General Information一般资料

A place not far from the walls of Jerusalem where Christ was crucified and near which He was buried (Luke 23:33).阿不远处的耶路撒冷基督被钉在十字架上的地方附近,他被葬墙(路加福音23:33)举行。 The exact location is a matter of dispute.确切的位置是一个有争议的问题。

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Advanced Information先进的信息

Calvary is a word found only in Luke 23:33, the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a translation of the Greek word Kranion, by which the Hebrew word Gulgoleth was interpreted, "the place of a skull."各各他是一个字仅见于路加23:33,拉丁名颅骨,这是作为一个希腊字Kranion,其中希伯来字Gulgoleth被理解,翻译用“一个头骨的地方。” It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull.这很可能是从它的形状这个名字,是在一个有些人头骨形成一个小丘或低,圆形,裸高程。It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill."这是圣经中无处称为“山”。The crucifixion of our Lord took place outside the city walls (Heb. 13:11-13) and near the public thoroughfare.我们的主在十字架上了外城城墙(希伯来书13:11-13)和附近的公共通道的地方。"This thing was not done in a corner."“这事却没有这样做在角落里。”(Also called Golgotha in Aramaic.)(又称阿拉姆各各他。)

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Advanced Information先进的信息

Calvary, kara, "a head" (Eng., "cranium"), a diminutive of kranon, denotes "a skull" (Latin calvaria), Matt.各各,卡拉,“一个头”(英,“头盖骨”),一kranon矮小,是指“一个骷髅”(拉丁语颅骨),马特。 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17.27:33,马可福音15:22,路加福音23:33,约翰福音19:17。The corresponding Aramaic word is Golgotha (Heb. gulgoleth; see Judg. 9:53; 2 Kings 9:35).相应亚拉姆字是墓地(希伯来书gulgoleth,见Judg 9:53。2国王9:35)。

Mount Calvary芒特卡尔弗里

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ.对耶稣基督的十字架的地方。


Etymology and Use词源和使用

The word Calvary (Latin Calvaria) means "a skull".这个词髑髅(拉丁文颅骨)的意思是“头骨”。Calvaria and the Gr.颅骨和GR。Kranion are equivalents for the original Golgotha.Kranion是原来的墓地等值。The ingenious conjecture that Golgotha may be a contraction for Gol Goatha and may accordingly have signified "mount of execution", and been related to Goatha in Jer., xxxi, 39, has found scarcely any supporters.巧妙的猜测,墓地可能是戈尔Goatha相应收缩,并可能有标志着“摩的执行”,并得到有关在哲向Goatha。,三十一,39岁,发现几乎没有任何支持者。 The diminutive monticulus (little mount) was coupled with the name AD 333 by the "Pilgrim of Bordeaux".在(小芒)小型monticulus是加上名称的广告333的“波尔多的朝圣者”。

Towards the beginning of the fifth century Rufinus spoke of "the rock of Golgotha".在接近五世纪Rufinus开始谈到“岩石的墓地”。Since the sixth century the usage has been to designate Calvary as a mountain.自六世纪的使用已被指定为各各他山。The Gospel styles it merely a "place", (Matthew 27:33; Mark 15:22; Luke 23:33; John 19:17).福音风格它只是一个“地方”,(马太27:33,马可福音15:22,路加福音23:33,约翰19:17)。

Origin of the Name名称的由来

The following theories have been advanced:下面的理论已先进:

Calvary may have been a place of public execution, and so named from the skulls strewn over it.各各他可能已被公开处决的地方,因此,从散落在它的头骨而得名。The victims were perhaps abandoned to become a prey to birds and beasts, as Jezabel and Pharao's baker had been (2 Kings 9:35; Genesis 40:19, 22).也许是被遗弃的受害者,成为鸟类和野兽的猎物为Jezabel和法老的面包,已经(2国王9:35创世纪40:19,22)。

Its name may have been derived from a cemetery that may have stood near.它的名称可能已被来自一种可能已站在附近的墓地。There is no reason for believing that Joseph's tomb, in which the body of Christ was laid, was an isolated one, especially since it was located in the district later on described by Josephus as containing the monument of the high-priest John.没有任何理由相信,约瑟夫的坟墓,其中基督的身体被解雇,是一个孤立的,尤其是因为它是由约瑟夫描述为包含了高牧师约翰稍后纪念碑位于该区的原因。 This hypothesis has the further advantage of explaining the thinness of the population in this quarter at so late a period as that of the siege of Jerusalem (Jos., Bell. jud., V, vi, 2).这一假说的解释在这么晚的一个,作为这一时期的围攻耶路撒冷的人口在本季度进一步瘦身优势(士圣何塞,贝尔。。,五,六,2)。 Moreover, each of the rival Calvaries of today is near a group of ancient Jewish tombs.此外,今天的对手Calvaries每个附近的古墓葬群犹太人。

The name may have been occasioned by the physical contour of the place.这个名字可能已经引起的身体轮廓的地方。St. Luke (loc. cit.) seems to this by saying it was the place called "a skull" (kranion).圣卢克(如上。)似乎是说,这是这个地方称为“骷髅”(kranion)。Moreover, Golgotha (from a Hebrew root meaning "to roll"), which borrows its signification from the rounded or rolling form of the skull, might also have been applied to a skull-shaped hillock.此外,墓地(从希伯来文根,意思是“滚”),其中借用其从头骨圆形或滚动形式意义,也可能被应用到一个头骨状小丘。

There was a tradition current among the Jews that the skull of Adam, after having been confided by Noah to his son Shem, and by the latter to Melchisedech, was finally deposited at the place called, for that reason, Golgotha.有一个传统,在犹太人中的电流,亚当头骨后,被吐露了他的儿子诺亚闪,及由Melchisedech后,终于被存放在有个地方叫出于这个原因,墓地。 The Talmudists and the Fathers of the Church were aware of this tradition, and it survives in the skulls and bones placed at the foot of the crucifix.该talmudists和父亲教会了这一传统认识,而且它的头骨,并在十字架脚放在骨头生存。The Evangelists are not opposed to it, inasmuch as they speak of one and not of many skulls.福音是不反对的,因为他们说话的一个头骨和许多没有。(Luke, Mark, John, loc. cit.) (卢克,马克,约翰,同上。前)。

The curious origins of many Biblical names, the twofold and sometimes disagreeing explanations offered for them by the Sacred Writers (Genesis passim) should make us pause before accepting any of the above theories as correct.许多圣经的名字好奇的起源,不同意的双重,有时为他们提供的神圣的作家(创各处)应作出解释之前,我们暂停接受上述理论为正确的。 Each of them has its weak points: The first seems to be opposed to the Jewish law, which prescribed that the crucified should be buried before sundown (Deuteronomy 21:23).他们每个人都有它的弱点:第一似乎是反对犹太人的法律,其中规定,应先钉在十字架上日落葬(申命记21:23)。Josephus intimates that this enactment was scrupulously observed (Bell. jud., IV, v, 2).约瑟夫亲密,这是制定严格遵守(Bell.士。,四,五,2)。The executions cited in support of the opinion are too few, too remote, and too isolated to have the force of proof.在处决了舆论的支持引用的太少,太遥远,太孤立有力量的证明。Moreover, in this supposition Calvary wold have been called more correctly a place "of skulls" but the Evangelists nowhere use the plural.此外,在这一假设髑髅战术核武器被称为更正确的一个“头骨”的地方,但福音无处使用复数。 In the first tow theories no sufficient reason is assigned for selecting the skull in reference to any other member of the body, or the corpse itself, as a name-giver.在第一个拖理论没有足够的理由选择在指定参考身体的任何其他成员,或尸体本身的头骨作为名称的赐予者。The third theory is plausible and more popular.第三个理论是可信的和更受欢迎。Yet it may not be urged a priori, as indicating a requisite for a Calvary otherwise unauthenticated.然而,它可能不会要求先验的,因为这表明了一个十字架,否则未经必要。The Evangelists seem to have been more intent upon giving an intelligible equivalent for the obscure name, Golgotha, than upon vouching for its origin.福音似乎已经在给予一个晦涩的名字,墓地比后,关于它的起源vouching,理解等值的意图。The fourth theory has been characterized as too absurd, though it has many serious adherents.第四个理论已被定性为过于荒谬,但它有许多严重的追随者。It was not absurd to the uncritical Jew.这不是荒唐到不加批判的犹太人。It would not seem absurd to untaught Christians.它不会觉得可笑受过教育的基督徒。Yet it is among the untaught that names arise spontaneously.然而,它是其中受过教育的名字油然而生。Indeed Christians embellished the legend, as we shall see.事实上,基督徒点缀的传说,正如我们将要看到的。


The New Testament新约

The only explicit notices are that the Crucifixion took place outside the city (Hebrews 13:12), but close to it; a newly-hewn tomb stood in a garden not far away (John 19:20, 41); the spot was probably near a frequented road, thus permitting the passers-by to revile the supposed criminal.唯一明确的是,受难通知了城外的地方(希伯来书13:12),但接近它,一个新墓在花园里凿成站在不远处(约19:20,41);现场可能是经常光顾附近的道路,从而允许路人咒骂假定的犯罪行为。 That the Cyrenian was coming from the country when he was forced into service seems to exclude only two of the roads entering Jerusalem, the one leading from Bethlehem and the one from Siloe (Matthew 27:30; Mark 15:24, 29; Luke 23:26).该Cyrenian是来自该国时,他被迫到服务似乎只有排除进入耶路撒冷,伯利恒和一个从Siloe一(马太27:30领先的道路二,马可福音15:24,29;路加福音23 :26)。Any other road entering Jerusalem might fulfil the condition.进入耶路撒冷的任何其他道路可能满足的条件。The incidents recorded along the sorrowful journey are so few that the distance from the praetorium is left a matter of conjecture.沿着那个悲伤的旅程记录的事件是如此之少,从远处的praetorium是留下了一个猜想。

Early Medieval Narratives中世纪早期的叙事

After the Apostolic Age no more is heard of Calvary until the fourth century.使徒时代之后更是没有听说过各各直到第四世纪。Under pagan rule an idol had been place there, and had been later embraced within the same enclosure as the crypt of the Resurrection (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl., II, 1, 2).异教统治下的一个偶像已经去过的地方在那里,后来接受了同一机箱内的隐窝的复活(Sozomen,历史。传道书。第一,二,一,二)。 Eustachius, Constantine's architect, separated it from the latter by hewing away a great mass of stone. Eustachius,君士坦丁的建筑师,脱离后者由砍了一大群的石头了。It was St. Melania the Younger who first adorned Mount Calvary with a chapel (436).这是圣Melania雅戈尔谁首先饰有一教堂(436)芒特卡尔弗里。

The place is described as a "knoll of scanty size" (deficiens loci tumor -- Eucherius, 427-440), apparently natural, and in the sixth century approached by steps.这个地方被描述为一个“微薄的大小山丘”(deficiens肿瘤位点 - Eucherius,427-440),显然是自然的,在第六世纪的步骤接触。It was fifteen paces from the Holy Sepulchre.这是从圣墓十五步伐。It was encircled with silver railings and contained a cell in which the Cross was kept, and a great altar (Theodosius, 530).它被包围银栏杆,并载有其中十字保持细胞,伟大的祭坛(狄奥,530)。Two years after the ravages of the Persians (614), a large church replaced the ruined chapel (Arculfus, 680).两年后,波斯人的破坏(614),一个大型教堂取代被破坏的教堂(Arculfus,680)。From its roof a brazen wheel adorned with lamps was suspended over a silver cross that stood in the socket of Our Saviour's gibbet.从它的屋顶公然与超过一个银十字架,在我们的救主的绞刑架​​插座站在暂停灯装饰轮。This Church was destroyed in 1010, but was restored in 1048.这个教会在1010被摧毁,但在1048年恢复。The rock beneath is spoken of by Soewulf (1102) as being "much cracked near the fosse of the Cross".下方是口语的,由Soewulf为“远交近福斯破获的”正(1102)岩石。In the traditions, Adam's burial and Abraham's sacrifice are repeatedly located there.在传统,亚当的丧葬费和亚伯拉罕的牺牲是重复设在那里。

By 1149 the Calvary chapel had been united by the crusaders with the surrounding oratories into a vast basilica.由1149年的各各教堂已通过联合国与周围oratories十字军成一个巨大的教堂。 The part of the rock believed to have held the Cross is said to have been removed and lost in a shipwreck on the coast of Syria while being transported to Constantinople (1809).岩石的一部分,相信已举行过,据说已被拆除,在对叙利亚海岸海难损失而被运往君士坦丁堡(1809)。Another fragment is shown in the chapel of Longinus, one of many in the basilica.另一个片段是显示在朗加纳斯,在大殿的许多一教堂。

Contemporary Sources当代来源

Wilson, Warren, Fraas, and other eminent topographers engaged in the interests of the English Ordinance Survey (1864-5), declare that the lower part of this traditional Calvary is natural, and that the upper part "may very likely be so".威尔逊,华伦,Fraas,和其他著名的英语条例调查(1864-5)的利益从事地志,宣布这一传统各各下部是很自然的,而上​​半部分“很可能是这样。” The knoll is of soft white limestone (nummulitic) containing nodules, and occupies a position normally required for such a bed in Palestine, viz.圆丘是软白石灰(nummulitic)含有结节,并占据一个位置,通常这样一个在巴勒斯坦,即床需要。above the Missae and Malaki strata respectively.以上Missae和分别马拉基阶层。These last beds are seen on lower levels in the basilica.这些最后的病床上看到的大殿较低的水平。The direction taken by the rent in the rock, 96 degrees east of north, is practically the same as that of the veining of the rocks roundabout.由在岩石,96度东北租金所采取的方向,实际上是作为岩石回旋脉络相同。Other points of similarity have been observed.其他相似点已被观察到。The fissure broadens eastwards.向东扩大的裂缝。The rock has been cut away on the side of the Holy Sepulchre, thus bearing out the architectural datum afforded by the period of Constantine.岩石已减少了对圣墓的一面,从而影响了建筑基准由君士坦丁时期负担得起。Calvary is 140 feet south- east of the Holy Sepulchre and 13 feet above it.各各是140英尺南方的圣墓东部和它上面的13英尺。 The early traditions mentioned at the beginning of this article still cling to it.在本文开头提到的早期的传统仍然坚持它。 The chapel of Adam beneath that of Calvary stands for the first.下方的亚当各各教堂里的第一站。A picture in it represents the raising of Adam to life by the Precious Blood trickling down upon his skull.一个在它的画表现了生命的宝血提高亚当滴下来后,他的头骨。An altar is there dedicated to Melchisedech.一个祭坛有专门Melchisedech。A vestige of the second tradition subsists in a scraggy olive tree a few yards away, religiously guarded, which the Abyssinians still claim to have been the bush in which the ram's horns were caught when the angel stayed the hand of Abraham.一个在凹凸不平橄榄树遗迹的第二个传统,存续几码远,宗教守卫,而阿比西尼亚仍然声称已在其中公羊的角被发现时下榻的天使布什亚伯拉罕手。

Calvary Chapel卡尔弗里查普尔

The small, low, poorly lighted oratory, built upon the traditional Calvary, is divided into two sections by a pair of massive pillars.小,低,差点燃的演讲,呼吁传统各各之上,是分为两部分由一对巨大的支柱。The chapel of the Exaltation of the Cross comprises the section on the north and belongs to the Orthodox Greeks.该教堂提升对两岸关系的组成部分,北,属希腊东正教。That of the Crucifixion on the south is in possession of the Latins.关于南部受难这是在拉丁人占有。At the eastern end, behind a thickly-set row of sanctuary lamps kept constantly burning, there are three altars of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth stations of the Way of the Cross.在东端,留下了厚厚的避难所灯,集行一直不断燃烧,有三种的苦路的第十一,第十二,第十三站和祭坛。That of the twelfth station is in the Greek chapel, and marks the position of Our Saviour's Cross.第十二届车站,是在希腊教堂,标志着我们救主的交叉位置。It is near the rent made in the rock by the earthquake.这是附近的岩石的地震作出的租金。Two black marble discs at its sides indicate the presumed positions of the malefactors' crosses.两个在其两侧的黑色大理石片显示的坏人'穿越推定立场。Behind it, among numerous icons, stands a large painted image of the Crucified Saviour.它的背后,在众多的图标,矗立着一座巨大的十字架救主画形象。The altars of the Crucifixion and Mater Dolorosa (eleventh and thirteenth stations) belong to the Latins.受难和母校的苦难(第十一和第十三站)的祭坛属于拉丁人。The image on the latter, or middle, altar is screened, and incased with a profusion of votive offerings.关于后者,或中间的形象,祭坛是筛选,并配有丰富的还愿祭incased。The floor of the chapel, which is on a level with the top of the rock, is covered with coarse mosaics.该教堂的地板上,这在具有岩石的顶层,是覆盖着粗糙的马赛克。A round stone in the pavement on the Latin side, near the eleventh station, marks the place of the tenth.在一项有关拉丁方圆形石头路面,附近的第十一站,标志着第十位。In the roof, there is a mosaic representation of Christ.在房顶上,有一个基督的马赛克代表性。Entrance to the chapel is obtained by the stairways.入口到教堂是得到了楼梯。The two most frequently used are at the west end.两种最常用的是西尾。The eighteen steps in each stairway, which are narrow, steep and much worn, are mostly of pink Santa Croce marble commonly quarried in Palestine.在每个楼梯的十八个步骤,狭窄,陡峭,许多破旧,大多是粉红色圣十字大理石开采常用于巴勒斯坦。


It is beyond doubt that the Calvary we have been considering is the same as that of the Middle Ages, but is it correct to identify it with that of the Gospels?毫无疑问,各各我们一直在考虑是中世纪,同样的,但是它正确识别与它的福音?It has long been far within the city walls.一直以来,城墙内迄今。But did the city wall which has enclosed it for so many centuries enclose it when Christ was crucified?但他的城墙已封闭了这么多世纪附上它当基督被钉在十字架吗?That is, did the present city wall exist when the Saviour was put to death?也就是说,目前没有城墙时存在的救世主被置于死亡? If so, this could not have been the place of the crucifixion; for Christ was crucified outside the walls (Hebrews 13:12), St. Willibald (eighth century), Soewulf (twelfth century), and many others asked themselves this question.如果是这样,这不可能一直是受难的地方;为基督在外面的墙壁(希伯来书13:12)钉在十字架上,圣Willibald(八世纪),Soewulf(12世纪),和许多别人问自己这个问题。 But it was not until two centuries ago that an affirmative answer was ventured by Korte, a German bookseller (see below).但是,直到两个世纪前,一个肯定的回答是由科特,德国书商(见下文)冒险。Not, however, until the last century did the new opinion obtain supporters.不是,但是,却直到上个世纪获得新的见解的支持者。 Then a school sprang up which first rejected the old side and eventually set about seeking new ones.然后,其中一所学校的涌现是第一次拒绝了旧的一边,最终为了寻求新的设置。Catholics, as a class, with many leading Anglicans support the traditional claims.天主教徒,支持具有许多领先的圣公会类,传统的说法。

The authenticity of Calvary is intimately bound up with that of the Holy Sepulchre.在各各他是密切相连的真实性与圣墓的。Relative to the authenticity of the sites of both, the ecclesiastical writers who are the first to break silence after the Evangelists seem to leave no room for doubt.相对于这两个网站,谁是第一个打破沉默的真实性后,教会作家的福音,似乎没有留下任何怀疑的余地。Now it is not easy to see how these, the chief representatives of an apologetical age, could have overlooked the above difficulty advanced by modern writers, especially since simple pilgrims are known to have advanced it.现在是不容易看到了这些,一个护教年龄,首席代表可以忽略了上述困难先进的现代作家,特别是因为简单的朝圣者,已知有先进的资讯科技。 The spirit of investigation had awakened in the Church long years previous to them; and the accredited custodians of the tradition, the Jerusalem community, had been ruled by a continuous succession of bishops since Apostolic times.调查精神,唤起了他们的教会多年以前,以及传统,耶路撒冷社会,保管人已被认可的使徒时代以来连续不断主教统治。Under these circumstances, our first available witnesses tell us that a remembrance of the site had actually been transmitted.在这种情况下,我们的第一个可用的证人告诉我们,一个网站的怀念实际上已被传染。As a telling testimony to the confidence they merit herein, it need only be remarked that of sixteen modern charts of the Holy City collated by Zimmermann (Basle, 1876) only four place Golgotha within the second or outermost wall in the time of Christ Moreover, Dr. Schick, the author of one of these, accepted the traditional view before his death.作为一个生动的见证了信心,他们的优点外,它只需要指出的是圣城的现代十六图表整理齐默尔曼(巴塞尔,1876年)只有四个地方,在第二或墓地最外面的墙壁在基督此外的时间,希克博士,对其中的一个作者,在他去世前接受了传统观点。 Dr. Reiss, in his "Bibel-Atlas" (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1895), also agrees with the majority.赖斯博士在他的“Bibel -地图集”(弗莱堡,1895年),也同意了大多数。(See JERUSALEM; HOLY SEPULCHRE.) (见耶路撒冷。圣墓)


The most popular of several sites proposed is that of Otto Thenius (1849), better known as Gordon's Calvary, and styled by the latter, "Skull Hill", because of its shape.作者提出了一些网站中最热门的是,奥托尼斯(1849),更好地称为戈登的髑髅地,并受到后者的风格,“骷髅山”,因为它的形状。 Conder is the chief supporter of this view.康德是这一观点的主要支持者。This site is the elevation over Jeremiah's Grotto, not far from the Damascus Gate.这个网站是在耶利米的石窟海拔,而不是从大马士革门远。In default of an historic basis, and owing to the insufficiency of the Gospel data -- which may be verified equally well on any side of the city -- the upholders of the new theories usually take for granted one or other of the following statements, viz: that Christ should have been immolated north of the altar, like the typical victims (Leviticus 1:10, 11); that Calvary was a place of public execution; that the place reserved for crucifixion, if there was one, was identical with a presumed stoning-place; that a modern Jewish tradition as to a fixed stoning-place could be substantiated in the time of Christ; and that the violent mob to which Christ was delivered would have conformed to whatever custom prescribed for the occasion.在默认的一个历史性的基础上,并由于数据不足的福音 - 这可能是核实了城市的任何一面好 - 新的理论李家通常是理所当然的一个或以下陈述外,即:基督将要被殉葬北坛,像典型的受害者(利未记1:10,11),这是一个各各公开处决的地方,这地方保留十字架,如果有一,是等同采用假定的乱石位;到现代,以一个固定的乱石就地可在犹太传统的时候,基督属实;和暴民的暴力,以基督将被交付的任何自定义符合规定的场合。 These affirmations all bear the mark of fitness; but until documents are produced to confirm them, they must inevitably fall short as proof of facts.这些肯定都承担了健身的标志;但直到文件的制作,以确认他们,他们必然要下跌,事实证明短。

Publication information Written by Thomas À K. Reilly.出版信息撰稿托马斯的光赖利。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔巴雷特。Dedicated in memory of the Passion of Our Lord The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.专用于我们的主的天主教百科全书,第三卷的激情记忆。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1日1908年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


For Fathers, see article, HOLY SEPULCHRE.对父亲,看到的文章,圣墓。Pilgrims.-GLYER, Itinera Hierosolymilana; TOBLER, Descriptions Terrae Sanctae (1874).各各几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> GLYER,Itinera Hierosolymilana;托布勒,说明Terrae Sanctae(1874)。

General Treatment.-Dictionaries of the Bible; Quarterly statement PEF (passim, especially 1902-1903); WARREN, Ordinance Survey of Jerusalem in Notes (London, 1865); WARREN and CONDER in Jerusalem (1881).一般Treatment. -字典的圣经;季度报表呼气(各处,尤其是1902-1903),沃伦条例耶路撒冷调查说明(伦敦,1865年),沃伦和在耶路撒冷康德(1881年)。 Controversial (authors marked with an asterisk * oppose the traditional view):- BREEN*, Harm.争议(有星号*的作者反对传统的观点): - 布林*危害。Expos.博览会。of the Four Gospels (Rochester, New York), IV; FERGUSSON*, Essay on Ancient Topography of Jerusalem (London, 1847); FINDLAY, On the Site of the Holy Sepulchre (London, 1847); LEWIN, Siege of Jerusalem (London, 1863); REILLY, Authenticity, etc. in Ecclesiastical Review (Philadelphia), NXXVI, nn.四福音(罗切斯特,纽约),四;对古地形耶路撒冷(伦敦,1847年)弗格森*,散文,芬德利,论圣墓(伦敦,1847年)网站;卢因,围攻耶路撒冷(伦敦,1863),赖利,真实性,在教会的回顾(费城),NXXVI,神经网络等。 6 sqq; ROBINSON*, Biblical Researches (Boston, 1840), I; SANDAY, Sacred Sites of the Gospels (Oxford, 1903); THRUPE, Ancient Jerusalem (Cambridge, 855); WILLIAMS, The Holy City (London, 1845); CHATEAUBRIAND, Itineraire de Paris a Jerusalem (Paris, 1811), II;p KORTE*, Reise nach dem gelolden Laude Aeg.6 sqq;罗*,圣经研究(波士顿,1840年),我;桑迪,圣地的福音(牛津,1903); THRUPE,古耶路撒冷(剑桥,855);威廉姆斯,圣城(伦敦,1845年);夏多布里昂,巡游耶路撒冷巴黎(巴黎,1811年),二; p科特*,Reise胆碱DEM的gelolden Laude的AEG公司。Syr.锡尔河。tr.风帆。Mea (Halle, 1751); KRAFFT, Die Topographie Jerusalems (Bonn, 1846); TOBLER*, Topographic von Jerusalem a.多边环境协定(哈雷,1751);克拉夫特,模具Topo​​graphie耶路撒冷的(波恩,1846年);托布勒*,地形冯耶路撒冷答 Seinen Ungebungen (Berlin, 1853), I.Seinen Ungebungen(柏林,1853年),一

Also, see:此外,见:
Jesus on the Cross耶稣在十字架上
The Arising of Jesus产生的耶稣

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