bodily relics, which were enshrined in monuments called Stupas.该裁员谁一直保持户主追随者承诺兑现他的身体的文物,其中名为佛塔古迹体现。This was the beginning of a cult of devotion (Bhakti) to the person of the Buddha that was to focus not only on stupas but on many holy sites (such as the bodhi tree), which became centers of pilgrimage, and eventually on Buddha images as well.这是一个奉献的邪教(巴克蒂)到佛的人,那是在重点不仅舍利塔但在许多(如菩提树)圣地的开始,成为朝圣中心,并最终在佛像以及。

On the other hand, those Buddhists who had become monks and nuns undertook the gathering and preservation of their departed master's teachings (the dharma).另一方面,那些谁已成为佛教僧侣和尼姑进行收集和其离开主人的教诲(弘法)保存。According to tradition (the historicity of which many scholars have contested), a great council of 500 enlightened monks was held at Rajagrha, immediately after the Buddha's death, and all the Buddha's sermons (the sutras) and the rules of the discipline (vinaya) were remembered and recited.按照传统(其许多学者质疑历史性),500个开明的僧侣大议会举行Rajagrha后,立即佛陀的死亡,以及所有佛的说教(佛经)和纪律(律)的规则被记住和背诵。

In the years that followed, the monks gradually consolidated their communal life.在随后的几年里,僧侣们逐渐巩固了他们的社区生活。Originally, like many other wandering mendicants of their time, they had tended to be constantly on the move, congregating only once a year for the three months of the monsoon.本来,像其他许多流浪乞丐的时间,他们往往是在不断移动,聚集一年只有一次的季风三个月。Gradually, these rain - retreats grew into more structured year round monastic settlements.渐渐地,这些雨 - 务虚会成长为更有条理全年寺院定居点。As new monastic communities developed, it was inevitable that some differences in their understanding of both the Buddha's teaching (dharma) and of the rules of the order (vinaya) should arise.随着新寺院的社区发展,这是不可避免的,在他们双方的佛陀的教诲(弘法)理解和命令(律)的规则应该出现一些分歧。Within 100 years of the Buddha's death, a second council took place at Vaisali, during which the advocates of certain relaxations in the vinaya rules were condemned.在100佛去世多年,参加了第二届理事会在毗舍离地方,在此期间,在某些放宽戒律规则的倡导者被谴责。Then, c.然后角250 BC, the great Buddhist emperor Asoka is said to have held a third council at Pataliputra to settle certain doctrinal controversies.公元前250年,伟大的阿育王佛教据说已经举行了第三次理事会在Pataliputra解决某些理论上的争论。

It is clear from the accounts of these and other Buddhist councils that whatever the unity of early Buddhism may have been, it was rapidly split into various sectarian divisions.正是从上述及其他,无论是早期佛教的团结可能已被佛教会的帐目清楚,迅速分裂成各种教派分歧。One of the earliest and most important of these divisions was that between the Sthavira (Elder) and the Mahasamghika (Great Council) schools.最早和最重要的一个是这些部门之间的Sthavira(长老)和Mahasamghika(大议会)的学校。Within the former developed such important sects as the Sarvastivada (whose canon was in Sanskrit) and the Theravadins, whose canon is in Pali and who today are the only surviving representatives of the whole of the Hinayana, or "Lesser Vehicle," of Buddhism.在开发前,如Sarvastivada(其佳能是梵语)和Theravadins,其经典巴利文,谁是今天的小乘,或“小车辆”,整个佛教重要宗派唯一幸存的代表。

The Mahasamghika, also a Hinayanist sect, died out completely, but it is important because it represents one of the forerunners of the Mahayana doctrines.该Mahasamghika,也是一个Hinayanist节,完全消失了,但它是重要的,因为它代表了大乘学说的先驱者之一。 These doctrines were to include a different understanding of the nature of the Buddha, an emphasis on the figure of the Bodhisattva, and on the practice of the perfections (paramitas).这些教义,包括了佛,一对菩萨图强调,性质和对完美性(波罗蜜)的做法不同的理解。

In addition, within the Mahayana, a number of great thinkers were to add some new doctrinal dimensions to Buddhism.此外,在大乘,一个伟大的思想家被添加一些新的理论层面,佛教。One of these was Nagarjuna, the 2d century AD founder of the Madhyamika school.其中之一是龙树,公元2世纪的中观学派的创始人。Using subtle and thoroughgoing analyses, Nagarjuna took the theory of dependent origination (pratityasamutpada) to its logical limits, showing that the absolute relativity of everything means finally the emptiness (sunyata) of all things.用微妙和深入分析,采取了龙树缘起(pratityasamutpada)到理论的逻辑限制,显示出绝对的相对性是指一切终于万物空虚(sunyata)。

Another important Mahayana school arose in the 4th century AD when the brothers Asanga and Vasubandhu sought to establish the doctrine of Vijnanavada - that the mind alone exists and that objects have no reality external to it.另一个重要的大乘学校出现在公元4世纪时,世亲兄弟Asanga并寻求建立对Vijnanavada学说 - 即心灵的单独存在并没有现实的外部对象给它。This idealist doctrine and Nagarjuna's emptiness were to play important roles in the further developments of Buddhist thought outside of India.这种唯心主义的理论和龙树的空虚是佛教中发挥重要作用的进一步发展思想的印度之外。 Within India itself, they paved the way for yet another stage in the elaboration of the religion: the development of Buddhist tantra.在印度本身,他们铺平了道路,又一次以宗教拟订阶段的方式:佛教密宗的发展。

Tantric Buddhism, which is sometimes separated from the Mahayana as a distinct "Thunderbolt - Vehicle" (Vajrayana), became especially important in Tibet, where it was introduced starting in the 7th century.密宗佛教,有时从大乘分开作为一个独特的“迅雷 - 车辆”(密宗),成为特别重要的西藏,在那里,推出了7世纪开始。It was, however, the last phase of Buddhism in India, where the religion - partly by reabsorption into the Hindu tradition, partly by persecution by the Muslim invaders - ceased to exist by the 13th century.这是,但是,佛教在印度,那里的宗教最后阶段 - 部分是由传统的重吸收进入印度教部分受迫害的穆斯林入侵者 - 不复存在了13世纪。

The Expansion of Buddhism佛教的扩张

Before its demise in India, Buddhism had already spread throughout Asia.在印度灭亡之前,佛教已遍布亚洲。This expansion started at least as early as the time of the emperor Asoka in the 3d century BC.这开始膨胀,至少早在皇帝阿育王在公元前三世纪的时间。According to tradition, this great monarch, who was himself a convert to Buddhism, actively supported the religion and sought to spread the dharma.按照传统,这个伟大的君主,谁是自己皈依佛教,积极支持,并寻求宗教传播佛法。He is said to have sent his own son, Mahinda, as a missionary to Sri Lanka (Ceylon).据说,他已派遣你为斯里兰卡(锡兰)传教自己的儿子,马欣达拉贾。There Buddhism quickly took root and prospered, and the island was to become a stronghold of the Theravada sect.有佛教很快扎下了根和繁荣,并且这个岛是成为小乘教派的大本营。The Pali Canon was first written there in the 1st century BC ; later the island was to be host to the great Theravadin systematizer and commentator Buddhaghosa (5th century AD).巴利佳能首次写有在公元前1世纪,后来,该岛是东道国向伟大的南传systematizer和评论员觉音(公元5世纪)。 Asoka is also said to have sent missionaries to the East to what is now Burma and Thailand.阿育王据说也派出传教士东到现在的缅甸和泰国。Whatever the truth of this claim, it is clear that by the first several centuries AD, Buddhism, accompanying the spread of Indian culture, had established itself in large areas of Southeast Asia, even as far as Indonesia.无论这一说法的真实性,很显然,由前几个世纪的广告,随行的印度佛教文化的传播,建立了在东南亚的大部分地区本身,甚至远在印度尼西亚。

Also, tradition has it that another son of Asoka established a Buddhist kingdom in central Asia.另外,人们传统上认为阿育王的儿子又在中亚建立一个佛教王国。Whether or not this is true, it is clear that in subsequent centuries more missionaries (especially Mahayanists) followed the established trade routes west and north to this region, preaching the dharma as they went.不管这是真的,很显然,在其后的数百年以上的传教士(尤其是Mahayanists)按照既定的贸易路线西部和北部这个地区,宣扬佛法,因为他们去了。

China中国

Central Asia was at that time a crossroads of creeds from all parts of Asia and the Near East, and by the 1st century AD Central Asian Buddhist monks were penetrating in turn into China.中亚当时的信条一个十字路口,从整个亚洲地区和近东,和公元1世纪中亚佛教僧侣被反过来渗透到中国。It is a matter of some debate what was transformed more in this process - China by Buddhism or Buddhism by China.这是一些什么改变在这一过程中更多的辩论的问题 - 中国的佛教,佛教的中国。On the one hand, at an early stage, Buddhists became very influential at the Chinese court, and soon their views penetrated the philosophical and literary circles of the gentry.一方面,在早期阶段,佛教成为在中国非常有影响力的法庭,很快他们的意见渗透到士绅的哲学和文学圈子。On the other hand, early translators of Buddhist texts often adopted Taoist terminology in an attempt to make the Indian Buddhist concepts more understandable, and Buddhism adapted itself to Chinese world views, in particular to their stress on the importance of the family.另一方面,早期的佛经翻译往往采用道家术语,企图使印度佛教的概念更容易理解,与佛教中适应自己的世界观,特别是关于家庭的重要性,他们的压力。

Buddhism in China also saw the rise of new sects, many of which were later transmitted to Japan.在中国佛教也看到了新的教派,其中许多后来被转交给日本的崛起。In the 6th century, the monk Chih - i consolidated the T'ien - t'ai school, which sought to order all Buddhist teachings into a set hierarchy culminating in the text known as the Lotus Sutra.在6世纪,僧智 - 我巩固了天子 - 台学校,力求使人们加入一个集合法华经已知的最终文本层次结构中所有佛教的教义。 During the T'ang dynasty (618 - 907), the so called golden age of Chinese Buddhism, the Hua - yen school (based on the teachings of the Avatamsaka sutra), the Fa - hsiang school (which taught Vijnanavada doctrines and was promoted by the great pilgrim and scholar Hsuan - Tsang), and the Ch'an school (better known in Japan as Zen Buddhism) all prospered.在唐朝(618 - 907),所谓黄金时代中国佛教华 - 日元学校(对华严经的教义为基础),法 - 襄学校(其中教授Vijnanavada理论和晋升由伟大的朝圣者和学者轩 - 饰),和禅宗(最好在日本被称为禅宗)所有繁荣。At the same time, Pure Land Buddhism became increasingly popular.与此同时,净土佛教成为越来越受欢迎。

By 845, however, the sangha had grown so large and rich that its tax exempt status now made it a severe drain on the empire's economy.通过845,然而,僧众长大如此之大和丰富,其免税地位现在提出一份关于帝国的经济造成严重流失。For this and other reasons it became the object of a brief but effective imperial persecution.这和其他原因,它成为了一个简短而有效的帝国迫害的对象。Many temples were destroyed, thousands of monks and nuns were laicized, and the vast landholdings of monasteries were confiscated.许多寺庙被摧毁,数千名僧侣和尼姑laicized,和广大的土地所有权的寺庙被没收。Buddhism, especially the Ch'an school, did recover, but it never regained its former prestige in Chinese life.佛教,特别是禅宗,并恢复,但它从来没有在中国生活恢复昔日的威望。

Japan日本

Before 845, a number of Chinese schools had been transmitted to Japan.845之前,有中文学校数目已转交给日本。Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Korea about the 6th century and initially established itself as a superior means of magical power, especially for preserving and protecting the nation.佛教传入日本韩国6世纪左右,并初步确定为神奇的力量本身优越的手段,尤其是保存和保护国家。Early in its history, it received the patronage of Prince Shotoku (7th century) and during the Nara period (710 - 84) became the state religion.早在它的历史,它得到了圣德太子(公元7世纪)赞助并在奈良时代(710 - 84)成为国教。

During the Heian period, in the early 9th century, two monks, Saicho and Kukai, traveled to China and on their return introduced to Japan the Tendai (or Chinese, T'ien - t'ai) sect and the Shingon sect, which was a form of Chinese Tantric Buddhism.在平安时代,走过了9世纪初,两个和尚,最澄和空海,对中国和日本引进他们返回天台(或中文,天子 - 台)派,真言宗,这是中国佛教密宗的形式。Both of these esoteric sects were to take part in the mixing of Buddhism with various Japanese Shinto folk, ascetic, and magical practices.这些深奥的教派两人都参加了佛教混合各种日本神道民俗,禁欲主义,而神奇的做法的一部分。

The Tendai sect, moreover, became a fountainhead of several later popular Japanese Buddhist movements.天台宗派,而且后来成为了几个受欢迎的日本佛教运动的源泉。One of the Tendai's traits was the worship of the Buddha Amida and the belief in his Pure Land.在天台的特征之一是阿弥陀佛在他的崇拜和信仰的净土。With Honen (1133 - 1212) and Shinran (1173 - 1262), these Pure Land beliefs were systematized and made the exclusive focus of two new, popular sects, the Jodo and the Jodo Shin.随着Honen(1133年至1212年)和亲鸾(1173年至1262年),这些净土信仰系统化,并提出了两个新的,流行的教派,鸟岛和鸟岛申独家焦点。 Another Tendai trait was emphasis on the teachings of the Lotus Sutra.另一个特点是天台对法华经的教义重点。In the 13th century, the monk Nichiren founded a dynamic and nationalistic sect that made the Lotus its sole basis of worship.在13世纪,日莲和尚创建一个充满活力和民族的莲花节,使得其崇拜的唯一基础。Finally, it was also in this same period that two schools of Zen Buddhism were introduced from China.最后,也有人在这同一时期,两所学校的禅是从中国引进。

Under the feudal Tokugawa regime (1603 - 1867), all these sects became tools of the government; temples and priests were means of registering, educating, and controlling the populace.在封建德川政权(1603至1867年),所有这些教派成为政府的工具,庙宇和祭司登记,教育,控制民众的手段。 In the Meiji era (1868 - 1912), this Buddhist structure was disestablished in favor of Shinto.在明治时代(1868年至19​​12年),这个结构被解散佛教在神道的青睐。Finally, during the 20th century, new religious movements within Buddhism, such as the Soka - Gakkai and the Risshokosei - kai, have arisen in response to the problems of the modern age.最后,在20世纪,新的宗教运动,如在佛教创价 - 学会和Risshokosei - 启,也出现了应对当今时代的问题。

Institutions and Practices机构和做法

Throughout Asia, wherever Buddhism was introduced, its leaders tended to seek the support of kings and other rulers of the state.在整个亚洲,无论佛教传入,其领导人倾向于寻求国王和国家的其他统治者的支持。The pattern of this relationship between a Buddhist king and the monastic community was given its definitive formulation by Emperor Asoka in the 3d century BC.此之间的佛教寺院国王和社会的关系模式是由于在公元前三世纪阿育王其最终制定的。This was a symbiotic relationship in which, in exchange for the allegiance and religious support of the sangha, the emperor became the patron and backer of the Buddhist dharma.这是一种共生关系,即,为使效忠和宗教支持的僧伽交流,皇帝成为赞助人及支持者的佛法。

To some extent this pattern was extended to the laity as well.这种模式在一定程度上扩大到俗人也。 Everywhere, Buddhist monastic communities tended to depend on the laity for food and material support.每到一处,佛教寺院的社区往往依赖于粮食和物资支持俗人。Although in some places the sangha as a whole became well - to - do and the controller of vast monastic estates, traditionally monks were beggars and, in Southeast Asian countries, they still go on daily alms rounds.虽然在一些地方,僧伽作为一个整体成为小康 - - DO和广阔的寺院屋控制器,传统僧侣被乞丐和东南亚国家,他们仍然继续轮每天的施舍。

Traditionally also, Buddhist monks have been celibate.传统上也一直独身的佛教僧侣。Thus they depend on the faithful not only for food and financial support but for new recruits.因此,他们不仅依靠粮食和财政支持,但新聘人员忠诚。Often children will enter a monastery and spend a number of years as novices, studying, learning, and doing chores.往往是儿童将进入一个修道院,花费了数年新手,学习,学习,做家务。Then, following ordination, they become full members of the community, vowing to uphold its discipline.然后,下面的配合,他们成为社会的正式成员,誓言要坚持组织纪律。Henceforth their days will be taken up in ritual, devotions, meditation, study, teaching, and preaching.从今往后的日子会采取在仪式,灵修,打坐,研究,教学和说教。Twice a month, all the monks in a given monastery will gather for the recitation of the rules of the order (the pratimoksha) and the confession of any violation of those rules.每月两次,在给定的所有寺院僧人将收集的的顺序(pratimoksha)和任何违反这些规则的规则背诵供认。

One of the pivotal concepts behind the rites and festivals of Buddhist laity and monks is that of offering (dana).背后的宗教仪式和佛教信徒和僧侣节日的关键概念之一是,发行(达纳)。This includes, for the laity, not just the giving of food and (in special ceremonies at the end of the rainy seasons) of new robes to the monks, but also the offering of flowers, incense, and praise to the image of the Buddha, stupas, bodhi trees, or, especially in Mahayanist countries, to other members of the Buddhist pantheon such as bodhisattvas.这包括,为俗人,不只是食物和给予(在在雨季结束特殊的仪式)新长袍的僧侣,而且花,香,赞美提供给佛陀的形象,佛塔,菩提树,或者,特别是大乘佛教国家的佛教万神殿中的其他成员,如菩萨。

For the monks, the notion of offering extends also to the giving of the dharma in the form of sermons, to the chanting of scriptures in rituals (which may also be thought of as magically protective and salutary), and to the recitation of sutras for the dead.为僧,但提供的概念也延伸到了给予在佛法的说教形式,以在仪式经文(这也可能被认为是神奇的保护和有益)诵经,并能背诵的佛经为死者。

All of these acts of offering are intimately involved in the concept of merit making.对提供这些行为都密切参与了优异决策的概念。By performing them, individuals, through the working of karma, can seek to assure themselves rebirth in one of the heavens or a better station in life, from which they may be able to attain the goal of enlightenment.通过执行它们,通过工作的缘份个人,可以寻求以确保在天空或一个更好的生活,从中他们可以达到自己的目标一新生的启示。

Buddhism Today佛教今天

During this century, traditional Buddhist practices have been increasingly challenged by the advances of secularization and Westernization in Asia.在本世纪,传统佛教的做法已越来越世俗化的挑战和亚洲西化的进展。In view of this, various modern Buddhist leaders have tended to deemphasize the popular Buddhist practices and expressions of faith and to stress the more rational and empirical aspects of Buddhist thought as well as the practice of meditation.鉴于此,各种现代佛教领袖往往淡化流行的修行和信仰的表达,并强调佛教更理性的思想和经验方面的实践以及冥想。 At the same time, they have given to Buddhism a considerable role in the nationalist movements in their own countries and promoted contacts with other Buddhist nations through such ecumenical organizations as the World Fellowship of Buddhists, which now has chapters throughout the world.与此同时,他们在给佛教在各自国家的民族主义运动相当大的作用,并通过诸如促进与世界佛教徒联谊会,目前在世界各地都有分会等其他佛教国家的基督教团体的接触。

In more recent years, however, some of the Buddhist leaders have lost their influence, and some of their nations have lost their Buddhism.在最近几年,但是,佛教的一些领导人已经失去了他们的影响力,以及他们的一些国家失去了佛教。Vietnam, Laos, and Kampuchea (Cambodia) have joined China, Mongolia, Tibet, and North Korea as once Buddhistic but now Communist nations.越南,老挝和柬埔寨(柬埔寨)已加入共产党的一次佛教国家,但现在中国,蒙古,西藏,和北朝鲜。 Even as Western ideology (whether in the form of communism or secular capitalism) has advanced into Asia, however, Buddhism has begun to spread in the West.即使在西方的意识形态已经进入亚洲先进的(不论是共产主义或世俗的资本主义形式),但是,佛教已开始蔓延在西方。Tibetan, Theravada, and Japanese sects especially have firm toeholds in America and Western Europe, and, in the face of further uncertainties in Asia, a few Buddhist leaders have even come to think that the future of their religion lies there.西藏,南传,日本教派,特别是在美国和西欧公司toeholds,并在亚洲,面临进一步的不确定性几个佛教领导人甚至会认为,他们的宗教的未来在于那里。

Joseph M Kitagawa and John S Strong约瑟夫M北侧和约翰的强劲

Bibliography: 参考书目:
H Bechert and R Gombrich, eds., The World of Buddhism (1984); KKKS Ch'en, Buddhism in China (1964); E Conze, Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (1959); P Denwood and A Piatiagrosky, eds., Buddhist Studies (1982); H Dumoulin, ed., Buddhism in the Modern World (1976); C Eliot, Hinduism and Buddhism (1921) and Japanese Buddhism (1935); AL Herman, An Introduction to Buddhist Thought (1984); C Humphreys, Buddhism (1962); D Ikeda, The Flower of Japanese Buddhism (1986); T Ling, A Dictionary of Buddhism (1981); R Robinson and W Johnson, The Buddhist Religion (1982); N Ross, Buddhism (1980); D Snellgrove, Indo Tibetan Buddhism (1986); E Zurcher, Buddhism: Its Origin and Spread in Words, Maps, and Pictures (1962). ħ贝歇特和R贡布里希合编,佛教世界(1984); KKKS陈,佛教在中国(1964),电子商务孔兹,佛教:。实质及发展(1959年); P登伍德和A Piatiagrosky合编。 ,佛学(1982年);的。h迪穆兰,教育署,佛教在现代世界(1976年); ç艾略特,印度教和佛教(1921年)和日本佛教(1935年);美联赫尔曼,佛学思想概论(1984年); ç堪,佛教(1962年); ð池田,日本佛教花(1986年)和t岭,词典佛教(1981)与r罗宾逊和W约翰逊,佛教宗教(1982年); ñ罗斯,佛教(1980年条),d斯内尔格罗夫,印藏传佛教(1986),电子商务苏黎世,佛教:它的起源与文字,地图和照片(1962年)的蔓延。


Pure Land Buddhism净土宗

Advanced Information先进的信息

Pure Land Buddhism is one of the most influential forms of Mahayana Buddhism.净土佛教是大乘佛教最有影响力的形式之一。According to some Mahayana schools, the cosmos contains many Pure Lands in each of which dwells one Buddha.据一些大乘学校,在每一个宇宙中包含的许多净土,其中居住一佛。The most popular of these is Sukhavati, the Land of Bliss of Amitabha, located in the West; it is on Sukhavati that Pure Land Buddhism focuses.其中最流行的是净土,阿弥陀佛的极乐在位于西部,土地,它的净土,是净土宗的重点。 Through devotion to Amitabha, it is claimed, Buddhists can be reborn and saved in his paradise.通过奉献阿弥陀佛,这是声称,佛教徒可以重生得救,并在他的天堂。

Although the cult of Amitabha had its roots in India, it was developed and flourished in China and Japan.虽然邪教阿弥陀佛了其在印度的根,这是发展和繁荣中国和日本。Hui Yuan founded the cult in 402 AD, calling it the White Lotus sect.慧远始建于公元402邪教组织,称这是白莲教。From the 5th century on, a succession of Chinese Pure Land masters, Shan - tao (613 - 81) foremost among them, attracted followers from all social strata.从上,一个中国净土大师继承,单5世纪 - 陶(613 - 81),其中最重要的,吸引了来自社会各阶层的追随者。Gradually their emphasis shifted from devout contemplation or visualization of Amitabha and his Pure Land to a doctrine of salvation through faith and the devout recitation of Amitabha's name (Amit'o fo in Chinese; Amida in Japanese).渐渐地,他们的重点已从虔诚的沉思或阿弥陀佛净土,他通过可视化,以诚信原则的拯救和阿弥陀佛的名字虔诚背诵(在中国Amit'o,在日本阿弥陀佛)。 This recitation is called the nembutsu in Japanese (nien - fo in Chinese) and consists of repeating the formula "Namo Amida Batsu" (in Japanese; "Nanmo Amit'o fo" in Chinese), meaning "Salutation to the Buddha Amida."这就是所谓的朗诵在日本nembutsu(粘 - 在中国)和重复的公式“南无阿弥陀佛Batsu”组成;“。称呼的阿弥陀佛”(日语“男模Amit'o参加”中),这意味着

These Pure Land doctrines were first introduced to Japan within the Tendai sect.这些净土教义首先介绍了日本天台宗内。Honen (1133 - 1212), emphasizing them exclusively, broke with Tendai and founded the independent Jodo (Pure Land) sect.Honen(1133年至1212年),强调他们只,打破了天台,并成立了独立的鸟岛(净土)节。His disciple Shinran (1173 - 1262) founded the more popularly oriented Jodo Shin (True Pure Land) sect.他的弟子亲鸾(1173年至1262年)创办了面向更普遍鸟岛申(真正的净土)节。Both emphasized the practice of the nembutsu and the primacy of faith in Amida, but whereas Honen saw faith as the means of achieving rebirth in the Pure Land of the West (called Gokuraku in Japanese), Shinran viewed it as an expression of gratitude for Amida's saving grace.双方强调了nembutsu实践和在弥陀信仰的首要地位,但而Honen看到作为实现西(在日本被称为极乐)净土重生手段的信念,亲鸾看作是感谢阿弥陀佛的表达,可取之处。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong约瑟夫M北侧和约翰的坚强

Bibliography: 参考书目:
RH Robinson and WA Johnson, The Buddhist Religion (1982); E Steinilber - Oberlin, The Buddhist Sects of Japan (1938); DT Suzuki, Japanese Spirituality (1972); LG Thompson, Chinese Religion: An Introduction (1969); P Williams, Mahayana Buddhism (1989).相对湿度罗宾逊和WA约翰逊,佛教宗教(1982年),电子商务Steinilber - 美林,日本的佛教宗派(1938年); dt的铃木,日本灵性(1972年),LG电子汤普森,中国的宗教:简介(1969年); P威廉姆斯,大乘佛教(1989年)。


Parts Of Some Buddhist Documents Follow.在一些佛教文献部分遵循。..


Buddha, The Word佛,单词

500 BC公元前500年

(The Eightfold Path)(八正道)

The Four Noble Truths四圣谛

Thus has it been said by the Buddha, the Enlightened One: It is through not understanding, not realizing four things, that I, Disciples, as well as you, had to wander so long through this round of rebirths.因此,有人说有它的佛像,开明:它是通过不理解,并没有意识到四件事情,我,弟子,以及你,不得不流浪在这一轮的轮回这么久。 And what are these four things?而这四件事情是什么?They are the Noble Truth of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Origin of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Extinction of Suffering, the Noble Truth of the Path that leads to the Extinction of Suffering.他们是苦难圣谛,对苦难的起源,灭绝的苦难圣谛圣谛,路径,导致灭绝的苦难圣谛。

As long as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths was not quite clear in me, so long was I not sure, whether I had won that supreme Enlightenment which is unsurpassed in all the world with its heavenly beings, evil spirits and gods, amongst all the hosts of ascetics and priests, heavenly beings and men.只要千真万确的知识和见解,只要对于这些四谛不很清楚,我,只要是我不知道,是否我赢得了最高的启示是世界上无与伦比的所有与天上人,辟邪与神,在所有的修行和牧师,神圣的生命和男子主机。 But as soon as the absolutely true knowledge and insight as regards these Four Noble Truths had become perfectly clear in me, there arose in me the assurance that I had won that supreme Enlightenment unsurpassed.但只要千真万确的知识和见识方面的这些四谛已成为十分清楚,我,有出现在我保证,我已经赢得了无可比拟的最高启示。

And I discovered that profound truth, so difficult to perceive, difficult to understand, tranquilizing and sublime, which is not to be gained by mere reasoning, and is visible only to the wise.而且我发现,深刻的道理,所以不易察觉,很难理解,镇静和崇高的,这不是由单纯的推理获得,而只能是可见的英明。

The world, however, is given to pleasure, delighted with pleasure, enchanted with pleasure.这个世界,然而,是考虑到高兴,高兴高兴,并愉快地陶醉。Verily, such beings will hardly understand the law of conditionality, the Dependent Origination of every thing; incomprehensible to them will also be the end of all formations, the forsaking of every substratum of rebirth, the fading away of craving; detachment, extinction, Nirvana.真的,这种人就很难理解的条件,对每一件事情缘起法;难以理解他们也将是对各单位年底,每一个重生的底层,在客场放弃的渴求褪色;支队,消光,涅磐。

Yet there are beings whose eyes are only a little covered with dust: they will understand the truth.然而,有人类的眼睛只有一点点布满灰尘:他们将了解事实真相。

First Truth第一真理

The Noble Truth of Suffering对痛苦的圣谛

What, now, is the Noble Truth of Suffering?什么,现在是苦难圣谛?Birth is suffering; Decay is suffering; Death is suffering; Sorrow, Lamentation, Pain, Grief, and Despair, are suffering; not to get what one desires, is suffering; in short: the Five Groups of Existence are suffering.出生是苦;衰变是痛苦;死亡是痛苦;悲伤,哀,痛,悲伤和绝望,正在受难,不是为了什么人的愿望,是痛苦,总之:对存在的五组是痛苦。

What, now, is Birth?什么,现在是出生?The birth of beings belonging to this or that order of beings, their being born, their conception and springing into existence, the manifestation of the groups of existence, the arising of sense activity - this is called Birth.对属于本的出生或秩序的人,他们的出生,他们的观念和成的存在,存在的群体,如雨后春笋意识活动所产生的体现 - 这就是所谓的诞生。

And what is Decay?什么是衰减?The decay of beings belonging to this or that order of beings; their getting aged, frail, grey, and wrinkled; the failing of their vital force, the wearing out of the senses - this is called Decay.对属于本众生腐烂或秩序的人,他们越来越老年人,体弱,灰色,皱,其失败的重要力量,穿出来的感觉 - 这就是所谓的衰减。

And what is Death?死亡又是什么?The parting and vanishing of beings out of this or that order of beings, their destruction, disappearance, death, the completion of their life period, dissolution of the groups of existence, the discarding of the body - this is called Death.离别和出这个人消失或秩序的人,他们的破坏,失踪,死亡,其生命周期,对存在的群体,身体丢弃解散完成 - 这就是所谓的死亡。

And what is Sorrow?什么是悲哀?The sorrow arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, the worrying oneself, the state of being alarmed, inward sorrow, inward woe - this is called Sorrow.悲通过这样或那样产生的损失或不幸遇到哪一个,令人担忧自己,被震惊,悲痛抵港,抵港疾苦状态 - 这就是所谓的悲哀。

And what is Lamentation?什么是怨?Whatsoever, through this or that loss or misfortune which befalls one, is wail and lament, wailing and lamenting, the state of woe and lamentation this is called Lamentation.任何通过这样或那样的损失或不幸降临之一,是哀号,哀号,哀号和悲叹,哀悼的疾苦,这就是所谓的哀歌状态。

And what is Pain?什么是疼痛?The bodily pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by bodily contact - this is called Pain.身体的痛苦和不愉快,痛苦和不愉快的感觉通过身体接触产生的 - 这就是所谓的疼痛。

And what is Grief?什么是悲伤?The mental pain and unpleasantness, the painful and unpleasant feeling produced by mental contact - this is called Grief.精神上的痛苦和不愉快,痛苦和不愉快的感觉产生的精神联系 - 这就是所谓的哀伤。

And what is Despair?什么是绝望?Distress and despair arising through this or that loss or misfortune which one encounters, distressfulness, and desperation - this is called Despair.痛苦与绝望之中通过这样或那样的损失或不幸遇到哪一个,distressfulness和绝望的出现 - 这就是所谓的绝望。

And what is the "suffering of not getting what one desires?"什么是“没有得到我们渴望的痛苦?” To beings subject to birth there comes the desire: "O that we were not subject to birth! O that no new birth was before us!"若要人受出生传来的愿望:“!!啊,我们没有受到任何新出生Ø在我们面前的诞生是”Subject to decay, disease, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair, the desire comes to them: "O that we were not subject to these things! O that these things were not before us!"除腐烂,疾病,死亡,悲伤,悔恨,痛苦,悲伤和绝望,渴望向他们走来:“!!啊,我们没有受到这些事情哦,就这些事情并没有在我们面前” But this cannot be got by mere desiring; and not to get what one desires, is suffering.但是,这不能单靠渴望得到,并没有得到什么的一个愿望,就是苦。

The Five Groups of Existence五组的存在

And what, in brief, are the Five Groups of Existence?那么,以短暂的,是存在的五组?They are Corporeality, Feeling, Perception, (mental) Formations, and Consciousness.他们是形体,感觉,知觉,(精神)形态和意识。

Any corporeal phenomenon, whether one's own or external, gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, belongs to the Group of Corporeality; any feeling belongs to the Group of Feeling; any perception belongs to the Group of Perception; any mental formation belongs to the Group of Formations; all consciousness belongs to the Group of Consciousness.任何有形的现象,不论是自己的或外部的,严重或微妙的,崇高的或低,或远或近,属于肉体集团;任何感觉属于该集团的感觉;任何知觉属于该集团的知觉,任何心理形成属于地层组;所有的意识属于集团的意识。

(Our so called individual existence is in reality nothing but a mere process of these "bodily and mental" phenomena, which since immemorial times was going on before one's apparent birth, and which also after death will continue for immemorial periods of time. In the following, we shall see that these five Groups, or Khandhas - either taken separately, or combined - in no way constitute any real "Ego - entity," and that no Ego - entity exists apart from them, and hence that the belief in an Ego - entity is merely an illusion. Just as that which we designate by the name of "chariot," has no existence apart from axle, wheels, shaft, and so forth: or as the word "house" is merely a convenient designation for various materials put together after a certain fashion so as to enclose a portion of space, and there is no separate house - entity in existence: - in exactly the same way, that which we call a "being," or an "individual," or a "person," or by the name is nothing but a changing combination of physical and psychical phenomena, and has no real existence in itself.) (我们所谓的个人的存在。在现实中没有,但这些“身体和精神”的现象仅仅是过程,这是自远古时代是怎么回事之前,一个人的明显的诞生,并在死后将继续为远古时期在下面,我们将看到,这五组,或Khandhas - 要么采取单独或合并 - 绝不构成任何真正的“自我 - 实体”,而没有自我 - 从他们除了实体存在,因此,在一个信仰。自我 - 实体仅仅是一种幻想就像当年我们指定的名称为“战车”已不存在,除了车轴,车轮,轴,等等:或单词“房子”只是一个方便的命名方法各种材料放在一起后,以一定的方式附上的空间部分,而且没有单独的房子 - 实体存在: - 以完全相同的方式,即我们称之为“存有”或“个体”或“人”的名称或只不过是一个身体和心理现象的变化相结合,本身并没有真正的存在。)

The "Corporeality Group" of Four Elements在“肉体集团”四个要素

What, now, is the Group of Corporeality?什么,现在,是肉体的集团?It is the four primary elements, and Corporeality derived from them.这是四个主要因素,并从中肉体。

And what are the four primary elements?什么是四个主要因素?They are the Solid Element, the Fluid Element, the Heating Element, the Vibrating Element.他们是固体元素,流体元件,加热元件,振动的元素。

(The four elements, or - to speak more correctly - the four elementary qualities of matter, may be rendered in English as: Inertia, Cohesion, Radiation, and Vibration.(四个要素,或 - 讲更正确 - 四物质的基本素质,可能会呈现在英文为:惯性,凝聚力,辐射和振动。

The twenty four corporeal phenomena which depend upon them are, according to the Abhidharma: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, visible form, sound, odor, taste, masculinity, femininity, vitality, organ of thinking, gesture, speech, space (cavities of ear, nose, etc.), agility, elasticity, adaptability, growth, duration, decay, variability, change of substance.)二十四个后,他们依靠有形的现象,根据阿毗达磨:眼,耳,鼻,舌,身,明显的形式,声音,气味,味道,男性化,女性化,充满活力,思维方式,手势,语言,空间机构,敏捷性,弹性,适应性强,生长,持续时间,腐烂,可变性,物质的变化(耳,鼻等腔)。)

1. 1。What, now, is the Solid Element?什么,现在是固体元素?The solid element may be one's own, or it may be external.固体元素可能是自己的,也可能是外部的。And what is one's own solid element?什么是自己的坚实的元素?The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are hard and solid, as the hairs of head and body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, diaphragm, spleen, lungs, stomach, bowels, mesentery, excrement, or whatever other dependent properties which on one's own person and body are hard and solid - this is called one's own solid element.性能的依赖,这对自己的个人和机构的坚硬结实的头部和身体,指甲,牙齿,皮肤,肌肉,肌腱,骨头,骨髓,肾脏,心脏,肝脏,膈肌,脾,肺头发,胃,肠,肠系膜,排泄物,或任何其他依赖特性于自己的个人和机构的坚硬的 - 这就是所谓的自己的坚实的元素。Now, whether it be one's own solid element, or whether it be the external solid element, they are both only the solid element.现在,无论是自己的实体单元,或无论是外部实体单元,它们都只有坚实的元素。And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."人们应当理解,根据现实,真正的智慧:“这不属于我,这我没有,这不是我的自我。”

2. 2。What, now, is the Fluid Element?什么,现在是流体元素?The fluid element may be one's own, or it may be external.流体元素可能是自己的,也可能是外部的。And what is one own fluid element?什么是自己的流体元素?The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are watery or cohesive, as bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, lymph, tears, semen, spit, nasal mucus, oil of the joints, urine or whatever other dependent properties which on one own person and body are watery or cohesive - this is called one's own fluid element.性能的依赖,这对自己的个人和机构的水或凝聚力,作为胆汁,痰,脓液,血液,汗液,淋巴结,眼泪,精液,唾液,鼻涕,关节,尿油或任何其他相关的物业,在一个自己的个人和机构的水或凝聚力 - 这就是所谓自己的流体元素。Now, whether it be one's own fluid element, or whether it be the external fluid element, they are both only the fluid element.现在,无论是自己的流体元素,或无论是外部流体元素,它们都只有流体元素。And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."人们应当理解,根据现实,真正的智慧:“这不属于我,这我没有,这不是我的自我。”

3. 3。What, now, is the Heating Element?什么,现在是加热元件?The heating element may be one own, or it may be external.加热元件可能是一个自己的,也可能是外部的。And what is one's own heating element?什么是自己的加热元件?The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are heating and radiating, as that whereby one is heated, consumed, scorched, whereby that which has been eaten, drunk, chewed, or tasted, is fully digested; or whatever other dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are heating and radiating this is called one's own heating element.性能的依赖,这对自己的个人和机构的供暖和辐射,因为这即一个被加热,消耗,焦土,即认为已经吃的,喝,嚼,或品尝,完全消化,或任何其他相关的物,这对自己的个人和机构的供暖和辐射这就是所谓自己的加热元件。 Now, whether it be one's own heating element, or whether it be the external heating element, they are both only the heating element.现在,无论是自己的加热元件,或无论是外部加热元件,他们都只有加热元件。And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."人们应当理解,根据现实,真正的智慧:“这不属于我,这我没有,这不是我的自我。”

4. 4。What, now, is the Vibrating Element?什么,现在是振动元素?The vibrating element may be one's own, or it may be external.元素的振动可能是一个自己的,也可能是外部的。And what is one's own vibrating element?什么是自己的振动元素?The dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are mobile and gaseous, as the upward - going and downward - going winds; the winds of stomach and intestines; in - breathing and out - breathing; or whatever other dependent properties, which on one's own person and body are mobile and gaseous - this is called one's own vibrating element.性能的依赖,这对自己的个人和机构的流动和气体作为向上, - 要和向下 - 去风;胃和肠风,在 - 呼吸和out - 呼吸,或任何其他相关的属性,这对自己的个人和机构的流动和气体 - 这就是所谓自己的振动元素。Now, whether it be one's own vibrating element, or whether it be the external vibrating element, they are both only the vibrating element.现在,无论是自己的振动元件,或无论是外部振动的因素,它们都只有振动元素。

And one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."人们应当理解,根据现实,真正的智慧:“这不属于我,这我没有,这不是我的自我。”Just as one calls "hut" the circumscribed space which comes to be by means of wood and rushes, reeds, and clay, even so we call "body" the circumscribed space that comes to be by means of bones and sinews, flesh and skin.正如某人所说的“小屋”的切空间,来用木材手段和灯心草,芦苇,和粘土,即便如此,我们所说的“身体”的切空间来通过骨骼和肌腱,肌肉和皮肤手段。

Dependent Origination of Consciousness缘起意识

Now, though one's eye be intact, yet if the external forms do not fall within the field of vision, and no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness.现在,虽然一个人的眼睛是完整的,但如果外部形式不属于视野,且没有相应的一起发生,在这种情况下有没有发生相应方面的意识的形成。 Or, though one eye be intact, and the external forms fall within the field of vision, yet if no corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case also there occurs no formation of the corresponding aspect of consciousness.或者,虽然一只眼睛被完好无损,外部形式的视野之内下跌,但如果没有相应的一起发生在这种情况下发生,也有没有发生相应方面的意识的形成。 If, however, one's eye is intact, and the external forms fall within the field of vision, and the corresponding conjunction takes place, in that case there arises the corresponding aspect of consciousness.但是,如果一个人的眼睛完好无损,属于外部形式的视野,以及相应的一起发生,在这种情况下也存在着相应方面的意识。

Hence, I say: the arising of consciousness is dependent upon conditions; and without these conditions, no consciousness arises.因此,我说:意识的产生是根据情况而定,并没有这些条件,没有意识的产生。And upon whatsoever conditions the arising of consciousness is dependent, after these it is called.并呼吁任何条件的依赖而产生的意识后,这些被称为。

Consciousness whose arising depends on the eye and forms, is called "eye - consciousness."意识的产生和形式对眼睛的依赖,被称为“眼 - 意识。”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the ear and sound, is called "ear - consciousness."意识的产生和声音在耳朵上依赖,被称为“耳朵 - 意识。”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the olfactory organ and odors, is called "nose - consciousness."意识的产生对气味的嗅觉器官和依赖,被称为“鼻子 - 意识。”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the tongue and taste, is called "tongue - consciousness."意识的产生和舌头上的味觉依赖,被称为“母语 - 意识。”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the body and bodily contacts, is called "body - consciousness."意识的产生对身体的依赖和身体接触,被称为“身体 - 意识。”

Consciousness whose arising depends on the mind and ideas, is called "mind - consciousness."意识的产生和观念上的依赖思想,被称为“心灵 - 意识。”

Whatsoever there is of "corporeality" in the consciousness thus arisen, that belongs to the Group of Corporeality.有任何的“形体”出现在这样的意识,属于该集团的肉体。there is of "feeling" - bodily ease, pain, joy, sadness, or indifferent feeling - belongs to the Group of Feeling.身体缓解,疼痛,喜悦,悲伤,或冷漠的感觉 - - 有“情”是属于集团的感觉。Whatsoever there is of "perception" - visual objects, sounds, odors, tastes, bodily impressions, or mind objects - belongs to the Group of Perception.可视对象,声音,气味,味道,身体的展示,或精神的对象 - - 大凡那里的“感知”是属于该集团的知觉。Whatsoever there are of mental "formations" impression, volition, etc. - belong to the Group of mental Formations.任何有精神“编队”的印象,意志等都是 - 属于心理编队集团。Whatsoever there is of "consciousness" therein, belongs to the Group of Consciousness.大凡有“意识”和其中,属于集团的意识。

And it is impossible that any one can explain the passing out of one existence, and the entering into a new existence, or the growth, increase, and development of consciousness, independent of corporeality, feeling, perception, and mental formations.它是不可能的,任何人可以解释传递出一个存在,而进入了一个新的存在,或增长,增加和意识,形体,感觉,知觉自主开发,与心理编队。

The Three Characteristics of Existence对存在的三个特点

All formations are "transient"; all formations are "subject to suffering"; all things are "without an Ego - entity."各单位是“短暂”,所有编队是“受痛苦”,所有东西都是“没有一个自我 - 实体。”Corporeality is transient, feeling is transient, perception is transient, mental formations are transient, consciousness is transient.肉体是短暂的,感觉是短暂的,短暂的看法是,心理编队是短暂的,意识是短暂的。

And that which is transient, is subject to suffering; and of that which is transient, and subject to suffering and change, one cannot rightly say: "This belongs to me; this am I; this is my Ego."并认为这是暂时性的,是受苦难,以及认为这是暂时的,受痛苦和变化,人们不能正确地说:“这属于我,这我,这是我的自我。”

Therefore, whatever there be of corporeality, of feeling, perception, mental formations, or consciousness, whether one's own or external, whether gross or subtle, lofty or low, far or near, one should understand, according to reality, and true wisdom: "This does not belong to me; this am I not; this is not my Ego."因此,无论有没有对肉体的感觉,知觉,心理编队,或意识,不论自己的或外部的,不论是严重或微妙的,崇高的或低,或远或近,人们应该理解,根据现实,真正的智慧: “这不属于我,这我没有,这是不是我的自我。”

Suppose, a man who is not blind, were to behold the many bubbles on the Ganges as they are driving along; and he should watch them, and carefully examine them.假设,一个人谁不是盲目的,是为壮观的恒河上的许多泡沫,因为他们开车沿,他就应该关注他们,并仔细研究它们。After carefully examining them, they will appear to him empty, unreal, and unsubstantial.经过仔细检查,他们根本不会出现在他面前空的,虚幻的,和薄弱。In exactly the same way, does the monk behold all the corporeal phenomena, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, and states of consciousness - whether they be of the past, or the present, or the future, far, or near.在完全相同的方式,是否所有的有形的和尚看见的现象,感觉,知觉,心理编队和意识状态 - 无论是过去,还是现在,还是将来,在很远还是近。And he watches them, and examines them carefully; and, after carefully examining them, they appear to him empty, void, and without an Ego而且他看他们,他们仔细检查,并在仔细研究他们,他们似乎对他空的,无效的,并没有自我

Whoso delights in corporeality, or feeling, or perception, or mental formations, or consciousness, he delights in suffering; and whoso delights in suffering, will not be freed from suffering.幼时在形体,或感觉,或观念,或精神上的编队,或意识愉悦,欢乐,他在痛苦和幼时在苦难中的愉快,将不会摆脱痛苦。 Thus I say因此,我说

How can you find delight and mirth,你怎么能找到乐趣和欢笑,
Where there is burning without end?哪里有燃烧不结束?
In deepest darkness you are wrapped!在最深的黑暗,你都包裹!
Why do you not seek for the light?你为什么不寻求光明?

Look at this puppet here, well rigged,看看这个傀儡这里,好操纵,
A heap of many sores, piled up,阿许多疮堆,堆放,
Diseased, and full of greediness,害病的,和完整的贪婪,
Unstable, and impermanent!不稳定,无常!

Devoured by old age is this frame,老年性吞噬是这一框架内,
A prey of sickness, weak and frail;生了病,弱,体弱的猎物;
To pieces breaks this putrid body,为了打破这种有毒的机构件,
All life must truly end in death.所有的生命都必须真正结束死亡。

The Three Warnings三警告

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, eighty, ninety, or a hundred years old, frail, crooked as a gable roof, bent down, resting on crutches, with tottering steps, infirm, youth long since fled, with broken teeth, grey and scanty hair, or bald - headed, wrinkled, with blotched limbs?难道你从来没有看到世界上的男人,还是女人,八十,九十,或一百岁,身体虚弱,为坡屋顶歪,弯下腰,拄着拐杖休息,与蹒跚的步骤,体弱,青年自逃离长,断牙齿,灰色和稀少的头发,或秃顶 - 领导,皱纹,四肢有斑点?And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to decay, that also you cannot escape it?,也做了思想从未到过你,你也受到衰减,这也是你无法逃避它?

Did you never see in the world a man, or a woman, who being sick, afflicted, and grievously ill, and wallowing in his own filth, was lifted up by some people, and put to bed by others?难道你从来没有看到世界上的男人,还是女人,谁生病,受灾,并严重生病了,沉溺在自己的污秽,被一些人举起,然后把别人睡觉? And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to disease, that also you cannot escape it? ,也做了思想从未到过你,你也受到疾病,那也是你无法逃避它?

Did you never see in the world the corpse of a man, or a woman, one, or two, or three days after death, swollen up, blue - black in color, and full of corruption?难道你从来没有看到世界上的一名男子的尸体,或一个女人,一个或两个,或后3天死亡,肿了起来,蓝 - 黑的颜色,和腐败满了吗?And did the thought never come to you that also you are subject to death, that also you cannot escape it?,也做了思想从未到过你,你也受到死亡,这也是​​你无法逃避它?

Samsara, The Wheel of Existence轮回,存在轮

Inconceivable is the beginning of this Samsara; not to be discovered不可思议的是这个轮回的开始,不被发现

(continues . . . )(继续。。。)


Another Important Buddhist Document (Portion) Follows另一个重要的佛教文献(部分)如下


Buddha, The Gospel佛,福音

500 BC公元前500年

The Disciple Speaks龙的传人讲话

Rejoice庆幸

Rejoice at the glad tidings!欢欣鼓舞的喜讯!The Buddha our Lord has found the root of all evil; he has shown us the way of salvation.我们的主佛找到了万恶之源,他告诉我们得救的道路。The Buddha dispels the illusions of our mind and redeems us from the terror of death.佛驱散了我们心中的幻想和赎回,从我们对死亡的恐惧。

The Buddha, our Lord, brings comfort to the weary and sorrow - laden; he restores peace to those who are broken down under the burden of life.佛陀,我们的上帝,带来舒适的疲倦和悲伤 - 拉丹,他恢复和平的那些谁被分解下生活的负担。He gives courage to the weak when they would fain give up self reliance and hope.他给弱者的勇气时,他们会欣然放弃自力更生和希望。 You who suffer from the tribulations of life, you who have to struggle and endure, you who yearn for a life of truth, rejoice at the glad tidings!你从谁遭受磨难的生活,你谁拥有,奋斗下去,你谁渴望生活的真理,在喜讯欢呼吧! There is balm for the wounded, and there is bread for the hungry.有唇膏的人受伤,并有面包的饥饿。There is water for the thirsty, and there is hope for the despairing.有水的渴了,有希望的绝望。There is light for those in darkness, and there is inexhaustible blessing for the upright.出现亮光在黑暗中的人,并有取之不尽,用之不竭的祝福为直立。

Heal your wounds, you wounded, and eat your fill, you hungry.你的伤口愈合,你受伤了,吃个够,你饿了。 Rest, you weary, and you who are thirsty quench your thirst.休息,你感到厌倦,你谁口渴解渴。Look up to the light, you who sit in darkness; be full of good cheer, you who are forlorn.仰望光,你谁坐在黑暗;可以放心满了,谁是被遗弃的。

Trust in truth, You who love the truth, for the kingdom of righteousness is founded upon earth.事实上信任,你谁爱,为正义王国的真理,是建立在地球上。The darkness of error is dispelled by the light of truth.黑暗的误差是由真理之光一扫而空。We can see our way and take firm and certain steps.我们可以看到我们的方式和采取坚定和某些步骤。The Buddha, our Lord, has revealed the truth.佛陀,我们的上帝,揭示了真理。The truth cures our diseases and redeems us from perdition; the truth strengthens us in life and in death; the truth alone can conquer the evils of error.真相治愈我们的疾病和赎回从毁灭我们,真理在生活中加强我们和死亡真相便可以征服的错误所带来的弊端。Rejoice at the glad tidings!欢欣鼓舞的喜讯!

Samsara and Nirvana轮回和涅槃

Look about and contemplate life!看关于,思考人生!Everything is transient and nothing endures.一切都是短暂的,没有下去。There is birth and death, growth and decay; there is combination and separation.有诞生和死亡,生长和衰变;有结合和分离。 The glory of the world is like a flower: it stands in full bloom in the morning and fades in the heat of the day.世界的荣耀,是花一样的:它坐落在盛开在上午和在天热消退。

Wherever you look, there is a rushing and a struggling, and an eager pursuit of pleasure.无论你看,有一个急于和挣扎,一个渴望追求的快乐。There is a panic flight from pain and death, and hot are the flames of burning desires.有一种恐慌逃离痛苦和死亡,燃烧热是欲望的火焰。The world is Vanity Fair, full of changes and transformations.世界是名利场,充满了变化和转变。All is Samsara, the turning Wheel of Existence.一切都是轮回,存在的转轮。

Is there nothing permanent in the world?有没有在世界永久的?Is there in the universal turmoil no resting place where our troubled heart can find peace?在普及风暴有没有休息的地方我们多灾多难的心可以找到和平吗?Is there nothing everlasting?有没有永恒?Oh, that we could have cessation of anxiety, that our burning desires would be extinguished!噢,那我们可以停止焦虑,我们燃烧的欲望将熄灭!When shall the mind become tranquil and composed?什么时候心灵变得宁静和组成?

The Buddha, our Lord, was grieved at the ills of life.佛陀,我们的上帝,是悲痛于生活的弊病。He saw the vanity of worldly happiness and sought salvation in the one thing that will not fade or perish, but will abide for ever and ever.他看到了世俗的虚荣和寻求幸福的一件事,不会褪色或消亡,但将遵守永永远得救。

You who long for life, learn that immortality is hidden in transiency.你们谁渴望生活,学习的不朽是隐藏在顷刻。You who wish for happiness without the sting of regret, lead a life of righteousness.祝你幸福没有谁的遗憾刺痛,过义的生活。 You who yearn for riches, receive treasures that are eternal.你们谁渴望财富,获得财富是永恒的。Truth is wealth, and a life of truth is happiness.真理是财富,生活的真理就是幸福。

All compounds will be dissolved again, but the verities which determine all combinations and separations as laws of nature endure for ever and aye.所有的化合物将被解散了,但它决定了真理的所有组合和自然规律永远忍受分离和赞成。Bodies fall to dust, but the truths of the mind will not be destroyed.机构下降到灰尘,但心灵的真理不会被销毁。

Truth knows neither birth nor death; it has no beginning and no end.真理也不知道出生与死亡,它已没有开始,没有结束。Welcome the truth.欢迎真相。 The truth is the immortal part of mind.事实是心灵的不朽的一部分。Establish the truth in your mind, for the truth is the image of the eternal; it portrays the immutable; it reveals the everlasting; the truth gives unto mortals the boon of immortality.建立在你的心中的真理为真理,是永恒的形象,描绘了一成不变的,它揭示了永恒的,事实给你们凡人不朽的福音。

The Buddha has proclaimed the truth; let the truth of the Buddha dwell in your hearts.佛陀已宣布的真相,让心中的佛陀住在你的真理。Extinguish in yourselves every desire that antagonizes the Buddha, and in the perfection of your spiritual growth you will become like unto him.在自己的每一个愿望灭火拮抗佛,在你的心灵成长,你就会成为完美的他一样。 That of your heart which cannot or will not develop into Buddha must perish, for it is mere illusion and unreal; it is the source of your error; it is the cause of your misery.你的心,不能或不会发展到佛必须灭亡,那它仅仅是幻想和虚幻的,它是您的错误源,它是您的苦难的原因。

You attain to immortality by filling your minds with truth.你达到以不朽真理中充满了你的头脑。 Therefore, become like unto vessels fit to receive the Master's words.因此,像你们的船只成为适合接受师父的话。Cleanse yourselves of evil and sanctify your lives.邪恶,净化自己圣洁的生活。There is no other way of reaching truth.有没有其他方式达成的真理。

Learn to distinguish between Self and Truth.学会区分自我和真相。Self is the cause of selfishness and the source of evil; truth cleaves to no self; it is universal and leads to justice and righteousness.自我是自私的原因和罪恶之源,真理劈开到没有自我,这是普遍的,并导致公平和正义。 Self, that which seems to those who love their self as their being, is not the eternal, the everlasting, the imperishable.自我,这似乎是对那些谁爱他们作为自己创业的,不是永恒的,永恒的,不朽的。Seek not self, but seek the truth.不要寻求自我,而是追求真理。

If we liberate our souls from our petty selves, wish no ill to others, and become clear as a crystal diamond reflecting the light of truth, what a radiant picture will appear in us mirroring things as they are, without the admixture of burning desires, without the distortion of erroneous illusion, without the agitation of clinging and unrest.如果我们从我们的小自我解放我们的灵魂,希望没有恶意给他人,并成为一个水晶清楚反映了真理,什么是辐射的图片就会出现在我们的镜像的东西,因为他们没有光钻石混合燃烧的欲望,如果没有错误的幻想,但无失真的执着和躁动不安。

Yet you love self and will not abandon self love.然而,你的爱不会放弃自我和自爱。So be it, but then, verily, you should learn to distinguish between the false self and the true self.这样吧,但那时,众志成城,你应该学会自我区分虚假和真实的自我。The ego with all its egotism is the false self.与所有的自我中心自我是虚假的自我。It is an unreal illusion and a perishable combination.这是一个虚幻的幻想和易腐组合。He only who identifies his self with the truth will attain Nirvana; and he who has entered Nirvana has attained Buddhahood; he has acquired the highest good; he has become eternal and immortal.他只确定了谁的真情,将实现自我涅磐和他谁进入涅槃成佛,他已获得了最高的善,他已成为永恒和不朽。

All compound things shall be dissolved again, worlds will break to pieces and our individualities will be scattered; but the words of Buddha will remain for ever.所有化合物的事情应予以解散了,世界将打破成碎片,我们的个性将被分散,但佛陀的话将继续下去。

The extinction of self is salvation; the annihilation of self is the condition of enlightenment; the blotting out of self is Nirvana.对自我灭绝是拯救自我毁灭是启蒙状况;印迹的是自我涅槃。

Happy is he who has ceased to live for pleasure and rests in the truth.快乐是谁,他已停止娱乐和生活在真理之上。Verily his composure and tranquility of mind are the highest bliss.他的镇定和实实在在的心灵安宁是最高的幸福。

Let us take our refuge in the Buddha, for he has found the everlasting in the transient.让我们以我们的避难所中的佛,因为他已经找到了永恒的瞬间。Let us take our refuge in that which is the immutable in the changes of existence.让我们以我们的避难所,因为这是生存的变化是一成不变的。Let us take our refuge in the truth that is established through the enlightenment of the Buddha.让我们看看在所通过成立真相佛陀的启示我们的避难所。Let us take our refuge in the community of those who seek the truth and endeavor to live in the truth.让我们看看在这些谁寻求真理,努力活在真实社会我们的避难所。

Truth, The Savior求真,求救主

The things of the world and its inhabitants are subject to change.世界和其居民的事情是随时可能更改。They are combinations of elements that existed before, and all living creatures are what their past actions made them; for the law of cause and effect is uniform and without exception.它们是要素组合之前已经存在,所有生物都是什么他们过去的行为使他们;对于因果律是一致的,没有例外。

But in the changing things there is a constancy of law, and when the law is seen there is truth.但在变化的事物有一个恒定的法律,当法律被认为存在就是真理。The truth lies hidden in Samsara as the permanent in its changes.真相隐藏在轮回作为其永久更改。

Truth desires to appear; truth longs to become conscious; truth strives to know itself.真理的欲望出现,真理多头,成为自觉的,真理努力了解自己。

There is truth in the stone, for the stone is here; and no power in the world, no god, no man, no demon, can destroy its existence.有真理的石头,石头是在这里,并没有在世界大国,没有上帝,没有人,没有恶魔,可以摧毁它的存在。But the stone has no consciousness.但是石头没有意识。There is truth in the plant and its life can expand; the plant grows and blossoms and bears fruit.有真理在工厂和它的生命可以扩大;植物生长,开花,并结出果实。Its beauty is marvelous, but it has no consciousness.它的美是神奇的,但它没有意识。There is truth in the animal; it moves about and perceives its surroundings; it distinguishes and learns to choose.有真理的动物,它大约和移动感知周围环境,它的区别,并学会选择。There is consciousness, but it is not yet the consciousness of Truth.有意识,但还不是真理的意识。It is a consciousness of self only.这仅是一种自我意识。

The consciousness of self dims the eyes of the mind and hides the truth.变暗的自我意识的头脑和隐藏真相的眼睛。It is the origin of error, it is the source of illusion, it is the germ of evil.这是错误的起源,它是虚幻的来源,它是罪恶的萌芽。Self begets selfishness.自我招致的自私。There is no evil but what flows from self.没有什么邪恶的,但流量从自我。There is no wrong but what is done by the assertion of self.没有错,但什么是自做主张。Self is the beginning of all hatred, of iniquity and slander, of impudence and indecency, of theft and robbery, of oppression and bloodshed.自我是一切仇恨开始,不公正和诽谤的无耻和流氓盗窃和抢劫的压迫和流血,。Self is Mara, the tempter, the evil doer, the creator of mischief.自我是马拉的诱惑,邪恶的实干家,创造者的恶作剧。Self entices with pleasures.自引诱与乐趣。Self promises a fairy's paradise.自承诺了一个童话的天堂。Self is the veil of Maya, the enchanter.自我是玛雅,附魔师的面纱。But the pleasures of self are unreal, its paradisian labyrinth is the road to misery, and its fading beauty kindles the flames of desires that never can be satisfied.但自我的乐趣是虚幻的,它paradisian迷宫是对苦难的道路,其衰落之美的欲望点燃的火焰永远不能得到满足。

Who shall deliver us from the power of self?谁应提供从自我权力呢?Who shall save us from misery?谁应免于苦难呢?Who shall restore us to a life of blessedness?谁应当恢复我们对幸福生活吗?

There is misery in the world of Samsara; there is much misery and pain.目前在世界上的轮回痛苦,有许多的苦难和痛苦。But greater than all the misery is the bliss of truth.但大于一切的苦难是真理的幸福。Truth gives peace to the yearning mind; it conquers error; it quenches the flames of desires; it leads to Nirvana.真理使和平的心神向往,它征服的错误,它淬灭的欲望之火,它导致涅槃。Blessed is he who has found the peace of Nirvana.有福是谁,他已找到了涅槃的和平。He is at rest in the struggles and tribulations of life; he is above all changes; he is above birth and death; he remains unaffected by the evils of life.他是在休息的斗争和生活的磨难,他最重要的变化是,他的出生和死亡是上面,他仍然没有受到生命的罪恶。

Blessed is he who has found enlightenment.祝福他是谁发现的启示。He conquers, although he may be wounded; he is glorious and happy, although he may suffer; he is strong, although he may break down under the burden of his work; he is immortal, although he will die.他受人尊敬,但他可能会受伤,他是光荣和幸福,虽然他可能遭受,他是强大的,尽管他可能会打破他的工作下,负担下来,他是不朽的,尽管他会死。 The essence of his being is purity and goodness.他的存在的本质是纯洁和善良。

Blessed is he who has attained the sacred state of Buddhahood, for he is fit to work out the salvation of his fellow beings.有福是谁,他已达到了成佛神圣的状态,因为他是适合的工作出了他的同胞的生命得救。The truth has taken its abode in him.真相已在他同住。Perfect wisdom illumines his understanding, and righteousness ensouls the purpose of all his actions.完善的智慧照亮他的理解,正义ensouls他的一切行动的目的。The truth is a living power for good, indestructible and invincible!事实是一个良好的,坚不可摧,战无不胜的生活的力量!Work the truth out in your mind, and spread it among mankind, for truth alone is the savior from evil and misery.工作的真相在你的心中,它和人类中传播,为真理,单是从邪恶和苦难的救世主。The Buddha has found the truth and the truth has been proclaimed by the Buddha!佛陀已经找到了真理,真理已被宣布佛!Blessed be the Buddha!佛是应当称颂的!

The Enlightenment的启示

There was in Kapilavatthu a Sakya king, strong of purpose and reverenced by all men, a descendant of the Okkakas, who call themselves Gotama, and his name was Suddhodana or Pure - Rice.有一个在Kapilavatthu萨迦国王,强烈的宗旨和所有的人,一对Okkakas的后代,谁自称乔达摩尊敬的人,他的名字是净饭王或纯 - 水稻。His wife Mayadevi was beautiful as the water lily and pure in mind as the lotus.他的妻子Mayadevi是美丽的睡莲,荷花作为心灵纯​​洁。As the Queen of Heaven, she lived on earth, untainted by desire, and immaculate.作为女王的天堂,她住在地球上,玷污了渴望,完美无暇。

The king, her husband, honored her in her holiness, and the spirit of truth, glorious and strong in his wisdom like unto a white elephant, descended upon her.国王,她的丈夫,她的荣幸,她的​​圣洁,和真理的精神,光荣和智慧在他的像你们白象强,降临她。When she knew that the hour of motherhood was near, she asked the king to send her home to her parents; and Suddhodana, anxious about his wife and the child she would bear him, willingly granted her request.当她知道,母亲小时的附近,她问国王派她回她的父母和净饭王,他的妻子和孩子焦急,她将承担他,心甘情愿地给予她的请求。

At Lumbini there is a beautiful grove, and when Mayadevi passed through it the trees were one mass of fragrant flowers and many birds were warbling in their branches.在蓝毗尼有一个美丽的小树林,当Mayadevi通过它的树木是一种芳香的鲜花和许多鸟类在其分支机构质量婉转。 The Queen, wishing to stroll through the shady walks, left her golden palanquin, and, when she reached the giant sala tree in the midst of the grove, felt that her hour had come.女王,希望漫步阴凉散步,离开了她金色轿子,而且,当她到了在树丛之中巨头萨拉树,觉得她小时已经到来。She took hold of a branch.她握着的一个分支。Her attendants hung a curtain about her and retired.她的侍从挂着她和退休的序幕。When the pain of travail came upon her, four pure minded angels of the great Brahma held out a golden net to receive the babe, who came forth from her right side like the rising sun bright and perfect.当阵痛的痛苦后,她就从四个纯的大梵天头脑天使伸出一只金网接收贝贝,谁来自她像初升的太阳明亮,完美的右边出来。

The Brahma - angels took the child and placing him before the mother said: "Rejoice, O queen, a mighty son has been born unto thee."梵天 - 天使了孩子,并把他的母亲面前说:“庆幸,噢王后,威武的儿子出生了归你。”

At her couch stood an aged woman imploring the heavens to bless the child.在她的沙发上站着一个中年妇女恳求天上保佑孩子。All the worlds were flooded with light.所有的世界上充斥着光。The blind received their sight by longing to see the coming glory of the Lord; the deaf and dumb spoke with one another of the good omens indicating the birth of the Buddha to be.盲人渴望收到他们的视线看到主降临的荣耀,又聋又哑一项指示佛陀诞生是好兆头另一个发言。The crooked became straight; the lame walked.弯弯曲曲的成为直;瘸子行走。All prisoners were freed from their chains and the fires of all the hells were extinguished.所有犯人都摆脱其连锁店和所有的地狱之火被扑灭。

No clouds gathered in the skies and the polluted streams became clear, whilst celestial music rang through the air and the angels rejoiced with gladness.没有乌云聚集在天空和河流污染变得清晰,同时音乐响起天体通过空气和天使与欢乐欣喜。With no selfish or partial joy but for the sake of the law they rejoiced, for creation engulfed in the ocean of pain was now to obtain release.由于没有自私或部分欢乐,也为他们感到高兴的法律的缘故,席卷创造海洋的痛苦,现在获得释放。The cries of beasts were hushed; all malevolent beings received a loving heart, and peace reigned on earth.寂静的呼声是野兽,所有的人收到恶意爱心,与和平的地球上的统治。Mara, the evil one, alone was grieved and rejoiced not.马拉,邪恶的一个,仅是悲痛和不快乐。

The Naga kings, earnestly desiring to show their reverence for most excellent law, as they had paid honor to former Buddhas, now went to greet the Bodhisattva.那加的国王,切实为渴望展示自己最优秀的法律崇敬,因为他们支付了荣誉前佛,现在去迎接菩萨。They scattered before him mandara flowers, rejoicing with heartfelt joy to pay their religious homage.他们分散在他面前曼达拉鲜花,衷心的喜悦与欢乐支付他们的宗教朝拜。

The royal father, pondering the meaning of these signs, was now full of joy and now sore distressed.皇家父亲,思考这些迹象的含义,现在却充满了喜悦和现在疼痛苦恼。The queen mother, beholding her child and the commotion which his birth created, felt in her timorous heart the pangs of doubt.女王的母亲,看着她的孩子和他出生的创建骚动,觉得她胆怯的心怀疑的折磨。

Now there was at that time in a grove near Lumbini Asita, a rishi, leading the life of a hermit.现在有当时在蓝毗尼附近Asita,一仙人树丛的时候,领导一个隐士的生活。He was a Brahman of dignified mien, famed not only for wisdom and scholarship, but also for his skill in the interpretation of signs.他是一个有尊严的风采婆罗门,不仅是智慧和学识,也为他在著名的标志释义技能。 And the king invited him to see the royal babe.而国王邀请他看到皇家宝贝。

The seer, beholding the prince, wept and sighed deeply.该预言家,看见了王子,哭泣,并深深地叹了一口气。And when the king saw the tears of Asita he became alarmed and asked: "Why has the sight of my son caused thee grief and pain?"当国王看到Asita的眼泪,他成为震惊并问道:“为什么我的儿子看见你的悲伤和痛苦造成的”

But Asita's heart rejoiced, and, knowing the king's mind to be perplexed, he addressed him, saying: "The king, like the moon when full, should feel great joy, for he has begotten a wondrously noble son. I do not worship Brahma, but I worship this child; and the gods in the temples will descend from their places of honor to adore him. Banish all anxiety and doubt. The spiritual omens manifested indicate that the child now born will bring deliverance to the whole world.但是Asita的心欢喜,并知道国王的头脑受到困扰,他给他,说:“大王,就像月亮当满,应该感到非常高兴,因为他已经造物主一个奇妙崇高的儿子,我不崇拜梵天。 ,但我崇拜这个孩子,并在寺庙的神会从下到地履行自己的崇拜他摒弃所有的焦虑和怀疑精神的体现预兆表明,现在出生的孩子会带来拯救整个世界。。。

"Recollecting that I myself am old, on that account I could not hold my tears; for now my end is coming on and I shall not see the glory of this babe. For this son of thine will rule the world. The wheel of empire will come to him. He will either be a king of kings to govern all the lands of the earth, or verily will become a Buddha. He is born for the sake of everything that lives. His pure teaching will be like the shore that receives the shipwrecked. His power of meditation will be like a cool lake; and all creatures parched with the drought of lust may freely drink thereof. On the fire of covetousness he will cause the cloud of his mercy to rise, so that the rain of the law may extinguish it. The heavy gates of despondency will he open, and give deliverance to all creatures ensnared in the self entwined meshes of folly and ignorance. The king of the law has come forth to rescue from bondage all the poor, the miserable, the helpless." “追忆,我自己也老了,在该帐户我不能拥有我的眼泪。。现在我到底是即将来临,我看不到这个宝贝你的荣耀,这个儿子将统治世界的帝国轮将来找他。他要么是诸王之王,以监管所有地球的土地,或将成为一个实实在在的佛。他是为一切而出生的生命。纯教学他将像岸上接收遇船难者,他的冥想权力就会像优柔。。和所有的动物在炎热干旱的欲望可以自由饮用47:12在他的贪婪将导致火灾,他的怜悯上升云,使雨法可消灭它。悲观的沉重的大门将他打开,并给予解脱缠绕在自我的愚蠢和无知网陷入所有生物。法律的国王已经站出来拯救所有的穷人摆脱奴役,悲惨,无奈。“

When the royal parents heard Asita's words they rejoiced in their hearts and named their newborn infant Siddhattha, that is he who has accomplished his purpose."当父母听到Asita王室的话,他们在他们的心中欢喜,命名为他们的新生婴儿悉达多,那是谁,他已完成他的目的。“

And the queen said to her sister, Pajapati: "A mother who has borne a future Buddha will never give birth to another child. I shall soon leave this world, my husband, the king, and Siddhattha, my child. When I am gone, be thou a mother to him."和王后说,她的妹妹,Pajapati:。。“阿谁承担了未来佛永远不会放弃生下了一个孩子的母亲,我将很快离开这个世界,我的丈夫,王,悉达多,我的孩子当我走了,是你给他的母亲。“ And Pajapati wept and promised.而Pajapati哭泣,并答应。

When the queen had departed from the living, Pajapati took the boy Siddhattha and reared him.当女王从生活出发,把男孩Pajapati悉达多和饲养他。And as the light of the moon increases little by little, so the royal child grew from day to day in mind and in body; and truthfulness and love resided in his heart.随着月亮的光线一点一点增加,所以孩子长大皇家从日常的思想和身体;和真实性,爱上他的心底。When a year had passed Suddhodana the king made Pajapati his queen and there was never a better stepmother than she.当一年过去了净饭王国王和王后提出Pajapati他从没有一个人比她更好的继母。

The Ties of Life生命的纽带

When Siddhattha had grown to youth, his father desired to see him married, and he sent to all his kinsfolk, commanding them to bring their princesses that the prince might select one of them as his wife.当悉达多已​​发展到青年,他的父亲希望看到他结婚,他派他的所有亲属,指挥他们,使他们的公主,王子可能会选择其中之一作为他的妻子。

But the kinsfolk replied and said: "The prince is young and delicate; nor has he learned any of the sciences. He would not be able to maintain our daughter, and should there be war he would be unable to cope with the enemy."但是亲戚回答说:“王子是年轻人和细腻;也没有任何的科学的学习,他将无法维持我们的女儿,应该有战争,他将无法应付的敌人。”。

The prince was not boisterous, but pensive in his nature.王子不热闹,但他的性格沉思。He loved to stay under the great jambu tree in the garden of his father, and, observing the ways of the world, gave himself up to meditation.他喜欢停留在他父亲的花园大jambu树,并观察世界的方式,过起了沉思。And the prince said to his father: "Invite our kinsfolk that they may see me and put my strength to the test."和王子对他父亲说:“邀请我们的亲属,他们可能会看到我,把我的实力的考验。”And his father did as his son bade him.而他的父亲也为他的儿子叫他。

When the kinsfolk came, and the people of the city Kapilavatthu had assembled to test the prowess and scholarship of the prince, he proved himself manly in all the exercises both of the body and of the mind, and there was no rival among the youths and men of India who could surpass him in any test, bodily or mental.当亲戚来了,这个城市的人也都聚集Kapilavatthu测试实力和奖学金的王子,他证明了自己在所有的男子汉都身体和心灵的练习,和青少年之间有没有竞争对手,印度男子谁可以超越任何测试,他的身体或精神。 He replied to all the他回答说:所有的

(continues . . . )(继续。。。)


Buddhism佛教

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The religious, monastic system, founded c.宗教,寺院制度,成立角500 BC on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism.公元前500年在泛神论婆罗门教的基础。The speculations of the Vedanta school of religious thought, in the eighth and following centuries, BC, gave rise to several rival schemes of salvation.该学校的宗教思想韦丹塔在第八和猜测几个世纪,公元前,引起了几个对手的救恩计划。These movements started with the same morbid view that conscious life is a burden and not worth the living, and that true happiness is to be had only in a state like dreamless sleep free from all desires, free from conscious action.这些运动具有相同的病态开始认为是一种有意识的生活负担和不值得的生活,而真正的幸福就是有一个像梦的睡眠状态,从所有的欲望,自由的自觉行动自由而已。 They took for granted the Upanishad doctrine of the endless chain of births, but they differed from pantheistic Brahminism both in their attitude towards the Vedas and in their plan for securing freedom from rebirth and from conscious existence.他们认为理所当然的出生环链奥义书学说,但他们是从两个不同泛神论的婆罗门教的吠陀在他们对他们的态度和确保从重生意识的存在和自由的计划。 In their absolute rejection of Vedic rites, they stamped themselves as heresies.在他们的吠陀仪式的绝对排斥,他们盖上自己的异端邪说。Of these the one destined to win greatest renown was Buddhism.注定要赢得最大的一个是这些著名的佛教。

I. THE FOUNDER一,创办人

Of Buddha, the founder of this great movement, legendary tradition has much to say, but very little of historical worth is known.佛像,这个伟大运动的创始人,传奇的传统有很多话要说,但非常值得的历史所知甚少。His father seems to have been a petty raja, ruling over a small community on the southern border of the district now known as Nepal.他的父亲似乎已经是一个小王侯,超过了关于现在的尼泊尔南部边境地区称为小社区的裁决。Buddha's family name was Gotama (Sanskrit Gautama), and it was probably by this name that he was known in life.佛陀的姓氏是乔达摩(梵文瞿昙),它是由这个,他在生活中已知的名称可能。In all likelihood it was after his death that his disciples bestowed on him a number of laudatory names, the most common being Buddha, ie "the enlightened".在所有的可能性是在他死后,他的弟子对他赋予一个名称数量之美称,最常见的是佛,即“开明”。Like the newborn youths of his day, he must have spent some time in the study of the sacred Vedas.像他那个时代的新生的青年,他必须花一些神圣的吠陀学习时间。After the immemorial custom of the East, he married at an early age, and, if tradition may be trusted, exercised a prince's privilege of maintaining a harem.后东方远古习俗,他从小就结婚,而且,如果传统可能是可信的,行使了王子的维持后宫的特权。His principal wife bore him a son.他的主要的妻子生了一个儿子。His heart was not at rest.他的心是不是在休息。The pleasures of the world soon palled upon him, and abandoning his home he retired to the forest, where as a hermit he spent several years in austere self-discipline, studying doubtless, the way of salvaion as taught in the Upanishads.世界的乐趣很快palled在他身上,放弃他的家,他退休了森林,在那里作为一个隐士,他花了数年的艰苦自律,学习无疑,对salvaion方式在奥义书授课。 Even this did not bring peace to his mind.这也没有带来和平,他的想法。He gave up the rigorous fasts and mortifications, which nearly cost him his life, and devoted himself in his own way to long and earnest meditation, the fruit of which was his firm belief that he had discovered the only true method of escaping from the misery of rebirth and of attaining to Nirvana.他放弃了严格的斋戒和mortifications,其中近夺去了他的生命,并专门在他自己的方式自己漫长而认真的打坐,水果的一项是他坚定的信念,他已经发现了只有从真正的方法摆脱苦难再生,能够达到涅槃。 He then set out to preach his gospel of deliverance, beginning at Benares.然后,他开始着手他的解脱宣扬福音,在贝拿勒斯开始。His magnetic personality and his earnest, impressive eloquence soon won over to his cause a number of the warrior caste.他的人格魅力和他的认真,令人印象深刻的口才很快赢得了他的事业的战士种姓号码。Brahmins, too, felt the persuasiveness of his words, and it was not long before he was surrounded by a band of enthusiastic disciples, in whose company he went from place to place, by making converts by his preaching.婆罗门,也感受到了他的话说服力,它是不长之前,他被包围由一群热心的弟子带,他去的那家公司从一个地方到地方通过使他的说教转换。 These soon became very numerous and were formed into a great brotherhood of monks.这些很快变得非常多,而且被带到一个伟大的兄弟组成的僧侣。Such was the work to which Buddha gave himself with unsparing zeal for over forty years.就是这样的工作,并向佛陀与不留情了四十多年的热情自己。At length, worn out by his long life of activity, he fell sick after a meal of dried boar's flesh, and died in the eightieth year of his age.在长度,穿着他的活动,寿命长了,他病倒后,干野猪的肉餐,并在他的年龄八十年内死亡。The approximate date of his death is 480 BC It is noteworthy that Buddha was a contemporary of two other famous religious philosophers, Pythagoras and Confucius.他的死亡日期大约是公元前480年值得注意的是,佛陀是一个另外两个著名的宗教哲学家,毕达哥拉斯和孔子同时代的人。

In the sacred books of later times Buddha is depicted as a character without flaw, adorned with every grace of mind and heart.在稍后的时间,神圣的书籍佛被描绘成一个没有性格缺陷与每头脑和心灵优雅装饰。There may be some hesitation in taking the highly coloured portrait of Buddhist tradition as the exact representation of the original, but Buddha may be credited with the qualities of a great and good man.可能有一些以原确切代表的佛教传统的高度彩色肖像犹豫,但可能与佛陀伟大的品质和良好的人记。The records depict him moving about from place to place, regardless of personal comfort, calm and fearless, mild and compassionate, considerate towards poor and rich alike, absorbed with the one idea of freeing all men from the bonds of misery, and irresistible in his manner of setting forth the way of deliverance.描绘了他的记录从一个地方到走动的地方,个人的舒适,平静和无所畏惧的,温和的和富有同情心,对穷人和富人都体贴与摆脱苦难的债券,在所有男人无法抗拒吸收的一个想法,无论他设置方式提出了解脱方式。 In his mildness, his readiness to overlook insults, his zeal, chastity, and simplicity of life, he reminds one not a little of St. Francis of Assisi.在他的温和,他愿意忽视的侮辱,他的热情,纯洁,生活简朴,他想起一个不阿西西的圣弗朗西斯不大。In all pagan antiquity no character has been depicted as so noble and attractive.在所有异教古代没有字符都被描绘成如此崇高和吸引力。

II.二。BUDDHIST TEXTS佛教典籍

The chief sources for early Buddhism are the sacred books comprised in the first two divisions of the Ti-pitaka (triple-basket), the threefold Bible of the Southern School of Buddhists.早期佛教的主要来源是在首两钛pitaka(三篮子),对南派佛教徒部门组成的三倍圣经的神圣的书籍。In India, today, the Buddhists are found only in the North, in Nepal, and in the extreme South, in the island of Ceylon.在印度,今天,佛教是发现,只有在北部,尼泊尔,并在最南部,在锡兰岛。They represent two different schools of thought, the Northern worshipping Buddha as supreme personal deity though at the same time adopting most of the degrading superstitions of Hinduism, the Southern adhering in great measure to the original teachings of Buddha.他们代表了两种不同的思想流派,北崇佛作为最高神虽然个人在同一时间采取了印度教,在很大程度上南秉承佛陀的原始教义最有辱人格的迷信。 Each school has a canon of sacred books.每个学校有一个神圣的书籍佳能。The Northern canon is in Sanskrit, the Southern in Pali, a softer tongue, into which Sanskrit was transformed by the people of the South.北佳能是梵文,巴利文,在南区,一软舌,在其中梵文是由人民南改造。The Southern canon, Ti-pitaka, which reflects more faithfully the teachings of Buddha and his early disciples, embraces南佳能,钛藏,更忠实地反映佛陀和他的早期弟子的教诲,拥抱

the Vinaya-pitaka, a collection of books on the disciplinary rules of the order,戒律,藏,是对秩序的纪律藏书,

the Sutta-pitaka, didactic tracts consisting in part of alleged discourses of Buddha; and的经文,藏,据称在佛教学束组成部分的论述;及

the Abhidhamma-pitaka, comprising more detailed treatises on doctrinal subjects.在阿昆达摩-藏,包括理论科目上更详细的论述。

Most of the Vinavas and some of the Suttas have been made accessible to English readers in the "Sacred Books of the East".在Vinavas和经文一些最已访问了“东方圣书”英语的读者。 The Ti-pitaka seems to date back to the second and third centuries BC, but a few additions were made even after it was committed to writing in the early part of the first century of the Christian Era.钛- pitaka似乎可以追溯到公元前二,三世纪,但作了一些补充,即使它承诺在基督教时代世纪初写作。While there may be doctrinal and disciplinary parts from the time of Buddha none of the twenty-nine books comprised in the Ti-pitaka can be proved to be older than 300 BC These books stripped of their tiresome repetitions, would be about equal in size to the Bible, though on the whole they are vastly inferior to the Sacred Scripture in spirituality, depth of thought, variety of subject, and richness of expression.虽然有可能是从佛的钛pitaka构成了二九书籍没有时间理论和纪律部分可以被证明是公元前300年以上的烦人的重复剥夺这些图书,将在尺寸约等于圣经中,尽管从整体而言,他们有很大的劣于圣经灵性,思想深度,主题多样化和表达的丰富性。

There are also a few extra-canonical books, likewise in Pali on which the Southern Buddhists set great value, the Dipavansa and Mahavansa, which give an uncritical history of Buddhism down to about AD 300, the "Commentaries of Buddhagosa", and the Milinda Panha, ably translated by Rhys Davids under the title "The Questions of King Milinda".也有一些额外的,典型的书籍,同样在八里,南传佛教上设置的伟大价值,Dipavansa和Mahavansa,这给人一种不加批判的历史,佛教下降到约公元300年,有“Buddhag​​osa评”,而弥兰陀Panha,巧妙地翻译由Rhys戴维斯的标题下的“弥兰陀王的问题”。 These works belong to the fourth and following centuries of our era.这些作品属于我们这个时代的第四和几百年。In the Tri-pitaka of the Northern School are included the well-known Saddharma-pundarika (Lotus of the True Law), and the legendary biographies of Buddha, the Buddha Charita, and the Lalita Vistara (Book of Exploits), which are generally assigned to the last quarter of the first century AD Besides the Tri-pitaka, the Northern Buddhists reckon as canonical several writings of more recent times adapted from the abominable Hindu Tantras.在三北学校pitaka包括著名的Saddharma - pundarika(真法莲花),和佛,佛Charita,而拉丽塔Vistara(图书的攻击)的传奇传记,一般分配到的第一个世纪除了三pitaka广告的最后一季,估计为北方佛教从印度坦陀罗可恶适应时代典型最近一些著作。

III.三。PRIMITIVE BUDDHISM原始佛教

Buddhism was by no means entirely original.佛教绝不是完全原创。It had much in common with the pantheistic Vedanta teaching, from which it sprang belief in karma, whereby the character of the present life is the net product of the good and evil acts of a previous existence; belief in a constant series of rebirths for all who set their heart on preserving their individual existence; the pessimistic view that life at its best is misery and not worth living.它曾与泛神论韦丹塔教学,从它兴起的业力,即对目前的生活品质是对以前存在的善恶行为NET产品的信念许多共同之处,相信在不断的轮回系列所有谁在保护他们的个人设置存在了心的悲观看法,在其最好的生活是痛苦和不值得的生活。 And so the great end for which Buddha toiled was the very one which gave colour to the pantheistic scheme of salvation propounded by the Brahmin ascetics, namely, the liberation of men from misery by setting them free from attachment to conscious existence.因此伟大的尽头,而佛是很辛苦的一对了颜色pantheistic拯救计划由婆罗门修行propounded,即从苦难的男人解放设置从依附他们自由意识的存在。 It was in their conception of the final state of the saved, and of the method by which it was to be attained that they differed.正是在他们的最后保存的状态的概念,并通过它的方法是要达到他们不同。The pantheistic Brahmin said:在泛神论的婆罗门说:

Recognize your identity with the great impersonal god, Brahma, you thereby cease to be a creature of desires; you are no longer held fast in the chain of rebirths; at death you lose your individuality, your conscious existence, to become absorbed in the all-god Brahma.识别您的身份与伟大的人格神,梵,你从而不再是欲望的动物,你没有在轮回链较长的坚守,在死亡你失去你的个性,你的意识存在,成为吸收中的所有之神梵天。

In Buddha's system, the all-god Brahma was entirely ignored.在佛陀的系统,全神梵天是完全被忽略。 Buddha put abstruse speculation in the background, and, while not ignoring the value of right knowledge, insisted on the saving part of the will as the one thing needful.佛在背景中放入深奥投机,而不是忽视正确的知识的价值,坚持的意志为一件事情要紧的储蓄的一部分。To obtain deliverance from birth, all forms of desire must be absolutely quenched, not only very wicked craving, but also the desire of such pleasures and comforts as are deemed innocent and lawful, the desire even to preserve one's conscious existence.为了获得解脱,从出生,各种形式的愿望必须绝对淬火,不仅非常恶毒的渴求,而且这种乐趣和舒适的愿望被认为是无辜的,合法的,甚​​至保存的愿望一个人的意识的存在。 It was through this extinction of every desire that cessation of misery was to be obtained.正是通过这种灭绝的每一个愿望的痛苦在这方面能够停止。This state of absence of desire and pain was known as Nirvana (Nibbana).这种欲望和痛苦的情况下状态被称为涅磐(涅槃)。This word was not coined by Buddha, but in his teaching, it assumed a new shade of meaning.创造这个词不是佛祖,但在他的教学,它承担了新的阴影的意义。Nirvana means primarily a "blowing out", and hence the extinction of the fire of desire, ill-will, delusion, of all, in short, that binds the individual to rebirth and misery.涅磐的手段主要是“吹出来的”,因此在灭火的欲望,恶感,妄想总之,所有,即结合个人能够重生和痛苦。It was in the living Buddhist saint a state of calm repose, of indifference to life and death, to pleasure and pain, a state of imperturbable tranquility, where the sense of freedom from the bonds of rebirth caused the discomforts as well as the joys of life to sink into insignance.这是佛教圣在客厅休息的平静生活的冷漠和死亡,快乐和痛苦,沉着宁静的状态,那里的自由之重生债券所造成的不适感,以及国家的乐趣生活陷入insignance。

But it was not tillafter death that Nirvana was realized in its completeness.但它不是直到死亡后,其完整性在涅磐实现。Some scholars have so thought.有学者这样认为。And, indeed, if the psychological speculations found in the sacred books are part of Buddha's personal teaching, it is hard to see how he could have held anything else as the final end of man.确实,如果在神圣的书籍发现的心理揣测,是佛陀的个人教学的一部分,它是很难看到他怎么会举行最后结束的男子别的。But logical consistency is not to be looked for in an Indian mystic.但是,逻辑一致性是不能看在印度神秘的。If we may trust the sacred books, he expressly refused on several occasions to pronounce either on the existence or the non-existence of those who had entered into Nirvana, on the ground that it was irrelevant, not conducive to peace and enlightenment.如果我们可以相信,神圣的书籍,他明确地拒绝了几次发音的存在或不存在的那些谁已进入涅槃,理由是这是无关紧要的,不利于和平和启示,无论是。 His intimate disciples held the same view.他亲密的弟子持相同的看法。A monk who interpreted Nirvana to mean annihilation was taken to task by an older monk, and convinced that he had no right to hold such an opinion, since the subject was wrapped in impenetrable mystery.一个和尚谁解释涅磐意味着毁灭被带到老和尚的任务,并确信他没有权利举行这样的意见,因为主题是令人费解的神秘包裹。 The learned nun Khema gave a similar answer to the King of Kosala, who asked if the deceased Buddha was still in existence.有学问的尼姑Khema了类似的答案,憍萨罗国国王,谁问,如果死者佛陀仍然存在。Whether the Perfect One exists after death, whether he does not exist after death, whether he exists and at the same time does not exist after death, whether he neither exists nor does not exist after death, has not been revealed by Buddha.无论是最完美的存在亡故后,他是否不存在亡故后,他是否存在,并在同一时间不存在亡故后,他是否不存在,也不是不存在亡故后,并没有被佛显现出来。 Since, then, the nature of Nirvana was too mysterious to be grasped by the Hindu mind, too subtle to be expressed in terms either of existence or of non-existence, it would be idle to attempt a positive solution of the question.自话,那么,涅槃的性质是由太神秘的印度教思想,也将在任何细微的存在或不存在来表示所掌握,这将是闲置的,试图对这一问题的积极解决方案。 It suffices to know that it meant a state of unconscious repose, an eternal sleep which knew no awakening.它只需知道这意味着无意识养神,一个永恒的睡眠觉醒状态的人也不认识。In this respect it was practically one with the ideal of the pantheistic Brahmin.在这方面,实际上是与泛神论的婆罗门的理想之一。

In the Buddhist conception of Nirvana no account was taken of the all-god Brahma.在佛教的涅槃概念没有考虑了所有之神梵天。And as prayers and offerings to the traditional gods were held to be of no avail for the attainment of this negative state of bliss, Buddha, with greater consistency than was shown in pantheistic Brahminism, rejected both the Vedas and the Vedic rites.而作为传统的祈祷和神产品举行了无济于事为这个幸福的消极状态的程度,佛,大于在泛神论的婆罗门显示一致性拒绝了吠陀和吠陀仪式。 It was this attitude which stamped Buddhism as a heresy.正是这种态度,加盖佛教是异端邪说。For this reason, too, Buddha has been set down by some as an atheist.出于这个原因,也已成立了佛作为一个无神论者一些。Buddha, however, was not an atheist in the sense that he denied the existence of the gods.佛,不过,这也不是无神论者在这个意义上说,他否认神的存在。To him the gods were living realities.对他来说,神是生活的现实。In his alleged sayings, as in the Buddhist scriptures generally, the gods are often mentioned, and always with respect.在他所称的谚语,如一般佛经,常常提到的神,始终与尊重。But like the pantheistic Brahmin, Buddha did not acknowledge his dependence on them.但像泛神论的婆罗门,佛陀没有承认他对他们的依赖。They were like men, subject to decay and rebirth.他们像男人一样,受到衰变和重生。The god of today might be reborn in the future in some inferior condition, while a man of great virtue might succeed in raising himself in his next birth to the rank of a god in heaven.今天的上帝可能是重生在未来在某些情况下,而一个伟大的美德可能成功地提高了在他的下一个出生到自己在天上的神职。 The very gods, then, no less than men, had need of that perfect wisdom that leads to Nirvana, and hence it was idle to pray or sacrifice to them in the hope of obtaining the boon which they themselves did not possess.很神,那么,没有比男子少,有这种完美的智慧,导致涅槃的需要,因此,它是闲置的祈祷或牺牲中获取的实惠,他们本身也没有向他们拥有希望。 They were inferior to Buddha, since he had already attained to Nirvana.他们不如佛,因为他已经达到涅槃。In like manner, they who followed Buddha's footsteps had no need of worshipping the gods by prayers and offerings.在这样的方式,他们谁遵循佛陀的脚步并没有崇拜的神灵祈祷和产品的需要。Worship of the gods was tolerated, however, in the Buddhist layman who still clung to the delusion of individual existence, and preferred the household to the homeless state.崇拜的神灵是不能容忍的,但是,在佛教门外汉谁仍然坚持的个体存在妄想,首选的家庭在无家可归的状态。Moreover, Buddha's system conveniently provided for those who accepted in theory the teaching that Nirvana alone was the true end of man but who still lacked the courage to quench all desires.此外,佛的系统方便地提供谁接受理论教学,涅磐单独的人的真正结束,但谁仍然缺乏勇气,解渴所有的欲望。The various heavens of Brahminic theology, with their positive, even sensual, delights were retained as the reward of virtuous souls not yet ripe for Nirvana.神学的Brahminic各种天上与他们积极,甚至是感官,愉悦人的灵魂作为奖励良性尚未成熟涅槃保留。To aspire after such rewards was permitted to the lukewarm monk; it was commended to the layman.为了追求这种奖励是允许后向和尚冷淡,这是赞扬的门外汉。Hence the frequent reference, even in the earliest Buddhist writings to heaven and its positive delights as an encouragement to right conduct.因此,经常提到,愉悦为鼓励以正确的行为,即使在最早的佛教著作天堂和积极。Sufficient prominence is not generally given to this more popular side of Buddha's teaching, without which his followers would have been limited to an insignificant and short-lived band of heroic souls.充分突出一般不给这个佛陀的教诲,没有他的追随者将被限制在一个很小的英灵和短命的乐队更受欢迎的一面。 It was this element, so prominent in the inscriptions of Asoka, that tempered the severity of Buddha's doctrine of Nirvana and made his system acceptable to the masses.正是这种因素,所以在阿育王铭文突出,即锻炼了佛的涅槃学说的严重性,并作了系统接受群众。In order to secure that extinction of desire which alone could lead to Nirvana, Buddha prescribed for his followers a life of detachment from the comforts, pleasures, and occupations of the common run of men.为了确保这一灭绝的愿望,因为只有可能导致涅槃,规定他的追随者从舒适,愉悦的支队寿佛,以及职业的男性常见的运行。 To secure this end, he adopted for himself and his disciples the quiet, secluded, contemplative life of the Brahmin ascetics.为了确保为此,他通过自己和他的弟子中的宁静,与世隔绝,沉思的婆罗门修行生活。It was foreign to his plan that his followers should engage in any form of industrial pursuits, lest they might thereby be entangled in worldly cares and desires.这是外国对他的计划,他的追随者应该从事任何形式的工业追求,否则他们可能因此而纠缠在世俗的关心和愿望。Their means of subsistence was alms; hence the name commonly applied to Buddhist monks was bhikkus, beggars.谋生手段是施舍,因此普遍适用于佛教僧侣的名字是bhikkus,乞丐。Detachment from family life was absolutely necessary.从家庭生活支队是绝对必要的。Married life was to be avoided as a pit of hot coals, for it was incompatible with the quenching of desire and the extinction of individual existence.婚姻生活是作为煤热坑避免,因为它是与淬火的愿望和个人存在的灭绝是不相容的。In like manner, worldly possessions and worldly power had to be renounced-everything that might minister to pride, greed, or self-indulgence.同样,家当和世俗的力量都必须放弃,一切可能部长骄傲,贪婪,或自我放纵。 Yet in exacting of his followers a life of severe simplicity, Buddha did not go to the extremes of fanaticism that characterized so many of the Brahmin ascetics.然而,在他的追随者严格的严重简朴生活,佛陀没有去的极端,狂热的特点使很多的婆罗门修行。He chose the middle path of moderate asceticism which he compared to a lute, which gives forth the proper tones only when the strings are neither too tight nor too slack.他选择了温和的禁欲主义中间道路,他相比,琵琶,它散发出的唯一的字符串时,既不太紧或过松适当的音调。Each member was allowed but one set of garments, of yellowish colour and of cheap quality.每个成员是允许的,但一服装集,黄颜色和廉价的质量。These, together with his sleeping mat, razor, needle, water-strainer, and alms bowl, constituted the sum of his earthly possessions.这些,连同他的笫,剃须刀,针,水过滤器,和钵盂,构成了他的俗世的财产的总和。His single meal, which had to be taken before noon, consisted chiefly of bread, rice, and curry, which he gathered daily in his alms-bowl by begging.他的单餐,这些都必须在中午之前采取,主要包括面包,米饭和咖喱,这是他在他收集的乞讨化缘钵日报。Water or rice-milk was his customary drink, wine and other intoxicants being rigorously forbidden, even as medicine.稻水或牛奶是他的习惯性饮料,葡萄酒和其他麻醉品被严格禁止的,即使药物。Meat, fish, and delicacies were rarely eaten except in sickness or when the monk dined by invitation with some patron.肉,鱼,很少吃美食除了在生病时或通过与一些赞助邀请共进晚餐的和尚。The use of perfumes, flowers, ointments, and participation in worldly amusements fell also into the class of things prohibited.的香水,鲜花,药膏,在世俗的娱乐和参与使用也下降到禁止类的东西。In theory, the moral code of Buddhism was little more than a copy of that of Brahminism.从理论上讲,佛教的道德准则是只不过是婆罗门该副本的更多。Like the latter, it extended to thoughts and desires, no less than to words and deeds.喜欢后者,它扩展到思想和欲望不下言行。Unchastity in all its forms, drunkenness, lying, stealing, envy, pride, harshness are fittingly condemned.各种形式的,不贞洁酗酒,说谎,偷窃,嫉妒,骄傲,残酷是恰当的谴责。But what, perhaps, brings Buddhism most strikingly in contact with Christianity is its spirit of gentleness and forgiveness of injuries.但是,也许,带来显着的佛教与基督教的联系最重要的是它的温柔和宽恕的精神伤害。 To cultivate benevolence towards men of all classes, to avoid anger and physical violence, to be patient under insult, to return good for evil &151; all this was inculated in Buddhism and helped to make it one of the gentlest of religions.为培养善对各阶层的人,避免愤怒和暴力行为,将根据病人的侮辱,来回报这一切是inculated佛教和帮助,使其成为一个温和的宗教邪恶&151;好。 To such an extent was this carried that the Buddhist monk, like the Brahmin ascetic, had to avoid with the greatest care the destruction of any form of animal life.到这样的程度是这样进行的和尚一样,婆罗门苦行,不得不以最大的关怀避免任何形式的破坏动物的生命。

In course of time, Buddha extended his monastic system to include women.在课程的时间,延长他的佛寺院制度,包括妇女。Communities of nuns while living near the monks, were entirely secluded from them.修女的生活社区,而附近的僧侣,完全是从他们隐蔽。They had to conform to the same rule of life, to subsist on alms, and spend their days in retirement and contemplation.他们必须遵守同样的规则的生活,为了生存的施舍,并花费在退休和沉思的日子。They were never as numerous as the monks, and later became a very insignificant factor in Buddhism.他们从来没有像众多的僧人,后来成为佛教中非常微不足道的因素。In thus opening up to his fellow men and women what he felt to be the true path of salvation, Buddha made no discrimination in social condition.在这样开放的男女同伴他认为是得救的真实路径,佛陀没有歧视的社会条件。Herein lay one of the most striking contrasts between the old religion and the new.在此奠定最引人注目的一间旧的宗教和新的对比。Brahminism was inextricably intertwined with caste-distinctions.婆罗门教是密不可分的种姓的区别。It was a privilege of birth, from which the Sudras and members of still lower classes were absolutely excluded.这是一个特权出生时,从该首陀罗和低下阶层仍然是绝对排除在外。Buddha, on the contrary, welcomed men of low as well as high birth and station.佛,相反,欢迎男性低以及高出生率和高台。 Virtue, not blood, was declared to be the test of superiority.美德,而不是血液,被宣布为测试的优越性。In the brotherhood which he built around him, all caste-distinctions were put aside.在他身边的兄弟建成,所有种姓的区别被搁置。The despised Sudra stood on a footing of equality with the high-born Brahmin.桃一点的鄙视站在一个与高出生婆罗门的平等地位。 In this religious democracy of Buddhism lay, doubtless, one of its strongest influences for conversion among the masses.在这个佛教宗教的民主国家奠定,毫无疑问,其在人民群众中最强的转换因素之一。But in thus putting his followers on a plane of equal consideration, Buddha had no intention of acting the part of a social reformer.但是,在从而对飞机的平等考虑他的追随者,佛并没有采取行动的一个社会改革的一部分意图。Not a few scholars have attributed to him the purpose of breaking down caste-distinctions in society and of introducing more democratic conditions.也有不少学者都认为,向他打破社会种姓的区别,引入更多民主的条件的目的。Buddha had no more intention of abolishing caste than he had of abolishing marriage.佛陀没有废除种姓比他更打算取消结婚了。It was only within the limits of his own order that he insisted on social equality just as he did on celibacy.这是只有在他自己的秩序的限制,他对社会上的平等,正如他没有坚持独身。Wherever Buddhism has prevailed, the caste-system has remained untouched.无论佛教盛行的种姓制度至今仍保持原状。

Strictly speaking, Buddha's order was composed only of those who renounced the world to live a life of contemplation as monks and nuns.严格地说,佛陀的命令只由那些谁放弃了世界上生活的僧侣和尼姑沉思的生活。The very character of their life, however, made them dependent on the charity of men and women who preferred to live in the world and to enjoy the comforts of the household state.他们的生活非常的性格,不过,使他们对男性和女性谁喜欢住在世界和享受家庭的舒适状态慈善依赖。Those who thus sympathized with the order and contributed to its support, formed the lay element in Buddhism.因此,谁同情那些与秩序,促成了其支持,形成了躺在佛教元素。Through this friendly association with the order, they could look to a happy reward after death, not Nirvana but the temporary de!ights of heaven, with the additional prospect of being able at some future birth to attain to Nirvana, if they so desired.通过这次友好交往与秩序,他们可以期待幸福的奖励后死亡,不享有作为出生在将来某个能够达到涅槃,如果他们愿意额外前景涅槃但临时去!天堂ights。 The majority, however, did not share the enthusiasm of the Buddhist Arhat or saint for Nirvana, being quite content to hope for a life of positive, though impermanent, bliss in heaven.大多数人,但是,不同意的佛教圣罗汉或涅槃的热情,不少内容是希望有一个积极的生活,虽然无常,在天堂幸福。

IV.四。LATER DEVELOPMENTS AND SPREAD OF BUDDHISM后来的发展与佛教的传播

The lack of all religious rites in Buddhism was not keenly felt during the lifetime of its founder.在所有佛教宗教仪轨不缺乏敏锐地感觉到,在其创办的寿命。Personal devotion to him took the place of religious fervour.个人奉献给他采取了宗教狂热的地方。But he was not long dead when this very devotion to him began to assume the form of religious worship.但他死时不长这个非常热爱他开始承担形式的宗教崇拜。His reputed relics, consisting of his bones, teeth, alms-bowl, cremation-vessel, and ashes from his funeral pyre, were enclosed in dome-shaped mounds called Dagobas, or Topes, or Stupas, and were honoured with offerings of lights, flowers, and incense.他被誉为文物,他的骨头,牙齿,化缘钵,火葬船,从他火葬骨灰,在圆顶形密封组成的所谓Dagobas土墩,或Topes,或佛塔,并与悠久的灯产品,花和香。 Pictures and statues of Buddha were multiplied on every side, and similarly honoured, being carried about on festal days in solemn procession.图片和佛像被乘以每一面,同样荣幸,正进行节日游行在庄严的天左右。The places, too, associated with his birth, enlightenment, first preaching, and death were accounted especially sacred, and became the objects of pilgrimage and the occasion of recurring festivals.的地方,也与他的出生,启蒙,首先说教,分别占死亡有关,特别是神圣的,并成为朝圣的对象和场合的经常性节日。 But as Buddha had entered into Nirvana and could not be sensible of these religious honours, the need was felt of a living personality to whom the people could pray.但正如佛陀已进入涅槃,不能对这些宗教荣誉明智的,需要感到一个活生生的个性的人可以向谁祈祷。The later speculations of Buddhist monks brought such a personality to light in Metteyya (Maitreya), the loving one, now happily reigning in heaven as a bodhisattva, a divine being destined in the remote future to become a Buddha, again to set in motion the wheel of the law.佛教僧侣后来猜测这样的个性,使光在Metteyya(弥勒佛),现在的爱心的人快乐地在天上执政作为一个菩萨,是在遥远的未来注定要成为一个神圣的佛陀,再次要在议案车轮的法律。 To this Metteyya the Buddhists turned as the living object of worship of which they had so long felt the need, and they paid him religious homage as the future saviour of the world.为此Metteyya佛教徒的崇拜转向为对象的生活,他们有这么长认为有必要,他们付给他作为未来世界的救世主宗教致敬。

The emergence of the Northern School北派的崛起

Such was the character of the religious worship observed by those who departed the least from Buddha's teachings.就是这样的宗教崇拜的人物那些谁离开了佛陀的教诲至少观察。It is what is found today in the so-called Southern Buddhism, held by the inhabitants of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam.它就是我们发现,在所谓的南传佛教的锡兰,缅甸,暹罗的居民举行了,今天。Towards the end of first century AD, however, a far more radical change took place in the religious views of the great mass of Buddhists in Northern India.迈向公元一世纪,然而,一个更为激进的改变最终发生在印度北部的大弥撒佛教徒的宗教观点的地方。Owing, doubtless, to the ever growing popularity of the cults of Vishnu and Siva, Buddhism was so modified as to allow the worship of an eternal, supreme deity, Adi-Buddha, of whom the historic Buddha was declared to have been an incarnation, an avatar.由于种种原因,毫无疑问,到毗湿奴和湿婆的邪教日益增长的普及,佛教是如此修改,以允许一个永恒的,至高无上的神,阿迪,佛,菩萨,其中的历史已被宣布为崇拜的化身,一头像。 Around this supreme Buddha dwelling in highest heaven, were grouped a countless number of bodhisattvas, destined in future ages to become human Buddhas for the sake of erring man.围绕这一最高佛陀住在高天,进行分组,日后注定要成为时代的人犯错误的人而佛菩萨,无数。To raise oneself to the rank of bodhisattva by meritorious works was the ideal now held out to pious souls.为了提高自己对作品所功勋级现在菩萨伸出的理想,以虔诚的灵魂。In place of Nirvana, Sukhavati became the object of pious longing, the heaven of sensuous pleasures, where Amitabha, an emanation of the eternal Buddha, reigned.在涅磐的地方,净土成为虔诚的渴望,对感官愉悦,在那里阿弥陀佛,一个永恒的佛的化身,在位天堂对象。For the attainment of Sukhavati, the necessity of virtuous conduct was not altogether forgotten, but an extravagant importance was attached to the worship of relics and statues, pilgrimages, and, above all, to the reciting of sacred names and magic formulas.对于净土的实现,良性行为的必要性,并不完全忘记了,而是一个奢侈的重要性,附着在文物和塑像,朝圣的崇拜,以及最重要的是,到了神圣的名字和魔法公式背诵。 Many other gross forms of Hindu superstition were also adopted.许多其他形式的印度教迷信还通过了总额。This innovation, completely subversive of the teaching of Buddha, supplanted the older system in the North.这一创新,完全颠覆了佛陀的教导,取代了旧系统在北方。It was known as the Mahayana, or Great Vehicle, in distinction to the other and earlier form of Buddhism contemptuously styled the Hinayana or Little Vehicle, which held its own in the South.它被称为大乘,或大汽车,在区分佛教的其他形式的轻蔑和早期风格的小乘或小的车子,在其南部举行的。It is only by the few millions of Southern Buddhists that the teachings of Buddha have been substantially preserved.只有通过南方佛教徒认为佛陀的教义已大幅保存数百万美元。

Buddha's order seems to have grown rapidly, and through the good will of rulers, whose inferior origin debarred them from Brahmin privileges, to have become in the next two centuries a formidable rival of the older religion.佛的秩序似乎迅速增长,并通过善意的统治者,其下由婆罗门特权起源不准他们,在接下来的两个世纪成为一个强大的竞争对手旧宗教。 The interesting rock-edicts of Asoka-a royal convert to Buddhism who in the second quarter of the third century BC held dominion over the greater part of India &151; give evidence that Buddhism was in a most flourishing condition, while a tolerant and kindly spirit was displayed towards other forms of religion.有趣的岩石阿育王给皇家法令皈依佛教谁在公元前三世纪举行了印度&151;大部分统治作证,佛教在最繁荣的条件,而第二季度的宽容和善意的精神是显示对其他形式的宗教。 Under his auspices missionaries were sent to evangelize Ceylon in the South, and in the North, Kashmer, Kandahar, and the so-called Yavana country, identified by most scholars with the Greek settlements in the Kabul valley and vicinity, and later known as Bactria.在他的主持下传福音传教士被送往锡兰在南方,在北方,Kashmer,坎大哈,以及所谓的Yavana国家,大多数学者认同在喀布尔附近的山谷和希腊的定居点,后来称为巴克特里亚。 In all these places Buddhism quickly took root and flourished, though in the Northern countries the religion became later on corrupted and transformed into the Mahayana form of worship.在所有这些地方佛教很快扎下了根,并蓬勃发展,虽然在后来的宗教成为损坏,到崇拜大乘形式转化北方国家。

Buddhism in China佛教在中国

In the first century of the Christian Era, the knowledge of Buddha made its way to China.在第一世纪的基督教时代,知识的佛像的方式作出了中国。At the invitation of the Emperor Ming-ti, Buddhist monks came in AD 67 with sacred books, pictures, and relics.在皇明钛,佛教僧侣邀请是在公元67神圣的书籍,图片和文物。Conversions multiplied, and during the next few centuries the religious communications between the two countries were very close.转换成倍增加,并在接下来的几个世纪,两国之间的宗教交流是非常密切。Not only did Buddhist missionaries from India labour in China, but many Chinese monks showed their zeal for the newly adopted religion by making pilgrimages to the holy places in India.不仅从印度佛教传教士在中国劳工,但许多中国僧人表明通过使印度的朝圣圣地他们对新通过的宗教热情。A few of them wrote interesting accounts, still extant, of what they saw and heard in their travels.他们当中有些人说有趣的帐户,还是现存的,他们所看到和听到在他们的旅行。Of these pilgrims the most noted are Fahien, who travelled in India and Ceylon in the years AD 399-414, and Hiouen-Tsang who made extensive travels in India two centuries later (AD 629-645).这些朝圣者的最引人注目的是Fahien,谁在未来数年在前往印度和锡兰公元399-414,和Hiouen,谁曾在印度游历两个世纪以后(公元629-645)。 The supplanting of the earlier form of Buddhism in the northern countries of India in the second century led to a corresponding change in the Buddhism of China.作者:佛教在印度的北方国家在早先的形式导致了中国佛教的相应变化的第二个世纪取代。The later missionaries, being mostly from the North of India, brought with them the new doctrine, and in a short time the Mahayana or Northern Buddhism prevailed.后来的传教士,被来自印度北部与他们带来了新的学说,并在很短的时间大多是大乘佛教盛行或北。Two of the bodhisattvas of Mahayana theology became the favourite objects of worship with the Chinese &151; Amitabha, lord of the Sukhavati paradise, and Avalokitesvara, extravagantly praised in the "Lotus of the True Law" as ready to extricate from every sort of danger those who think of him or cherish his name.神学的大乘菩萨两人成了与中国&151;阿弥陀佛的净土乐园主,和菩萨像崇拜心爱之物,奢华称赞的“莲花真法”的准备摆脱种种危险的排序谁想到他还是珍惜他的名字。 The latter, known as Fousa Kwanyin, is worshipped, now as a male deity, again as the goddess of mercy, who comes to the relief of the faithful.后者,Fousa观音,是一种崇拜,现在作为一个男神,再次成为仁慈的女神,谁涉及到的忠实救济。Amitabha goes by the Chinese name Amita, or Mito.阿弥陀佛的推移阿弥陀佛的中文名称,或水户。Offerings of flowers and incense made before his statues and the frequent repetition, of his name are believed to ensure a future life of bliss in his distant Western paradise.鲜花和他的雕像前做出香和频繁重复发行,他的名字被认为是确保在其遥远的西天极乐的未来生活的一个。An excessive devotion to statues and relics, the employment of magic arts to keep off evil spirits, and the observance of many of the gross superstitions of Taoism, complete the picture of Buddhism in China, a sorry representation of what Buddha made known to men.过多的献身雕像和文物,艺术的神奇就业远离邪恶的精神,和对毛的迷信道教的许多戒律,完成中国的佛教图片,佛陀公布的男子表示遗憾。 Chinese Buddhism was introduced into Korea in the fourth century, and from there taken to Japan two centuries later.中国佛教传入朝鲜在第四世纪,并从那里对日本采取了两个世纪以后。The Buddhism of these countries is in the main like that of China, with the addition of a number of local superstitions.这些国家的佛教是在像中国的主体,在当地迷信数量增加。Annam was also evangelized by Chinese Buddhists at an early period.安南还evangelized首先由中国佛教在较早的时期。

Tibetan Buddhiism (Lamaism)西藏Buddhiism(喇嘛教)

Buddhism was first introduced into Tibet in the latter part of the seventh century, but it did not begin to thrive till the ninth century.佛教传入西藏首次在七世纪后期,但它并没有开始茁壮成长,直到第九世纪。In 1260, the Buddhist conqueror of Tibet, Kublai Khan, raised the head lama, a monk of the great Sakja monastery, to the position of spiritual and temporal ruler. 1260年,西藏,忽必烈,佛教征服者抬头的喇嘛,给精神和时间标尺的位置一个伟大的Sakja寺院僧人。His modern successors have the title of Dalai Lama.他的继任者有现代达赖喇嘛的称号。Lamaism is based on the Northern Buddhism of India, after it had become saturated with the disgusting elements of Siva worship.喇嘛教是根据印度北部佛教后,它已成为湿婆的崇拜了令人讨厌的元素饱和。Its deities are innumerable, its idolatry unlimited.它的神是数不胜数,其偶像崇拜无限的。It is also much given to the use of magic formulas and to the endless repetition of sacred names.这也是考虑到很多的魔术公式使用和对神圣的名字无休止的重复。Its favourite formula is, Om mani padme hum (O jewel in the lotus, Amen), which, written on streamers exposed to the wind, and multiplied on paper slips turned by hand or wind or water, in the so-called prayer-wheels, is thought to secure for the agent unspeakable merit.它最喜爱的公式,嗡嘛呢叭咪嗡(海外宝石在荷花,阿门),其中,写上暴露在风幡,纸本乘以单手或风或水变成了所谓的祈祷轮, ,被认为是安全的代理无法形容的优点。The Dalai Lama, residing in the great monastery at Lhasa, passes for the incarnation of Amitabha, the Buddha of the Sukhavati paradise.达赖喇嘛在拉萨的大寺院居住,通行证为阿弥陀佛,佛的净土乐园化身。Nine months after his death, a newly born babe is selected by divination as the reincarnate Buddha.他去世九个月后,新出生的婴儿被选中的转世佛占卜。

Catholic missionaries to Tibet in the early part of the last century were struck by the outward resemblances to Catholic liturgy and discipline that were presented by Lamaism-its infallible head, grades of clergy corresponding to bishop and priest, the cross, mitre, dalmatic, cope, censer, holy water, etc. At once voices were raised proclaiming the Lamaistic origin of Catholic rites and practices.天主教传教士在上个世纪初西藏曾经发生的外向相似之处天主教礼仪和纪律,是由藏传佛教,其犯错的头部,提出相应等级的神职人员的主教和神父,两岸,迈特,dalmatic,应对,香炉,圣水等,提出了在一次的声音宣布,天主教仪式和做法Lamaistic来源。 Unfortunately for this shallow theory, the Catholic Church was shown to have possessed these features in common with the Christian Oriental churches long before Lamaism was in existence.不幸的是,这种肤浅的理论,天主教会被证明已具备在共同与基督教东方教会早在藏传佛教中的存在,这些功能。The wide propagation of Nestorianism over Central and Eastern Asia as early as AD 635 offers a natural explanation for such resemblances as are accretions on Indian Buddhism.在中欧和东欧地区对景教如公元635年初广泛的传播提供了一个为是对印度佛教添加物等相似自然的解释。The missionary zeal of Tibetan lamas led to the extension of their religion to Tatary in the twelfth and following centuries.西藏传教的喇嘛热情导致了他们的宗教Tatary在第十二和几百年的延伸。While Northern Buddhism was thus exerting a widespread influence over Central and Eastern Asia, the earlier form of Buddhism was making peaceful conquests of the countries and islands in the South.虽然北方佛教因此施加了中欧和东欧地区广泛影响,佛教较早的形式就做出了国家和南方岛屿和平征服。In the fifth century missionaries from Ceylon evangelized Burma.在第五世纪传教士从锡兰缅甸福音。Within the next two centuries, it spread to Siam, Cambodia, Java, and adjacent islands.在接下来的两个世纪中,它蔓延到暹罗,柬埔寨,爪哇,和邻近岛屿。

Statistics统计

The number of Buddhists throughout the world is commonly estimated at about four hundred and fifty millions, that is, about one-third of the human race.在整个世界佛教徒的人数一般估计约为四百五十百万,也就是说,大约三分之一的人类的三分之一。But on this estimate the error is made of classing an the Chinese and Japanese as Buddhists.但在这个估计误差是由分级一中和日本佛教徒。Professor Legge, whose years of experience in China give special weight to his judgment, declares that the Buddhists in the whole world are not more than, one hundred millions, being far outnumbered not only by Christians, but also by the adherents of Confucianism and Hinduism.理雅各教授,其在中国的经验给予特别重视他的判断,宣布在全世界佛教徒并不多,一百万元,不仅远远寡不敌众由基督徒,也受到儒家和印度教的信徒。 Professor Monier Williams holds the same views.威廉姆斯教授莫尼尔持有相同的看法。Even if Buddhism, however, outranked Christianity in the number of adherents, it would be a mistake to attribute to the religion of Buddha, as some do, a more successful propagandism than to the religion of Christ.即使佛教,但是,outranked在基督教教徒的人数,这将是一个错误的属性,以佛陀的宗教,像有些人,一比对基督宗教宣传的更成功。 The latter has made its immense conquests, not by compromising with error and superstition, but by winning souls to the exclusive acceptance of its saving truths.后者作出了巨大的征服,而不是妥协的错误和迷信,但赢得的灵魂,其节约的真理独家接受。Wherever it has spread, it has maintained its individuality.无论它已蔓延,它一直保持了其个性。On the other hand, the vast majority of the adherents of Buddhism cling to forms of creed and worship that Buddha, if alive, would reprobate.另一方面,佛教的广大信徒坚持的信条和崇拜,佛陀,如果活着,会堕落的形式。Northern Buddhism became the very opposite of what Buddha taught to men, and in spreading to foreign lands accommodated itself to the degrading superstitions of the peoples it sought to win.北方佛教成为了完全相反的佛陀教人,安置在蔓延到自己的人民,而是力求赢得了外商的土地和有辱人格的迷信。It is only the Southern Buddhists of Ceylon, Burma, and Siam who deserve to be identified with the order founded by Buddha.这是唯一的锡兰,缅甸,暹罗谁应该得到与佛的顺序确定成立南部的佛教徒。They number at most but thirty millions of souls.他们人数最多,但在灵魂三十万元。

V. BUDDHISM AND CHRISTIANITY五,佛教和基督教

Between Buddhism and Christianity there are a number of resemblances, at first sight striking.佛教与基督教有很多相似之处数量惊人的一见钟情。

The Buddhist order of monks and nuns offers points of similarity with Christian monastic systems, particularly the mendicant orders.在佛教僧侣和尼姑为了提供与基督教修道院制度,特别是乞讨命令相似点。There are moral aphorisms ascribed to Buddha that are not unlike some of the sayings of Christ.有道德归因于佛陀格言是不像基督的说法有些不是。

Most of all, in the legendary life of Buddha, which in its complete form is the outcome of many centuries of accretion, there are many parallelisms, some more, some less striking, to the Gospel stories of Christ.最重要的是在佛传奇一生,在其完整形式是吸积几百年的成果,有很多parallelisms,一些,一些不太引人注目的,对基督福音的故事。

A few third-rate scholars taking for granted that all these resemblances are pre-Christian, and led by the fallacious principle that resemblance always implies dependence, have vainly tried to show that Christian monasticism is of Buddhist origin, and that Buddhist thought and legend have been freely incorporated into the Gospels.一些三流的学者理所当然,所有这些相似之处,前基督教,并由谬误原则,相似性总是意味着依赖的领导下,徒劳的尝试表明,基督教修道佛教的起源,而佛教思想和传说有被纳入自由福音。 To give greater speciousness to their theory, they have not scrupled to press into service, besides the few bona fide resemblances many others that were either grossly exaggerated, or fictitious, or drawn from Buddhist sources less ancient than the Gospels.为了让更多的似是而非他们的理论,他们还没有scrupled按投入服务,除了少数真正的相似之处,即要么严重夸大,或虚构,或低于福音古代佛教来源吸引许多人。 If, from this vast array of alleged Buddhist infiltrations, all these exaggerations, fictions, and anachronisms are eliminated, the points of resemblance that remain are, with perhaps one exception, such as may be explained on the ground of independent origin.如果从这个所谓的佛教渗透繁多,所有这些夸张,小说,及时代被淘汰时,仍然存在的相似点或许是一个例外的,如原因可能是对独立的起源地。

The exception is the story of Buddha's conversion from the worldly life of a prince to the life of an ascetic, which was transformed by some Oriental Christian of the seventh century into the popular medieval tale of "Barlaam and Josaphat".唯一的例外是佛陀的转换从一个王子的故事,世俗生活的一个苦行僧,这是由一些在第七世纪的东方基督教转化为流行的“Barlaam和约萨法特”中世纪故事的生活。 Here is historic evidence of the turning of a Buddhist into a Christian legend just as, on the other hand, the fifth-century sculptures of Gospel scenes on the ruined Buddhist monasteries of Jamalgiri, in Northern Panjab, described in the scholarly work of Fergusson and Burgess, "The Cave Temples of India", offer reliable evidence that the Buddhists of that time did not scruple to embellish the Buddha legend with adaptations from Christian sources.这里是一个佛教的转折点到基督教传说一样,另一方面,历史证明,对被破坏的佛教寺庙Jamalgiri,北部旁遮普在弗格森和学术工作的描述,福音场景第五世纪的雕塑伯吉斯,“印度石窟”,提供可靠的证据表明,当时的佛教徒没有顾忌美化从基督教的来源与佛陀的传说改编。

But is there any historical basis for the assertion that Buddhist influence was a factor in the formation of Christianity and of the Christian Gospels?但是,有没有历史依据的说法,佛教的影响是一个在基督教的形成和基督教福音因素?The advocates of this theory pretend that the rock-inscriptions of Asoka bear witness to the spread of Buddhism over the Greek-speaking world as early as the third century BC, since they mention the flourishing existence of Buddhism among the Yavanas, ie Greeks within the dominion of Antiochus.这一理论的倡导者假装岩石阿育王铭文见证了佛教在希腊讲全世界的传播,早在公元前三世纪,因为他们提到在Yavanas之间的佛教兴盛的存在,即希腊人统治安提阿哥伊。 But in the unanimous judgment of first-rate scholars, the Yavanas here mentioned mean simply and solely the Greek-speaking peoples on the extreme frontier next to India, namely, Bactria and the Kabul valley.但是,在一流的学者一致的判断,Yavanas这里提到的仅仅意味着简单和边境上的极端希腊讲旁边的印度人民,即巴克特里亚和喀布尔的山谷。 Again the statement in the late Buddhist chronicle, Mahavansa, that among the Buddhists who came to the dedication of a great Stupa in Ceylon in the second century BC, "were over thirty thousand monks from the vicinity of Alassada, the capital of the Yona country" is taken to prove that long before the time of Christ, Alexandria in Egypt was the centre of flourishing Buddhist communities.再次声明,在后期佛教编年史,Mahavansa,即谁的佛教徒之间来到了一个伟大的佛塔在锡兰奉献在公元前二世纪,“在三万僧侣从Alassada,该国首都附近约纳“是采取以证明在基督时间长,亚历山大是埃及的佛教团体蓬勃发展的中心。 It is true that Alassada is the Pali for Alexandria; but the best scholars are agreed that the city here meant is not the ancient capital of Egypt, but as the text indicates, the chief city of the Yona country, the Yavana country of the rock-inscriptions, namely, Bactria and vicinity.诚然,Alassada是亚历山大八里,但最好的学者们一致认为这里指的是城市是不是埃及古都,但作为文本显示,该国主要城市约纳,该国岩Yavana -铭文,即巴克特里亚及附近。And so, the city referred to is most likely Alexandria ad Caucasum.因此,所指的是这个城市最有可能的亚历山大广告Caucasum。

In short, there is nothing in Buddhist records that may be taken as reliable evidence for the spread of Buddhism westward to the Greek world as early as the foundation of the Christian religion.总之,在佛教的记录没有什么可以采取的佛教向西蔓延至希腊世界的可靠证据,只要在建国初期的基督教。 That Buddhist institutions were at that time unknown in the West may be safely inferred from the fact that Buddhism is absolutely ignored in the literary and archaeological remains of Palestine, Egypt, and Greece.这是佛教机构当时在西方的时间不明,可安全地从佛教绝对是巴勒斯坦,埃及和希腊的文学和考古遗迹忽视的事实推断。There is not a single remains of Buddhist monastery or stupa in any of these countries; not a single Greek translation of a Buddhist book; not a single reference in all Greek literature to the existence of a Buddhist community in the Greek world.没有一个单一的佛教寺院或佛塔仍然在这些国家中的任何,不是一个单一的希腊翻译佛教书籍,不是在所有希腊文学对一个佛教界在希腊世界的存在单一的参考。 The very name of Buddha is mentioned for the first time only in the writings of Clement of Alexandria (second century).佛陀的这个名字是第一次提到只有在亚历山大(公元二世纪)克莱门特的著作。To explain the resemblances in Christianity to a number of pre-Christian features of Buddhism, there is no need of resorting to the hypothesis that they were borrowed.为了解释基督教的相似之处是佛教前基督教多项功能,也没有诉诸借来的假说,他们的需要。Nothing is more common in the study of comparative ethnology and religion than to find similar social and religious customs practised by peoples too remote to have had any communication with one another.没有比这更在比较民族学,宗教研究的共同比寻找类似的社会和宗教的人民太遥远,彼此有过任何沟通实行习俗。How easily the principle of ascetic detachment from the world may lead to a community life in which celibacy as observed, may be seen in the monastic systems that have prevailed not only among Buddhists, Essenes, and Christians, but also among the early Aztecs and Incas in the New World.如何轻易的原则,从苦行脱离世界可能导致社会生活中,独身的观察,可以在那些盛行佛教,爱色尼,和基督教徒,但也属于早期阿兹特克and不仅在寺院的印加人的系统出现在新的世界。 Nor is this so strange when it is recalled that men everywhere have, to a large extent, the same daily experiences, the same feelings, the desires.这也不是那么奇怪,当人们记得,男人处处有,在相当大程度上,同样的日常生活经验,同样的感情,欲望。As the laws of human thought are every here the same, it lies in the very nature of things that men, in so far as they have the same experiences, or face the same religious needs, will think the same thoughts, and give expression to them in sayings and customs that strike the unreflecting old server by their similarity.作为人类思维的规律是每一个在这里一样,而在于男人的事情,在目前为止,因为它们有相同的经验,或面临着同样的宗教需要,会觉得同样的想法,并且体现的本质他们在罢工谚语和习俗的相似性的控制那些没有思想的旧服务器。 It is only by losing sight of this fundamental truth that one can unwittingly fall into the error of assuming that resemblance always implies dependence.只有通过失去这个根本事实,人们可以不知不觉地落入错误的假设相似性总是意味着依赖视线。

It is chiefly the legendary features of Buddha's life, many of which are found for the first time only in works of later date than the Gospels, that furnish the most striking resemblances to certain incidents related of Christ in the Gospels, resemblances which might with greater show of reason be traced to a common historic origin.它主要是佛陀的一生传奇的特点,其中许多是首次发现,只有在比福音日后的行为,提供最引人注目的相似之处某些事件基督有关的福音,相似之处,这可能有更大的显示的原因可以追溯到一个共同的历史渊源。 If there has been any borrowing here, it is plainly on the side of Buddhism.如果有任何借贷在这里,它显然是对佛教的一面。That Christianity made its way to Northern India in the first two centuries is not only a matter of respectable tradition, but is supported by weighty archaeological evidence.基督教的方式作出了在印度北部的头两个世纪不仅是一个值得尊重的传统问题,但被沉重的考古证据支持。Scholars of recognized ability beyond the suspicion of undue bias in favour of Christianity - Weber, Goblet d'Alviella, and others-think it very likely that the Gospel stories of Christ circulated by these early Christian communities in India were used by the Buddhists to enrich the Buddha legend, just as the Vishnuites built up the legend of Krishna on many striking incidents in the life of Christ.认可超越了不必要的猜疑能力偏差在基督教学者赞成 - 韦伯,杯状德Alviella,和其他人认为这很可能是基督福音的故事,这些在印度的早期基督教社区分发了丰富的佛教使用佛陀的传说,就像Vishnuites建立了奎师那在基督的生活的许多引人注目的事件传说。 The fundamental tenets of Buddhism are marked by grave defects that not only betray its inadequacy to become a religion of enlightened humanity, but also bring into bold relief its inferiority to the religion of Jesus Christ.佛教的基本教义的标志是严重缺陷,不仅背叛其不足成为一个开明的人类宗教,也使救济方面大胆自卑耶稣基督的宗教。In the first place, the very foundation on which Buddhism rests-the doctrine of karma with its implied transmigrations-is gratuitous and false.首先,非常基础上,佛教在于,业力轮回的学说,其隐含的,是无偿的和虚假的。This pretended law of nature, by which the myriads of gods, demons, men, and animals are but the transient forms of rational beings essentially the same, but forced to this diversity in consequence of varying degrees of merit and demerit in former lives, is a huge superstition in flat contradiction to the recognized laws of nature, and hence ignored by men of science.这种自然假装法律,其中的神仙,妖魔,无数的人,动物是人类的理性,但短暂的形式基本不变,但不得不这样在不同的优点和缺点在前世度后果的多样性,是在平坦的矛盾巨大迷信大自然的认识规律,从而忽视了科学的男子。 Another basic defect in primitive Buddhism is its failure to recognize man's dependence on a supreme God.在原始佛教的基本的另一个缺陷是它不承认人对一个至高无上的神的依赖。By ignoring God and by making salvation rest solely on personal effort, Buddha substituted for the Brahmin religion a cold and colourless system of philosophy.无视上帝和个人作出努力拯救完全休息,佛取代了婆罗门教的哲学寒冷和无色制度。It is entirely lacking in those powerful motives to right conduct, particularly the motive of love, that spring from the consecration of religious men and women to the dependence on a personal all-loving God.这是完全缺乏这些强大的动机,以正确的行为,特别是爱的动机,即从宗教男性和女性的奉献春天到一个个人所有热爱神的依赖。 Hence it is that Buddhist morality is in the last analysis a selfish utilitarianism.因此,它是佛教道德归根到底是一个自私的功利主义。There is no sense of duty, as in the religion of Christ, prompted by reverence for a supreme Lawgiver, by love for a merciful Father, by personal allegiance to a Redeemer.没有责任感作为在基督宗教,提示崇敬一个最高立法者,其次是一个仁慈的父爱,由个人效忠救世主。Karma, the basis of Buddhist morality, is like any other law of nature, the observance of which is prompted by prudential considerations.因果报应,佛教道德的基础,如同任何性质的其他法律,其遵守是出于审慎的考虑。 Not infrequently one meets the assertion that Buddha surpassed Jesus in holding out to struggling humanity an end utterly unselfish.不是偶尔一符合断言佛伸出超过了耶稣挣扎人类完全无私的结束。This is a mistake.这是一个错误。 Not to speak of the popular Swarga, or heaven, with its positive, even sensual delights the fact that Nirvana is a negative ideal of bliss does not make it the less an object of interested desire.不要说流行的Swarga,或天堂,其积极,连感官愉悦的事实,涅槃是一个幸福负理想不会使它少一个有兴趣欲望的对象。 Far from being an unselfish end, Nirvana is based wholly on the motive of self-love.远不是一个无私的目的,完全是基于涅磐对自爱的动机。It thus stands on a much lower level than the Christian ideal, which, being primarily and essentially a union of friendship with God in heaven, appeals to motives of disinterested as well as interested love.因此,它站在一个比基督教的理想,水平要低得多,而且基本上是主要的友谊与上帝在天上的联盟,呼吁无私的动机以及感兴趣的爱。 Another fatal defect of Buddhism is its false pessimism.佛教的另一个致命的缺陷是其虚假的悲观情绪。A strong and healthy mind revolts against the morbid view that life is not worth living, that every form of conscious existence is an evil.一个病态的观点,即对生活是不值得的生活,每一位有意识的存在形式是一个邪恶的强大和健康的心智暴动。Buddhism stands condemned by the voice of nature the dominant tone of which is hope and joy.佛教主张谴责自然的主基调的是希望和喜悦的声音。It is a protest against nature for possessing the perfection of rational life.这是一座藏有完美的理性生命本质的抗议。 The highest ambition of Buddhism is to destroy that perfection by bringing all living beings to the unconscious repose of Nirvana.佛教的最高目标是摧毁把所有众生涅槃的无意识安息的完善。Buddhism is thus guilty of a capital crime against nature, and in consequence does injustice to the individual.因此,佛教是一种对自然资本罪,并因此没有不公正个人。All legitimate desires must be repressed.所有合法的欲望必须被压制。Innocent recreations are condemned.休闲是无辜的谴责。The cultivation of music is forbidden.音乐的培养是禁止的。Researches in natural science are discountenanced.在自然科学研究是discountenanced。The development of the mind is limited to the memorizing of Buddhist texts and the study of Buddhist metaphysics, only a minimum of which is of any value.心灵的发展受限于记忆的佛经和佛教研究形而上学,只有最小的是任何价值。The Buddhist ideal on earth is a state of passive indifference to everything.地球上佛教的理想是一种被动的一切漠不关心的状态。 How different is the teaching of Him who came that men might have life and have it more abundantly.如何不同的是他的教学来了,是谁的人生活,并有可能有更丰盛。Again Buddhist pessimism is unjust to the family.再次佛教悲观是不公正的家庭。Marriage is held in contempt and even abhorrence as leading to the procreation of life.婚姻是蔑视甚至举行憎恶为龙头,以生命的繁衍。In thus branding marriage as a state unworthy of man, Buddhism betrays its inferiority to Christianity, which recommends virginity but at the same time teaches that marriage is a sacred union and a source of sanctification.在这样的品牌作为一个人的婚姻状况不值得,佛教暴露了它自卑基督教,其中建议贞洁,但在同一时间教导我们,婚姻是一个神圣联盟和成圣的源泉。 Buddhist pessimism likewise does injustice to society.佛教也并不悲观不公正的社会。It has set the seal of approval on the Brahmin prejudice against manual labor.它已经确立了关于反对婆罗门的偏见体力劳动批准印章。 Since life is not worth living, to labour for the comforts and refinements of civilized life is a delusion.既然生命是不值得的生活,劳动的舒适和文明生活的改进是一种错觉。The perfect man is to subsist not by the labour of his hands but on the alms of inferior men.完美的男人,是生存的劳动,他的手,但对人的施舍不如没有。In the religion of Christ, "the carpenter's son", a healthier view prevails.在基督宗教,“木匠的儿子”,一个健康的观点占上风。The dignity of labour is upheld, and every form of industry is encouraged that tends to promote man's welfare.劳动的尊严得到维护,每一个行业趋于形式鼓励促进人的福利。Buddhism has accomplished but little for the uplifting of humanity in comparison with Christianity.佛教已经完成,但为了人类的隆升与基督教比较小。One of its most attractive features, which, unfortunately, has become wellnigh obsolete, was its practice of benevolence towards the sick and needy.其最吸引人的特点,而不幸的,已成为wellnigh过时之一,是其仁的做法对病人和穷人。Between Buddhists and Brahmins there was a commendable rivalry in maintaining dispensaries of food and medicine.佛教徒和婆罗门之间有一个在维持食品和药品的药房值得称赞的竞争。But this charity did not, like the Christian form, extend to the prolonged nursing of unfortunates stricken with contagious and incurable diseases, to the protection of foundlings, to the bringing up of orphans, to the rescue of fallen women, to the care of the aged and insane.但是,这并没有慈善机构,如基督教的形式,延伸到长期护理的不幸与灾区传染病和疑难杂症,对弃儿的保护,对养育孤儿,到堕落妇女救援,到照顾年龄和疯狂。 Asylums and hospitals in this sense are unknown to Buddhism.在这个意义上精神病院和医院不明佛教。The consecration of religious men and women to the lifelong service of afflicted humanity is foreign to dreamy Buddhist monasticism.对宗教的男子和妇女遭受人类奉献终身服务是陌生的梦幻般的佛教修道。Again, the wonderful efficacy displayed by the religion of Christ in purifying the morals of pagan Europe has no parallel in Buddhist annals.同样,精彩的显示效果由基督宗教在净化欧洲异教的道德在佛教史上没有平行。 Wherever the religion of Buddha has prevailed, it has proved singularly inefficient to lift society to a high standard of morality.无论宗教的佛像已占了上风,它已证明奇低效解除社会的道德水准。It has not weaned the people of Tibet and Mongolia from the custom of abandoning the aged, nor the Chinese from the practice of infanticide.它并没有放弃断奶从老人习俗西藏和蒙古人民,也不是从溺婴实践中。Outside the establishment of the order of nuns, it has done next to nothing to raise woman from her state of degradation in Oriental lands.以外的修女秩序的建立,它下一步要做什么,提高到从她在东方的土地退化状况的女人。It has shown itself utterly helpless to cope with the moral plagues of humanity.它已表明自己没奈何,以应付人类的道德瘟疫。 The consentient testimony of witnesses above the suspicion of prejudice establishes the fact that at the present day Buddhist monks are everywhere strikingly deficient in that moral earnestness and exemplary conduct which distinguished the early followers of Buddha.根据上述情况,涉嫌妨害作证的证人consentient确立的事实,在现今的佛教僧侣到处都是惊人的,道德的模范行为,认真和尊敬的佛陀的早期追随者不足。 In short, Buddhism is all but dead.总之,佛教几乎是死了。In its huge organism the faint pulsations of life are still discernible, but its power of activity is gone.在其巨大的生物体微弱的生命脉动仍然可辨,但其活动的权力是没有了。The spread of European civilization over the East will inevitably bring about its extinction.欧洲文明在东方的传播将不可避免地导致其灭绝。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1日1908年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhism小乘

Lamaism 喇嘛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra 谭崔


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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