Confirmation, Chrismation确认, 搽圣油

General Information一般资料

A Christian rite that follows Baptism, confirmation is considered the second Sacrament of initiation by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican churches. In the Roman Catholic church it is normally conferred by a bishop by anointing with holy oil (chrism) on the forehead. 后面的基督教洗礼仪式,确认被认为是英国圣公会教堂,并开始第二圣礼,由罗马天主教,东正教。在罗马天主教主教赋予它通常是由一个由前额恩膏与神圣)的油(圣油。 In the Orthodox church, the rite is called chrismation and is adminstered by a priest at the time of baptism.在东正教教堂,被称为chrismation仪式,由一个牧师的洗礼,时间adminstered。

Episcopalians describe confirmation as a sacramental rite and consider it a time for mature, public affirmation of baptismal vows, accompanied by the laying on of hands by the bishop.圣公会圣仪式形容为一个确认,并认为这是成熟,公众肯定的洗礼誓言的时候,伴随着铺设由主教手。For Lutherans, confirmation is not a sacrament but a public profession of faith that helps the baptized identify more deeply with the Christian community and participate in its mission.对于路德会,确认是不是圣礼,但公共职业的信念,有助于更深刻的洗礼识别与基督教社会并参加其使命。Similar rites are held in other Protestant churches; they are frequently associated with accepting baptized candidates into full church membership.类似的仪式被关押在其他新教教会,他们经常与接受洗礼,充分教会成员候选人有关。

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Confirmation, Chrismation确认,Chrismation

Advanced Information先进的信息

Confirmation is one of the seven sacraments of both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox church.确认是双方的罗马天主教和东正教教会的七个圣礼之一。The Roman Church teaches that it was instituted by Christ, through his disciples, for the church.罗马教会教导我们,它是由基督通过他的弟子为教会。Its early history is somewhat uncertain, and only gradually did it receive recognition as a sacrament.其早期历史是有些不确定,只有逐步做到了接收作为一个圣餐的认可。It was given a sacramental status by Peter Lombard in the twelfth century and by Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century, and finally by the Council of Trent in the sixteenth century.这是由于在十二世纪的托马斯阿奎那由彼得隆巴德圣地位,并最终由安理会的遄达在十六世纪的13世纪。One of the two sacraments administered by a bishop in the Roman Catholic Church, its purpose is to make those who have been baptized in the faith strong soldiers of Jesus Christ.由一个在罗马天主教主教管理的两个圣礼之一,其目的是使那些谁一直在耶稣基督的信仰强兵受洗。

It is administered to children before they receive their first Communion, generally at about the age of twelve.它被执行之前,他们收到一般儿童约在十二岁第一次圣餐。Concerning it Aquinas wrote: "Confirmation is to baptism what growth is to generation."阿奎那关于它写道:“确认是什么成长的洗礼,是一代。”It is administered according to this form: "I sign thee with the sign of the Cross and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation."它是根据这一管理形式:“我可以同你的十字架标志以及确认你的救赎圣油。”Since it confers an indelible character upon the recipient, it is administered but once.因为它赋予了不可磨灭的收件人的性格,这是管理的只有一次。According to Roman Catholic theology, sanctifying grace is increased in the soul, and a special sacramental grace consisting of the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit is conferred upon the recipient.根据罗马天主教神学,圣洁的恩典是增加了的灵魂,一个特殊的圣恩典,圣灵恩赐的七个组成的收件人后授予。This has recently been reaffirmed by Pope Paul VI in the Apostolic Constitution on the Sacrament of Confirmation (1971), where he says, "Through the sacrament of confirmation, those who have been born anew in baptism receive the inexpressible Gift, the Holy Spirit himself, by which they are endowed with special strength."这最近已重申了教皇保罗六世在使徒宪法对圣确认(1971年),他说,“通过圣确认,这些谁已经出生难以形容的洗礼收到的礼物,他自己重新圣灵,其中他们赋有特殊的力量 。“

In the Lutheran Church confirmation is a rite rather than a sacrament and the recipient offers it as a confirmation in his own heart of those baptismal vows which his parents assumed on his behalf.在路德教会确认是一种仪式,而不是圣礼和受援国提供了一个在他自己内心的洗礼确认的誓言,他代表他的父母承担了。It is administered but once at about thirteen or fourteen years of age and admits the recipient to the Communion.这是在管理,但一旦年龄约十三或十四年,并承认收件人的共融。In the Episcopal Church it is a sacramental rite completing baptism.在主教圣教会,它是一个完成的洗礼仪式。

CG Singer企业管治歌手
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
HJD Denzinger, Sources of Catholic Dogma; GW Bromiley, Sacramental Teaching and Practice in the Reformation Churches; GC Richards, Baptism and Confirmation; G. Dix, The Theology of Confirmation in Relation to Baptism; GWH Lampe, The Seal of the Spirit; LS Thornton, Confirmation.黄连解毒汤登青格,天主教教条的来源;毛重罗米立,圣事教学与实践的改革教会;气相色谱理查兹,洗礼和确认; g.迪克斯,在关系的洗礼,确认神学;广东白马兰佩,圣灵的密封;最小二乘桑顿,确认。


Confirmation确认

Catholic Information天主教新闻

A sacrament in which the Holy Ghost is given to those already baptized in order to make them strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ.其中一个是圣灵给那些已经受洗圣事,使他们坚强和完美的基督徒和耶稣基督的士兵。It has been variously designated: bebaiosis or confirmatio, a making fast or sure; teleiosis or consummatio, a perfecting or completing, as expressing its relation to baptism.它已不同指定:bebaiosis或confirmatio,一个决策快,或者保证; teleiosis或consummatio,一个完善或完成作为表达及其与洗礼。With reference to its effect it is the "Sacrament of the Holy Ghost", the "Sacrament of the Seal" (signaculum, sigillum, sphragis).关于其效果是,有“篆刻圣事”(signaculum,sigillum,sphragis)“圣灵的圣事”。 From the external rite it is known as the "imposition of hands" (epithesis cheiron), or as "anointing with chrism" (unctio, chrismatio, chrisma, myron).从外部成年礼它是被称为“强加的手”(epithesis cheiron),或作为“与chrism恩膏”(unctio,chrismatio,chrisma,迈伦)。The names at present in use are, for the Western Church, confirmatio, and for the Greek, to myron.在目前使用的名称,为西方教会,confirmatio,并为希腊,为迈伦。

I. PRESENT PRACTICE AND DOCTRINE一,目前的做法和学说

Rite仪式

In the Western Church the sacrament is usually administered by the bishop.在西方教会的圣礼通常是由主教管理。At the beginning of the ceremony there is a general imposition of hands, the bishop meantime praying that the Holy Ghost may come down upon those who have already been regenerated: "send forth upon them thy sevenfold Spirit the Holy Paraclete."在仪式开始时有一个普遍实行的手,同时祈祷的主教说,圣灵可能会在那些谁已经再生了下来:“你的七倍临到他们精神的神圣圣灵出来。” He then anoints the forehead of each with chrism saying: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost."然后,他恩膏与chrism说每个前额:“我可以同你的十字和确认你的救恩圣油,在父亲的姓名和儿子和圣灵。”Finally, he gives each a slight blow on the cheek saying: "peace be with thee".最后,他给每一个轻微的打击的脸颊说:“和平与你同在”。 A prayer is added that the Holy Spirit may dwell in the hearts of those who have been confirmed, and the rite closes with the bishop's blessing.祷告是一个补充,可以住在圣灵那些谁已被确认的心,礼的主教的祝福关闭。

The Eastern Church omits the imposition of hands and the prayer at the beginning, and accompanies the anointing with the words: "the sign [or seal] of the gift of the Holy Ghost."东部教会忽略了实行手中,并在开始祈祷,并伴随有恩膏的话:“。符号的圣灵的恩赐[或印章]”These several actions symbolize the nature and purpose of the sacrament: the anointing signifies the strength given for the spiritual conflict; the balsam contained in the chrism, the fragrance of virtue and the good odor of Christ; the sign of the cross on the forehead, the courage to confess Christ, before all men; the imposition of hands and the blow on the cheek, enrollment in the service of Christ which brings true peace to the soul.这几个动作,象征着圣餐的性质和宗旨:恩膏标志着冲突给予的精神力量,在该chrism,美德的芬芳和基督的气味中包含的香脂,在额头上的十字,敢于在众人面前承认基督;强加的手和脸颊上的打击,在基督的服务,带来真正和平的灵魂,入学率。 (Cf. St. Thomas, III:72:4). (参见圣托马斯,三:72:4)。

Minister部长

The bishop alone is the ordinary minister of confirmation.主教仅是普通部长的确认。This is expressly declared by the Council of Trent (Sess. VII, De Conf., C. iii).这是明确宣布由安理会的遄达达(sess.七,德机密。,三三)。A bishop confirms validly even those who are not his own subjects; but to confirm licitly in another diocese he must secure the permission of the bishop of that diocese.一位主教证实有效即使是那些谁是不是他自己的主题,但在另一个教区,以确认他必须确保其对教区主教的权限合法地。 Simple priests may be the extraordinary ministers of the sacrament under certain conditions.简单的牧师可能是在一定条件下圣餐非凡部长。In such cases, however, the priest cannot wear pontifical vestments, and he is obliged to use chrism blessed by a Catholic bishop.在这种情况下,但是,神父不能穿教皇法衣,他感到有责任为使用一个天主教主教祝福圣油。In the Greek Church, confirmation is given by simple priests without special delegation, and their ministration is accepted by the Western Church as valid.在希腊教会,确认是由简单的神父没有给予特殊的代表团,他们的职事,是由西方教会接受为有效。They must, however, use chrism blessed by a patriarch.他们必须,但是,使用圣油由族长祝福。

Matter and Form质料和形式

There has been much discussion among theologians as to what constitutes the essential matter of this sacrament.一直以来,神学家,以什么构成了这个圣餐至关重要的问题的讨论。Some, eg Aureolus and Petavius, held that it consists in the imposition of hands.有些人,如Aureolus和Petavius​​,认为它在实行手中组成。Others, with St. Thomas, Bellarmine, and Maldonatus, maintain that it is the anointing with chrism.与圣托马斯,贝拉明,并Maldonatus其他人,认为,它是与chrism恩膏。According to a third opinion (Morinus, Tapper) either anointing or imposition of hands suffices.根据第三个意见(Morinus,攻丝机)要么恩膏或举手足以强加于人。Finally, the most generally accepted view is that the anointing and the imposition of hands conjointly are the matter.最后,最普遍接受的观点是,恩膏和实行手中两者联合起来的问题。The "imposition", however, is not that with which the rite begins but the laying on of hands which takes place in the act of anointing.在“实施”,然而,是不是与该仪式开始,但按手其中发生在行为地的恩膏。As Peter the Lombard declares: Pontifex per impositionem manus confirmandos ungit in fronte (IV Sent., dist. xxxiii, n. 1; cf. De Augustinis, "De re sacramentaria", 2d ed., Rome, 1889, I).正如彼得伦巴第宣称:(。。。。四发送,区三十三,注1;比照德Augustinis,“德重sacramentaria”,第2版,罗马,1889年,我)在fronte ungit每impositionem马努斯confirmandos庞修夫。The chrism employed must be a mixture of olive oil and balsam consecrated by a bishop.该chrism就业必须是橄榄油和由主教祝圣香脂的混合物。(For the manner of this consecration and for other details, historical and liturgical, see CHRISM.) The difference regarding the form of the sacrament, ie the words essential for confirmation, has been indicated above in the description of the rite. (对于本奉献和其他细节,历史和礼仪的方式,看到圣油。)关于不同形式的圣餐,即确认必要的话,已在上述仪式的描述说明。The validity of both the Latin and the Greek form is unquestionable.两者的拉丁文和希腊的形式有效性是毋庸置疑的。

Additional details are given below in the historical outline.下面给出更多细节的历史轮廓。

Recipient收件人

Confirmation can be conferred only on those who have already been baptized and have not yet been confirmed.确认可以只授予那些谁已经受洗,但尚未得到证实。As St. Thomas says:正如圣托马斯说:

Confirmation is to baptism what growth is to generation.确认什么是洗礼增长一代。Now it is clear that a man cannot advance to a perfect age unless he has first been born; in like manner, unless he has first been baptized he cannot receive the Sacrament of Confirmation (ST III:72:6).现在很明显,一个人不能提前一个完美的年龄,除非他先出生,在喜欢的方式,除非他先被洗礼,他不能接受的确认圣(圣三:72:6)。

They should also be in the state of grace; for the Holy Ghost is not given for the purpose of taking away sin but of conferring additional grace.他们也应在国家的宽限期;为圣灵是不负责的罪恶目的,而是带走赋予额外的恩典。This condition, however, refers only to lawful reception; the sacrament is validly received even by those in mortal sin.这种情况下,然而,仅指合法接收;圣礼是有效,即使在那些收到弥天大罪。In the early ages of the Church, confirmation was part of the rite of initiation, and consequently was administered immediately after baptism.在教会的早期时代,确认是在启动仪式的一部分,因此是管理的洗礼后立即。When, however, baptism came to be conferred by simple priests, the two ceremonies were separated in the Western Church.但是,当洗礼,后来被授予由简单的神父,这两个仪式分离在西方教会。Further, when infant baptism became customary, confirmation was not administered until the child had attained the use of reason.此外,当婴儿的洗礼成为习惯,确认没有管理,直到孩子已达到使用的原因。This is the present practice, though there is considerable latitude as to the precise age.这是目前的做法,虽然有作为的确切年龄相当大的余地。The Catechism of the Council of Trent says that the sacrament can be administered to all persons after baptism, but that this is not expedient before the use of reason; and adds that it is most fitting that the sacrament be deferred until the child is seven years old, "for Confirmation has not been instituted as necessary for salvation, but that by virtue thereof we might be found well armed and prepared when called upon to fight for the faith of Christ, and for this kind of conflict no one will consider children, who are still without the use of reason, to be qualified."该理事会的遄达问答说,可以管理圣餐洗礼后所有的人,但是,这不是以前使用的原因权宜之计,并补充说,这是最恰当的圣礼推迟到孩子七年老,确认“没有被提起,必要的救赎,但我们凭借其中可能会发现武装,并准备好时,呼吁争取信仰基督,并为这种冲突没有人会考虑儿童的一种,谁是没有使用的原因,仍然是合格的。“ (Pt. II, ch. iii, 18.) (英国议会第二,甲烷。三,18。)

Such, in fact, is the general usage in the Western Church.这样,实际上是在西方教会的一般用法。Under certain circumstances, however, as, for instance, danger of death, or when the opportunity of receiving the sacrament is but rarely offered, even younger children may be confirmed.在某些情况下,但是,因为,举例来说,死亡,或当收到圣餐,但很少提供机会,甚至年幼的孩子可以确认的危险。 In the Greek Church and in Spain, infants are now, as in earlier times, confirmed immediately after baptism.在希腊教会和西班牙,婴儿现在,在较早的时代,确认后立即洗礼。Leo XIII, writing 22 June, 1897, to the Bishop of Marseilles, commends most heartily the practice of confirming children before their first communion as being more in accord with the ancient usage of the Church.利奥十三世,写作1897年6月22日,马赛的主教,赞扬最衷心的确认后的第一共融为与古老的教堂中使用儿童的做法给予更多。

Effects影响

Confirmation imparts确认传授

an increase of sanctifying grace which makes the recipient a "perfect Christian";一个圣洁的恩典,这使得收件人“完美基督教”增加;

a special sacramental grace consisting in the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost and notably in the strength and courage to confess boldly the name of Christ; an indelible character by reason of which the sacrament cannot be received again by the same person.一个特殊的圣礼恩典的圣灵的七个礼物,特别是在力量和勇气,大胆地承认基督的名组成,是不可磨灭的性格的原因而无法接收圣礼由同一人了。

A further consequence is the spiritual relationship which the person confirming and the sponsor contract with the recipient and with the recipient's parents.另一种后果是精神的关系,并确认该人与收件人和收件人的父母赞助合同。This relationship constitutes a diriment impediment (see IMPEDIMENTS) to marriage.这种关系构成了diriment障碍(见障碍)结婚。It does not arise between the minister of the sacrament and the sponsor nor between the sponsors themselves.它不产生之间的圣餐部长和赞助商赞助商之间也自己。

Necessity必要性

Regarding the obligation of receiving the sacrament, it is admitted that confirmation is not necessary as an indispensable means of salvation (necessitate medii).关于领取圣餐的义务,这是承认,确认是不是为拯救一个(需要medii)不可缺少的必要手段。

On the other hand, its reception is obligatory (necessitate præcepti) "for all those who are able to understand and fulfill the Commandments of God and of the Church. This is especially true of those who suffer persecution on account of their religion or are exposed to grievous temptations against faith or are in danger of death. The more serious the danger so much greater is the need of protecting oneself".另一方面,它的接待是强制性的(需要præcepti)“所有这些谁能够理解和履行上帝和教会的命令。这是谁,尤其是那些对他们遭受迫害或宗教而有机会接触真实严重侵害信仰的诱惑,或在死亡的危险。较严重的危险这么多更多的是保护自己“的需要。 (Conc. Plen. Balt. II, n. 250.) As to the gravity of the obligation, opinions differ, some theologians holding that an unconfirmed person would commit mortal sin if he refused the sacrament, others that the sin would be at most venial unless the refusal implied contempt for the sacrament.(Conc. Plen。巴尔特。二,注250。)至于义务的严重性,意见不一,一些神学家认为一个未经证实的人会犯下弥天大罪,如果他拒绝了圣礼,其他人的罪恶将在最可原谅的暗示,除非拒绝为圣礼的蔑视。 Apart, however, from such controversies the importance of confirmation as a means of grace is so obvious that no earnest Christian will neglect it, and in particular that Christian parents will not fail to see that their children are confirmed.外,然而,从这样的争议,作为一个手段的恩典确认的重要性是如此明显,没有earnest基督教会忽略它,尤其是基督教的父母不会不明白,他们的孩子得到证实。

Sponsors赞助商

The Church prescribes under pain of grievous sin that a sponsor, or godparent, shall stand for the person confirmed.根据教会规定滔天罪行痛苦赞助商,或教父,应确认该人的立场。The sponsor should be at least fourteen years of age, of the same sex as the candidate, should have already received the Sacrament of Confirmation, and be well instructed in the Catholic Faith.申办者应至少十四岁,作为候选人同性别,应该已经收到了圣确认,并在天主教信仰以及指示。From this office are excluded the father and mother of the candidate, members of a religious order (unless the candidate be a religious), public sinners, and those who are under public ban of interdict or excommunication.从这个办公室被排除在外的父亲和母亲的候选人,一个宗教秩序的成员(除非有关候选人的宗教),公共罪人,和那些谁拦截或罚下的公共禁止的。 Except in case of necessity the baptismal godparent cannot serve as sponsor for the same person in confirmation.除非在必要情况下的洗礼教父不能作为保荐人在确认同一个人。Where the opposite practice obtains, it should, according to a decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Council, 16 Feb., 1884, be gradually done away with.如果相反的实践入手,它应该根据一项安理会的神圣聚集,1884年2月16日,逐渐摆脱了法令。The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore (1866) declared that each candidate should have a sponsor, or that at least two godfathers should stand for the boys and two godmothers for the girls (n. 253).该理事会第二次全体会议巴尔的摩(1866)宣布,每个候选人必须有一个赞助商,或者说至少有两个教父要站在为男孩和两个女孩godmothers(注253)。 See also prescriptions of the First Council of Westminster.另见威斯敏斯特第一届理事会处方。Formerly it was customary for the sponsor to place his or her right foot upon the foot of the candidate during the administration of the sacrament; the present usage is that the sponsor's right hand should be placed upon the right shoulder of the candidate.以前这是习惯的赞助商后,把脚下的候选人在政府的圣餐他或她的右脚,在目前使用的是,赞助商的右手应该以候选人的右肩上。 The Holy Office decreed, 16 June, 1884, that no sponsor could stand for more than two candidates except in case of necessity.神圣的办公室颁布,1884年6月16日,没有赞助商可以对两个以上的候选人的立场,除非在必要的情况。The custom of giving a new name to the candidate is not obligatory; but it has the sanction of several synodal decrees during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.为给予一个新的名字候选人习惯不是强制性的,但它已在十五,十六世纪的几个主教法令制裁。The Fifth Council of Milan, under St. Charles Borromeo, insisted that a candidate whose name was "vile, ridiculous, or quite unbecoming for a Christian" should receive another at Confirmation" (cf. Martène).第五次会议的米兰圣查尔斯borromeo下,坚持一个候选人的名字是“可耻的,可笑的,或者很不雅观的基督教”应该得到确认后的另一个“(见Martène)。

It is clear from the diversity of practice at the present day, that there is much uncertainty as to the doctrine concerning confirmation.这是从实践的多样性在现今清楚,有很多不确定性的教义有关的确认。It is certain that the sacrament is validly and lawfully administered in the Church; but this does not solve the theological questions regarding its institution, matter, form, and minister.可以肯定的是圣礼是有效和合法的教会管理的,但这并没有解决问题,就其神学机构,事项,形式,和部长。

At the time of the Council of Trent the difficulty was felt to be so great that the assembled Fathers contented themselves with only a few canons on the subject.在安理会的遄达时间的困难是认为是如此之大,聚集的父亲满足于只对这个问题的一些大炮自己。They defined that confirmation was not "a vain ceremony but a true and proper sacrament"; and that it was not "in olden days nothing but a sort of catechism in which those who were entering upon youth gave an account of their faith in the face of the Church" (can. i).他们确定,确认信息不是“徒劳的仪式,但真正的和适当的圣事”,并认为这不是什么都不昔日“不过是某种教义中的谁是一对青年进入了他们在面对信仰帐户教会“(can.一)。 They did not define anything specific about the institution by Christ; though in treating of the sacraments in general they had already defined that "all the sacraments of the New Law were instituted by Christ our Lord" (Sess. VII, can. i).他们并没有确定任何关于基督机构的具体,虽然在一般他们已经确定,“所有的新法律圣礼被提起基督我们的上帝”圣礼治疗达(sess.七,我可以。)。 Nothing whatever was said about the form of words to be used; and regarding the matter they merely condemned any one who should maintain "that they who ascribe any virtue to the sacred chrism of confirmation offer an outrage to the Holy Ghost" (can. ii).没有什么东西是关于文字的形式表示使用;以及有关事项,他们只是谴责任何一个谁应该维持“,他们谁赋予任何神圣的确认提供圣油是对圣灵的愤怒美德”(can.二)。 The third and last canon defined that the "ordinary" minister of the sacrament is a bishop only, and not any simple priest.佳能的第三个和最后一个定义的“普通”的圣事部部长是位主教只,并没有任何简单的牧师。

This guarded language, so different from the definite canons on some of the other sacraments, shows that the council had no intention of deciding the questions at issue among theologians regarding the time and manner of the institution by Christ (direct or indirect institution), the matter (imposition of hands or anointing, or both), the form ("I sign thee", etc., or "the seal", etc.), and the minister (bishop or priest).此把守的语言,所以从其他圣礼一些明确的大炮不同,表明安理会决定中并没有就时间和基督(直接或间接的机构),该机构在发行方式的问题,神学家意向事项(实行举手或恩膏,或两者),形式(“我想你”等,或“印章”,等等),部长(主教或神父)。

Elsewhere (Sess. VII, can. ix) the council defined that in confirmation a character is imprinted in the soul, that is, a certain spiritual and indelible sign on account of which the sacrament cannot be repeated; and again (Sess. XXIII) the council declared that "bishops are superior to priests; they administer the Sacrament of Confirmation; they ordain the ministers of the Church; and they can perform many other things over which functions others of an inferior rank have no power".在其他地方达(sess.七,可以九。)定义的,在确认一个字符是在安理会的灵魂烙印,那就是,有一定的精神和有关帐户,其中的圣餐不能重复不可磨灭的标志,并再次达(sess.二十三)安理会宣布,“主教均优于神职人员,他们管理圣确认,他们注定了教会的部长们,他们可以执行许多别的事情哪一个下级职能其他人没有权力。”

Concerning the administration of the sacrament from the earliest times of the Church, the decree of the Inquisition (Lamentabili sane, 3 July, 1907) condemns the proposition (44): "There is no proof that the rite of the Sacrament of Confirmation was employed by the Apostles; the formal distinction, therefore, between the two sacraments, Baptism and Confirmation, does not belong to the history of Christianity".关于从教会,宗教裁判所(Lamentabili理智7月3日,1907年)法令最早的时候的圣餐当局谴责命题(44):“毫无疑问,在圣确认成年礼聘用的证明由使徒;正式的区别,因此,两者之间的圣礼,洗礼和确认,不属于基督教“的历史。 The institution of the sacrament has also been the subject of much discussion as will appear from the following account.的圣餐机构也一直是备受讨论的课题,将出现以下帐户。

II.二。HISTORY历史

The Sacrament of Confirmation is a striking instance of the development of doctrine and ritual in the Church.圣确认是教义和教会仪式的发展引人注目的实例。We can, indeed, detect much more than the mere germs of it in Holy Scripture; but we must not expect to find there an exact description of the ceremony as at present performed, or a complete solution of the various theological questions which have since arisen.我们可以,确实,发现它比单纯的圣经细菌更多,而我们不能期望找到有一个确切的描述的仪式,截至目前执行的,或对各种神学问题的完整解决方案以来出现。 It is only from the Fathers and the Schoolmen that we can gather information on these heads.这是只从父亲和我们的schoolmen可以收集这些头信息。

(1) Confirmation in the Bible(1)确认在圣经

We read in the Acts of the Apostles (8:14-17) that after the Samaritan converts had been baptized by Philip the deacon, the Apostles "sent unto them Peter and John, who, when they were come, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost; for he was not yet come upon any of them, but they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus; then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost".我们读到的使徒(8:14-17),经过撒玛利亚转换已经由菲利普洗礼的执事,传道者“打发他们的行为彼得和约翰,谁,他们来的时候,就为他们祷告,要他们受圣灵,因为他还没有临到其中任何一个,但他们只是洗礼,在主耶稣的名,然后他们奠定了他们自己的手里,他们受了圣灵。“

Again (19:1-6): St. Paul "came to Ephesus, and found certain disciples; and he said to them: Have you received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? But they said to him: We have not so much as heard whether there be a Holy Ghost. And he said: In what then were you baptized? Who said: In John's baptism. Then Paul said: John baptized the people with the baptism of penance . . . Having heard these things, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had imposed his hands on them, the Holy Ghost came upon them, and they spoke with tongues and prophesied".再次(19:1-6):圣保罗“来到以弗所,发现某些弟子,他就对他们说:你们受了圣灵,因为你们相信,但他们对他说:我们没有这么多的?听说是否有一个圣灵和他说:。在什么当时你的洗他说:?。在约翰的洗礼,然后保罗说:。。。约翰的洗礼与忏悔的洗礼人民听了这些话,就受了洗在主耶稣的名字。保罗对他们施加了他的手,圣灵降在他们身上,他们方言,预言“说着。

From these two passages we learn that in the earliest ages of the Church there was a rite, distinct from baptism, in which the Holy Ghost was conferred by the imposition of hands (dia tes epitheseos ton cheiron ton Apostolon), and that the power to perform this ceremony was not implied in the power to baptize.从这两个通道,我们了解到,在教会最早的年龄有一个仪式,来自不同的洗礼,其中圣灵是由实行手中赋予(直径工商业污水附加费epitheseos吨cheiron吨Apostolon),并有权执行此仪式中没有隐含的权力洗礼。 No distinct mention is made as to the origin of this rite; but Christ promised the gift of the Holy Ghost and conferred it.没有明显提到的是,以这一仪式的起源,但基督答应了圣灵的恩赐,并赋予它。Again, no express mention is made of anointing with chrism; but we note that the idea of unction is commonly associated with the giving of the Holy Ghost.同样,没有明确提到了与chrism恩膏,但我们注意到,油膏的想法通常与圣灵给有关。Christ (Luke 4:18) applies to Himself the words of Isaias (61:1): "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, wherefore he hath anointed me to preach the gospel".基督(路加福音4:18)适用于以自己伊萨亚斯(61:1)的话:“主的灵在我身上,所以他用膏膏我去传福音。” St. Peter (Acts 10:38) speaks of "Jesus of Nazareth: how God anointed him with the Holy Ghost".圣彼得(使徒10:38)说的是“拿撒勒的耶稣:神怎样用圣灵膏他。”St. John tells the faithful: "You have the unction (chrisma) from the Holy One, and know all things"; and again: "Let the unction [chrisma], which you have received from him, abide in you" (1 John 2:20, 27).圣约翰告诉信徒:“你从圣者的油膏(chrisma),并知道所有的事情”,并再次:“让油膏[chrisma],您已经收到他都住在你”(1约翰2:20,27)。

A striking passage, which was made much use of by the Fathers and the Schoolmen, is that of St. Paul: "He that confirmeth [ho de bebaion] us with you in Christ, and hath anointed us, is God, who also hath sealed [sphragisamenos] us, and given us the pledge [arrabona] of the Spirit in our hearts" (2 Corinthians 1:20, 21).一个动人的文章,这是由父亲和许多的schoolmen利用,是圣保罗:“他说confirmeth [浩德bebaion]基督使我们与你,并且膏我们的上帝,是上帝,谁也祂所密封[sphragisamenos]我们,给我们的承诺的精神在我们心中“(哥林多后书1:20 21)[arrabona]。No mention is made of any particular words accompanying the imposition of hands on either of the occasions on which the ceremony is described; but as the act of imposing hands was performed for various purposes, some prayer indicating the special purpose may have been used: "Peter and John . . . prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost".没有提到的是陪同的场合要么实行手中任何特定的词仪式上介绍,但作为征收手中行为是出于各种目的进行,一些特殊用途的祈祷表明可能使用了:“彼得和约翰。。。为他们祷告,要叫他们受圣灵“。 Further, such expressions as "signing" and "sealing" may be taken as referring to the character impressed by the sacrament: "You were signed [esphragisthete] with the holy Spirit of promise"; "Grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby you are sealed [esphragisthete] unto the day of redemption" (Ephesians 1:13; 4:30).此外,由于“签名”和“密封”可理解为指由圣留下深刻印象的人物采取这种表达方式:“你与该公司签订的承诺圣灵[esphragisthete]”;“也不会悲伤的上帝,即圣灵您是密封[esphragisthete]等候得赎的“天(以弗所书1:13; 4:30)。See also the passage from Second Corinthians quoted above.又见从上面引述的第二科林蒂安通过。

Again, in the Epistle to the Hebrews (6:1-4) the writer reproaches those whom he addresses for falling back into their primitive imperfect knowledge of Christian truth; "whereas for the time you ought to be masters, you have need to be taught again what are the first elements of the words of God" (Hebrews 5:12).再次,在书信向希伯来人(6:1-4)作家指责那些人,他为重新陷入原始的基督教真理的不完善的知识地址;而你的宝贵时间应该是主人“,你必须再教什么是神的话的第一要素“(希伯来书5:12)。 He exhorts them: "leaving the word of the beginning of Christ, let us go on to things more perfect, not laying again the foundation . . . of the doctrine of baptisms, and imposition of hands", and speaks of them as those who have been "once illuminated, have tasted also the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost".他劝告他们:“。。。离开基督开头的单词,让我们去到更完美的东西,而不是再次奠定了基础主义的洗礼和实行手中”,他们讲的那些谁一直以“一次亮起,也尝到了天上的礼物,是由圣灵有分”。 It is clear that reference is made here to the ceremony of Christian initiation: baptism and the imposition of hands whereby the Holy Ghost was conferred, just as in Acts 2:38.很显然,这里提到了启动仪式的基督教:洗礼和实行手中,使圣灵被授予正如在使徒行传2:38。The ceremony is considered to be so well known to the faithful that no further description is necessary.仪式被认为是那么广为人知的忠实,没有进一步说明是必要的。This account of the practice and teaching of the Apostles proves that the ceremony was no mere examination of those already baptized, no mere profession of faith or renewal of baptismal vows.这种实践和教学的使徒帐户证明,没有仪式,只是那些已经受洗检查,没有信仰或续期的洗礼誓言单纯的职业。Nor was it something specially conferred upon the Samaritans and Ephesians.它也不是什么特别呼吁撒玛利亚会和以弗所书所赋予的。What was done to them was an instance of what was generally bestowed.什么做了对他们是一个什么普遍赋予的实例。Nor was it a mere bestowal of charismata; the Holy Ghost sometimes produced extraordinary effects (speaking with divers tongues, etc.), but these were not necessarily the result of His being given.也不是一个单纯的的charismata恩赐,圣灵有时会产生特殊效果(与潜水员舌头等发言),但这些不一定是他的被给定的结果。 The practice and teaching of the Church at the present day preserve the primitive type: the imposition of hands, the gift of the Holy Ghost, the privileges of the episcopate.这种做法,并在现今教学的教会保存基本类型:实行手中,在圣灵的礼物,主教的特权。What further elements were handed down by tradition will be seen presently.有什么新的内容被移交下来的传统,目前可以看出。

(2) Church Fathers(2)教父

In passing from Holy Scripture to the Fathers we naturally expect to find more definite answers to the various questions regarding the sacrament.从圣经传递给父亲,我们自然期望找到更明确的答案,关于圣餐的各种问题。From both their practice and their teaching we learn that the Church made use of a rite distinct from baptism; that this consisted of imposition of hands, anointing, and accompanying words; that by this rite the Holy Ghost was conferred upon those already baptized, and a mark or seal impressed upon their souls; that, as a rule, in the West the minister was a bishop, whereas in the East he might be a simple priest.无论从他们的实践和教学我们学习,教会作出了洗礼仪式,从不同的使用;,这种强加的手组成,恩膏,以及配套的话,那这个仪式是圣灵的洗礼后,已经赋予的,并一个记号,或根据自己的灵魂留下深刻的印象印章;,作为一个规则,在西方部长是主教,而在东方,他可能是一个简单的牧师。

The Fathers considered that the rites of initiation (baptism, confirmation, and the Holy Eucharist) were instituted by Christ, but they did not enter into any minute discussion as to the time, place, and manner of the institution, at least of the second of these rites.认为,启动(洗礼,确认,和圣体圣事)的仪式是由基督的,但他们并没有进入到任何一分钟的讨论,以时间,地点的父亲,和该机构的方式,至少第二这些仪式。

In examining the testimonies of the Fathers we should note that the word confirmation is not used to designate this sacrament during the first four centuries; but we meet with various other terms and phrases which quite clearly refer to it.在审查的父亲,我们应该注意到,这个词不是用来确认指定在第一四个世纪来,这个圣餐的证词,但我们与其他各条款和词组很清楚地提到它满足。 Thus, it is styled "imposition of hands" (manuum impositio, cheirothesia), "unction", "chrism", "sealing", etc. Before the time of Tertullian the Fathers do not make any explicit mention of confirmation as distinct from baptism.因此,它是风格“强加的手”(manuum impositio,cheirothesia),“基”,“圣油”,“密封”在时间的良等的父亲不作任何有别于洗礼确认明确提及。The fact that the two sacraments were conferred together may account for this silence.事实上,这两个圣礼一起被授予可能考虑到这一点的沉默。

Tertullian (De Bapt., vi) is the first to distinguish clearly the three acts of initiation: "After having come out of the laver, we are anointed thoroughly with a blessed unction [perungimur benedictâ unctione] according to the ancient rule . . . The unction runs bodily over us, but profits spiritually . . . . Next to this, the hand is laid upon us through the blessing, calling upon and inviting the Holy Spirit [dehinc manus imponitur per benedictionem advocans et invitans Spiriturn Sanctum]."德尔图良(。德BAPT的,六)是第一个明确区分引发的三个行为:“后走出了紫菜,我们是一个幸福基膏[perungimur benedictâ unctione]根据古老的统治彻底。。。该基在我们身体上运行,但利润精神上的。。。。接下来这个,手按在我们走过的祝福,呼吁并邀请圣灵[dehinc马努斯每benedictionem advocans等invitans Spiriturn圣殿imponitur]。“

Again (De resurr, carnis, n, 8): "The flesh is washed that the soul may be made stainless. The flesh is anointed [ungitur] that the soul may be consecrated. The flesh is sealed [signatur] that the soul may be fortified. The flesh is overshadowed by the imposition of hands that the soul may be illuminated by the Spirit. The flesh is fed by the Body and Blood of Christ that the soul may be fattened of God."再次(德resurr,carnis,氮,8):。。“的肉被洗的灵魂可能是不锈钢制成膏,果肉[ungitur]认为神圣的灵魂可能是肉体是密封[签字]认为灵魂可能要强化。果肉是由实行手中的灵魂可能被掩盖的精神照亮。果肉是美联储通过身体和血液基督的灵魂,是出于神肥。“

And (Adv. Marcion.,i, n. 14): "But He [Christ], indeed even at the present time, neither rejected the water of the Creator with which He washes clean His own, nor the oil with which He anoints His own; . . . nor the bread with which He makes present [repræsentat] His own very body, needing even in His own sacraments the beggarly elements of the Creator," Tertullian also tells how the devil, imitating the rites of Christian initiation, sprinkles some and signs them as his soldiers on the forehead (signat illic in frontibus milites suos -- De Præscript., xl).和(上海高考马吉安我,注14。):“但是他[基督],事实上,即使在目前,既不拒绝对造物主的水,使他洗干净了自己,也没有油,使他恩膏他自己。。。也不是面包,使他使[repræsentat]介绍他自己非常的身体,需要在他自己的圣事,甚至是造物主的无用的小学,“良还告诉如何魔鬼,模仿基督教启动仪式,洒一些和他的士兵的额头迹象他们(在frontibus milites suos signat illic - 。德Præscript,四十)。

Another great African Father speaks with equal clearness of confirmation.另一个伟大的非洲之父说,与同等清晰的确认。"Two sacraments", says St. Cyprian, "preside over the perfect birth of a Christian, the one regenerating the man, which is baptism, the other communicating to him the Holy Spirit" (Epist. lxxii).“两个圣礼”说,圣塞浦路斯,“主持一个基督徒完美的诞生,一个再生的人,这是洗礼,其他沟通,他的圣灵”(Epist. LXXII)号。

"Anointed also must he be who is baptized, in order that having received the chrism, that is the unction, he may be anointed of God" (Epist. lxx). “受膏者是谁,他也必须受洗,为了使在收到该chrism,那就是,他可能是神基抹”(Epist. LXX的)。"It was not fitting that [the Samaritans] should be baptized again, but only what was wanting, that was done by Peter and John; that prayer being made for them and hands imposed, the Holy Ghost should be invoked and poured forth upon them. Which also is now done among us; so that they who are baptized in the Church are presented to the bishops [prelates] of the Church, and by our prayer and imposition of hands, they receive the Holy Ghost and are perfected with the seal [signaculo] of the Lord" (Epist. lxxiii). “这不是恰当的[撒玛利亚]应该受洗,重新命名,但只有在想什么,这是通过彼得和约翰,这是为他们祈祷和手作出规定,圣灵应该被调用,倒在他们提出。这也就是在我们现在做,所以,他们谁是在教会受洗提交给主教[主教]的教会,和我们的祈祷和实行手中,他们受圣灵,并与密封完善主“(Epist. lxxiii)[signaculo]。

"Moreover, a person is not born by the imposition of hands, when he receives the Holy Ghost, but in baptism; that being already born he may receive the Spirit, as was done in the first man Adam. For God first formed him and breathed into his face the breath of life. For the Spirit cannot be received except there is first one to receive it. But the birth of Christians is in baptism" (Epist. lxxiv). “此外,一个人是不是天生的实行手中,当他收到圣灵,但在洗礼。身为已经出生,他可能会收到的精神,是在完成第一个男人亚当最初形成的神和他他的脸上注入了生命的气息。对于精神不能接收,除非有第一个接收它。但出生在基督徒的洗礼“(Epist. LXXIV)号。

Pope St. Cornelius complains that Novatus, after having been baptized on his sickbed, "did not receive the other things which ought to be partaken of according to the rule of the Church--to be sealed, that is, by the bishop [sphragisthenai ypo tou episkopou] and not having received this, how did he receive the Holy Ghost?"教宗圣科尼利厄斯抱怨说Novatus后,被他的病床上接受洗礼,“没有收到这应该是partaken的根据教会规则的其他东西 - 由主教[sphragisthenai必须密封,也就是说, ypo土特产品episkopou]并没有收到此,怎么,他受圣灵?“(Eusebius, HE, vi, xliii). (尤西比乌斯,他,六,四十三)。

In the fourth and fifth centuries the testimonies are naturally more frequent and clear.在第四和第五世纪的见证,自然更加频繁和清晰。St. Hilary speaks of "the sacraments of baptism and of the Spirit"; and he says that "the favor and gift of the Holy Spirit were, when the work of the Law ceased, to be given by the imposition of hands and prayer" (In Matt., c. iv, c. xiv).希拉里说的是圣“的洗礼和圣灵的圣礼”;他说,“青睐和圣灵的恩赐,当法律停止工作,由和祈祷的手强加给” (于马特。角四角十四)。

St. Cyril of Jerusalem is the great Eastern authority on the subject, and his testimony is all the more important because he devoted several of his "Catecheses" to the instruction of catechumens in the three sacraments which they were to receive on being initiated into the Christian mysteries.圣西里尔耶路撒冷是伟大的东方主题的权威,他的证词是更重要,因为他致力于在三个圣礼他们以前接受被纳入启动了他的“要理”数到慕道指令基督教的奥秘。 Nothing could be clearer than his language: "To you also after you had come up from the pool of the sacred streams, was given the chrism [unction], the emblem of that wherewith Christ was anointed; and this is the Holy Ghost. . . This holy ointment is no longer plain ointment nor so as to say common, after the invocation, but Christ's gift; and by the presence of His Godhead, it causes in us the Holy Ghost. This symbolically anoints thy forehead, and thy other senses; and the body indeed is anointed with visible ointment, but the soul is sanctified by the Holy and life-giving Spirit . . . . To you not in figure but in truth, because ye were in truth anointed by the Spirit" (Cat. Myst., iii).没有什么能比他更清楚的语言:“为了你也来了后,从神圣的库和溪流,被赋予该chrism [基],该所受的基督象征是受膏者,这是圣灵。。 。这个神圣软膏不再平庸软膏,也不让,说共同的,后调用,但基督的礼物,并经他的神性的存在,它在我们造成圣灵这象征性恩膏你的额头,和你的其他感官。以及身体确实是受膏者软膏与可见,但灵魂是神圣的圣洁,并赋予生命的精神,你不是在数字,但说实话,因为你们用圣灵膏真理是“(目录。。。。神秘岛。,三)。 And in the seventeenth catechesis on the Holy Ghost, speaks of the visit of Peter and John to communicate to the Samaritans the gift of the Holy Ghost by prayer and the imposition of hands.还有在圣灵第十七教理,讲的彼得和约翰访问交流的撒玛利亚通过祈祷礼品的圣灵和实行手中。Forget not the Holy Ghost", he says to the catechumens, "at the moment of your enlightenment; He is ready to mark your soul with His seal [sphragisai] .不要忘记圣灵“,他说的慕道者,”在你的醒悟,他是你的准备,以纪念他的印章[sphragisai]灵魂。..He will give you the heavenly and divine seal [sphragisai] which makes the devils tremble; He will arm you for the fight; He will give you strength." Christ, says St. Optatus of Mileve, "went down into the water, not that there was what could be cleansed in God, but the water ought to go before the oil that was to supervene, in order to initiate and in order to fill up the mysteries of baptism; having been washed whilst He was held in John's hands, the order of the mystery is followed .他会给你的天堂和神圣的密封[sphragisai]这使得鬼发抖,他会打你的手臂。他会给你力量“基督圣的mileve optatus的说,”水里去,而不是,有什么能在神洁净,但水应该去之前的油,是supervene,以启动,为了填补洗礼的奥秘;有被冲走,而他是在约翰的手中,神秘的顺序是遵循。 ...Heaven is opened whilst the Father anoints; the spiritual oil in the image of the Dove immediately descended and rested on His head, and poured on it oil, whence He took the name of Christ, when He was anointed by God the Father; to whom that the imposition of hands might not seem to have been wanting, the voice of God is heard from a cloud, saying, This is my Son, of whom I have thought well; hear ye him" (De schism. Donat., I, iv, n. 7).天堂是打开,而父恩膏,在鸽子的形象精神的油立即下降,头休息,并浇油在上面,从那里他获得了基督,当他被圣父膏的名称;给谁即实行手中可能似乎并没有一直想,神的声音听到了云,说,这是我的儿子,就是我想好了,你们要听他“(德分裂多纳特,我。。四,注7)。

St. Ephraem Syrus speaks of "the Sacraments of Chrism and Baptism" (Serm. xxvii); "oil also for a most sweet unguent, wherewith they who already have been initiated by baptism are sealed, and put on the armour of the Holy Spirit" (In Joel.)塞拉斯E谈到圣“的圣油和洗礼圣礼”(Serm.二十七),“油也最甜软膏,怎能叫他们谁已经被洗礼发起密封,并在圣灵的盔甲把“(在乔尔。)

St. Ambrose addressing the catechumens who had already been baptized and anointed, says: "Thou hast received the spiritual seal, the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding . . . . Keep what thou hast received. God the Father has sealed thee; Christ the Lord has confirmed thee; and the Spirit has given the pledge in thy heart, as thou hast learned from what is read in the Apostle" (De myst., c. vii, n. 42). 。。。。。圣刘汉铨解决谁已经接受洗礼抹慕道者,说:“你已经得到了精神上的印章,智慧和谅解精神保持你所收到什么神父封你;基督主已经确认你;和精神同样给从什么是阅读使徒“据悉,你有你的心的承诺,(德神秘岛,长七,注42。)。

The writer of the "De Sacramentis" (Inter Op. Ambros., lib. III, c. ii, n. 8) says that after the baptismal immersion "the spiritual seal [signaculum] follows . . . when at the invocation of the bishop [sacerdotis] the Holy Ghost is infused".而“德Sacramentis”作家(国际米兰作品。Ambros。,随机应变。三,长二,注8)说,经过浸泡的洗礼“精神印章[signaculum]如下。。。当在调用主教[sacerdotis]圣灵是注入“。

The Council of Elvira decreed that those who had been baptized privately in case of necessity should afterwards be taken to the bishop "to be made perfect by the imposition of hands" (can. xxxviii, Labbe, I, 974).安理会颁布的埃尔维拉那些谁已受洗私下在必要时,应采取事后主教“是由实行手中完美”(can.三十八,拉韦,我,974)。

And the Council of Laodicea: "Those who have been converted from the heresies . . . are not to be received before they anathematize every heresy . . . and then after that, those who were called faithful among them, having learned the creeds of the faith, and having been anointed with the holy chrism, shall so communicate of the holy mystery" (can. vii).和安理会的老底嘉:。。。“谁已从歪理邪说是不能转换之前收到他们诅咒每一个异端,然后在此之后,那些谁被称为信徒,其中,有教训的信条。。。信仰,并具有已与圣圣油膏,则应沟通的神圣之谜“(can.七)。 "Those who are enlightened must after baptism be anointed with the heavenly chrism, and be partakers of the kingdom of Christ" (can. xlviii, Labbe, I, col. 1497). “谁是开明的洗礼后,必须与天上的圣油膏,并成为基督的王国有分”(can.四十八,拉韦,我山口。1497)。

The Council of Constantinople (381): "We receive the Arians, and Macedonians . . . upon their giving in written statements and anathematizing every heresy . . . . Having first sealed them with the holy ointment upon the forehead, and eyes, and nostrils, and mouth, and ears, and sealing them we say, 'The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost"' (can. vii, Labbe, II, col. 952).安理会的君士坦丁堡(381):“我们收到的白羊座,和马其顿后,他们给予书面发言和anathematizing每异端人首先是盖上后,额头上的圣膏,和眼睛里,和鼻孔。。。。。。。和嘴巴,耳朵和密封他们,我们说,'对圣灵的“礼物海豹(can.七,拉韦,二,山口。952)。

St. Augustine explains how the coming of the Holy Ghost was companied with the gift of tongues in the first ages of the Church.圣奥古斯丁解释了圣灵的来临是与在教会的第一个礼物舌头岁伴。 "These were miracles suited to the times . . . .“这些都是适应时代的奇迹。。。。

Is it now expected that they upon whom hands are laid, should speak with tongues?难道他们目前预计其中一双手放在后,应该说方言?Or when we imposed our hand upon these children, did each of you wait to see whether they would speak with tongues?或者当我们强加给我们这些孩子的手,没有你们每个人等着看他们是否会说方言?and when he saw that they did not speak with tongues, was any of you so perverse of heart as to say 'These have not received the Holy Ghost?'当他看到他们不说方言,是使你们中的任何不正当的心,说'这些都没有得到圣灵?' (In Ep. Joan., tr. vi). (在EP。琼。,文。六)。

He also speaks in the same way about anointing: the sacrament of chrism "is in the genus of visible signs, sacrosanct like baptism" (Contra litt. Petil., II, cap. civ, in PL, XLI, col. 342; see Serm. ccxxvii, Ad Infantes in PL, XXXVII, col. 1100; De Trin., XV, n. 46 in PL, XL, col. 1093); "Of Christ it is written in the Acts of the Apostles, how God anointed Him with the Holy Ghost, not indeed with visible oil, but with the gift of grace, which is signified by that visible unction wherewith the Church anoints the baptized".他还谈到以同样的方式有关恩膏:在圣油圣事(魂斗罗利特“的明显迹象,如属神圣的洗礼是”Petil,二,帽持续输注,在特等,四十一,彩色342;见。。。。 。变换SERM ccxxvii,广告在特等,三十七特斯,彩色1100;。。德草,十五,注46特等,加大码,彩色1093)。“基督是在使徒,神膏的行为如何写他与圣灵,的确不可见的油,但随着礼物的宽限期,这是可见的基标志着该教会所受的恩膏的洗礼“。 The most explicit passage is in the letter of Pope Innocent I to Decentius: "As regards the sealing of infants, it is clear that it is not lawful for it to be done by anyone but a bishop [non ab aliis quam ab episcopo fieri licere]. For presbyters, though they be priests of the second rank (second priests), have not attained to the summit of the pontificate. That this pontificate is the right of bishops only--to wit: that they may seal or deliver the Spirit, the Paraclete is demonstrated not merely by ecclesiastical usage, but also by that portion of the Acts of the Apostles wherein it is declared that Peter and John were sent to give the Holy Ghost to those who had already been baptized. For when presbyters baptize, whether with or without the presence of the bishop, they may anoint the baptized with chrism, provided it be previously consecrated by a bishop, but not sign the forehead with that oil, which is a right reserved to bishops [episcopis] only, when they give the Spirit, the Paraclete. The words, however, I cannot name, for fear of seeming to betray rather than to reply to the point on which you have consulted me."最明确的通过是在诺森我信Decentius:“至于密封的婴儿,很明显,这是不合法的,它需要做的任何人,但一主教[非从头aliis华富从头episcopo财物licere 。]对长老,虽然他们是第二级(第二祭司),牧师还没有达到到教皇本教皇是首脑会议的主教唯一正确的 - 即:。它们可以查封或者交付精神,论证的圣灵不仅由教会使用,但它是对其中声明部分的使徒行传,彼得和约翰也被送往圣灵给那些谁已经接受洗礼因为当长老施洗。,不论是否有存在的主教,他们可能抹洗礼与chrism,只要它是以前由一位主教祝圣,但没有签署与该石油,这是一个正确的保留给主教[episcopis]只,当他们的额头给予精神,圣灵。的话,但是,我不能名看似害怕背叛,而不是答复关于你所咨询我点。“

Saint Leo in his fourth sermon on Christ's Nativity says to the faithful: "Having been regenerated by water and the Holy Ghost, you have received the chrism of salvation and the seal of eternal life" (chrisma salutis et signaculum vitae æternæ, -- PL, LIV, col. 207).圣在他的基督的诞生第四讲道的忠实利奥说:(chrisma salutis等signaculum简历æternæ,“有被水和圣灵,你收到的救赎圣油和密封的永恒的生命再生” - 特等,丽芙山口。207)。

The Blessed Theodoret commenting on the first chapter of the Canticle of Canticles says: "Bring to thy recollection the holy rite of initiation, in which they who are perfected after the renunciation of the tyrant and the acknowledgment of the King, receive as a kind of royal seal the chrism of the spiritual unction (sphragida tina basiliken . . . tou pneumatikou myron to chrisma) as made partakers in that typical ointment of the invisible grace of the Holy Spirit" (PG, LXXXI, 60).世尊Theodoret对第一章的颂歌的Canticles评论说:“拿请你回忆一下神圣仪式的开始,他们在谁是暴君后,放弃和承认国王的完善,收到作为种皇家印章的精神油膏圣油(sphragida蒂娜basiliken。。。头pneumatikou迈伦到chrisma),如,该无形的圣灵的恩典典型软膏作出有分“公司(PG,捌拾壹,60)。

Among the homilies formerly attributed to Eusebius of Emesa, but now admitted to be the work of some bishop of southern Gaul in the fifth century, is a long homily for Whitsunday: "The Holy Ghost who comes down with a life-giving descent upon the waters of baptism, in the font bestows beauty unto innocence, in confirmation grants an increase unto grace. Because we have to walk during our whole life in the midst of invisible enemies and dangers, we are in baptism regenerated unto life, after baptism we are confirmed for the battle; in baptism we are cleansed, after baptism we are strengthened . . . . confirmation arms and furnishes weapons to those who are reserved for the wrestlings and contests of this world" (Bib. Max., SS. PP., VI, p. 649).其中颂歌以前归因于Emesa尤西比乌斯,但现在承认是一些南部高卢主教在第五世纪的工作,是一个长期的圣灵降临节讲道:“圣灵降临了谁后,赋予生命的后裔水的洗礼,在美丽的字体赋予你们的清白,在确认补助增加你们的恩典。由于我们必须走在了我们对无形的敌人和危险之中的一生,是再生的洗礼,我们得生命,我们的洗礼后确认了战斗,在洗礼,我们的洁净,洗礼后,我们加强了武器和furnishes确认这些武器是为wrestlings谁和这个世界“(Bib.比赛最大保留,不锈钢聚丙烯,。。。。。。。六,第649)。

These passages suffice to show the doctrine and practice of the Church during the patristic age.这些通道足以说明在教父时代的理论和实践的教会。

(3) Early Middle Ages(3)早期中世纪

After the great Trinitarian and Christological controversies had been decided, and the doctrine of Divine grace had been defined, the Church was able to devote attention to questions regarding the sacraments, the means of grace.经过伟大的三位一体和基督论的争论已经决定,神的恩典学说已经被定义,教会能够集中精力疑问圣礼,手段的宽限期。At the same time, the sacramentaries were being drawn up, fixing the various rites in use.在同一时间,sacramentaries正在制定,修正所使用的各种仪式。With precision of practice came greater precision and completeness of doctrine.随着实践的精度来更精确和完整的学说。"Chrisma", says St. Isidore of Seville, "is in Latin, called 'unctio' and from it Christ receives His name, and man is sanctified after the laver [lavacrum]; for as in baptism remission of sins is given, so by anointing [unctio] the sanctification of the Spirit is conferred. The imposition of hands takes place in order that the Holy Spirit, being called by the blessing, may be invited [per benedictionem advocatus invitetur Spiritus Sanctus]; for after the bodies have been cleansed and blessed, then does the Paraclete willingly come down from the Father" (Etym., VI, c.xix in PL, LXXXII, col. 256). “Chrisma”说,圣塞维利亚伊西多尔,“拉丁美洲是,所谓的'unctio',并从它基督收到他的名字,而人是在紫菜[lavacrum]圣洁;的洗礼中缓解的罪孽给出,所以由恩膏[unctio]圣灵的圣洁是赋予实行手中发生在秩序中的地位,圣灵,被所谓的祝福,可邀请[每benedictionem advocatus invitetur Spiritus的众神]。后的尸体已被清洗和祝福,然后不情愿下来的圣灵从父“(Etym.,六,在特等,捌拾,彩色c.xix。256)。

The great Anglo-Saxon lights of the early Middle Ages are equally explicit.伟大的盎格鲁撒克逊中世纪早期灯也同样明确。"The confirmation of the newly baptized", says Lingard (Anglo-Saxon Church, I, p. 296), "was made an important part of the bishop's duty. We repeatedly read of journeys undertaken by St. Cuthbert chiefly with this object . . . . Children were brought to him for confirmation from the secluded parts of the country; and he ministered to those who had been recently born again in Christ the grace of the Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands, 'placing his hand on the head of each, and anointing them with the chrism which he had blessed (manum imponens super caput singulorum, liniens unctione consecratâ quam benedixerat; Beda, "Vita Cuth.", c. xxix, xxxii in PL, XCIV, Oper. Min., p. 277)."他说:“新领洗的确认”,说林加德(盎格鲁撒克逊人的教堂,我,第296页),“写了一个主教的职责的重要组成部分。我们已经多次开展的由圣卡斯伯特与此对象主要是阅读旅程。 。。。孩子们带到他从该国确认僻静地方,他就服事那些谁最近已经再次出生在基督由实行手中的圣灵的恩典,'把他的手在头上每个和恩膏与他所祝福(manum imponens超级卡布特singulorum,liniens unctione consecratâ他们华富benedixerat圣油。。贝达“。简历Cuth”角第29届,在特等,XCIV,歌剧院三十二分钟,p 。277)。“

Alcuin also in his letter to Odwin describes how the neophyte, after the reception of baptism and the Eucharist, prepares to receive the Holy Spirit by the imposition of hands.阿尔昆在信中还介绍了如何Odwin新手,在圣体圣事的洗礼和接待,准备接收由实行手中圣灵。"Last of all by the imposition of the hands by the chief priest [summo sacerdote] he receives the Spirit of the seven-fold grace to be strengthened by the Holy Spirit to fight against others" (De bapt. cæremon. in PL, CI, col. 614).“由所有征收的手最后由祭司长[summo sacerdote]他收到了七倍宽限期精神得到加强圣灵打击别人”(德BAPT的。cæremon。在PL,传播山口。614)。

It will be observed that in all these passages imposition of hands is mentioned; St. Isidore and St. Bede mention anointing also.这将是观察到,在所有这些通道实行手中提到,圣和圣比德伊西多尔也提到恩膏。These may be taken as typical examples; the best authorities of this age combine the two ceremonies.这些可能被视为典型的例子;这个时代的最权威的机构两者结合起来仪式。As to the form of words used the greatest variety prevailed.至于形式的文字所使用的最大的品种占了上风。The words accompanying the imposition of hands were generally a prayer calling upon God to send down the Holy Ghost and confer upon the neophytes the seven gifts.这句话伴随着普遍实行手中祈祷呼求上帝派下来的圣灵和赋予新手七个礼物。In the Gregorian Sacramentary no words at all are assigned to the anointing; but it is clear that the anointing must be taken in connection with the words belonging to the imposition of hands.在阳历Sacramentary无话都被分配到恩膏,但它显然,必须与恩膏属于实行手中方面所采取的话。Where special words are assigned they sometimes resemble the Greek formulary (signum Christi in vitam æternam, etc.), or are indicative, like the present formula (signo, consigno, confirmo), or imperative (accipe signum, etc.), or deprecatory (confirmet vos Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, etc.).如有特殊字分配,他们有时像希腊名册(Signum的克里斯蒂在vitam æternam等),或者是像现在这样的指标公式,(signo,consigno,confirmo),或命令(accipe Signum的等),或贬低(confirmet沃斯佩特等Filius等Spiritus的圣哉,等)。St. Isidore is clearly in favor of a prayer: "We can receive the Holy Ghost, but we cannot give Him: that He may be given, we call upon God" (De Off. Eccl., II, c. xxvi in PL, LXXXIII, col. 823).圣伊西多尔显然是在祈祷赞成:“我们可以接受圣灵,但我们不能给他:他可能获得,我们对上帝的召唤”。。(德关传道书,二角二十六在特等,捌拾叁,山口。823)。

In contrast with this diversity as to the form there is complete agreement that the sole minister is a bishop.与此作为对比的形式多样性的存在是完全一致的唯一部长是位主教。Of course this refers only to the Western Church.当然这只是指西方教会。The writers appeal to the Acts of the Apostles (eg St. Isidore, "De Off. Eccl.", II, c. xxvi; St. Bede, "In Act. Apost." in PL, XCII, col. 961; "Vit. Cuth.", c. xxix); but they do not examine the reason why the power is reserved to the bishops, nor do they discuss the question of the time and mode of the institution of the sacrament.作家呼吁使徒(即行为如圣伊西多尔,“德关传道书。。”第一,二,长二十六,圣比德“,在法Apost。。”在特等,XCII,彩色961。“维生素Cuth“,长二十九)。。但是他们不检查的权力的原因是保留给主教,也没有讨论的时间和机构的圣餐的方式问题。

(4) Scholastic Theology(4)学术神学

The teaching of the Schoolmen shows a marked advance upon that of the early Middle Ages.的schoolmen教学上表现增强其在中世纪早期的台阶。The decision as to the number of the sacraments involved the clear distinction of confirmation from baptism; and at the same time the more exact definition of what constitutes a sacrament led to the discussion of the institution of confirmation, its matter and form, minister, and effects, especially the character impressed.作为对参与决策的圣礼数目从洗礼确认明确区分,并在同一时间内,什么是导致了确认,其物质和形式,讨论一个圣餐部长机构更准确的定义,影响,特别是性格留下深刻印象。

We can follow the development through the labors of Lanfranc, Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Anselm his successor, Abelard, Hugh of St. Victor, Peter Lombard (Sent., IV, dist. vii); then branching out into the two distinct schools of Dominicans (Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas) and Franciscans (Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Duns Scotus).我们可以按照通过兰弗朗克,坎特伯雷大主教,圣安瑟伦他的继任者,阿贝拉尔,圣维克多彼得隆巴德(Sent.,四,七区。)休劳动者发展,然后扩展到两个不同的学校中多米尼加人(Albertus马格纳斯和圣托马斯)和方济会(黑尔斯,圣文德,和邓司各脱亚历山大)。 As we shall see, the clearness with which the various questions were set forth by no means produced unanimity; rather it served to bring out the uncertainty with regard to them all.正如我们将看到,与它的各种问题,是为没有提出清晰一致的方式制作的,而是有助于带出关于他们的不确定性。The writers start from the fact that there was in the Church a ceremony of anointing with chrism accompanied with the words: "I sign thee with the sign of the cross", etc.; this ceremony was performed by a bishop only, and could not be repeated.作家开始从事实,是一个在教会与附上圣油与恩膏仪式:“我可以同你的十字”等;这个仪式是由一位主教而已,并不能重复。 When they came to examine the doctrine underlying this practice they all admitted that it was a sacrament, though in the earlier writers the word sacrament had not yet acquired a distinct technical meaning.当他们来到学说基础研究这一做法,他们均承认这是一个圣餐虽然在圣礼一词尚未取得明显的技术含义早期作家。So strongly did they insist upon the principle Lex orandi, lex credendi, that they took for granted that the anointing must be the matter, and the words "I sign thee", etc., the form, and that no one but a bishop could be the valid minister.如此强烈,他们没有坚持要求orandi法原则,法credendi,他们认为理所当然的事情必须是恩膏,而这句话:“我想你”等,形式,但没有人会主教是有效的部长。 But when they came to justify this doctrine by the authority of Scripture they encountered the difficulty that no mention is made there either of the anointing or of the words; indeed nothing is said of the institution of the sacrament at all.但是,当他们来到辩护,圣经的权威,他们遇到了这个学说,没有提到的是那里的恩膏或字眼困难,实际上没有什么是对各机构的圣餐说。 What could be the meaning of this silence?什么可能是这种沉默的含义?How could it be explained?怎么会这样解释呢?

(a) The institution of the sacrament(一)该机构的圣餐

Regarding the institution there were three opinions.关于该机构有三种观点。The Dominican School taught that Christ Himself was the immediate author of confirmation.多米尼加学校教导基督本人立即确认是作家。Earlier writers (eg Hugh of St. Victor, "De Sacram.", ii, and Peter Lombard, "Sent.", IV, dist. vii) held that it was instituted by the Holy Ghost through the instrumentality of the Apostles.此前作家(如圣维克多休,“德Sacram。”第一,二,和彼得隆巴德,“已发送。”,第四,区。七)认为,它是由圣灵提起通过使徒工具性。 The Franciscans also maintained that the Holy Ghost was the author, but that He acted either through the Apostles or through the Church after the death of the Apostles.方济还认为,圣灵是作者,但他采取行动,通过使徒或通过教会无论是后死亡的使徒。St. Thomas says,圣托马斯说,

Concerning the institution of this sacrament, there are two opinions: some say that it was instituted neither by Christ nor by His Apostles, but later on in the course of time at a certain council [Meaux, 845; this was the opinion of Alexander of Hales, Summ., iv, q.有关这圣餐机构,有两种意见:有人说,这是既不提起,但后来在适当的时候由基督也不是由他的门徒在一定会[莫城,845,这是亚历山大的意见黑尔斯,萨姆。,四,问: 9, m.], whereas others said that it was instituted by the Apostles.9,米],而其他人说,这是由使徒提起。But this cannot be the case, because the institution of a sacrament belongs to the power of excellence which is proper to Christ alone.但是,这不能如此,因为一个圣餐事业单位所属,以卓越的权力,是适当的基督里。And therefore we must hold that Christ instituted this sacrament, not by showing it [exhibendo] but by promising it, according to the text (John 16:7), "If I go not, the Paraclete will not come to you; but if I go, I will send Him to you."因此,我们必须坚信自己的基督提起不显示它[exhibendo],但它这圣礼,承诺,根据文字(约16:7),“如果我没有,圣灵不会来找你,但如果我去,我会派他来。“ And this because in this sacrament the fullness of the Holy Ghost is given, which was not to be given before Christ's resurrection and ascension, according to the text (John 7:39), "As yet the Spirit was not given, because Jesus was not yet glorified."这是因为在这圣礼的丰满的圣灵给出,它并没有被前给予基督的复活和升天,根据文字(约7时39分),“迄今为止的精神,是没有得到,因为耶稣尚未得着荣耀。“ ((ST III:72:1). ((圣三:72:1)。

It will be noticed that the Angelic Doctor hesitates a little about the direct institution by Christ (non exhibendo, sed promittendo).这将是注意到,天使般的医生犹豫了一个关于基督(非exhibendo,桑达promittendo)的直接机构很少。 In his earlier work (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, q. 1) he had said plainly that Christ had instituted the sacrament and had Himself administered it (Matthew 19).在他以前的工作(在发送。,四,区。七,问:1)他说,显然,基督已经制定了自己的圣和管理它(马太19)。In this opinion the saint was still under the influence of his master, Albert, who went so far as to hold that Christ had specified the chrism and the words, "I sign thee", etc. (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, a. 2).在此意见的圣人是根据他的主人,阿尔贝,谁去得很远,认为基督已经指定该chrism和影响力的话是,“我想你”,等等(在发送。,四,区。七,甲2)。

The opinion of Alexander of Hales, referred to by St. Thomas, was as follows: the Apostles conferred the Holy Ghost by mere imposition of hands; this rite, which was not properly a sacrament, was continued until the ninth century, when the Holy Ghost inspired the Fathers of the Council of Meaux in the choice of the matter and form, and endowed these with sacramental efficacy (Spiritu Sancto instigante et virtutem sanctificandi præstante).亚历山大的黑尔斯认为,所提到的圣托马斯,结果如下:使徒的手所赋予的仅仅是强加圣灵;这个仪式,这是不正确一个圣餐,直到第九世纪时,圣继续鬼鼓舞了这一事项,形式的选择对莫城会的父亲,并赋予圣效能(Spiritu Sancto instigante等virtutem sanctificandi præstante)这些。He was led to this extraordinary view (which he states as merely personal) by the fact that no mention is made in Holy Scripture either of the chrism or of the words; and as these were undoubtedly the matter and the form they could only have been introduced by Divine authority.他被带到这个非同寻常的观点(他国看作仅仅是个人)的,没有提及在圣经任该chrism或词的事实,而且这些无疑是他们的事,只能是形式介绍了神圣的权力。

His disciple, St. Bonaventure, agreed in rejecting the institution by Christ or His Apostles, and in attributing it to the Holy Ghost; but he set back the time to the age of "the successors of the Apostles" (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, art. 1).他的弟子,圣文德,同意或拒绝他的门徒的基督,机构和归结到圣灵,但他把时间倒流到了“使徒的继承人”的时代(已发,四。 ,区。七,艺术。1)。However, like his friendly rival St. Thomas, he also modified his view in a later work viloquium, p.然而,像他的友好竞争对手圣托马斯,他还修改了以后的工作viloquium,他认为第vi.六。c.4) where he says that Christ instituted all the sacraments, though in different ways; "some by hinting at them and initiating them [insinuando et initiando], as confirmation and extreme unction". 4)基督在那里,他说,虽然在不同的方式实行的所有圣礼;“的暗示,并开始采取他们[insinuando等initiando]作为确认和临终,一些”。 Scotus seems to have felt the weight of the authority of the Dominican opinion, for he does not express himself clearly in favor of the views of his own order.司各脱似乎已经感受到了多米尼加认为权威的重量,因为他不是在表达自己的主张自己的意见,以便清楚。He says that the rite was instituted by God (Jesus Christ? the Holy Ghost?); that it was instituted when Christ pronounced the words, "Receive ye the Holy Ghost", or on the day of Pentecost, but this may refer not to the rite but to the thing signified, viz.他说,仪式是由上帝提起(耶稣基督的圣灵?),它是建立在基督明显的话说,“你们受圣灵”,在一天的降临或,但这可能不是指对事物的期望却标志着,即仪式。 the gift of the Holy Ghost (In Sent., IV, dist. vii, q. 1; dist. ii, q. 1).在圣灵的恩赐(在发送,四,七区,问:1。。区二,问:1。)。The Fathers of the Council of Trent, as said above, did not expressly decide the question, but as they defined that all the sacraments were instituted by Christ, the Dominican teaching has prevailed.在安理会的遄达的父亲,因为上面所说的,没有明确决定的问题,但是当他们定义了所有的圣礼由基督,多米尼加教学占了上风。 We shall see, however, that this is capable of many different meanings.我们将看到,然而,这是许多不同的含义的能力。

(b) The question of matter and form(二)物质和形式问题

The question of the institution of the sacrament is intimately bound up with the determination of the matter and form.该机构的圣餐的问题是紧密联系在一起的问题的决心和形式。All agreed that these consisted of the anointing (including the act of placing the hand upon the candidate) and the words, "I sign thee", or "I confirm thee", etc. Were this action and these words of Divine, or of Apostolic, or of merely ecclesiastical origin?大家一致认为,这些恩膏(包括配售手后,候选人的行为)等字组成,“我想你”,或“我确认你”等方面进行了这一行动,并神圣的这些话,或使徒,或仅仅是宗教的起源? St. Albertus held that both were ordained by Christ Himself; others that they were the work of the Church; but the common opinion was that they were of Apostolic origin.圣阿尔伯特认为,无论是由基督自己受戒,其他人,他们是教会的工作,但共同的意见是,他们的使徒制造。St. Thomas was of opinion that the Apostles actually made use of chrism and the words, Consigno te, etc., and that they did so by Christ's command.圣托马斯是认为使徒实际上由圣油和词,Consigno德等使用,而且他们通过基督的命令,以便。The silence of Scripture need not surprise us, he says, "for the Apostles observed many things in the administration of the sacraments which are not handed down by the Scriptures" (ST III:72:3).沉默的经文,我们不必感到惊讶,他说,“为使徒观察到有哪些不下来的圣经圣礼政府中的许多事情”(圣三:72:3)。

(c) The reservation of the rite to the bishops(三)保留的仪式的主教

In proof of the reservation of the rite to bishops the Schoolmen appeal to the example of Acts 8; and they go on to explain that as the sacrament is a sort of completion of baptism it is fitting that it should be conferred by "one who has the highest power [summam potestatem] in the Church" (St. Thomas, III:72:11).在该仪式的主教的schoolmen呼吁保留的行为,8例证明,他们继续解释说,由于是一种圣礼的洗礼完成的排序是恰当的,应该以“一个谁也赋予最高功率[summam potestatem]在教会“(圣托马斯,三:72:11)。They were aware, however, that in the primitive Church simple priests sometimes administered the sacrament.他们意识到,但是,在原始的教会神职人员有时简单管理的圣礼。This they accounted for by the fewness of bishops, and they recognized that the validity of such administration (unlike the case of Holy orders) is a mere matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction.这占了他们的主教fewness,他们认识到,此种管理(不像神圣的命令的情况下)的有效期是一个单纯的宗教管辖权问题。 "The pope holds the fullness of power in the Church, whence he can confer upon certain of the inferior orders things which belong to the higher orders . . . . And out of the fullness of this power the blessed pope Gregory granted that simple priests conferred this sacrament" (St. Thomas, III:72:11). “教皇拥有的权力在教会丰满,从那里他可以赋予下订单的事情,属于较高的订单肯定的。。。。与这种力量的充实的祝福教皇格里理所当然地认为简单的神父赋予这圣事“(圣托马斯,三:72:11)。

(5) The Council of Trent(5)理事会的遄达

The Council of Trent did not decide the questions discussed by the Schoolmen.安理会的遄没有决定由院学派讨论的问题。But the definition that "all the sacraments were instituted by Christ" (Sess. VII, can. i), excluded the opinion that the Holy Ghost was the author of confirmation.但是,“所有的圣礼被提起基督”的定义达(sess.七,可以的。我),排除认为圣灵是确认作者。Still, nothing was said about the mode of institution--whether immediate or mediate, generic or specific.不过,什么也没有说,有关机构的模式 - 无论是直接或调解,一般或具体的。The post-Tridintine theologians have almost unanimously taught that Christ Himself was the immediate author of all the sacraments, and so of confirmation (cf. De Lugo, "De Sacram. in Gen.", disp. vii, sect. 1; Tournély, "De Sacram. in Gen.", q. v, a. 1).后Tridintine神学家们几乎一致告诉我们,基督自己是所有的圣礼立即作家,所以确认(参见德卢戈,“德Sacram在将军。”DISP键七,第1节。。Tournély, “德Sacram。在将军”,问:五,答:1)。"But the historical studies of the seventeenth century obliged authors to restrict the action of Christ in the institution of the sacraments to the determination of the spiritual effect, leaving the choice of the rite to the Apostles and the Church." “但在十七世纪的历史责任作者的研究,以限制基督教的圣礼机构的作用的决心采取行动的精神,使礼的选择,以使徒和教会。”(Pourrat, La théologie sacramentaire, p. 313.) That is to say, in the case of confirmation, Christ bestowed upon the Apostles the power of giving the Holy Ghost, but He did not specify the ceremony by which this gift should be conferred; the Apostles and the Church, acting under Divine guidance, fixed upon the imposition of hands, the anointing, and the appropriate words. (Pourrat,香格里拉神学sacramentaire,第313页。)这就是说,在确认的情况下,基督赐予的使徒给予圣灵的力量,但他没有具体说明仪式本应赋予的礼物;使徒和教会,在神的指导后,手,恩膏,并实施适当的词语固定的角色。 Further information on this important and difficult question will be found in the article SACRAMENTS.在这个重要而困难的问题的进一步信息将在文章中找到圣礼。

III.三。CONFIRMATION IN THE BRITISH AND IRISH CHURCHES确认在英国和爱尔兰会联会

In his famous "Confession" (p. clxxxiv) St. Patrick refers to himself as the first to administer confirmation in Ireland.在他著名的“自白”(第clxxxiv)圣帕特里克称自己是第一个在爱尔兰的确认管理。The term here used (populi consummatio; cf. St. Cyprian, ut signaculo dominico consummentur, Ep. lxxiii, no. 9) is rendered by nocosmad, cosmait (confirmabat, confirmatio) in a very ancient Irish homily on St. Patrick found in the fourteenth century, "Leabar Breac".这里使用的术语(人民呼声cons​​ummatio。。。比照圣塞浦路斯,UT斯达康signaculo dominico consummentur,环保lxxiii 9号)是由nocosmad,cosmait(confirmabat,confirmatio)呈现在一个非常古老的爱尔兰讲道的圣帕特里克发现十四世纪,“Leabar Breac”。In the same work (II, 550-51) a Latin preface to an ancient Irish chronological tract says: Debemus scire quo tempore Patriacius sanctus episcopus atque præceptor maximus Scotorum inchoavit .在同样的工作(二,550-51)的序言中一个古老的拉丁爱尔兰时间顺序道说:Debemus scire现状临时Patriacius桑克蒂斯episcopus atque præceptor鲆Scotorum inchoavit。 ..sanctificare et consecrare, et consummare, ie "we ought to know at what time Patrick, the holy bishop and greatest teacher of the Irish, began to come to Ireland . . . to sanctify and ordain and confirm". sanctificare等consecrare,等consummare,即“我们应该知道在什么时候帕特里克,圣主教和教师最伟大的爱尔兰人开始来到爱尔兰。。。来圣洁,规定和确认”。

From the same "Leabar Breac" Sylvester Malone quotes the following account of confirmation which exhibits an accurate belief on the part of the Irish Church: "Confirmation or chrism is the perfection of baptism, not that they are not distinct and different. Confirmation could not be given in the absence of baptism; nor do the effects of baptism depend on confirmation, nor are they lost till death. Just as the natural birth takes place at once so does the spiritual regeneration in like manner, but it finds, however, its perfection in confirmation" (Church History of Ireland, Dublin, 1880, I, p. 149).从相同的“Leabar Breac”西尔维斯特马龙引用了以下帐户确认其展品对爱尔兰教会的一部分准确的信念:。“确认或圣油是完美的洗礼,而不是他们不清晰,无法确认不同刊载于缺席的洗礼。也不做洗礼的影响取决于确认,他们也不是至死不渝失去正如自然分娩发生一次这样的方式不一样,在精神上的再生,但它发现,但其在确认“(教会爱尔兰都柏林1880年,我,第149页历史)的完善。

It is in the light of these venerable texts, which quite probably antedate the year 1000, that we must interpret the well-known reference of St. Bernard to the temporary disuse of confirmation in Ireland (Vita Malachiæ), c.正是在这些古老的文本,这很可能先于1000年,我们必须解释的圣伯纳德众所周知的参考确认在爱尔兰(简历Malachiæ),角灯暂时停止使用 iv, in Acta SS., Nov., 1I, 145).四,在学报的SS。11月,1I,145)。He relates that St. Malachy (b. about 1095) introduced the practices of the Holy Roman Church into all the churches of Ireland, and mentions especially "the most wholesome usage of confession, the sacrament of confirmation and the contract of marriage, all of which were either unknown or neglected".他叙述,圣马拉奇(生于约1095)引入所有的爱尔兰教会的神圣罗马教会的做法,并特别提到“最有益健康的自白用法,圣确认和婚姻的合同,所有其中不明或忽视“。 These Malachy restored (de novo instituit).这些马拉奇恢复(从头instituit)。

The Welsh laws of Hywel Dda suppose for children of seven years and upwards a religious ceremony of laying on of hands that can hardly be anything else than confirmation.威尔士的Hywel多哈议程的法律假设为七年以上的儿童和铺设手中,很难确认是任何别的比宗教典礼。Moreover, the Welsh term for this sacrament, Bedydd Esgob, ie bishop's baptism, implies that it was always performed by a bishop and was a complement (consummatio) of baptism.此外,这个圣餐威尔士来说,Bedydd Esgob,即主教的洗礼,意味着它总是由主教,是一个相辅相成的洗礼(consummatio)。Gerald Barry notes that the whole people of Wales were more eager than any other nation to obtain episcopal confirmation and the chrism by which the Spirit was given.杰拉尔德巴里指出,全体人民的威尔士超过其他任何国家都渴望获得主教确认和所依据的精神给予圣油。

The practice in England has already been illustrated by facts from the life of St. Cuthbert.在英格兰的做法已经说明了事实,从圣卡斯伯特生活。One of the oldest ordines, or prescriptions for administering the sacrament, is found in the Pontifical of Egbert, Archbishop of York (d. 766).最古老ordines,或处方管理圣礼之一,是发现在埃格伯特,约克大主教(草766)宗座。The rite is practically the same as that used at present; the form, however, is: "receive the sign of the holy cross with the chrism of salvation in Christ Jesus unto life everlasting."这种仪式实际上是截至目前使用的相同,形式,却是:“接收在基督的救恩,耶稣对生命永恒的圣油的圣十字。” Among the rubrics are: modo ligandi sunt, ie the head of the person confirmed is to be bound with a fillet; and modo communicandi sunt de sacrificio, ie they are to receive Holy Communion (Martène).其中红色标题是:modo的ligandi必须遵守,即确认该人的头部要与一个圆角受其约束及摩多communicandi必须遵守德sacrificio,即它们接受圣餐(Martène)。

It was especially during the thirteenth century that vigorous measures were taken to secure the proper administration of the sacrament.它是在十三世纪,特别是采取有力措施,确保采取适当管理的圣餐。In general, the councils and synods direct the priests to admonish the people regarding the confirmation of their children.在一般情况下,议会和主教会议,直接祭司告诫人们对于子女的确认。The age limit, however, varies considerably.年龄限制,但是,有很大的差别。Thus the Synod of Worcester (1240) decreed that parents who neglected to have their child confirmed within a year after birth should be forbidden to enter the church.因此,伍斯特主教(1240)颁布法令,父母谁忽视了他们的孩子在出生后一年确认应被禁止进入教堂。The Synod of Exeter (1287) enacted that children should be confirmed within three years from birth, otherwise the parents were to fast on bread and water until they complied with the law.英国埃克塞特主教(1287)颁布的儿童应在三年内从出生证明,父母否则对面包和水快,直到他们遵守法律。At the Synod of Durham (12177? Cf. Wilkins, loc. cit. below) the time was extended to the seventh year.在达勒姆主教(12177?比照。威尔金斯,同上。同上。下文)的时间延长到第七个年头。

Other statutes were: that no one should be admitted to Holy Communion who had not been confirmed (Council of Lambeth, 1281); that neither father nor mother nor stepparent should act as sponsor (London, 1200); that children to be confirmed must bring "fillets or bands of sufficient length and width", and that they must be brought to the church the third day after confirmation to have their foreheads washed by the priest out of reverence for the holy chrism (Oxford, 1222); that a male sponsor should stand for the boys and a female sponsor for the girls (Provincial Synod of Scotland, 1225); that adults must confess before being confirmed (Constitution of St. Edmund of Canterbury, about 1236).其他法规有:任何人都不应被接纳为圣餐谁尚未得到确认(理事会的兰贝斯,1281),即没有父母继父母也不应作为赞助商(伦敦,1200),这孩子被确诊必须携带“鱼片或足够的长度和宽度乐队”,他们必须把教会的第三天后,确认他们的额头上有洗出来的崇敬牧师为圣圣油(牛津,1222),即男赞助商要站在为男孩和一个女孩女赞助商(省苏格兰议会,1225),即成年人得到证实之前,必须承认(宪法埃德蒙圣坎特伯雷,约1236)。

Several of the above-named synods emphasize the fact that confirmation produces spiritual cognation and that the sacrament cannot be received more than once.上述命名主教会议强调的几个事实,确认产生的精神血亲,而无法接收圣礼不止一次。The legislation of the Synod of Exeter is especially full and detailed (see Wilkins, Concilia Magnæ Brittanniæ et Hiberniæ, London, 1734).在英国埃克塞特主教立法,特别是充分和详细(见威尔金斯,Concilia Magnæ Brittanniæ等Hiberniæ,伦敦,1734年)。Among the decrees issued in Ireland after the Reformation may be cited: no one other than a bishop should administer confirmation; the Holy See had not delegated this episcopal function to any one (Synod of Armagh, 1614); the faithful should be taught that confirmation cannot be reiterated and that its reception should be preceded by sacramental confession (Synod of Tuam, 1632).在爱尔兰后发出可引改革的法令:没有人比其他主教应确认管理;罗马教廷没有授权这个主教功能的任何一个(阿马,1614主教),而应该教的忠实确认不能重申,其接待应先圣忏悔(主教蒂厄姆,1632)。

IV.四。IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES在美国殖民地

Previous to the establishment of the hierarchy, many Catholics in North America died without having received confirmation.在此之前层次结构的建立,许多在北美天主教徒死了没有收到确认。In some portions of what is now the United States the sacrament was administered by bishops from the neighboring French and Spanish possessions; in others, by missionary priests with delegation from the Holy See.在现在的某些部分美国圣餐是来自邻近的法国和西班牙属地管理的主教,在其他人,与来自罗马教廷代表团传教神父。

Bishop Cabezas de Altimirano of Santiago de Cuba, on his visitation of Florida, confirmed (25 March, 1606) a large number, probably the first administration of the sacrament in the United States territory.卡贝萨斯主教德Altimirano古巴的圣地亚哥,在他的探视佛罗里达证实,(1606年3月25日)数量众多,可能是在美国境内第一届政府的圣礼。 In 1655, Don Diego de Rebolledo, Governor of Florida, urged the King of Spain to ask the pope to make St. Augustine an episcopal see, or to make Florida a vicariate Apostolic so that there might be a local superior and that the faithful might receive the Sacrament of Confirmation; but nothing came of the petition. 1655年,迭戈代雷沃,佛罗里达州州长,敦促西班牙国王要求教皇圣奥古斯丁一作主教看到,或使佛罗里达州一宗座代牧区,以便有可能是当地优势,而忠实的可能圣确认收到,但没有呈请书来了。 Bishop Calderon of Santiago visited Florida in 1647 and confirmed 13,152 persons, including Indians and whites.卡尔德隆圣地亚哥主教在1647年访问了佛罗里达州,并确认13152人,其中包括印第安人和白人。Other instances are the visitations of Bishop de Velasco (1735-6) and Bishop Morel (1763).其他实例主教德Velasco保持(1735-6)和主教莫雷尔(1763年)的参观。Subsequently, Dr. Peter Camps, missionary Apostolic, received from Rome special faculties for confirmation.随后,医生彼得营,传教使徒,收到确认罗马特殊的天赋。

In New Mexico, during the seventeenth century, the custos of the Franciscans confirmed by delegation from Leo X and Adrian VI.在新墨西哥州,在十七世纪,方济的保管人确认由利奥X和阿德里安六代表团。In 1760, Bishop Tamaron of Durango visited the missions of New Mexico and confirmed 11,271 persons. 1760年,主教杜兰戈塔马伦走访新墨西哥州的任务,并确认11271人。Bishop Tejada of Guadalajara administered (1759) confirmation at San Fernando, now San Antonio, Texas, and Bishop de Pontbriand at Ft.主教Tejada瓜达拉哈拉管理(1759)在圣费尔南多,现在圣安东尼奥,德克萨斯州的确认,并在主教德Pontbriand堡。 Presentation (Ogdensburg, NY) in 1752.简报(奥格登斯堡,纽约州)于1752年。

The need of a bishop to administer the sacrament in Maryland and Pennsylvania was urged by Bishop Challoner in a report to the Propaganda, 2 Aug., 1763.一个主教需要管理在马里兰州和宾夕法尼亚州圣主教查洛纳敦促在向宣传,1763年8月2日的报告。Writing to his agent at Rome, Rev. Dr. Stonor, 12 Sept., 1766, he says: "there be so many thousands there that live and die without Confirmation"; and in another letter, 4 June, 1771: "It is a lamentable thing that such a multitude have to live and die always deprived of the Sacrament of Confirmation."写他在罗马,牧师博士斯托纳,1766年9月12日代理,他说:“有这么多的数千那里生活和死亡,但不确认”,并在另一封信中,1771年6月4日:“这是一个可悲的事情,这样的群众要始终生活和死亡的圣确认被剥夺。“ Cardinal Castelli wrote, 7 Sept., 1771, to Bishop Briand of Quebec asking him to supply the need of the Catholics in Maryland and Pennsylvania.红衣主教卡斯泰利说,1771年9月7日,魁北克白里安主教,要求他提供了在马里兰州和宾夕法尼亚州的天主教徒的需要。 In 1783 the clergy petitioned Rome for the appointment of a superior with the necessary faculties "that our faithful living in many dangers, may be no longer deprived of the Sacrament of Confirmation . . . . " On 6 June, 1784, Pius VI appointed Rev. John Carroll as superior of the mission and empowered him to administer confirmation (Shea, Life and Times of Archbishop Carroll, New York, 1888; cf. Hughes in Am. Eccl. Review, XXVIII, 23).请愿的神职人员在1783年的院系的必要任命一位卓越的罗马“,我们在许多危险忠实的生活,可不再圣确认剥夺。。。。”6月6日,1784,庇护六世任命的牧师。约翰卡罗尔作为上级的任务,并授权他管理确认(谢伊,生活和时代的大主教卡罗尔,纽约,1888年,在我传道书比照休斯审查,二十八,23岁。。。)。

V. CONFIRMATION AMONG NON-CATHOLICS五,确认在非天主教徒

The Protestant Reformers, influenced by their rejection of all that could not be clearly proved from Scripture and by their doctrine of justification by faith only, refused to admit that confirmation was a sacrament (Luther, De Capt. Babyl., VII, p. 501).新教改革者,他们的一切不能清楚地证明,从经文以及他们拒绝的理由学说的信仰的影响只,拒绝承认确认是一个圣礼(路德,德上尉Babyl。,第七章,第501页)。 According to the Confession of Augsburg, it was instituted by the Church, and it has not the promise of the grace of God.根据奥格斯堡供述,它是由教会提起,到现在也没有了神的恩典的承诺。Melanchthon (Loci Comm., p. 48) taught that it was a vain ceremony, and was formerly nothing but a catechism in which those who were approaching adolescence gave an account of their faith before the Church; and that the minister was not a bishop only, but any priest whatsoever (Lib. Ref. ad Colonien.).梅兰希(。位点通讯,第48页)教授,这是徒劳的仪式,曾任只是一个问答中,谁是那些接近青春期介绍了他们的信念,才教会帐户,并认为部长是不是主教只,但无论任何牧师(Lib.号。广告Colonien。)。

These four points were condemned by the Council of Trent (supra I; cf. A. Theiner, Acta Genuina SS. Œcum. Conc. Trid., I, p. 383 sqq.).这四点是谴责安理会的遄达(前一;。比照答Theiner,兽类Genuina党卫军Œcum浓论坛报,我,第383页sqq。。。。。)。 Nevertheless the Lutheran Churches retain some sort of confirmation to the present day.然而,路德教会保留一些确认排序到今天。It consists of the examination of the candidate in Christian doctrine by the pastors or members of the consistory, and the renewal by the candidate of the profession of faith made for him at the time of his baptism by his godparents.它包括了由牧师或consistory成员,以及由他提出的信仰,在他的洗礼,他的教父教母的时间界候选人重建基督教教义候选人考试。 How the pastors properly ordained can alone be said to "give" confirmation does not appear.如何正确受戒牧师可以单独说“给”确认不会出现。The Anglican Church holds that "Confirmation is not to be counted for a sacrament of the Gospel . . . for it has not the like nature of sacraments [sacramentorum eandem rationem] with Baptism and the Lord's Supper, for it has not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God" (Art. xxv).圣公会认为,“确认不被一福音圣礼计算。。。因为它已经不是圣礼的类似性质的[sacramentorum eandem rationem]的洗礼和主的晚餐,因为它已经没有任何明显的标志或神“(第十五)受戒仪式。But, like the Lutheran Churches, it retains "the Confirmation of children, by examining them of their knowledge in their articles of faith and joining thereto the prayers of the Church for them" (Homily on Common Prayer and Sacraments, p. 300).但是,像路德教会,它保留了“儿童确认,通过审查他们的知识他们的信仰他​​们的文章和对他们及其加入的教会的祈祷”(讲道共同祈祷和圣礼第300页)。 The rite of confirmation has undergone various changes in the different prayer books (see BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER).成年礼的确认,在经历了各种变化的不同的祈祷书(见共同祈祷书)。From these it can be seen how the Anglican Church has varied between the complete rejection of the Catholic doctrine and practice, and a near approach to these.从这些可以看出如何圣公会教会之间的天主教教义和实践,和即将完成的方法来拒绝这些更改。Testimonies could easily be quoted for either of these opinions.证词很容易被这些意见所报任。The wording of Art.对艺术的措辞。xxv left a loophole which the Ritualistic party has made good use of.二十五留下了该仪式性党已经取得了良好的利用漏洞。 Even some Catholics, as stated above, have admitted that confirmation "has not any visible sign or ceremony ordained of God"; the imposition of hands, the anointing, and the words used being all of them "ordained of" the Apostles of the Church.即使是一些天主教徒,如前所述,都承认,确认“没有任何明显的标志或祝圣仪式的上帝”;的手中,实行恩膏,而这句话用被他们全部!“受戒”教会的使徒。

Publication information Written by TB Scannell.出版信息撰稿结核病斯坎内尔。Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.转录由查尔斯斯威尼,律政司司长。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Sacrament
Baptism 洗礼

or, for Jewish applications of confirmation:或者,犹太人的申请确认:
Bar Mitzvah酒吧Mitzvah
Judaism 犹太教


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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