Cistercians

General Information一般资料

Cistercians are members of a Roman Catholic Religious Order founded in 1098 by St. Robert, abbot of Molesme.熙是一个罗马天主教的宗教秩序的成员于1098年由圣罗伯特,Molesme住持。He and a handful of monks left the Benedictine abbey of Molesme for a secluded area called Citeaux, not far from Dijon in Burgundy, where they began an austere monastic life.他和一个少数僧侣离开称为Citeaux一个僻静地区的Molesme本笃会修道院,不远处的第戎勃艮第,他们在那里开始了严峻的寺院生活。 From Citeaux other monasteries were founded.从Citeaux其他寺庙相继成立。In 1112 or 1113, St. Bernard of Clairvaux entered Citeaux.在1112或1113年,圣克莱尔沃伯纳德进入Citeaux。His forceful personality and holiness encouraged recruits, and he became the spokesman for this reform movement throughout Europe.他强有力的个性和圣洁鼓励新兵,他成了整个欧洲的这一改革运动的发言人。By 1151 over 300 monasteries stood, with more than 11,000 Cistercian monks and nuns.到1151年超过300站在寺院,有超过11000修道院的僧侣和尼姑。

From the beginning, the Cistercians stressed a literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, withdrawal from feudal entanglements and responsibility, and a return to the simplicity and austerity of the early desert monks.从一开始,熙强调了圣本笃,从封建缠结和责任撤出字面上遵守法治,并以简单和早期沙漠僧侣紧缩的回报。They succeeded by uniting their monasteries through a constitution, called the Charter of Charity, that set forth a uniform type of life, checks and balances in monastic government, centralized authority under the abbot of Citeaux, and an annual meeting of all the abbots in a general chapter.他们的团结,通过一部宪法成功的寺庙,被称为慈善宪章,即政府规定在寺院的生活,制衡统一型号,在住持的Cîteaux中央集权,以及对所有abbots在年度会议一般的篇章。

The Cistercians wear white habits with a black scapular.该cistercians穿白色黑色肩胛骨习惯。 During the Middle Ages, they were called the white monks.在中世纪,他们被称为白和尚。A reformed group of Cistercians was begun in the 17th century; they are known as Trappists. The original Cistercian monks are called Cistercians of the Common Observance. Many monasteries of the Common Observance were suppressed during the French Revolution.一组熙改革开始于17世纪,他们被称为法国Trappists。原始修道院的僧侣是常见的所谓熙革命的纪念许多寺庙遭到压制遵守共同的过程中。 In the 20th century the order has experienced a renewal of vitality.在20世纪的秩序重建经历了活力。Port Royal, the center of Jansenism in 17th-century France, was a Cistercian convent.皇家港的詹森主义在17世纪法国的中心,是一个修道院修道院。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Lekai, Louis, The Cistercians: Ideals and Reality (1977); Ponnington, MG, ed., The Monastic Way (1990).乐凯,路易斯,在熙:理想与现实(1977年); Ponnington,镁,教育署,寺院的方式(1990年)。。


Cistercians

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(See also CISTERCIAN SISTERS; CISTERCIANS IN THE BRITISH ISLES.) (亦见修​​道院姐妹;熙在英伦三岛。)

Religious of the Order of Cîteaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Cîteaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict.作者的Cîteaux,本笃改革设立Cîteaux由圣罗伯特,Molesme住持的朗格勒教区,为在1098年恢复为宗旨,令宗教尽可能的圣本笃字面上遵守法治。 The history of this order may be divided into four periods:本命令的历史可分为四个时期:

I. The Formation (1098-1134);一,组(1098至1134年);

II.二。The Golden Age (1134-1342);黄金时代(1134年至1342年);

III.三。The Decline (1342-1790);的衰落(1342年至一七九〇年);

IV.四。The Restoration (after 1790).明治维新(1790年后)。

I. THE FORMATION (1098-1134)一,形成(1098至1134年)

St. Robert, son of the noble Thierry and Ermengarde of Champagne, was Abbot of Molesme, a monastery dependent on Cluny.圣罗伯特,亨利和Ermengarde高贵香槟的儿子,被住持Molesme,一对克吕尼修道院依赖。Appalled by the laxity into which the Order of Cluny had fallen, he endeavoured to effect reforms in the monasteries of Saint-Pierre-de-la-Celle, Saint-Michel of Tonnerre, and finally in that of Molesme.通过将其中的克吕尼订单已经下降松弛感到震惊,他对改革的努力在寺庙圣皮埃尔脱腊策勒,圣米歇尔坦纳瑞,终于在Molesme的。 His attempts at reform in these monasteries meeting with very little success, he, with six of his religious, among whom were Alberic and Stephen, had recourse to Hugh, Legate of the Holy See, and Archbishop of Lyons.在这些寺庙会议改革,他试图用很少的成功,他,曾与他的宗教六个,其中有阿伯里克和Stephen,求助于休,罗马教廷特使,与里昂大主教。 Authorized by Archbishop Hugh to institute a reform, Robert and his companions returned to Molesme and there chose from among the religious those whom they considered most fitted to participate in their undertaking.休大主教授权提起改革,罗伯特和他的同伴回到Molesme并有来自各宗教的人,他们认为最适合参加他们的事业选择。 To the number of twenty-one the company retired to the solitude of Cîteaux (in the Diocese of Châlons), which Raynald, Viscount of Beaune, had ceded to them.到二零零一年退休的公司数量的Cîteaux孤独(在夏龙教区),其中雷纳尔德,博纳子爵曾割让给他们。(See Cîteaux, Abbey of.) On the feast of St. Benedict (21 March), 1098, which fell that year on Palm Sunday, they commenced to build the "New Monastery", as it is called in the "Exordium sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis". (见Cîteaux,修道院的。)在圣本笃(21日),1098年,落在棕榈星期天年盛宴,他们开始建立“新寺”,因为它是在“绪论sacri Ordinis称为Cisterciensis“。This, therefore, was the birthday of the Order of Cîteaux.因此,这是对的Cîteaux订购的生日。By order of the Apostolic legate, Robert received the pastoral staff from the bishop of the diocese, Gauthier, and was charged with the government of his brethren, who immediately made their vow of stability.由使徒特使秩序,罗伯特收到从教区主教教牧同工戈捷,并与他的弟兄们,谁使他们立即誓言政府收取的稳定。 Thus was the "New Monastery" canonically erected into an abbey.因此是“新寺”canonically竖立成为一个修道院。

At this news, the monks who had remained at Molesme sent a deputation to Pope Urban II, asking that Robert might be sent back to his first monastery.在这一消息,谁曾在Molesme仍然僧侣派出代表,教皇乌尔班二世,要求他可能被送回他的第一个寺院。The pope yielded to their petition, and Robert returned to Molesme, after having governed Cîteaux for one year.教宗屈服于他们的请愿书,和罗伯特回到Molesme一年后治理Cîteaux。There the prior, Alberic, was elected to replace him, and, in his turn, sent the two monks, John and Ilbode, as delegates to Pascal II (who had just succeeded Urban II) to beg him to take the church of Cîteaux under the protection of the Apostolic See.在那里,事先,阿伯里克,被选为接替他,并在轮到他,就把两个和尚,约翰和Ilbode,以帕斯卡二世(谁刚刚成功乌尔班二世)乞求他采取的Cîteaux根据代表教会从使徒保护参见。 By Apostolic Letters, dated at Troja in Campania, 18 April, 1100, Pascal II declared that he took under his immediate protection the abbey and the religious, of Cîteaux, saving their allegiance to the Church of Châlons.使徒信,在Troja日在坎帕尼亚,1100年4月18日,帕斯卡尔二宣称,他把他的直接保护之下的修道院和宗教的Cîteaux,挽救了他们的效忠沙隆教会。 Dating from this day, Alberic and his religious established at Cîteaux the exact observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, substituted the white habit for the black which the Benedictines wore, and, the better to observe the rule in regard to the Divine Office day and night, associated with themselves lay brothers, to be chiefly occupied with the manual labours and material affairs of the order.从今天开始约会,阿伯里克和他的宗教在Cîteaux确立了圣本笃确实遵守的规则,取代为黑色而笃穿白色的习惯,并更好地遵守规则方面的神圣的办公室天一夜,与自己相关的奠定兄弟,将主要是与体力劳动和物质事物的秩序占领。 These lay brothers, or conversi, though they were not monks, were to be treated during life and after death just like the monks themselves.这些奠定兄弟,或conversi,虽然他们不是和尚,是要在生活中和之后,就像僧侣们自己的死亡待遇。St. Alberic died in 1109.圣阿伯里克死于1109。

His successor was Stephen Harding, an Englishman by birth, well versed in sacred and profane science, who had been one of the first promoters of the project to leave Molesme.他的继任者是斯蒂芬哈丁,一个英国人因出生,以及在神圣和世俗的科学熟悉,谁曾是该项目的第一个离开Molesme发起人之一。 St. Robert, his two immediate successors, and their companions had but one object in view: a reaction against the laxity of Cluny and of other monasteries -- to resume manual labour, to adopt a more severe regimen, and to restore in monastic churches and church ceremonies the gravity and simplicity proper to the monastic profession.圣罗伯特,他的两个直接后继,他们的同伴,但有一个对象在视图:反对克吕尼松弛和其他寺庙反应 - 恢复体力劳动,采取更严厉的方案,并恢复在寺院教堂和教堂仪式和简单的严重性,对各寺院的专业。They never thought of founding a new order, and yet from Cîteaux were to go forth, in course of time, colonies of monks who should found other monasteries destined to become other Cîteaux, and thus create an order distinct from that of Cluny.他们从来没有想过成立一个新的秩序,然而从Cîteaux了出去随着时间的推移,殖民地的僧侣谁应该发现注定要成为其他Cîteaux,从而创造一项命令,从不同的克吕尼的其他寺庙。

St. Bernard's entrance into the Order of Cîteaux (1112) was the signal of this extraordinary development.圣伯纳德加入的Cîteaux令(1112)入口是这个超常规发展的信号。Thirty young noblemen of Burgundy followed him, among them four of his brothers.勃艮第的年轻贵族三十跟着他,其中,他的四个兄弟。Others came after them, and in such numbers that in the following year (1113) Cîteaux was able to send forth its first colony and found its first filiation, La Ferté, in the Diocese of Châlons.另一些人在他们之后,在这样的数字,在次年(1113)Cîteaux能够发出的第一个殖民地,并发现了第一亲子关系,香格里拉在夏龙堡教区。 In 1114 another colony was established at Pontigny, in the Diocese of Auxerre.在1114另一个殖民地成立于Pontigny,在教区的欧塞尔。In 1115 the young Bernard founded Clairvaux in the Diocese of Langres.在1115年轻伯纳德创建于朗格勒教区克莱尔沃。In the same year Morimond was founded in the same Diocese of Langres.同年Morimond始建于同一教区的朗格勒。These were the first four offshoots of Cîteaux; but of these monasteries Clairvaux attained the highest development, becoming mother of sixty-eight monasteries even in the lifetime of St. Bernard.这是第四个分支的Cîteaux,但这些寺庙克莱尔沃达到最高的发展,成为即使在圣伯纳德终生六八寺院的母亲。(See Clairvaux).(见克莱尔沃)。

After this St. Stephen Harding was to complete the legislation for the new institute.在此之后圣士提反哈丁是完成新机构的立法。Cluny had introduced into the monastic order the confederation of the members among themselves.引入了克吕尼修道院秩序的成员彼此之间的联盟。St. Stephen added thereto the institution of general chapters and regular visits.赤柱及其补充的一般章节和定期走访制度。Thus mutual supervision, rendering account of the administration, rigid examination of discipline, immediate correction of abuses, were so many sure means of maintaining the observance in all its purity.这样互相监督,使政府当局,严格考试纪律,侵犯立即改正,帐是维持其纯度在所有遵守这么多的肯定的手段。 The collection of statutes which St. Stephen drafted, and in which are contained wise provisions for the government of the order, was called the Charter of Charity (La Charte de Charité).该法规的圣士提反起草,并在其中收集载明智的条文,政府的命令,被称为慈善章程(香格里拉Charte德Charité)。 It and the "US", the book of usages and customs, together with some of the definitions of the first general chapters, received the approbation of Pope Callistus II.它和“美国”,对惯例和习俗的书,连同第一章一般定义一些,得到了教皇卡利斯图斯二赞许。At the death of St. Stephen (1134), the order, after thirty-six years of existence, counted 70 monasteries, of which 55 were in France.在圣斯蒂芬(1134),该命令后,三十六存在几年中死亡,数70个寺庙,其中55人在法国。

II.二。THE GOLDEN AGE (1134-1342)黄金时代(1134年至1342年)

The diffusion of the new order was chiefly effected by means of foundations.这一新秩序扩散的影响主要通过基金会的手段。Nevertheless several congregations and monasteries, which had existed before the Order of Cîteaux, became affiliated to it, among them the Congregations of Savigny and Obazine, which were incorporated in the order in 1147.不过一些教会和寺庙,这之前曾存在的Cîteaux秩序,成为附属于它其中的萨维尼和Obazine毕业典礼,这是在该命令成立于1147年。 St. Bernard and other Cistercians took a very active part, too, in the establishment of the great military orders, and supplied them with their constitutions and their laws.圣伯纳和其他熙了一个非常活跃的一部分,也是在伟大的军事命令的建立,并提供与他们的宪法和法律的他们。Among these various orders of chivalry may be mentioned the Templars, the Knights of Calatrava, of St. Lazarus, of Alcantara, of Avis, of St. Maurice, of the Wing of St. Michael, of Montessa, etc. In 1152 the Order of Cîteaux already counted 350 abbeys, not including the granges and priories dependent upon the principal abbeys.在这些不同的侠义订单可能会提到圣殿骑士,骑士的卡拉特拉瓦,圣拉撒路的阿尔坎塔拉,对阿维斯,圣莫里斯,的圣迈克尔的蒙泰萨,1152年荣等的订单350的Cîteaux已经算不包括农庄和修道院修道院后,主要依赖修道院。 Among the causes which contributed to this prosperity of the new order, the influence of St. Bernard evidently holds the first place; in the next place comes the perfect unity which existed between the monasteries and the members of every house, a unity wonderfully maintained by the punctual assembling of general chapters, and the faithful performance of the regular visits.这其中的原因促成了这种繁荣的新秩序,影响了圣伯纳德显然持有第一名;在未来的地方来的完美统一这间寺庙和家家户户的成员存在,维持一个统一的美妙一般章节准时装配,以及定期访问忠实地履行。 The general chapter was an assembly of all the abbots of the order, even those who resided farthest from Cîteaux.一般章是对所有的住持的命令,即使是那些谁居住最远从Cîteaux大会。This assembly, during the Golden Age, took place annually, according to the prescriptions of the Charter of Charity.这期间,大会黄金时代,每年发生的,根据宪章的慈善处方。"This Cistercian Areopagus", says the author of the "Origines Cistercienses", "with equal severity and justice kept watch over the observance of the Rule of St. Benedict, the Charter of Charity and definitions of the preceding Chapters."“这修道院社”,说的“Origines Cistercienses”,作者“正义与平等的严重程度和保存在的圣本笃,慈善宪章和前几章的定义遵守的规则表。”The collection of statutes published by Dom Martene informs us that there was no distinction of persons made.收集的法规公布的大教堂Martene告诉我们,没有任何人所作的区分。After a fault became known, the same justice was meted out to lay brothers, monks, and abbots, and the first fathers of the order.被称为故障后,同样的司法是入狱奠定兄弟,僧侣和方丈,以及该命令的第一个父亲。Thus, as all were firmly persuaded that their rights would be protected with equal justice, the collection of statutes passed by the general chapter were consulted and respected in all the monasteries without exception.因此,正如所有的人坚定地相信,他们的权利将得到平等的司法保护,由总章通过法规的收集进行了磋商,在所有的寺庙无一例外地尊重。 All the affairs of the order, such as differences between abbots, purchase and sale of property, incorporation of abbeys, questions relating to the laws rites, feasts, tributes, erection of colleges, etc. were submitted to the general chapter in which resided the supreme authority of the order.所有的事务之间的顺序,如方丈,购买和出售财产,修道院团分歧,涉及到礼仪,节日,贡品,高校安装等方面进行了提交大会章法律问题,其中而居的最高权力机构的命令。 Other orders took these general chapters as models of their own, either spontaneously, like the Premonstratensians, or by decree of the Fourth Lateran Council, that the religious orders should adopt the practice of holding general chapters and follow the form used by the Order of Cîteaux.其他命令,以此作为他们自己的模型这些一般章节,无论是自发的,像Premonstratensians,或由理事会第四次拉特兰法令,即宗教命令应采取的做法持一般章节,并遵循的Cîteaux命令所用的表格。

The general chapters were held every year up to 1411, when they became intermittent.一般章节举行了每年高达1411,当他们成为间歇性的。Their decisions were codified.他们的决定被写入。The first codification was that of 1133, under the title "Instituta Capituli Generalis".首先是,1133年编纂的标题下“Instituta Capituli是一般”。The second, which bears the title "Institutiones Capituli Generalis", was commenced in the year 1203 by the Abbot Arnoud I, and was promulgated in 1240.第二,它的标题是“Institutiones Capituli是一般”,是开始于1203年由住持Arnoud我,并于1240年颁布的。The third, "Libelli Antiquarum Definitionum Capituli Generalis Ordinis Cisterciencis", was issued in 1289 and in 1316.第三,“Libelli Antiquarum Definitionum Capituli是一般Ordinis Cisterciencis”,发表在1289年和1316年。Finally, the general chapter of 1350 promulgated the "Novellae Definitiones" in conformity with the Constitution of Benedict XII, "Fulgens ut stella" of 12 July, 1355.最后,1350年颁布的一般章与本笃十二宪法“,斯特拉小熊猫UT斯达康的”1355年7月12日是否符合“Novellae Definitiones”。The regular visits also contributed much to the maintenance of unity and fervour.经常访问也贡献良多,维护团结和热情。Every abbey was visited once a year by the abbot of the house on which it immediately depended.每个修道院参观了每年一次由它的房子就立即取决于住持。Cîteaux was visited by the four first fathers, that is to say, by the Abbots of La Ferté, of Pontigny, of Clairvaux, and Morimond. Cîteaux访问了四个第一的父亲,也就是说,通过拉堡,对Pontigny,对克莱尔沃,并Morimond的阿伯茨。

"The Visitor", say the ancient statutes, "will urge the Religious to greater respect for their Abbot, and to remain more and more united among themselves by the bonds of mutual love for Jesus Christ's sake . . . The Visitor ought not to be a man who will easily believe every one indiscriminately, but he should investigate with care those matters of which he has no knowledge, and, having ascertained the truth, he should correct abuses with prudence, uniting his zeal for the Order with his feelings of sincere paternal affection. On the other hand, the Superior visited ought to show himself submissive to, and full of confidence in, the Visitor, and do all in his power to reform his house, since one day he will have to render an account to the Lord. . . [The Abbot] will avoid both before the Visitor and after his departure everything that will have the appearance of revenge, reproach or indignation against any of them" [sc. “旅客”,说古章程“,将敦促宗教更大其住持的尊重,并保留更多,更彼此之间团结的,为耶稣基督的缘故互爱的债券。。。最后一个人不应该被一个人谁就会轻易相信每个人随便,但他应该小心研究这些问题,而他没有知识,并在查明事实真相,他应该纠正滥用审慎,团结,真诚的与他的感情令他的热心父亲的感情。另一方面,优越的访问应该表明自己顺从,以及在,游客充满了信心,并在他的权力,他家所有的改革,因为有一天,他将不得不提供一个帐户到主。。。[住持]将同时避免旅客及前他离开后,一切都将有他们反对任何“[常设委员会的报复,责备或愤慨的外观。 his subjects].他的臣民]。 If the visitor should act against prescriptions, he was to be corrected and punished according to the gravity of his fault by the abbot who was his superior, or by another abbot, or even by the general chapter.如果访问者应该采取行动对付处方,他将予以纠正和处罚根据对他的住持故障谁是他的上司,或由另一个住持,甚至是一般的篇章严重性。 Likewise, the abbot visited should know that he would become grievously culpable before God by neglecting the regular form of visit, and that he would deserve to be called to account by his "Father Immediate" or by the general chapter.同样,住持访问应该知道,他会成为甚是上帝面前有罪而忽略定期形式的访问,他就理所当然地被称为交代他的“父亲立即”或由一般的篇章。 Thus everything was foreseen and provided for the maintenance of good order and charity and for the preservation of the unity of observance and spirit.因此,一切都预见和良好秩序和慈善事业的维持和遵守的规定和精神,维护团结。"No one then ought be astonished", says the author of "Origines Cistercienses", "to find in the Cistercian abbeys, during their Golden Age, so many sanctuaries of the most fervent prayer, of the severest discipline, as well as of untiring and constant labour. This explains also why, not only persons of humble and low extraction, but also eminent men, monks and abbots of other orders, doctors in every science and clerics honoured with the highest dignities, humbly begged the favour of being admitted into the Order of Cîteaux."“那么,本应没有人感到惊讶”,说,“Origines Cistercienses”,“笔者发现在修道院的修道院,在他们的黄金年龄,最热切的祈祷这么多的保护区,最严厉的纪律,以及不懈,和不断的劳动。这也说明为什么,不仅谦虚和低开采,而且著名的​​男子,僧侣和其他命令住持人,在每一个科学和神职人员医生荣获最高的尊严,虚心恳求,被录取到讨好的Cîteaux秩序。“ Thus it was during this period that the order produced the greatest number of saints, blessed, and holy persons.因此,正是在这一时期,为了生产出圣人祝福,人数最多,圣洁的人。Many abbeys -- such as Clairvaux, Villiers, Himmerod, Heisterbach, etc. -- were so many nurseries of saints.如克莱尔沃,维利尔斯,Himmerod,Heisterbach等 - - 许多修道院是这么多的圣人托儿所。More than forty have been canonized by the Holy See.四十多已被册封由罗马教廷。The Order of Cîteaux constantly enjoyed the favour of the Holy See, which in numerous Bulls bestowed upon the Cistercians the highest praise, and rewarded with great privileges their services to the Church.订购的Cîteaux不断赢得了罗马教廷,而在许多公牛赐予熙最高的赞誉,并与他们的服务,以教会的伟大特权奖励青睐。 They enjoyed the favour of sovereigns, who, having entire confidence in them, entrusted to them, like Frederick II, important delegations; or, like Alphonsus I of Portugal, placed their persons and kingdoms under the care and protection of Our Lady of Clairvaux; or again, like Frederick II, feeling themselves near the point of death, wished to die clothed in the Cistercian habit.他们享受的君主,谁后,对他们绝对信任,托付给他们的腓特烈二世一样,重要的代表团,赞成,或像阿方葡萄牙我,划归我们的照顾和保护他们的夫人克莱尔沃者和王国;或再次,腓特烈二世一样,感觉接近死亡点希望,自己不行了穿在修道院的习惯。

The Cistercians benefited society by their agricultural labours.熙得益于他们的农业劳动的社会。 According to Dr. Janauscheck, "none but the ignorant or men of bad faith are capable of denying the merited praises which the sons of St. Benedict have received for their agricultural labours throughout Europe, or that this part of the world owes to them a greater debt of gratitude than to any other colony no matter how important it may be."据博士Janauscheck,“没有,但无知或恶意的男人是值得赞美否认它能够the圣本笃的儿子已经收到了他们的农业劳动力在整个欧洲,或者这个世界的一部分欠他们一个更大的债务比任何其他殖民地,无论多么重要,它可能是。感恩“ They also conferred great benefits on society by the exercise of Christian charity.他们还授予的基督教慈善运动对社会的巨大好处。By means of their labours, their economy, their privations, and sometimes owing to generous donations which it would be ungrateful to despise, they became more or less rich in the things of this world, and expended their wealth upon the instruction of the ignorant, the promotion of letters and arts, and the relief of their country's necessities.通过他们的劳动,他们的经济,他们的匮乏,手段,有时由于慷慨捐输,这将是忘恩负义的鄙视,反而成为了或多或少丰富这个世界的东西,花费它们对无知者的指令财富,信件和艺术推广,以及他们国家的必需品救济。 Caesarius of Heisterbach speaks of a monastery in Westphalia where one day all the cattle were killed, the chalices and books pledged as security, in order to relieve the poor.对Heisterbach Caesarius一个在威斯特伐利亚修道院一天所有的牛被打死说话时,酒杯和书籍作为担保抵押,以减轻贫困。The Cistercian abbeys had a house for the reception of the poor, and an infirmary for the sick, and in them all received a generous hospitality and remedies for the ills of soul and body.修道院的修道院曾经对穷人的接待,并为病人疗养院的房子,并在他们收到的所有的灵魂和身体的弊病慷慨好客和补救措施。

Intellectual labour had also its place in the life of the Cistercians.智力劳动也其在熙生活中的位置。Charles de Visch, in his "Bibliotheca Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis", published in 1649, devotes 773 historical and critical notices to authors who belonged to the Cistercian Order.戴高乐Visch,在他的“书目Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis”在1649年出版,致力于773历史和批判通知作者谁属于修道院秩序。Even in the very first period, St. Stephen Harding left a work on the Bible which is superior to anything of its kind produced by any contemporary monastery, not excepting Cluny.即使在第一阶段,圣士提反哈丁留下了对圣经的翻译工作是优于任何当代寺院制作了这类事,克吕尼也不例外。The Library of Dijon preserves the venerable manuscript of St. Stephen, which was to serve as a type for all Cistercian Bibles.在第戎图书馆保存了赤柱,这是作为对所有类型的古老修道院圣经手稿。The Cistercian libraries were rich in books and manuscripts.修道院的图书馆在书籍和手稿丰富。Nor did the sons of St. Bernard neglect the fine arts; they exercised their genius in building, contributed powerfully to the development and propagation of the Romanesque and the Gothic architecture throughout Europe, and cultivated the arts of painting and engraving.也没有忽视的圣伯纳德美术的儿子,他们行使他们的建筑天才,有力地促进发展和传播的罗马式和哥特式建筑在整个欧洲,培养绘画和雕刻艺术。

III.三。THE DECLINE (1342-1790)的衰落(1342年至一七九〇年)

The decadence of the order was due to several causes, the first of which was the large number of monasteries, often-times situated in the most widely distant countries, which prevented the "Fathers Immediate" from making the regular visits to all the houses of their filiations, while some of the abbots could not assist every year at the general chapter.该订单颓废是由于多种原因,其中第一个是大量的寺院,但往往在最广泛的时代遥远的国家,它无法使定期访问所有的房屋的“父亲立即”位于他们filiations,虽然有些不能协助住持每年在一般的篇章。 Some were also found who, seeing themselves thus sheltered from the remonstrances and the punishments either of the general chapter or of the visitor, permitted abuses to creep into their houses.有些人还发现谁,看到这样挡住了自己的抗议和处罚的一般章或游客要么,允许滥用潜入他们的房子。But the principal cause of the decline of the order (which is based on unity and charity) was the spirit of dissension which animated certain superiors.但该订单的下降(这是团结和慈善事业为基础)的主要原因是某些纠纷上级精神,动画。Some abbots, even not far from Cîteaux, explained in a particular sense, and that adapted to their own point of view, certain points of the Charter of Charity.甚至有些不远处Cîteaux住持,在特定的意义上解释说,这适应了自己的观点,仁爱宪章某些要点。The solicitude of the Roman pontiffs themselves who tried to reestablish harmony among the superiors, was not always successful.罗马教宗关怀谁试图重新建立自己的上司之间的和谐,并不总是成功的。And yet at that time there were found some courageous and determined monks who became reformers, and even founded new congregations which were detached from the old trunk of Cîteaux.然而,当时发现有一些勇敢和坚定的僧侣谁成为改革者,其中甚至成立由老树干的Cîteaux分离新的毕业典礼。Those congregations which then severed their union with Cîteaux, but which no longer exist at the present time, are:这些教会然后断绝了与Cîteaux工会,但已不再存在于目前,主要有:

The Congregation of the Observance of St. Bernard of Spain, founded by Dom Martin de Vargas, in 1425, at Monte Sion near Toledo; The Congregation of St. Bernard of Tuscany and of Lombardy, approved by Alexander VI (1497); the Congregation of Portugal, or of Alcobaca, founded in 1507; the Congregation of the Feuillants, founded by John de la Barriere in 1563, which spread into France and Italy, the monasteries of Italy, however, eventually detaching themselves from those of France to form the Congregation of the Riformati di San Bernardo; the Congregation of Aragon, approved by a Bull of Paul V (1616); the Congregation of Rome, or of Central Italy, created by a Decree of Gregory XV in 1623; the Congregation of Calabria and Lucania, established by Urban VIII in 1633, and to which was united the old Congregation of Flore, which had for its founder Blessed Joachim surnamed "the Prophet".在1425年的圣伯纳德遵守西班牙的大教堂马丁代巴尔加斯成立,在蒙地附近的锡永托莱多众;的圣伯纳德的托斯卡纳和伦巴第大区的亚历山大六世(1497)批准,众;会众葡萄牙,或阿尔科巴萨,在1507年成立;由约翰德拉巴里尔成立在1563年the Feuillants,其中法国和意大利为传播,意大利,但是寺庙的聚集,最终从法国的分离,形成了自己众的Riformati迪圣伯纳;聚集的阿拉贡,由保罗V公牛(1616)批准;罗马的聚集,或意大利中部,由1623年第十五号法令的格雷戈里创建;的卡拉布里亚和卢卡尼亚毕业典礼成立于1633年由乌尔班八世,以及这是联合国的花神,这为它的创立者有福约阿希姆老众姓“先知”。

Together with the congregations which separated from Cîteaux there were five or six others which, while remaining subject to the jurisdiction of the parent house, were legislated for by provincial or national chapters.再加上从Cîteaux分离的毕业典礼,其中有五,六个,而其余受管辖的父家,分别由省级或国家立法章节等。Chief among these congregations were those of Northern Germany, the Strict Observance, and La Trappe.在这些教会是德国北部行政,严格遵守和香格里拉大霉人。The Congregation of Northern Germany was erected in 1595 by Nicholas II (Boucherat), Abbot of Cîteaux, at the desire of Pope Clement VIII, in the monastery of Furstenfeld.北德众建于1595年由尼古拉二世(Boucherat),住持cîteaux,在教皇克莱门特八愿望,在Furstenfeld寺院。 It comprised four provinces ruled by the abbots, vicars of the general.它包括由住持,一般维卡斯统治的四个省份。It counted twenty-two abbeys, only three of which survived the revolutionary tempest, and now form part of the Common Observance of Cîteaux, as the Cistercian province of Austria-Hungary.这算二十二修道院,其中只有三个幸存的革命风暴,现在形成的Cîteaux共同纪念活动的一部分作为奥匈帝国修道院省。 The Congregation of Strict Observance, resulting from the efforts for reform of the Abbots of Charmoye and Châtillon, was established at Clairvaux by Denis Largentier, abbot of this monastery (1615).在严格遵守聚集,从对Charmoye和沙蒂永阿伯茨布罗改革的努力,导致成立于克莱尔沃由Denis Largentier,这个修道院(1615)住持。The Abbot of Cîteaux, Nicholas Boucherat, approved the reform and permitted it to hold special assemblies and to choose a vicar-general with four assistant generals.的Cîteaux住持,尼古拉Boucherat,批准了改革,并允许它举行特别集会,并选择与四名助理将军副主教干事。 The general chapter of Cîteaux in 1623 praised it highly, Cardinal Richelieu became its protector, and the popes gave it encouragement.在1623年的Cîteaux一般章称赞它高度,枢机主教黎塞留成为它的保护者,教皇给它鼓励。 In 1663 it received an important member in the person of Abbot de Rancé, who introduced the Strict Observance into the Abbey of La Trappe in the Diocese of Séez, adding to it other very severe practices.在1663年它接受了住持的朗斯,谁引入的Séez教区修道院的香格里拉大霉严格遵守人的重要成员,以便加入其他非常严重的做法。

The abbeys which did not respond to the appeal of Martin de Vargas, of Denis Largentier, or of Abbot de Rancé, formed an observance which Pope Alexander VII, in his Bull of 19 April, 1666, named Common, to distinguish it from the Strict Observance, from which in reality it differed only in the use of meat and similar articles of food three times a week, a use certainly contrary to the rule of perpetual abstinence which obtained in the early days, but which the religious wars and other evils of the times in a measure rendered necessary.该修道院是没有回应马丁代巴尔加斯,丹尼斯Largentier,或住持德朗斯上诉,形成了一个遵守该教皇亚历山大七世,在他的公牛1666年4月19日共同命名,以区别于苛刻,遵守,这实际上是从不同的肉类和食品中的类似文章每周三次只使用,一用肯定违反了规则,获得永久禁欲在初期,但其中的宗教战争和其他罪恶在提供必要的一项措施的时间。 Mention should be made of two other reforms: that of Orval in Luxemburg, by Bernard de Montgaillard (1605), and that of Septfons, in the Diocese of Moulins, by Eustache de Beaufort, in 1663.应该提到的两个其他方面的改革:即在卢森堡的奥瓦尔,由Bernard德蒙加亚尔(1605),而中Septfons,在穆兰教区,由尤斯塔奇德博福特,在1663年。 The former numbered six monasteries, the latter did not extend beyond Septfons.前者编号六个寺庙,后者并没有超出Septfons。

The Strict Observance developed rapidly.严格遵守了迅速发展。In a very short time it counted fifty-eight monasteries.在很短的时间计算五八寺院。At the death of Denis Largentier (1626), Etienne Maugier, who succeeded him, inspired it afresh.在丹尼斯Largentier(1626),艾蒂安Maugier,谁成功了他,死它重新启发。From that time it aimed at a certain superiority to which it believed it had some claims, and was resolved, in case of meeting with any opposition, to withdraw from the jurisdiction of the General of Cîteaux.从那时起,它在一定的优势,它认为它有一些索赔,并得到解决,在任何反对的会议,案件退出一般司法管辖权的Cîteaux目的。 Hence arose quarrels and litigations which lasted forty years or more.因此产生争吵和诉讼,历时四十年或更长时间。In 1632, at the request of the king (Louis XIII), Urban VIII continued the powers which Gregory XV had given ten years before to Cardinal De La Rochefoucauld for the reform of the monasteries of the kingdom. 1632年,在国王(路易十三)的要求,市区八是继续格雷戈里十五给了十年前的王国的寺庙改革,枢机主教德拉罗什福科权力。The cardinal heard only the Fathers of the Strict Observance, who persuaded him that no reform was possible without a return to the abstinence from meat.红衣主教听说只有严格遵守父亲,谁劝他,不改革是没有节制的肉回报成为可能。He therefore passed a sentence in 1634 which derogated in many points from the ancient constitutions and the Charter of Charity, particularly in what concerned the jurisdiction of the Abbot of Cîteaux and of the four first fathers.因此,他在1634年通过了一句减损在许多从古老的宪法和慈善宪章尤其对涉及到的Cîteaux住持的司法管辖权和四个第一父亲。 The College of St. Bernard at Paris passed into the hands of the Strict Observance.该学院在巴黎传递到圣伯纳德严格遵守手中。The Abbot of Cîteaux, Peter de Nivelle, appealed to the sovereign pontiff.的Cîteaux住持,彼得德Nivelle,呼吁教皇。 The latter annulled the sentence of the cardinal in every point in which it was contrary to legitimate authority.后者取消了在每一个点的基数,其中一句是违反合法权力。In the meanwhile Peter de Nivelle having resigned, the non-reformed, in the hope of escaping from the authority of Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld, elected Cardinal de Richelieu Abbot of Cîteaux.在此期间有彼得日Nivelle辞职,非改革,从德的枢机主教拉罗什福科管理局逃脱的希望,当选枢机主教黎塞留的Cîteaux住持。 The cardinal applied the reform in his monastery.红衣主教适用于他的寺院的改革。Sustained by him, the reformed took possession of Cîteaux after having dispersed into other monasteries the professed religious of this monastery.他持续,改革后的Cîteaux了拥有进入这个自称宗教寺院其他寺庙分散。At the death of Richelieu the expelled monks assembled at Dijon, 2 January, 1643, and elected to his place Dom Claude Vaussin, but the king vetoed the election; they voted again, 10 May, 1645, and gave all their voted to Claude Vaussin, while the reformed, to the number of only fifteen, voted for Dom Jean Jouaud, Abbot of Prieres in Britanny.黎塞留在死亡的被驱逐的僧侣聚集在第戎,1643年1月2日,并选出自己的位置DOM的克劳德Vaussin,但国王否决了选举,他们再次投票,1645年5月10日,并给了他们所有的投票克劳德Vaussin而改革后,对的,只有15号,赞成让Jouaud大教堂,对Prieres住持Britanny。 On the 27th of November following, Innocent X sent his Bulls to Dom Claude Vaussin, and imposed silence on the reformed.在11月27日以下,无辜x派他的公牛队到DOM克劳德Vaussin,并限制了改革的沉默。February 1st, 1647, a Brief of the same pope re-established all matters in the condition in which they had been before the sentence of Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld. 1647年2月1日,一个同样教皇重新摘要建立在其中,他们收到了德的枢机主教被判刑拉罗什福科条件的所有事项。

The Strict Observance then tried to form an independent order under the authority of the Abbot of Prieres, and with this object in view raised new difficulties in relation to the question of abstinence.严格遵守然后试图形成一个受住持权威的Prieres独立秩序,有了这个对象提出的有关问题的禁欲新的困难。 A Brief of Alexander VII, dated November, 1657, confirming the decision of Sixtus IV, in 1475, that abstinence from flesh meat was not essential to the rule, did not quiet their scruples.作者简介亚历山大七,年11月,1657年,证实了西斯四,1475年决定,从肉肉类禁欲是没有必要的规则,没有安静的顾忌。 Finally, 26 January, 1662, the same pope interfered in a decisive manner by inviting the two parties to appear at the Court of Rome.最后,1662年1月26日,同教皇干预果断地邀请双方出现在罗马法院。The Common Observance sent Claude Vaussin; the Strict Observance, Dom George, Abbot of Val-Richer; La Trappe, Abbot de Rancé.克劳德发出的共同遵守Vaussin;严格遵守,DOM的乔治,缬氨酸,更丰富的住持,香格里拉大霉,住持的朗斯。On the 19th of April, 1666, appeared the Bull "In Suprema", which put an end to the divisions.在四月,1666 19,出现了“在确界”斗牛,从而结束的分歧。It recommended that the visits be regularly and strictly made, that monks should live in the monasteries, and that the general chapters should be held every three years.它建议定期互访,并严格制成,和尚住在寺院,而一般章节应每三年举行一次。It restored the night silence, poverty in apparel, and monastic tonsure.它恢复了寂静的夜晚,在服装贫困,寺院剃度。It maintained the use of meat where that already obtained, and recommended the religious who had made the vow of abstinence to be faithful to it.它保持了肉的地方已经得到使用,并建议谁做出了禁欲誓言要忠实于它的宗教。The Strict Observance remained under the jurisdiction of the Abbot of Cîteaux.严格遵守仍然下的Cîteaux住持管辖权。 This constitution was accepted by the general chapter of 1667, which was held at Cîteaux, in spite of protests from the opponents, and in particular of Abbot de Rance, and the new reform was put into force in all the monasteries of France, where the number of monks was sufficient.这部宪法是在1667年接受一般的篇章,这是在举行Cîteaux抗议尽管从对手,并在住持的朗斯,特别是和新的改革开​​始实施在所有的法国,那里的寺庙僧侣人数就足够了。


During the eighteenth century, however, there was introduced into the Order of Cîteaux, as into almost all the great religious families, a pernicious licence of thought and morality.在十八世纪,然而,有引入的Cîteaux秩序,因为到几乎所有伟大的宗教家庭,一个思想和道德有害的许可证。 New conflicts between the Abbot of Cîteaux and the abbots of the four first houses of filiation arose concerning the government of the order and their own jurisdiction.之间的Cîteaux住持和亲子关系的四个第一住持房子出现新的冲突有关的命令和自己管辖的政府。In virtue of the liberties of the Gallican Church, the king and his council appointed a commission to restore order.在考虑到高卢教会,国王和议会的自由美德任命了一个委员会,以恢复秩序。A new collection of statutes was drawn up, but these were not definitively adopted until 1786.新收集的法规起草了,但这些都没有明确,直到1786年通过。The general chapter of that year finally agreed among themselves and adopted the new statutes on the eve of the French Revolution.当年的一般章终于同意彼此之间以及通过了关于法国大革命的前夕,新的章程。The political and religious disturbances which then and at the commencement of the nineteenth century troubled France and Europe almost ruined this venerable order.政治和宗教骚乱而当时的困扰,并在法国和欧洲几乎毁了这个古老的顺序十九世纪的开始。When the National Convention, by the decree of 13 February, 1790, secularized all the religious houses of France, the Order of Cîteaux had in France 228 monasteries, with 1875 religious; 61 of these houses, with 532 religious, were in the filiation of Cîteaux; 3, with 33 religious, in that of La Ferté; 33, with 171 religious, in that of Pontigny; 92, with 864 religious, in that of Clairvaux; and 37, with 251 religious, in that of Morimond.当国民大会由1790年2月13日法令,法国所有的世俗化宗教的房屋,订购的Cîteaux在法国228个寺庙,与1875年的宗教,其中有61家,有532宗教,在亲子关系是Cîteaux 3,33宗教,在La该堡,33,171宗教,在Pontigny为何; 92,与864宗教,在那个克莱尔沃;及37,251宗教,在那个Morimond。The sixty-second and last Abbot of Cîteaux, Dom François Trouvé, having lost all hope of saving his monastery, begged Pius VI to transfer all his powers to Robert Schlecht, Abbot of Salsmansweiler, of the Congregation of Northern Germany, so that the remnants of the ancient corporation of Cîteaux might still have a ruler.的Cîteaux第六十二和最后一个住持,DOM的弗朗索瓦Trouvé,失去了所有的希望挽救他的寺院,求庇护六世转移他的所有权力,以罗伯特沙枣,住持的Salsmansweiler,北德众,使残余古老的Cîteaux的公司可能仍然有一个标尺。

From France the hatred of religion passed with the arms of the usurpers into Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, and other countries, and there continued the work of destruction.来自法国的仇恨与进入比利时,瑞士,意大利篡夺的武器通过宗教,和其他国家,并有继续工作的破坏。By an imperial veto of the 25th of February, 1803, and a decree of the Prussian Government of the 28th of April, 1810, all the monasteries of Germany were ruined.由一,二月,1803年第25届帝国否决权,以及对利用4月,1810年28普鲁士政府法令,所有的寺庙被摧毁了德国。 The abbeys of Portugal were abolished by a law of the 26th of May, 1834, those of Spain by the laws of the 25th of July and 11th of October, 1835, those of Poland disappeared before the decrees of the Russian and Prussian rulers.葡萄牙修道院是由五,1834年,西班牙的26号法废除了对7月25日和十月,1835年11日,法,波兰那些消失之前,俄罗斯和普鲁士统治者的法令。

IV.四。THE RESTORATION (AFTER 1790)的恢复(1790年后)

The reform inaugurated at La Trappe by Abbot de Rance, reviving the austerity and fervour of primitive Cîteaux, was maintained, almost intact, against difficulties of every kind, until the French Revolution.在香格里拉大霉宣誓就职,由住持德兰斯的改革,恢复原始Cîteaux紧缩和热情,保持了几乎完整,反对各种困难,直到法国大革命。 There were then at La Trappe seventy religious and a numerous and fervent novitiate.当时有在香格里拉大霉七十和众多的宗教狂热和见习。When, on the 4th of December, a decree of the National Assembly suppressed the Trappists in France, Dom Augustin de Lestrange, then master of novices at La Trappe, authorized by his local superior and the Abbot of Clairvaux, set out with twenty-four of his brethren for Switzerland.时,抑制对12月,国民议会4日在法国法令Trappists,DOM的奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇,那么新手掌握香格里拉大霉,授权他当地优势和克莱尔沃住持,成立与二零零四年出他对瑞士兄弟。 The Senate of Fribourg permitted them to settle in Val-Sainte, 1 June, 1791.参议院的弗里堡允许他们定居在Val -圣,1791年6月1日。Pope Pius VI, by a Brief of 31 July, 1794, authorized the erection of Val-Sainte into an abbey.教皇庇护六世,由1794年7月31日摘要,授权成为修道院的Val -圣勃起。Dom Augustin was elected abbot on the 27th of the following November, and on the 8th of December of the same year, a solemn decree of the nuncio of the Holy See at Lucerne, executing the Brief of Pius VI, constituted Val-Sainte an abbey and the mother-house of the whole Congregation of Trappists.奥古斯丁大教堂被选为以下11月27日住持,并在同年十二月八日,一对罗马教廷圣座大使庄严的法令在卢塞恩,执行摘要的庇护六世,构成缬沙坦圣一修道院和母亲的Trappists整个聚集的房子。 There the Rule of St. Benedict was observed in all its rigour, and at times its severity was even surpassed.在那里,圣本笃规则是观察所有的严谨,有时其严重程度甚至超过。Novices flocked thither.新手聚集到那里。From Val-Sainte Dom Augustin sent colonies into Spain, Belgium, and Piedmont.从缬沙坦圣奥古斯丁大教堂发送到西班牙,比利时和皮埃蒙特殖民地。

But the French troops invaded Switzerland in 1796.但在1796年法国军队入侵瑞士。Obliged to leave Val-Sainte, Dom Augustin, with his religious of both sexes, commenced two years of wanderings through Europe, during which period they gave to the world the spectacle of the most heroic virtues.被迫离开他的宗教,不论男女两年漫游整个欧洲展开,在此期间,他们给世界的最英勇的美德眼镜缬沙坦圣,DOM的奥古斯丁。 In 1800 Dom Augustin returned to France, and two years later resumed possession of Val-Sainte.奥古斯丁大教堂在1800年返回法国,两年后恢复的Val -圣占有。In 1803 he sent a colony of his religious to America under the direction of Dom Urbain Guillet. 1803年,他发出了他的宗教殖民地美国下DOM的urbain Guillet方向。In 1811, fleeing from the anger of Napoleon, who first favoured the Trappists and then suppressed all their monasteries in France and the whole empire, Dom Augustin himself left for America. 1811年,从拿破仑,谁第一个赞成Trappists,然后镇压所有的寺庙,在法国和整个帝国的愤怒逃亡,DOM的奥古斯丁自己离开美国。In 1815, on the downfall of Napoleon, he returned immediately to La Trappe, while Dom Urbain Guillet established himself at Bellefontaine in the Diocese of Angers. 1815年,在拿破仑倒台,他立即返回到香格里拉大霉,而DOM的urbain Guillet设在贝尔方丹在昂热教区自己。

During this imperial persecution, a schism took place in the Congregation of La Trappe.在这个帝国迫害,一个分裂发生在香格里拉大霉聚集的地方。The colony which Dom Augustin had sent from Val-Sainte into Belgium under the direction of Dom Eugene de Laprade, and which had settled first at Westmalle, and then at Darpheld in Westphalia, had abandoned the Rules of Val-Sainte to embrace those of de Rance.奥古斯丁大教堂有哪些派出缬沙坦圣到比利时的尤金大教堂下的德拉普雷德方向,哪些已经解决了第一个殖民地在韦斯特马勒,然后在威斯特伐利亚Darpheld,已经放弃了缬沙坦圣规则拥抱那些德兰斯。 It returned to France and occupied Port-du-Salut in the Diocese of Laval; Westmalle, restored in 1821, withdrew from the jurisdiction of Dom Augustin to form, five years later, the Congregation of Belgium.它返回法国,占领港口杜萨吕在拉瓦尔教区;韦斯特马勒,在1821年恢复,从奥古斯丁大教堂管辖权的形式,五年后的今天,比利时众退席。

Dom Augustin died 16 July, 1827, at Lyons.奥古斯丁大教堂死于1827年7月16日,在里昂。A Decree dated 1 October, 1834, confirmed two days later by Gregory XVI, united the different houses of Trappists in France in one congregation known as the Congregation of Cistercian Monks of Our Lady of La Trappe.一项法令日期1834年10月1日,两天后证实由格雷戈里十六世,美国在法国作为我国的香格里拉大霉圣母修道院的僧侣聚集一众知名的Trappists不同的房子。 The General President of the Order of Cîteaux is its head and confirms its abbots.该命令的Cîteaux大会主席是它的头部,并确认其方丈。The four first fathers are the Abbots of Melleray, Port-du-Salut, Bellefontaine, and Gard.父亲的四个第一的Melleray,港口笃萨吕,贝尔方​​丹和加尔的阿伯茨。The Rule of St. Benedict and the Constitutions of Cîteaux or those of de Rancé, according to the custom of each monastery, are observed.圣本笃规则与的Cîteaux或朗斯的宪法,根据每个寺院习俗得到遵守。But with this diversity of observance, the union did not last long.但与此不同的纪念活动,欧盟并没有持续多久。A pontifical Decree dated the 25 February, 1847, and granted at the request of the religious of each observance, divides the Trappist monasteries of France into two congregations: the Ancient Reform of Our Lady of La Trappe, which follows the Rules of de Rance, and the New Reform, which follows the Primitive Observance and is governed by the Charter of Charity.阿月宗座法令2月25日,1847年,并于每遵守宗教请求授予,分为两个教区的法国特拉普寺庙:我国的香格里拉大霉,它遵循的规则夫人朗斯古代改革,和新的改革,这是继原始遵守,由慈善宪章管辖。 Already Westmalle in 1836 formed a distinct congregation known as the Congregation of Belgium.成立于1836年已经韦斯特马勒众作为一个独特的比利时众而闻名。There were then three distinct congregations of the Trappists.当时有三个Trappists不同的教会。

It was reserved for a later generation to see the most complete reform effected by the fusion of all the congregations into one order in unity of government and observance.这是保留给后人看到最完整的改革教会的所有影响融合成一个在政府和遵守统一的秩序。On the first of October, 1892, at the desire of Leo XIII, a plenary general chapter was held in Rome, under the presidency of Cardinal Mazzella, delegated by the Cardinal Protector Monaco della Valetta.在十月,1892年,在副总统的枢机主教Mazzella欲望的利奥十三世章一般全体会议在罗马举行,由枢机主教保护者摩纳哥德拉瓦莱塔委派,第一。 The assembly lasted twelve days; the fusion was adopted; Dom Sebastian Wyart, Abbot of Septfons, who had taken the most active part in all the negotiations to effect this union, was chosen "General of the Order of the Reformed Cistercians of Our Lady of La Trappe".组装是持续了12天的融合获得通过; DOM的塞巴斯蒂安Wyart,住持的Septfons,谁采取了所有谈判中最活跃的一部分,这个联盟的作用,被选为“一般的圣母归正熙令香格里拉大霉。“ Such was the name given to the order.这就是考虑到订单的名称。A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars of 8 December, 1892, then a pontifical Brief of 23 March, 1893, confirmed and ratified the Acts of the chapter.阿的主教和常客8月,1892年,神圣的法令,然后聚集了1893年3月23日宗座摘要,确认和批准了该章的行为。 On the 13th of August, 1894, the sovereign pontiff approved the new constitutions and the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars promulgated them on the 25th of the same month.在八月,1894年13日,教皇批准了新宪法和主教和常客聚集颁布了同月25日他们。In 1898, the 800th anniversary of the foundation of the order, the sons of St. Bernard again took possession of the ancient Abbey of Cîteaux. 1898年,对基础秩序800周年之际,圣伯纳德的儿子再次注意到的Cîteaux古老的修道院占有。Dom Sebastian Wyart was elected abbot, and thus was restored the chain of abbots of Cîteaux which had been broken for 107 years.DOM的塞巴斯蒂安Wyart当选为住持,并因此被恢复了其中的Cîteaux已经打破了107年方丈链。 It was then decided to suppress in the title of the order the words "Our Lady of La Trappe", the Abbey of La Trappe yielding the first rank to Cîteaux.这在当时决定镇压的命令名称改为“圣母香格里拉大霉”,修道院的香格里拉大霉高产第一职级Cîteaux。Finally, on the 30th of July, 1902, an Apostolic Constitution of Leo XIII solemnly confirmed the restoration of the order and gave to it the definite name of "Order of Reformed Cistercians, or the Strict Observance".最后,在七,1902年30日,一利奥十三世使徒宪法庄严地确认了恢复秩序,给它的“订单归正熙,或严格遵守”明确的名称。 Dom Sebastian Wyart died 18 August, 1904.DOM的塞巴斯蒂安Wyart去世04年8月18号。The general chapter, postponed that year until October, chose for his successor the Most Rev. Dom Augustin Marre, Abbot of Igny, and titular Bishop of Constance.一般章,推迟到当年十月,他的继任者选择了最牧师DOM的奥古斯丁Marre,对伊尼住持,并名义上的康斯坦茨主教。

CONDITION OF THE ORDER IN 1908作者于1908年阶条件

Several modern congregations must be mentioned which have been grafted on the old trunk of Cîteaux, and which, with some ancient monasteries that escaped the persecution of the close of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth, form the Common Observance.几个现代教会必须提到已嫁接的Cîteaux旧衣箱,并与一些躲过了十八世纪末和19世纪初的古老寺院的迫害,形成共同遵守。 Their mode of life corresponds to that of the Cistercians of the seventeenth century, whose mitigation was approved by Alexander VII in 1666.他们的生活模式,对应于十七世纪,其缓解了亚历山大七世熙于1666年批准的。They are the Congregations of Italy, Belgium, Austria, and Switzerland, and the Congregation of Sénanque.他们是意大利,比利时,奥地利和瑞士的毕业典礼,以及Sénanque毕业典礼。

1. 1。The Congregation of St. Bernard of Italy was formed in 1820 with the monasteries which remained of the Congregations of the Roman Province and of Lombardy, after Pius VII had been deprived of his States.意大利的圣伯纳德聚集,形成于1820年与该寺院的罗马省和伦巴第大区教友仍然存在,在庇护七世曾是他的国家被剥夺。 The congregation adopted the constitutions of the ancient Congregation of Tuscany and Lombardy.会众通过了古老的托斯卡纳和伦巴第大区聚集的宪法。

2. 2。The Congregation of Belgium, formed in 1836, at Bornheim in the Diocese of Mechlin, by the religious who were expelled in 1797 from Lieu-Saint-Bernard-sur-l'Escaut, observe constitutions based upon the Brief of Alexander VII and the Cistercian Ritual.比利时的聚集,形成于1836年在博恩海姆,在教区梅克林的谁是在1797年被驱逐出辽-圣伯纳德河畔l'Escaut宗教,观察后,亚历山大七世和宪法为基础的修道院简介仪式。 They were approved by the Holy See in 1846他们被批准,由罗马教廷在1846年

3. 3。The Cistercian Congregation of Austria and Hungary was formed in 1859 by the monasteries of Austria which had escaped from the Revolution and submitted to the President General of the Order of Cîteaux.奥地利和匈牙利修道院聚集,形成于1859年由奥地利装置已逃离革命和提交的Cîteaux总统令,总寺院。

4. 4。The Congregation of Switzerland was formed in 1806 by the three monasteries of Hauterive, Saint-Urbain, and Wettingen, remnants of the Congregation of North Germany.瑞士成立于1806年毕业典礼由Hauterive,圣于尔班和Wettingen,德国北部的毕业典礼残留物的三个寺庙。 These monasteries having succumbed in 1841 and 1846, the Abbot of Wettingen, an exile in Switzerland, purchased, in 1854, the Benedictine monastery of Mehrerau on the Lake of Bregenz, to which the Holy See transferred all the privileges of Wettingen.这些寺院有1841年和1846年,住持的Wettingen,在瑞士流亡,死于购买,在1854年,在布雷根茨湖Mehrerau本笃会修道院,对此教廷转让所有Wettingen特权。 To this monastery was joined that of Marienstatt in the Diocese of Cologne in Nassau.为了达到这个寺院的Marienstatt加入了这一在教区科隆在拿骚。

5. 5。The Congregation of Sénanque, or the Mean Observance, owes its origin to the parish priest, Luke Barnouin, who, with some associates, in 1849, attempted the religious life in the solitude of Our Lady of Calvary in the Diocese of Avignon, leaving that retreat in 1854, to take up his abode in the monastery of Sénanque, which he had purchased.对Sénanque众,或平均遵守,归功于其原产地教区牧师,卢克Barnouin,谁,与一些同伙,于1849年,企图在我们的各各夫人在孤独的阿维尼翁教区的宗教生活,留给1854年撤退,采取了在Sénanque,这是他购买的修道院住处。 The new congregation, which, without returning to the primitive constitutions, did not adopt all the mitigations of later centuries, received the name of "Congregation of Cistercians of the Immaculate Conception".新众,其中,不返回到原始的宪法,并没有采取一切后来的几个世纪缓解措施,收到了“无原罪熙众”的名称。 It was incorporated in the Order of Cîteaux in 1857, and in 1872 transferred its seat to the ancient monastery of Lérins.它成立于1857年的Cîteaux秩序,并在1872年将其席位的Lérins古老的修道院。The constitutions of this congregation were approved by Leo XIII, 12 March, 1892.本教会的宪法被批准利奥十三世,1892年3月12日。

When the pope, in 1892, undertook to unite in one order the three Congregations of La Trappe, His Holiness caused the Congregation of Bishops and Regulars to address a letter to the Cistercians of the Common Observance inviting them to join their brethren of the Reformed Observance of La Trappe.当教皇于1892年,承诺在一个以团结的香格里拉大霉了三个教区,法王造成主教和常客众致函了共同遵守熙邀请他们加入他们的弟兄遵守的改革香格里拉大霉。 But as the pope left them free, they preferred to retain their respective autonomies.但是,正如教宗给他们留下自由的,他们宁愿保留各自的自主权。Since that time the Order of Cîteaux is divided into two branches absolutely distinct; the Strict and the Common Observances.自那时以来的Cîteaux命令是分为两个分支绝对分明;严格和共同纪念活动。To these may be added the small Congregation of Trappists of Casamari in Italy, which has only three monasteries with about 45 members.对于这些可能会增加对Casamari Trappists在意大利,其中只有三个寺庙与约45名成员的小众。

The Order of Reformed Cistercians has (1908) 71 monasteries of men with more than 4000 subjects.熙秩序的改革已(1908)71,超过4000个科目的男子修道院。In this number of houses are included the annexes which were founded in certain places to serve as refuges for the communities which had been expelled from France.在这样的民居数量其中包括在某些地方成立,以作为装置已被从法国驱逐社区庇护附件。These monasteries are distributed as follows: in France, 20; in Belgium, 9; in Italy, 5; in Holland, 5; in Germany, 3; in England, 3; in Ireland, 2; in Asia, 4; in Africa, 2; in America, 10; (4 in United States, 5 in Canada, and 1 in Brazil).这些寺庙的分布情况如下:在法国,20,在比利时,9,在意大利,5,在荷兰,5,在德国,3;在英国,3;在爱尔兰,2,在亚洲,4;在非洲, 2,在美国,10岁;(在美国,5个在加拿大,巴西和1 4)。The Reformed Cistercians make profession of the Primitive Observance of Cîteaux, with the exception of a few modifications imposed by the Holy See at the time of the fusion.经过改革熙利用原始的Cîteaux遵守行业,随着由罗马教廷在当时实行的融合时间一些修改例外。Their life is strictly cenobitical, that is to say, life in common in its most absolute form.他们的生活是严格cenobitical,也就是说,在其最绝对的形式共同生活。They observe perpetual silence, except in cases of necessity provided for by the rule, or when express permission is granted by the superior.他们观察永久的沉默,除在规定的规则,或者书面许可,由上级给予案件的必要性。 Their day is divided between the Divine Office, agricultural and kindred labours, and free intervals for reading and study.他们每天分之间神圣的办公室,农业劳动力和亲属,并免费为读书学习时间。The supreme authority of the order resides in the general chapter, which assembles every year at Cîteaux, from the 12th to the 17th of September, and is presided over by the abbot general.该订单的最高权力机构驻留在一般章,组装每年都在Cîteaux,从12日至9月17日,是由住持一般超过主持。 When the general chapter is not in session, current and urgent matters are regulated by the abbot general aided by his "Council of Definitors".当一般章​​不开会,当前和迫切的问题是受了他的“Definitors会”资助的住持一般。

The abbot general, who is by right Abbot Cîteaux, resides in Rome (Via San Giovanni in Laterano, 95), with the procurator general and the five definitors of the order, of whom there are two for French-speaking countries, one for English-speaking, one for German, and one for Flemish.住持一般,谁是正确的住持Cîteaux,居住在罗马(经圣乔瓦尼Laterano,95),与总检察长和秩序的五个definitors,其中有两个为讲法语的国家,英国一讲,一个是德国人,和佛兰芒语之一。 At the house of the abbot general are also the students whom the different houses of the order send to Rome to follow the course of studies at the Gregorian University.在住持一般房子的人也都是学生的不同的房子的顺序传送到罗马去跟随在阳历大学学习课程。The Order of Reformed Cistercians has for its protector at Rome Cardinal Rampolla Del Tindaro.熙秩序的改革也为它在罗马的枢机主教兰波拉德尔Tindaro保护者。

The four first houses, which replace the ancient Abbeys of La Ferté, Pontigny, Clairvaux, and Morimond, are La Grande Trappe in the Diocese of Séez, Melleray in the Diocese of Nantes, Westmalle in the Diocese of Mechlin, and Port-du-Salut in the Diocese of Laval.房子的四个第一,取代镧堡,Pontigny,克莱尔沃,并Morimond古修道院,是在拉格兰德霉在南特教区,韦斯特马勒在梅克林教区教区Séez,Melleray和港口笃萨吕在拉瓦尔教区。 The abbots of these four houses every year visit the mother-house at Cîteaux.这四个房子的住持每年请访问Cîteaux母亲的房子。 The other houses are visited regularly every year by the abbots of the houses on which they immediately depend.其他的房子每年定期走访由上,他们的房屋立即赖方丈。

The actual condition of the Common Observance is as follows: The Congregation of Italy has five monasteries (two of them in Rome, at Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, and at San Bernardo alle Terme) and about 60 members.的共同遵守的实际情况如下:意大利聚集了五修道院(其中两人在罗马,在圣诞老人Gerusalemme克罗齐,并在圣伯纳alle Terme的),以及约60名成员。The Congregation of Belgium has two monasteries (Bornheim and Val-Dieu), with 63 members.比利时的聚集了两个寺庙,63个成员(博恩海姆和Val - Dieu酒店)。The Congregation of Austria, the most powerful, has 12 monasteries, with 599 religious.奥地利,最强大,聚集了12个寺庙,与599宗教。The Congregation of Switzerland has three monasteries, with 171 members.瑞士聚集了三个寺庙,与171个成员。Lastly, the Congregation of Mean Observance of Sénanque, which, since the Waldeck-Rousseau Laws of 1901, has lost Sénanque, Fontfroide, and Pont-Colbert, now has but two houses, with about 102 members.最后,平均Sénanque,其中​​,自1901年瓦尔德克-卢梭的法律,已经失去了Sénanque,Fontfroide和蓬科尔伯特遵守众,但现在有两套房子,大约有102个成员。 The Cistercians of the Common Observance in 1900 elected as their general Dom Amedeus de Bie, of the Congregation of Belgium.作者在1900年当选为他们的一般常见大教堂Amedeus别德,比利时众,遵守熙。 He has for assistants the vicars-general of the five congregations.他对助手的副主教五个教区秘书长。

The Order of Cîteaux has produced a great number of saints and has given two popes to the Church, Eugene III, a disciple of St. Bernard, and Benedict XII.订购的Cîteaux产生了大量的圣人,并给予两个教皇对教会,尤金三,弟子的圣伯纳德,和本笃十二。It has also given the Church forty cardinals, five of whom were taken from Cîteaux, and a considerable number of archbishops and bishops.它也使教会枢机主教第四,五人是从Cîteaux采取,以及相当数量的大主教和主教。 The Cistercians of all observances have no less enlightened the Church by their teachings and writings, than edified it by the sanctity of their lives.熙的所有纪念活动没有那么开明经其教义和教会的著作,比熏陶由它自己的生命的神圣性。Among great teachers may be cited St. Bernard, the Mellifluous Doctor and the last of the Fathers of the Church, St. Stephen Harding, author of the "Exordium Cisterciensis Coenobii", of the "Charter of Charity", etc. Then follow Conrad of Eberbach (Exordium Magnum Ordinis Cisterciensis); Ælred, Abbot of Rieval (Sermons); Serlon, Abbot of Savigny (Sermons); Thomas of Cîteaux (Commentary on the Canticle of Canticles); Caramuel, the Universal Doctor, author of a Moral Theology very much esteemed, whom St. Alphonsus Liguori calls "the prince of Laxists"; Caesarius of Heisterbach (Homilies, "Dialogus Miraculorum", etc.); Manrique (Cistercian Annals in vols. folio); Henriques (Menologium Cisterciense); Charles de Visch (Bibliotheca Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis); the Abbot de Rance ("De la sainteté et des devoirs de la vie monastique", "Eclaircissements sur le même traité", "Méditations sur la règle de Saint-Benoît", etc.); Dom Julien Paris ("Nomasticon Cisterciense" in fol., Paris, 1664), Dom Pierre le Nain, sub-prior of La Trappe ("Vie de l'Abbé de La Trappe", "Essai de l'histoire de Cîteaux", 9 vols., Paris, 1690-97); Sartorius ("Cistercium bis-tertium", Prague, 1700, and others. In the nineteenth century it suffices to mention among a great many writers belonging to both Observances: Dr. Leopold Janauscheck (Originum Cisterciensium tom. I, Vienna, 1877 -- the author died before he was able to commence the second volume), Dom Hugues Séjalon, monk of Aiguebelle (Annales d'Aiguebelle, 2 vols. and a new edition of the "Nomasticon Cisterciense" of Dom Paris, Solesmes, 1892).在伟大的教师可引圣伯纳德,多少盈盈博士和教会,圣士提反哈丁的“绪论Cisterciensis Coenobii”的作者,在“慈善宪章”父亲最后的等,然后按照康拉德对Eberbach(绪论万能Ordinis Cisterciensis); Ælred,住持的Rieval(布道); Serlon,住持的萨维尼(讲道),托马斯的Cîteaux(述评canticle的canticles); Caramuel,万能博士,一个有道德神学作家非常尊敬,圣阿方liguori人称为“王子的Laxists”; Caesarius的Heisterbach(颂歌,“Dialogus Miraculorum”等);曼里克(在第一卷和第二卷修道院志对开。);恩里克(Menologium Cisterciense);戴高乐Visch(书目Scriptorum Sacri Ordinis Cisterciensis)的住持德兰斯(“去香格里拉sainteté等德devoirs德拉争夺monastique”,“即使得到traité Eclaircissements河畔乐”,“沉思河畔拉règle德圣伯努瓦”等); DOM的朱利安巴黎(“Nomasticon Cisterciense”的随访。,巴黎,1664年),大教堂皮埃尔勒南,分前的香格里拉大霉(“争夺德欧莱雅神甫德香格里拉大霉”,“Essai德欧莱雅历史学德Cîteaux” 9卷,巴黎,1690年至1697年);赛多利斯(“Cistercium二- tertium”,布拉格,1700,和其他人在十九世纪,它足以在提到很多属于两个纪念活动的作家:。。博士利奥波德Janauscheck( Originum Cisterciensium汤姆的身上我,维也纳,1877 - 。撰文去世之前,他能够开始第二卷),大教堂雨果Séjalon,和尚的Aiguebelle(纪事Aiguebelle,第2卷和对“Nomasticon Cisterciense新版本。 “巴黎的大教堂,索雷姆,1892年)。

CISTERCIANS IN AMERICA熙促进美国

The establishment of the Cistercians in America is due to the initiative of Dom Augustin de Lestrange.在熙在美国成立,是由于DOM的奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇倡议。He was born in 1754, in the castle of Colombier-le-Vieux, Ardèche, France, the son of Louis-César de Lestrange, an officer of the household of Louis XV, and of Jeanne-Pierrette de Lalor, daughter of an Irish gentleman who had followed in 1688 James II in his exile.他出生于1754年,在城堡科隆比耶乐- Vieux的,阿尔代什省,法国,路易塞萨尔德莱斯特兰奇,一路易十五的家庭人员和珍妮- Pierrette德莱勒的儿子,一个女儿爱尔兰谁曾在1688年绅士詹姆斯二世随后在他的流亡。Dom Augustin was master of novices at La Trappe when the Revolution burst forth, and upon the suppression of the religious orders he sought refuge at Val-Sainte in Switzerland, with twenty-four of his brethren.奥古斯丁大教堂是新手掌握在香格里拉大霉时提出,并应其要求,他在瓦尔-圣宗教团体在瑞士避难与镇压革命爆发第二十他弟兄四个。 Driven from Val-Sainte by the French troops, these religious wandered over the whole of Europe, going even into Russia.从缬沙坦圣驱动下的法国军队,在整个欧洲游荡这些宗教甚至到俄罗斯去。(See above under III. The Decline.)(见上述三。下降。)

Dom Augustin at length resolved to send a colony of Cistercian Trappists to America, where he saw much good to be done.在长奥古斯丁大教堂决定派遣一个修道院Trappists殖民地的美国,在那里他看到了许多很好的工作要做。Already in 1793, seeing novices flocking to Val-Sainte, he had directed to Canada a part of his religious under the guidance of Father John Baptist.早在1793年,看到生手涌向缬氨酸,圣​​,他已指示加拿大对他的宗教下的父亲约翰施洗指导的一部分。But at Amsterdam this colony found itself prevented by political troubles from departing, and divided into two bands, one of which settled at Westmalle in Belgium, while the other went to England and established itself at Lulworth in Dorsetshire, in the very place where formerly there had existed a Cistercian abbey which was destroyed by Henry VIII.但在阿姆斯特丹殖民地发现自己无法从政治麻烦离境,并分为两个波段,其中收于韦斯特马勒在比利时,而其他去了英国,并建立自己在卢尔沃思在多塞特郡的地方,在很以前,有分歧已经存在一个修道院修道院是由亨利八世摧毁。 Dom Augustin, however, had not given up the idea of an American foundation.奥古斯丁大教堂,但是,并没有放弃,一个美国思想基础。 In 1802 he charged Dom Urbain Guillet to carry out his intentions in this regard.1802年,他被控DOM的urbain Guillet开展这方面的意图。Dom Urbain, born at Nantes, in 1766, the son of Ambroise Augustin Guillet, Knight of Malta, and of Marie-Anne Le Quellec, entered La Trappe in 1785, and was the last to pronounce his vows in that monastery when the Revolution burst forth.大教堂于尔班,在南特出生,1766年,在Ambroise奥古斯丁Guillet,马耳他骑士的儿子,和玛丽,安妮乐Quellec,进入1785年香格里拉大霉,并且是最后宣判他在这寺院的誓言当革命爆发等等。 He assembled 24 religious, lay brothers, and members of the third order (an institution of Dom Augustin de Lestrange), and sailed from Amsterdam, 24 May, 1802, on board of the Sally, a Dutch vessel flying the American flag to avoid the risks of war -- for Holland was at the time an ally of France, and a conflict was imminent between that country and England.他组装24宗教,奠定兄弟,和第三顺序(一个DOM奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇机构)成员,并从阿姆斯特丹,1802年5月24日,航行在萨利,一名荷兰一艘悬挂美国国旗,以避免船上的战争风险 - 对于当时荷兰对法国的盟友,而冲突是该国与英国迫在眉睫。

The Sally entered the port of Baltimore, on the 25th of September, after a voyage of four months, having been hindered by contrary winds, and having gone out of her course to avoid English cruisers.莎莉进入巴尔的摩港,在9月25日,经过四个月的航程后,受到阻碍,相反的风,在经历她的过程中进行,以避免英国巡洋舰。 Dom Urbain and his companions were received at St. Mary's Seminary, which was under the direction of the Sulpicians, to whose superior, the venerable M. Nagot, then eighty-five years of age, the Cistercian immigrants had letters. DOM的urbain和他的同伴们收到圣玛丽学院,这下Sulpicians方向的人,他们的优越,历史悠久的米Nagot,然后八五岁,修道院的移民者的信。 At that time St. Mary's College possessed several eminent professors, and among these was M. Flaget, who later became Bishop of Bardstown, and then of Louisville, and who, in 1848, was to receive in Kentucky the religious who left Melleray to found Gethsemane.当时圣玛丽学院拥有了数名知名教授,这些措施包括米Flaget,谁后来成为巴兹敦主教,以及路易斯维尔然后,谁在1848年,是接收在肯塔基州的宗教来发现谁离开Melleray客西马尼。 About fifty miles from Baltimore, between the little towns of Hanover and Heberston was a plantation known as Pigeon Hill, which belonged to a friend of the Sulpicians.约50英里的巴尔的摩和Heberston汉诺威之间的小城镇,被列为皮金希尔,这属于一个朋友的Sulpicians一个名为种植园。 Being absent for some years, he left them the power of disposing of it as they should deem proper.作为缺席了数年,他给他们留下了它的处置权,因为他们认为应适当。This large and beautiful residence was well provided with provisions by the goodness of the Sulpicians.这个大而美丽的官邸也提供了由Sulpicians善良的规定。In the woods near by were found all kinds of wild fruits.在附近的树林中发现的各种野果。The Trappists installed themselves at Pigeon Hill.该Trappists安装在皮金希尔自己。M. de Morainvilliers, a French emigrant, a native of Amiens and pastor of St. Patrick's church, Baltimore, used his influence with his parishioners to procure for the newly-arrived community the aid necessary for their establishment.塞万提斯Morainvilliers,法国移民,一亚眠本地和圣帕特里克教堂,巴尔的摩,牧师用他与他的教区居民的影响,为新来港社区促使其建立必要的援助。 But everything was dear in the country, and the money which Father Urbain had destined for the purchase of land did not even suffice for the support of his community.但一切亲爱的在该国,并于尔班的父亲曾经为购买土地甚至没有足够的社区支援注定了他的钱。Eighteen months had already passed since the arrival of the colony at Pigeon Hill, and the true foundation had not yet been begun.十八个月已经过去了殖民地在皮金希尔的到来,而真正的基础尚未开始。Dom Urbain had not accepted any of the land which had been offered to him.DOM的urbain没有接受装置已被提供给他的任何土地。 Moreover, the proximity of Baltimore was a frequent source of desertions among the young people of the third order.此外,附近的巴尔的摩是一个三阶之间的年轻人经常开小差来源。

About the beginning of 1805 Dom Urbain heard Kentucky spoken of.关于1805年DOM的urbain肯塔基谈到起初所听见。Its climate was represented to him as more temperate, and its soil more fertile.它的气候是他为代表的更加温和,土壤更加肥沃,其。 He left immediately to visit that country, and found there a devoted friend in the only Catholic priest then resident, Father Stephen Badin.他马上离开了访问该国,发现那里的居民则只有天主教神父,父亲斯蒂芬伯丁一个忠实的朋友。Father Badin took upon himself the obligation of finding for the Trappists a suitable establishment.伯丁上台后,自己的父亲在为Trappists找到一个合适的建立义务。Having left Pigeon Hill in July, 1805, Father Urbain and his companions arrived at Louisville in the beginning of September.7月离开后,1805年鸠山,父亲于尔班和他的同伴来到路易斯维尔在九月初。The inhabitants received them with great kindness and provided for their first wants.这里的居民收到的厚爱他们和他们的第一要提供。They occupied for the time being a plantation which a pious woman offered them, at some distance from Louisville, and this gave them time to acquire, about sixty miles south of Louisville, in the neighbourhood of Rohan's Knob, a property called Casey Creek, or Potinger's Creek.他们占领的是一个种植园,一个虔诚的女子提供一些由Louisville距离他们的时间,这给他们时间来获得,约南路易斯维尔六十〇英里在罗汉的旋钮附近,一个属性叫做凯西河,或Potinger的河。

In the meantime a new band had been sent out by Dom Augustin Lestrange, under the conduct of Father Mary Joseph, a native of Chapell-les-Rennes, in Jura (b. 22 April, 1774), who had been a grenadier in the French army.在此期间一个新的乐队已派出由DOM的奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇,下侏罗进行了玛丽的父亲约瑟夫,一查珀尔-莱雷恩人,(生于1774年4月22日),谁曾在一个掷弹兵法国军队。 One day he had been ordered to shoot a priest, but had refused to obey; he left the army and became a religious at Val-Sainte.有一天,他已下令射击一名神父,但拒绝服从,他离开了军队,并成为在缬沙坦圣宗教。His community was at that time composed of seven priests, seventeen lay brothers, and twenty-one young people of the third order.他的社区是在七个祭司,组成当时十七奠定兄弟,和二零零一年的三阶年轻人。

In the beginning of 1809 sixty acres of land had already been cleared at Casey Creek, a quantity of grain sowed, and a great number of trees planted.在1809年开始的土地六○英亩已经在凯西站河清,粮食播种量,以及大量的树木种植。Permanent settlement was about to be made here when a fire destroyed in a few hours all the buildings of the new monastery.永久解决办法是将要在这里所作时,火灾中的所有新的寺院建筑数小时摧毁。Dom Urbain was deeply affected by the misfortune, and thought only of going elsewhere. DOM的urbain深受影响的不幸,只有去其他地方的思想。An Irish gentleman by the name of Mulamphy whom he had met in Baltimore, offered him the ownership of a habitation in Louisiana.一个由Mulamphy名在巴尔的摩人,他曾会见了爱尔兰绅士为他提供了一个居住在路易斯安那州的所有权。 Dom Urbain and Father Mary Joseph left together to visit this property.DOM的urbain和父亲一起离开玛丽约瑟夫访问此属性。 It pleased them, and they decided to leave Kentucky and Casey Creek.它高兴他们,他们决定离开肯塔基和凯西河。

In the "Sketches of the Early Catholic Missions of Kentucky, 1787-1826" can be read the unexceptionable testimony which Bishop Spalding renders of the fervour of the religious during the whole time they spent in Kentucky.在“早期天主教肯塔基州代表团素描,1787-1826”,可以阅读无懈可击的证词主教斯伯丁的宗教狂热使得他们在整个时间花费在肯塔基州。 Faithful to the rule of penance, they retrenched nothing from the austere practices of their holy state.忠实于忏悔,他们从他们的圣地被裁的严峻考验,国家没有规则。The Rev. Father Charles Nerinckx, in a letter to Bishop Carroll, is not sparing in his praises of the Trappists, though he blames certain details of administration which were the cause of their failure at Casey Creek.牧师的父亲查尔斯Nerinckx主教卡罗尔在信,是不放过在他的Trappists赞扬,但他指责某些细节的管理这是他们在凯西河失败的原因。 In the spring of 1809 the community left for Louisiana and took up their abode at Florissant, the property of Mr. Mulamphy, some thirty miles west of St. Louis, on a hill which slopes towards the Missouri.在1809年春天,社会离开路易斯安那州,并讨论了在山上的斜坡,对他们在密苏里州弗洛里森特,先生Mulamphy财产,大约有三十公里的圣路易斯西,居留权。 But Father Urbain contemplated the purchase of another property on the other side of the Mississippi, which was offered to him by M. Jarrot, former procurator of the seminary of St. Sulpice at Baltimore, who had established himself at Cahokia, six miles from St. Louis.但父亲于尔班拟对密西西比,这是提供由M. Jarrot,的圣叙尔皮斯修道院前检察长在巴尔的摩,谁建立了他自己在卡奥基亚对方他人财产的购买,六英里的圣。路易。In the first month of 1810 Dom Urbain bought on the prairie of "Looking Glass" the two highest of the forty mounds which formed the burial-ground of the Indians in the vicinity of Cahokia, known by the name of Indiana Mound.在第一个月的1810年买了DOM的urbain对“镜”草原上有哪些形成于卡奥基亚附近由印第安纳州芒德美称,埋藏,地面四十的印度人最高的两个土堆。

"Looking Glass" was an immense tract of land in St. Clair County, Illinois, which, it is said, had served the savages for many generations as a burial-place for their dead.“看玻璃”是一个土地圣克莱尔县,伊利诺伊,其中,这是巨大的道说,作为一个曾担任葬为他们死去的地方很多代人的野蛮人。 These people had built there gigantic monuments which rose up from a base of 160 feet in circumference to a height of more than 100 feet.这些人已经建立起来,在那里的周长从一百六十零英尺基地的高度超过100英尺的巨大的纪念碑。 The Trappists constructed several cabins on the smaller of the two mounds purchased by Dom Urbain, reserving the higher mound for the abbey which they intended to build later.The Trappists建立在由DOM的urbain购买了两个小土丘几座小木屋,保留的修道院,他们打算建立以后更高的土堆。But the new settlers soon felt the influence of the unhealthy climate.但是,新的定居者很快感受到了不良气候的影响。Several savage tribes who had attempted in the past to take up their abode there had been obliged to abandon the undertaking.几个野蛮谁在过去试图部落要承担在那里住了不得不放弃的承诺。One of the religious escaped the fever, but only one of them died.的宗教之一躲过了发烧,但只有其中一人死亡。However, Monks' Mound, as it was afterwards named, presented great advantages.然而,僧土堆,因为它是事后命名,提出了很大的优势。The city of St. Louis was only six or seven miles distant, all around were vast prairies or abundance of wood, and the waters of the Mississippi were so full of fish that, to use the expression of Father Urbain, "a blind man could not help but spear a big fish, if he tried".圣路易斯市的只有六,七英里远,四周是广阔的草原或大量的木材,以及密西西比河水域的鱼类,所以,使用的父亲于尔班,“一个盲人能充分表达不禁枪一条大鱼,如果他试图“。

The lands were easy to cultivate and very fertile.这些土地是很容易培养和十分肥沃。The savages who made frequent incursions into the neighbourhood never molested the monks.野蛮人谁进入了频繁入侵从不骚扰附近的僧侣。Dom Urbain had his rights of property confirmed by Congress at Washington in March, 1810. DOM的urbain已经证实在华盛顿国会三月,1810年财产的权利。He wished also to acquire 4000 acres of land in the neighbourhood of Monks' Mound.他还希望获得的僧土墩附近4000亩土地。 The president and a certain number of members of Congress were favourable to him, but the hostility of several influential members, who feared to see this country peopled under the influence and direction of religious and Catholic priests, caused his petition to go over to the next session.总统和国会议员的若干有利于给他,但几个有影响力的成员,谁害怕看到的影响下以及宗教和天主教神父这个国家的人居住的方向,敌对造成了请愿书去到下一个会议。 While waiting, Dom Urbain, struck by the sad condition of religion in the vicinity of St. Louis and in Illinois sent two of his religious to preach the Gospel there -- Father Mary Joseph and Father Bernard, the latter a Canadian priest who he had brought with him from New York to Casey Creek.在等候时,DOM的urbain,深刻的宗教的悲惨状况,在圣路易斯附近,伊利诺伊州派遣他的宗教二传福音有 - 玛丽的父亲约瑟夫和父亲伯纳德,后者是加拿大的牧师谁,他带来了从纽约到卡西河和他在一起。These settled in a parish which was the most renowned for its scandals.这些定居在教区这是最适合它的丑闻而闻名。"There", says Gaillardin ("Histoire de la Trappe", II. 285), "a husband had just sold his wife for a bottle of whisky; the purchaser in his turn sold her for a horse; and finally she was sold a third time for a yoke of oxen." “有”,说Gail​​lardin,“丈夫刚刚卖掉了自己的一瓶威士忌的妻子(”历史学德拉霉“,二285。)买方在轮到他一马,让她卖了,最后她被卖给一第三次为一对公牛的枷锁。“ But so zealously did these missionaries labour there by word and example that in a short time religion flourished.但是,如此热心地做这些传教士通过文字和劳动例如那里,在很短的时间宗教蓬勃发展。Father Bernard, already advanced in age, after some time succumbed to fatigue.父亲伯纳德,已经年事已高,经过一段时间屈服于疲劳。To aid Father Mary Joseph, Dom Urbain took upon himself the care of the Christian people who were nearest to the monastery.为了帮助玛丽的父亲约瑟夫,DOM的urbain上台后,自己是谁最接近的寺庙是基督徒的关怀。


In 1812 a terrible plague visited the colony of the Monks' Mound.在1812年一场可怕的瘟疫参观了僧人的芒德殖民地。This fever, which desolated the country for two years, attacked the community and rendered it impossible for them to do any work.这发烧,这荒凉的两年国家,攻击社会,呈现他们不可能做任何工作。At the same time all necessaries were dear, and there was no money.在同一时间,所有必需品都是不相识,也没有钱。Dom Urbain resolved to leave Monk's Mound.DOM的urbain决心离开和尚的土堆。He sold all he possessed and transferred his community to Maryland.他卖掉他拥有的一切,转移他的社区马里兰。There he found on his arrival six other religious under the direction of Father Vincent de Paul, who had been sent from Bordeaux to America by Dom Augustin de Lestrange, and, having landed in Boston the 6 August, 1811, with two religious, had been joined in the following year by three lay brothers.在那里,他发现他在抵达其他六个圣文森特德保罗的父亲,谁已派出波尔多的DOM奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇美国,方向和,曾在波士顿登陆1811年8月6日宗教,宗教与二,已在次年加入了三个奠定兄弟。 (Father Vincent de Paul was a native of Lyons, born in 1769.) Dom Urbain found the little band in the greatest misery.(父亲圣文森特德保罗是里昂人,1769年出生的。)的DOM尔班中发现了最大的痛苦小乐队。While waiting for better conditions, he settled them upon a little farm between Baltimore and Philadelphia, and conducted his own subjects to an island near Pittsburgh.虽然等待更好的条件,他定居在巴尔的摩和费城之间他们的小农场,并进行了自己的学科匹兹堡附近的一个岛屿。

In the meanwhile Dom Augustin de Lestrange, pursued by the anger of Napoleon, who had even set a price upon his head, arrived in New York in December, 1813.在此期间DOM的奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇,由拿破仑,谁甚至设置在他头上抵达纽约十二月,1813,价格愤怒追求。The Jesuits had just given up their foundation in that city, and Dom Augustin took over the building they had used as a classical school and which was located where St. Patrick's Cathedral now stands in Fifth Avenue.耶稣会刚刚放弃了在该城市的基础和DOM奥古斯丁曾使用过他们的经典所在学校,这是在圣帕特里克大教堂现在在第五大道站的建设了。 Here, with Fathers Urbain and Vincent de Paul, he began a little community which resumed the regular life and exerted on outsiders a salutary influence.在这里,与父亲于尔班和圣文森特德保罗,他开始有点社会,恢复正常生活和外界施加一个有益的影响。They cared for a number of children, most of them orphans; Protestants were edified, and some conversions were made among them.他们照顾的儿童,其中大多数是孤儿的人数;新教徒被薰陶,并为其中一些转换取得。The effort to establish a community was abandoned, however, after two years' experience.努力建立一个以社区为遗弃,不过,经过两年的经验。Father Urbain made another attempt to found a colony upon a farm which was offered to him by M. Quesnet, Vicar-General of Philadelphia.父亲于尔班作出的又一次尝试到一经发现这是提供一个由M. Quesnet,副主教总费城他农场的殖民地。

MONASTERY OF PETIT-CLAIRVAUX修道院珀蒂-克莱尔沃

In 1814 Dom Augustin, after the abdication of Napoleon, resolved to return to France to re-establish there the Order of Cîteaux.奥古斯丁大教堂在1814年,拿破仑退位后,决定返回法国,重新建立有秩序的Cîteaux。He authorized Father Mary Joseph to remain in America, to continue the evangelization of the savages.他授权的父亲约瑟夫玛丽留在美国,继续福传事业的野蛮人。Two groups left in October, the one under the conduct of Dom Augustin, the other under that of Father Urbain.两组留在十月份,受奥古斯丁大教堂,根据父亲于尔班,其他的行为之一。A third group set sail later from New York for Halifax, under the guidance of Father Vincent de Paul (May, 1815).第三组启航后,从纽约哈利法克斯,在父亲圣文森特德保罗(五月,1815)的指导。Here he was obliged to wait fifteen days for the vessel which was to take him back to his native land, but the vessel sailed while Father Vincent de Paul was engaged upon some business in town.在这里,他不得不等待十五天的船只是带他回到他的故土,但船只航行,虽然父亲在圣文森特德保罗在城里的一些业务。He found himself without friends, without money, and in a country of which he knew nothing.他发现自己没有朋友,没有钱,在一个国家,而他什么都不知道。But Father Vincent de Paul found there a vast field for the exercise of his zeal.但是,父亲在那里发现圣文森特德保罗为他的热情行使一个广阔的领域。He undertook to preach to the savages and, at the request of Monseigneur Lartigue, Bishop of Montreal, to found a monastery in Nova Scotia.他承诺鼓吹向野蛮人,并在拉蒂格的大人,蒙特利尔主教的请求,在新斯科舍省发现了一个修道院。He laboured eight years for the conversion of the infidels, and then, to carry out the latter project, he left for Bellefontaine in France (1823) and, the same year, returned to America, bringing with him four religious, with whom he founded, in 1825, the monastery of Petit Clairvaux, in Big Tracadie, Nova Scotia.他吃力八年的异教徒的转换,然后,进行项目后,他离开贝尔方丹在法国(1823),并在同一年,回到美国,与他带来四个宗教,同他创立在1825年,珀蒂克莱尔沃寺院的大特拉卡迪在Nova Scotia省。Father Vincent de Paul lived twenty-eight years longer, spreading the blessings of the Gospel in that country.圣文森特德保罗的父亲住二十八年更长的时间,在该国蔓延的福音的祝福。He died 1 January, 1853, in the odour of sanctity, and there is a question of introducing his cause at Rome.他死于1853年1月1日,在神圣的气味,并有一个介绍了他在罗马引起的问题。

For many years this foundation struggled for existence.多年来此基础上挣扎生存。Two fires in succession destroyed all.连续两个大火摧毁了所有。Discouraged thereby, the little community, in 1900, left that country and settled near Lonsdale, Rhode Island, where it founded the monastery of Our Lady of the Valley.因此气馁,在1900年的小社区,离开那个国家和朗斯代尔附近,罗得岛,在那里创立了我们对谷夫人寺院解决。Since 1903 the Nova Scotian solitude of Petit Clairvaux has been repeopled.自1903年新星珀蒂克莱尔沃斯科舍省的孤独一直repeopled。Thirty religious from the Abbey of Thymadeuc (France), under the direction of Dom Eugene Villeneuve, continued the interrupted work, clearing 1000 acres of land, two-thirds of which are forest-lands, two thirds of the remainder either pasture or meadow-lands; only about 15 acres are capable of being worked.三从Thymadeuc修道院(法国),在DOM的尤金维伦纽夫方向宗教,继续被中断的工作,清理1000亩土地,三分之二是森林,土地,其余的两个或牧草或草甸三分之二,土地,只有约15亩,是正在制定的能力。 The monastery is situated one mile from the Intercolonial Railway.寺院坐落在Intercolonial铁路一英里。Although the Cistercian Rule was in vigour there it was only incorporated in the Order of Reformed Cistercians in 1869.虽然修道院是有规律的活力这只是纳入归正熙于1869年订购。

Gethsemane and New Melleraygethsemane和新Melleray

The year 1848 saw the erection of two other monasteries in the New World, one in Nelson County in the Diocese of Louisville, Kentucky, not far from the scene of the labours and hardships of Fathers Urbain and Mary Joseph and their companions, the other in the Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa, twelve miles west of the Mississippi River. 1848年这一年看到不远处的劳动力和父亲于尔班和玛丽约瑟夫和他们的同伴,其他的困难场景中的另外两个寺庙,在新的世界,在纳尔逊县之一,在路易斯维尔,肯塔基州,教区勃起的杜布克,爱荷华州,十二英里的密西西比河以西教区。 The monasteries are the present Abbeys of Our Lady of Gethsemane and Our Lady of New Melleray.该寺院是圣母gethsemane和我国新Melleray夫人目前的修道院。

The Abbey of Gethsemane, in the Diocese of Louisville, was founded by the Abbey of Melleray in France.客西马尼修道院在教区的路易斯维尔,是由法国修道院的Melleray。In 1848 Dom Maxime, abbot of that monastery, sent two of his religious to the United States to find a suitable location for a foundation.马克西姆大教堂在1848年,该寺院的住持,他的宗教派两至美国找到一个合适的位置奠定了基础。Bishop Flaget of Louisville -- the saint of Kentucky, as he was called -- indicated to them an establishment called Gethsemane, belonging to the Sisters of Loretto who were directing an orphanage.主教Flaget路易斯维尔 - 肯塔基州的圣人,因为他被称为 - 表示对他们呼吁建立一个客西马尼,属于洛雷托修女谁是导演的一所孤儿院。The property, consisting of about 1400 acres of good land, was purchased, and on the 20th of December, 1848, forty religious from Melleray took possession of it.该物业,约1400亩好地组成,购买,并在12月,1848年20日,第四从Melleray宗教注意到它占有。On the 21st of July, 1850, Pius IX erected Gethsemane into an abbey.在七月,1850年21碧岳九竖立成为一个修道院客西马尼。 Dom Eutropius was chosen abbot in March, 1851, and on the 26th of the following October he received abbatial blessing from the hands of Mgr.大教堂特罗皮乌斯被选为三月,1851年住持,并在以下10月26日,他收到了经理手中abbatial祝福。Spalding, successor of Mgr.斯伯丁,继任的经理。Flaget in the Diocese of Louisville.Flaget在路易斯维尔教区。The ten or twelve log houses which had served as dwellings for the Sisters of Loretto and their orphans had become entirely inadequate for the needs of the Fathers, and Dom Eutropius decided to build a monastery.十个或十二记录表,已至于洛雷托和他们的孤儿姐妹住宅房屋供应不足,已成为完全的父亲的需要和DOM特罗皮乌斯决定建造一座修道院。 After eleven years of hard and incessant labour, which had considerably impaired his health, the zealous superior resigned his charge and returned to Melleray.经过努力,不断劳动,这大大损害了他的健康十一年,热忱上级主管辞职,回到Melleray。From this place of retirement he was called to become the first superior of Tre Fontane near Rome.从这个地方,他被称为退休成为罗马附近的滓方亭第一优越。

His successor at Gethsemane was Dom Benedict Berger, under whose rule the beautiful abbatial church of Gethsemane was solemnly consecrated by Archbishop Purcell, of Cincinnati, assisted by the Bishop of Louisville and Buffalo, 15 November 1866.他在客西马尼的继任者是DOM的本笃伯杰,其统治下的美丽的客西马尼abbatial大主教教堂庄严裴熙亮,由辛辛那提,路易斯维尔和水牛,主教1866年11月15日的协助下,神圣的。 Mgr.经理。Spalding, who had become Archbishop of Baltimore, was present on the occasion, and preached the sermon, a masterpiece of sacred eloquence.斯伯丁,谁已成为大主教的巴尔的摩,于会见时在座,并鼓吹讲道,一个神圣的口才杰作。Dom Benedict died 13 August, 1890, and was succeeded by Dom Edward Bourban, who transformed into a college the little school which the Sisters of Loretto had left in charge of the new community. DOM的本笃死于1890年8月13号,是由爱德华Bourban大教堂,谁把一所大学改变了一些学校其中洛雷托修女们在新社区剩余电量成功。This college is situated about a quarter of a mile from the abbey in a picturesque location, and has since been incorporated by the legislature of Kentucky.这个学院是位于约一个从修道院在风景如画的四分之一英里的位置,并一直由肯塔基州议会内。In 1895 Dom Edward, while on a visit to France, resigned his charge on account of the poor state of his health, and was appointed chaplain of the Trappistines of Our Lady of Les Gardes, in the Diocese of Angers, France.1895年DOM的爱德华,而在访问法国,辞职对他的健康状况不佳的帐户他的费用,而且被任命为我国的Les Gardes夫人Trappistines牧师,在昂热,法国教区。On the 11th of October, 1898, Dom Edmond Obrecht, cellarer of the Abbey of Tre Fontane near Rome, was elected Abbot of Gethsemane, and was blessed by Bishop McCloskey of Louisville on the 28th of the same month.在10月底,1898年第11届,大教堂爱德蒙Obrecht,在罗马附近修道院滓冯塔纳窖,当选客西马尼住持,是由主教麦克劳斯基路易斯维尔的祝福,同月28日。

This community numbers 75 members.该社区数75个成员。

The Abbey of New Melleray, in the Diocese of Dubuque, Iowa, about twelve miles west of the Mississippi, is so called because its mother-house is the Abbey of Mount Melleray in Ireland, which was founded by the Melleray Abbey of France.新Melleray修道院的杜布克,爱荷华州,约十二英里的密西西比河西部的教区,是所谓的,因为它的母亲家的房子在爱尔兰修道院的山Melleray,这是由法国Melleray修道院创立。 In 1848 Dom Bruno Fitzpatrick, Abbot of Mount Melleray, sent some of his religious to the State of Iowa.布鲁诺菲茨帕特里克大教堂在1848年,山Melleray住持,他的宗教派一些在爱荷华州。Mgr.经理。Lorans, Bishop of Dubuque, offered them 80 acres of land in the vicinity of his episcopal city. Lorans,迪比克主教,向他们提供在他的主教市附近的80亩土地。The cornerstone of the monastery was laid 16 July, 1849.这个修道院的基石奠定了1849年7月16日。Raised to the dignity of an abbey in 1862, it had for first abbot, Dom Ephrem McDonald.提高到一个修道院在1862年的尊严,他们已接到了第一住持,DOM的Ephrem麦当劳。After twenty years he resigned and returned to Mount Melleray.二十年后,他辞职,回到山Melleray。The Rev. Alberic Dunlea, who arrived in September, 1885, with an important colony from Mount Melleray, succeeded him as superior.牧师阿伯里克Dunlea,谁到九月,从1885年与山Melleray重要的殖民地,继承了他的优越。He relieved the financial condition of the abbey, and ended the difficulties which had nearly ruined it under the preceding administration.他解除了修道院的财务状况,结束了它已几乎毁了它在管理上的困难。In 1889 a new superior was elected in the person of Father Louis Carew.1889年一个新的优势当选,父亲路易斯卡鲁人。Later he became definitor of the order for the English-speaking countries, and was succeeded by Father Alberic who became titular prior.后来,他成为了英语国家秩序definitor,并成功地由父亲阿伯里克事先谁成为有名无实。 In 1897 the monastery was restored to its dignity of abbey, and Dom Alberic Dunlea was elected abbot.在1897年恢复到修道院的修道院的尊严和DOM阿伯里克Dunlea当选为住持。The property comprises some 3000 acres of land, with an abundance of excellent water.该物业包括大约3000亩土地,具有优良的水丰度。The abbey has been rebuilt, but in 1908 it was not yet completed.这座修道院已经重建,但在1908年尚未完成。

Abbey of La Trappe, Canada修道院的香格里拉大霉,加拿大

The Abbey of Our Lady of the Lake of Two Mountains (better known by the name of La Trappe, the official name given to the post-office established there) is situated in the territory of Oka, in the Diocese of Montreal, about thirty miles from that city and upon the shores of the Lake of the Two Mountains, whence it derives its name.我们的两山的圣母湖(更好的香格里拉大霉,官方指定的名称邮局设在那里名称)修道院坐落在奥卡领土在蒙特利尔教区,大约三〇英里从该城,并经两山湖畔,从那里得其名。 The first thought of founding this monastery was due to the venerable M. Rousselot, priest of St. Sulpice, and pastor of Notre-Dame of Montreal.建国这个修道院首先想到的是,由于古老的米罗斯洛特,圣叙尔皮斯牧师,巴黎圣母院的蒙特利尔牧师。Born at Cholet (Maine et Loire, France), a few leagues distant from the Abbey of Bellefontaine, M. Rousselot had often, in his youth, visited this monastery.出生在绍莱(缅因州等卢瓦尔河,法国),从遥远的修道院的贝尔方丹数联赛,米罗斯洛特经常在他的青年,参观了这个修道院。 Several times during his visits to France he had communicated his projects to the Abbot of Bellefontaine, Dom Jean-Marie Chouteau.访问期间,他几次到法国,他已经把他的项目向住持的贝尔方丹,DOM的让玛丽舒托。The expulsion of the religious decreed by the French Government, and put into execution at Bellefontaine, 6 November, 1880, decided the Rev. Father Jean-Marie to accept the proposition of M. Rousselot.由法国政府颁布的宗教驱逐,并提出在贝尔方丹11月6日,1880年,牧师的父亲决定让玛丽接受米罗斯洛特命题到执行。 On the 8th of April, 1881, the Rev. Father Abbot, accompanied by one of his religious, arrived in Montreal, where he was most kindly received by Bishop Fabre.在四月,1881年8日,牧师父亲住持,由他的宗教在蒙特利尔,在那里他最亲切收到由主教法布尔抵达一陪同。After some weeks of negotiation, the Seminary of St. Sulpice ceded to the Trappists 1000 acres of land in the seigniory of the Lake of the Two Mountains.经过几个星期的谈判,神的圣叙尔皮斯割让给Trappists 1000亩土地在两山湖seigniory。At the same time the provincial Government of Quebec promised to encourage the foundation and to come to its aid.在同一时间内,魁北克省政府承诺要鼓励的基础,也对提供援助。On his return to France the Rev. Father Abbot sent to Canada four of his religious, so that the infant colony comprised five members, including his companion who remained.在他返回法国牧师父亲住持送往加拿大他的宗教四,让婴儿殖民地组成的五名成员,包括他的同伴谁留。Father William was the superior.父亲威廉是出众的。They installed themselves for the time being as well as they could in a little wooden house that belonged to the Mill of the Bay, as it was called, in the territory of Oka.他们正在安装的,以及他们在一个小木头房子属于密尔湾的时间可以自己,因为它是所谓的奥卡境内。This temporary installation lasted until the month of September.此临时安装一直持续到九月份。The religious then took possession of a monastery which, without being a permanent abode, gave them room enough for faithfully carrying out the Cistercian observances and receiving new recruits.然后注意到的宗教寺院掌握的,而不会被永久居留权,给了他们足够的空间为忠实地贯彻执行修道院纪念活动和接收新聘人员。 This first monastery was blessed, 8 September, 1881.这第一寺院祝福,1881年9月8日。It has since been transformed into an agricultural school.它已经被改造成一个农业学校。

The grain of mustard seed promised to become a great tree.粮食的芥子承诺要成为一个伟大的树。 Novices presented themselves, and at the same time the grounds, until then uncultivated, covered with brush and forests and filled with rocks, were cleared and tilled.新手介绍自己,并在同一时间的理由,直到那时荒地,用毛笔和森林覆盖,并用石块填充,被清理和耕种。After this a permanent monastery was planned.在此之后寺院是一个永久性的计划。In the autumn of 1889, thanks to a generous benefactor, M. Devine, work was commenced upon it.在1889年秋天,在感谢慷慨的恩人,米Devine的,工作是开始其上。In the month of May, 1890, the corner-stone was laid, and on the 28th of August, 1891, Mgr.在五月,1890年月,基石是奠定,在八月,1891年,经理28日。Fabre solemnly blessed the first two wings which had been completed.法布尔郑重有福了首两项已经完成的翅膀。This same day, by a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops and Regulars, the priory of Our Lady of the Lake was erected into an abbey.同一天由主教和常客神圣聚集,对我们的圣母湖修道院是法令,竖立成为一个修道院。 On the 26th of March the community chose as abbot the Very Rev. Father Anthony Oger, who, on the 29th of the following June, received the abbatial blessing from the hands of Mgr.在3月26日作为社会选择的非常牧师住持的父亲安东尼Oger,谁对下列月29日,收到了经理手中的abbatial祝福。 Fabre in the cathedral of Montreal.法布尔在蒙特利尔大教堂。Finally, in 1897, by the aid of a benefactor as modest as he was generous, M. Rousseau, priest of St. Sulpice, the monastery and the abbatial church were entirely completed, and on the 7th of November Archbishop Bruchesi solemnly consecrated the church.最后,在1897年由一个恩人谦虚的援助,因为他为人慷慨,米卢梭,圣叙尔皮斯,寺院和教会神职人员被捕abbatial全部完成,并于11月7日大主教Bruchesi神圣庄严的教堂。 Thence-forth the monks could give themselves fully to their lives of labour and prayer, without fearing any inconvenience in the fulfilment of their regular exercises.从那里,提出了僧侣可以给自己充分的劳动和祈祷他们的生活,不用担心任何履行其经常练习不便。But on the 23rd of July, 1902, a fire destroyed the monastery, and the community was obliged to take shelter in the agricultural school.但在七月,1902年23日,大火烧毁了寺院,社区不得不参加农业学校避难。While waiting for sufficient means to rebuild their monastery, the monks constructed a temporary wooden shelter, and on Holy Thursday, 1903, were able to leave the school.在等待足够的手段来重建自己的修道院,修士们修建了临时的木制住房,并在圣周四,1903年,能够离开学校。The aid rendered by the different houses of the order and the traditional generosity of the Canadian people and the people of the United States, without distinction of creed, soon enabled them to commence the building of a new monastery upon the site of the former, and on the 21st of August, 1906, Mgr.由秩序和加拿大人民传统的慷慨和美国人民的不同的房子提供的援助没有信仰的区别,使他们能够尽快开始后,旧址的一个新的寺院建设,在八月,1906年,经理21。 Bruchesi, Archbishop of Montreal, surrounded by several archbishops and bishops, consecrated the abbatial church.Bruchesi,由几个大主教和主教包围蒙特利尔,大主教,abbatial神圣的教堂。The Abbey of Our Lady of the Lake had in 1908, according to statistics, 120 inmates, including the oblates.我们的修道院的圣母湖曾在1908年,据统计,120名犯人,其中包括献主会。This name is given to boys of eleven to fifteen years who are entrusted to the monks by their parents to be brought up according to the Rule of St. Benedict, so that later, if the superiors judge them to be called to the religious life, they may become monks.这个名字,是考虑到十一男孩是谁赋予他们的父母到僧侣被带起根据圣本笃规则,所以后来,如果上级认为他们的被称为向宗教生活十五年,他们可能会成为僧侣。 The rule is mitigated for them in consideration of their tender age.规则是减轻他们的年龄在其投标考虑。This is a revival of the monastic school of the Middle Ages and of the first centuries of religious life.这是一个中世纪的修道院学校和宗教生活的第一世纪的复兴。The principal industries of Our Lady of the Lake are the manufacture of cheese and of a medicinal wine.我国圣母湖的主要产业是奶酪和葡萄酒生产的药品。The monastery possesses also an important creamery for the manufacture of butter.寺院拥有也是一个重要的乳品生产的黄油。But that which contributes most of all to the renown of La Trappe of Oka is its agricultural school.但是,这有助于最重要的是到著名的香格里拉大霉的欧卡是其农业学校。In this matter the Reformed Cistercians (Trappists) of Our Lady of the Lake follow the glorious traditions of their ancestors.在这方面的改革熙(Trappists)我们的圣母湖遵从他们祖先的光荣传统。From their very installation in the country, their skill in deriving profit from lands previously sterile was noticed by the farmers of the neighbourhood.从他们的国家非常的安装,他们在计算利润的土地以前不育技术是发现由附近的农民。Persons of every age and condition asked to be permitted to work with them, so as to learn their methods.不同年龄和条件的人士要求被允许与他们一起工作,以学习他们的方法。This was the beginning of the agricultural school which the Government was in a short time to recognize officially, and which, reorganized since the burning of the former monastery, gives instruction in agricultural science every year to 80 or 100 students.这是农业学校,是政府在短期内正式承认,并自前修道院燃烧重组以来,在农业科学教学提供了每年80或100名学生。

To-day the building devoted to this school is a large modern construction delightfully situated in a picturesque location, and commands a beautiful view of the Lake of the Two Mountains.以天里,热心的这所学校的建设是一个令人高兴的大型现代化建筑坐落在风景如画的位置,并命令一对两山湖畔的美丽景色。 This agricultural school has been affiliated with the University of Laval.这一农业学校已附属于拉瓦尔大学。

Monastery of Lake St. John寺湖圣约翰

For a long time the Honourable Honoré Mercier, Prime Minister of the Province of Quebec, had at the request of the colonization agent of the province, been earnestly entreating the Abbot of Bellefontaine and Dom Anthony of Our Lady of the Lake to send some religious into the country of Lake St. John, recently opened to colonization.在很长一段时间,这位奥诺雷名士,总理的魁北克省大臣,他在全省殖民代理请求,热切恳求住持的贝尔方丹和Dom安东尼我国湖夫人将派遣一些宗教湖的圣约翰的国家,最近开定植。 He had offered to the Trappist Fathers 6000 acres of land and a considerable sum of money.他已提出的6000亩土地和一笔可观的钱特拉普父亲。In the year 1891 he charged the Rev. Th.他在1891年一年收取的牧师钍。Greg.格雷格。Rouleau, principal of the Laval Normal School, who accompanied Mgr.罗洛,在拉瓦尔师范学校,谁陪同经理校长。Begin on his visit ad limina, to urge this request of the Government upon the Abbot of Bellefontaine.开始他的广告limina访问,以敦促这个住持后,方丹政府的要求。When the abbot, with the necessary authorization from his order, arrived in Quebec to settle the matter, M. de Boucherville had succeeded M. Mercier as prime minister.当与他的命令,从抵达魁北克,必要的授权了事住持,塞万提斯Boucherville已成功地为总理米名士。M. Pelletier, Secretary of the Province, and the Honourable Louis Beaubien, Minister of Agriculture, were exceedingly happy to continue the work of the preceding ministry.佩尔蒂埃米,在省委书记,议员和路易博比恩,农业部长,被极其高兴地继续前部的工作。They favoured with all their power the establishment of the Trappists at Lake St. John.他们赞成与所有的力量在湖圣约翰的Trappists成立。Mgr.经理。Labrecque, who had succeeded Mgr.拉布雷克,谁成功了经理。Begin in the See of Chicoutimi, made the foundation the particular object of his personal care and attention.在开始的Chicoutimi见,取得了基础,他的个人护理和特别关注的对象。In 1892 Dom Anthony sent a little colony to Lake St. John.安东尼大教堂在1892年发出了一个小殖民地湖圣约翰。Thus was founded the prosperous and beneficent monastery of Our Lady of Mistassini at Lake of St. John in the Diocese of Chicoutimi.就这样创办了圣约翰了我们对米斯塔西尼夫人繁荣和慈善寺的Chicoutimi教区湖。 In January, 1906, it was erected into a priory, and the Rev. Dom Pacomius Gaboury was elected prior.今年一月,1906年,这是竖立成为一个修道院,和牧师大教堂Pacomius Gaboury当选之前。The monastery in 1907 had twenty inmates.在1907年寺院有二十名犯人。

Monastery of Our Lady of the Prairies, Manitoba修道院我们的大草原,曼尼托巴夫人

Archbishop Taché of St. Boniface had long desired to enrich his diocese with an institution of this kind.大主教圣博尼费斯环节渴望已久的丰富与这类机构的教区。He wrote about it several times to the Abbot of Bellefontaine, and in the spring of 1892 the latter came to an understanding with the archbishop, and his colabourer, M. Ritchot, pastor of St. Norbert.他写了几次到贝尔方丹住持,并在1892年的春天来了,后者与大主教和他的colabourer,米Ritchot,圣诺伯特牧师达成谅解。 The prelates gave the Rev. Father Abbot 1500 acres of good land in the parish of St. Norbert, and immediately sent thither a little colony under the direction of Father Louis de Bourmont.主教给牧师的父亲住持1500好地在圣诺伯特教区亩,并立即送到那里下,父亲路易斯德Bourmont方向的小殖民地。 The work of construction was carried on with vigour and rapidity, and on the 18th of October in the same year, Archbishop Taché blessed the monastery and named it Our Lady of the Prairies.建设工作进行了生机和快速性,并在同年十月18日,大主教环节得天独厚的寺院,命名为我国草原的夫人。St. Norbert is situated on the west bank of the Red River, about nine miles south of Winnipeg, the great metropolis of Western Canada.圣诺伯特坐落在红河,约九英里以南的温尼伯,加拿大西部的大都市西岸。It is exclusively an agricultural colony, and farming is carried on there on an extensive scale by means of the latest improved machinery.这完全是一个农业殖民地,农业是进行大规模对那里的最新改进的机械手段。In 1893 the harvest was remunerative.在1893年收获的报酬。In 1897 there were more than five hundred acres of first-class land under cultivation.在1897年有超过五百一流亩土地种植。The monastery of Our Lady of the Prairies had forty inmates in the year 1908.对我国草原的夫人曾在修道院1908年第四名犯人。By this date a new building had been erected.在上述日期之前一新大楼已经竖起来了。

Monastery of Our Lady of the Valley, Lonsdale, Rhode Island, US我国的山谷,朗斯代尔,罗德岛夫人寺,美国

This monastery is no other than the former Little Clairvaux transferred.这个修道院是没有其他较前者小克莱尔沃转移。After the disastrous events which made it impossible for the community of Little Clairvaux to continue its work at Big Tracadie, Dom John Mary Murphy, yielding to the desire of Bishop Harkins of Providence to have some contemplative religious in his diocese, transferred it to Lonsdale, Rhode Island, in March, 1900, leaving to other religious who came from France his monastery of Little Clairvaux.灾难性事件后,为社会作出的小克莱尔沃继续在大特拉卡迪,大教堂约翰玛丽墨菲工作中不可能屈服于主教普罗维登斯哈金斯愿望,有一些在他的教区宗教沉思,转移到朗斯代尔,罗得岛,三月,1900年,留给其他宗教谁从他的小克莱尔沃法国修道院来了。 He commenced without delay to build a wooden structure which would serve for a temporary shelter for the religious.他开始毫不拖延地建立一个木制结构,将有助于对于一个宗教临时住所。At the same time he was constructing the buildings indispensable for farming.在同一时间,他正在建设的建筑物农业不可缺少的。 These preparations were pushed forward with such energy that by the month of July the community were able to commence the clearing and cultivation of the lands.这些准备工作是推进这种能量,由7月份的社会能够展开的结算和耕种的土地。It was an arduous and ungrateful task; no single-handed farmer would have undertaken it.这是一项艰巨而忘恩负义的任务,没有单手农民将已承诺的。But what was impossible to individual effort was soon effected by united labour, and the ungrateful soil became productive.但个人的努力是不可能的事随即由美国劳工和忘恩负义的土地变得富有成效。The new monastery, begun in April, 1902, was finished in December of the same year, and in the month of January, 1903, the religious had the consolation of being installed in a building appropriate to their kind of life.新的寺院,在四月,1902年开始,完成于同年十二月,并于一月,1903年月,宗教有被为建设适合其安装一种生活的安慰。 For a farm the water supply is of prime importance.一个农场的水供应是最重要的。The religious of Our Lady of the Valley have discovered a spring which supplies water abundantly for all purposes.对我国宗教的谷夫人发现了弹簧,所有用水供应丰盛。Moreover, this water, on account of its mineral properties, has a considerable commercial value.此外,这种水,就其矿业权帐户,具有相当的商业价值。The total area of the property is 450 acres.该物业的总面积为450亩。The success which has thus far attended the efforts of the monks at Lonsdale is a precious encouragement for all those who are engaged in farming pursuits in that rocky part of Rhode Island.它的成功迄今已参加了僧侣们的努力,在代尔是所有那些谁是从事农业的追求是罗得岛岩石部分珍贵的鼓励。The monastery was erected into a priory in 1907, and the religious elected the Rev. Dom John Mary Murphy prior.寺院是竖立成为一个修道院于1907年,当选的宗教大教堂牧师约翰玛丽墨菲之前。It retains in the order the rank of seniority corresponding to the date of incorporation of Little Clairvaux in the Order of Cîteaux.它保留了资历排名顺序相对应的小克莱尔沃团在的Cîteaux订单日期。in 1869.于1869年。

Monastery of Our Lady of Calvary, Rogersville, NB修道院我们的髑髅地,罗哲斯维,毒品调查科夫人

Foreseeing the evils with which their communities were threatened by the law of 1901 (Waldeck-Rousseau), several abbots of the Order of Cîteaux in France looked to find a refuge in case of expulsion.预见与该社区是由1901年(瓦尔德克-卢梭),对在法国的Cîteaux住持订购几个法律威胁罪恶希望能有在驱逐情况下的避难所。 Dom Anthony Oger, Abbot of Our Lady of the Lake, wrote to Mgr.DOM的安东尼Oger,我们的圣母湖住持,写信给经理。Richard, pastor of Rogersville, NB, who answered promptly, placing at his disposal certain mills and 1000 acres of land already partly cultivated.理查德的罗哲斯维,铌,谁当即回答,把他掌握一定的造纸厂和1000亩土地已经部分耕地牧师。In August, 1902, the prior of Bonnecombe, France, the Rev. Father Anthony Piana and the Rev. Mother Lutgarde, prioress, with another sister, arrived in Montreal and afterwards at Our Lady of the Lake by way of Montreal.今年八月,1902年,在Bonnecombe,法国,牧师的父亲安东尼皮亚纳和母亲Lutgarde牧师,修女院院长,与另一个姐妹抵达蒙特利尔和蒙特利尔方式后,由我们的圣母湖前。 Dom Anthony Oger devoted his whole paternal solicitude to aiding his visitors in finding a place suitable for a foundation.DOM的安东尼Oger专门讨论他的整个协助找到一个合适的地方为基础的旅客父亲的关怀。The abbot communicated Mgr.住持沟通经理。Richard's proposal to the prior of Bonnecombe, who, after two visits to Rogersville decided to accept it, and the project was submitted to the approbation of the general chapter.理查德的建议,对Bonnecombe,谁后两次访问罗杰斯维尔决定接受它,项目之前提交给一般章赞许。The abbot general, Dom Sebastian Wyart, urged Dom Emile, Abbot of Bonnecombe for Canada under the direction of Dom Anthony Piana.住持一般,DOM的塞巴斯蒂安Wyart,敦促下,安东尼皮亚纳方向大教堂大教堂埃米尔,住持的Bonnecombe加拿大。 On the 5th of the following November the little colony was solemnly received at Rogersville by the pastor and his parishioners, and took possession of the monastery, to which was given the name of Our Lady of Calvary, which was canonically erected into a priory 12 July, 1904.在下面的小殖民地十一月五日隆重收到罗杰斯维尔由牧师和他的教民,并注意到了寺院占有,对此给予了我们的夫人的各各,这是canonically更名为竖立一个修道院7月12日,1904年。

Monastery of Our Lady of Jordan, Oregon我们的修道院约旦,俄勒冈夫人

In 1904 the Cistercian monks of Fontgombault (Indreet-Loire, France), were forced to abandon their monastery.在1904年Fontgombault(Indreet -卢瓦尔河,法国),该修道院的僧侣被迫放弃自己的修道院。They, too, looked for a refuge in America.他们也找了一个在美国避难。Under the direction of their abbot, Dom Fortunato Marchand, they went to Oregon to ask for a place of retreat where they would be able to serve Almighty God, and observe their rule.根据他们的住持,DOM的福图纳托马尔尚方向,他们去了俄勒冈州的一​​个活动场所,他们会问是否能成为全能的上帝,并遵守这些规则。 The new foundation of Our Lady of Jordan is situated in the township of Jordan, Linn County, about 90 miles from the Pacific Coast, upon a plateau a mile and a half in area.我们的约旦夫人的新基础,是坐落在约旦,属县,乡约90英里的太平洋海岸,在一个高原一英里的面积的一半。The property consists of about 400 acres of land, almost 200 of which are actually under cultivation or in meadow-lands, 100 in wood land, and the remainder covered with brush.该物业包括约400亩土地,其中有近200耕作或草甸土地实际上,在林地100,用毛笔所涵盖的其余部分。A torrent, tributary of the Santiam River, bounds it on the south.洪流,在桑蒂厄姆河支流,它的南面边界。Upon this torrent has been built a steam saw-mill in connection with the monastery.在这个洪流已经建立了一个蒸汽锯与寺院连接工厂。Here the Oregon fir-trees, which attain immense heights, are converted into lumber for the needs of the community and for commerce.在这里,俄勒冈枞树,获得巨大的高度,转换成木材,为社会和商业的需要。The future of this Cistercian community to a great extent rests upon this industry.这个修道院社会的未来在很大程度上取决于在这个行业。The land is ordinarily fertile and produces cereals, vegetables, pears, plums, apples, etc. The monastery of Our Lady of Jordan was solemnly dedicated in 1907, the Archbishop of Oregon City officiating, in the presence of a large assembly of the laity, among whom were many non-Catholics.土地肥沃,生产通常是谷物,蔬菜,梨,李子,苹果等,我们的圣母修道院约旦在1907年隆重专用的俄勒冈市大主教主持的一个大型集会的俗人存在,其中有许多非天主教徒。 On the same occasion the Sacrament of Confirmation was administered by the archbishop.在同一场合圣确认是管理的大主教。 The Right Rev. Father Thomas, Abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Mount Angel, preached the dedicatory sermon, in which he explained the nature and the object of the life of the Cistercians, or Trappists.正确的牧师父亲托马斯,山本笃会修道院的住持天使,鼓吹奉献讲道,他在解释的性质和对熙,或Trappists生活之目标。

The Monastery of Our Lady of Maristella我们的圣母修道院的Maristella

This monastery, at Taubaté in the Archdiocese of São Paulo do Brazil, is the first, and up to now the only monastery of the Cistercian Order in South America.这目前在圣保罗教区Taubaté寺院,做巴西是第一个,到现在的在南美洲唯一的修道院修道院秩序。It was founded in 1904 by the Abbey of Septfons in France, on a farm, or fazenda, at the foot of the Serra Mantiqueira, not far from the railroad between Rio and São Paulo, about twelve miles from Taubaté and six from Trememblé, a small place connected with Taubaté by a tramway.它成立于1904年由Septfons修道院在法国,在一个农场或庄园,在塞拉Mantiqueira脚,不远处的里约和圣保罗之间,距离12 Taubaté和六名来自Trememblé,一英里铁路小地方有联系,即由一个电车Taubaté。The property consisting of 4000 or 5000 acres, had remained untilled since the abolition of slavery in 1888, and the buildings were falling into ruins.财产的4000五千英亩组成以来,一直保持在1888年废除奴隶制untilled,,建筑成废墟下降。One half of the land lies along the River Parahyba, and the other, consisting of hills and valleys, forms the base of the chain of mountains of Mantiqueira.其中一半的土地位于沿江Parahyba,另,丘陵和山谷组成,形成了山区的Mantiqueira链基地。 Rice, coffee, sugar-cane, Indian corn, etc., are cultivated, and cattle are raised.大米,咖啡,甘蔗,印第安玉米等,都是培育,牛被提出。The climate is temperate, although it is within the tropics.气候温和,虽然它在热带地区的。The community, forty in number, has established a school for the children of the vicinity.而社区,四十只,已建立了为孩子的学校附近。

Publication information Written by FM Gildas.出版信息撰稿调频吉尔达斯。Transcribed by Larry Trippett.转录由拉里Trippett。In memory of Fr.在神父的记忆。 Columban, Our Lady of Guadalupe monastery, Oregon, whose kindness and wisdom remain with me.隆邦,瓜达卢佩圣母修道院,俄勒冈州,他们的善良和智慧我依然存在。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume III.天主教百科全书,第三卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, November 1, 1908. Nihil Obstat 11月1日1908年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Exordes de Cîteaux (Grande Trappe, 1884); D'Arbois De Jubainville, Interieur des abbayes cisterciennes au XII et au Les annales d' Aiguebelle (Valence, 1863); Janauscheck, Originum Cisterciensium etc. (Vienna, 1877), I; Gallia Christiana, IV; Hélyot, Dictionnaire des ordres religieux; Ordinis Cisterciensis Jurium etc. (Rome, 1902); Abrege de l'histoire de l'ordre de Cîteaux par un moine de Thymadeuc (St. Brieuc, 1897). Exordes德Cîteaux(大霉,1884年);德Arbois德Jubainville,Interieur德abbayes cisterciennes金等十二金莱斯年鉴Ð'Aiguebelle(价,1863年); Janauscheck,Originum Cisterciensium等(维也纳,1877年),我;加利亚克利斯提,四; Hélyot,德ordres religieux辞典; Ordinis Cisterciensis Jurium等(罗马,1902年); Abrege德欧莱雅欧莱雅历史学德勋章德Cîteaux票面联合国莫因德Thymadeuc(圣Brieuc的,1897年)。Gaillardin, Histoire de La Trappe; Dom Augustin de Lestrange et les trappists pendant la Revolution (Grande Trappe, 1898); Vie du RP Urbain Guillet (Montligeon, 1899); Vérite, Cîteaux, La Trappe et Bellefontaine (Paris, 1885); Spalding, Sketches of the Early Missions of Kentucky, 1781-1826; Maes, The life of Rev. Charles Nerinckx (Cincinnati, 1880); L'abbaye de Notre-Dame du Lac et l'ordre de Cîteaux au Canada et dans les Etats-Unis (Montreal, 1907); Tessier, Bibliotheca Patrum Cisterciensium (4 vol. 4x, 1660); Alanus De Insulis, Opera Mosalia (4x, 1654); Bona, Opera Omnia (4x 1677): Caretto, Santosale del S. Ordine Cisterciense (4 vol. 4x, 1705); Debreyne, many volumes on theology an medicine; Ughelli, Italia Sacra (10 vol. folio, 1717); Henriquez should be quoted for having not only the menologium but also the Phoenix reviviscens (4x, 1626); Regula Constit. Gaillardin,历史德香格里拉大霉; DOM的奥古斯丁莱斯特兰奇等莱斯trappists挂件香格里拉革命(大霉,1898年);争夺杜反相尔班Guillet(Montligeon,1899年);纪实,Cîteaux,香格里拉大霉等贝尔方丹(巴黎,1885年);斯伯丁,素描肯塔基州,1781年至1826年早期代表团;,对牧师查尔斯Nerinckx(辛辛那提,1880年)生活马埃什;欧莱雅修道院去巴黎圣母院迪拉克等欧莱雅勋章德Cîteaux加拿大等丹斯金莱Etats -新闻处(蒙特利尔,1907年);特西尔,书目Patrum Cisterciensium(4卷4倍,1660。); Alanus德Insulis,歌剧Mosalia(4倍,1654),博纳,歌剧OMNIA(4倍1677):Caretto,Santosale德尔学秩序报Cisterciense (4卷4倍,1705。)Debreyne,对神学的药物很多册; Ughelli,意大利萨克拉(10卷开本,1717。); Henriquez因应引述不仅menologium而且凤凰reviviscens(4倍,1626 );雷古拉Constit。et Privilegia Ord.等Privilegia条例。Cist.中科院。(folio, 1630); Janauscheck, Bibliographia Bernardina.(开本,1630); Janauscheck,Bibliographia Bernardina。



Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Franciscans
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Dominicans 多米尼加
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Convent 修道院
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单


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