Confucianism, Confucius儒学,孔子

General Information一般资料

Confucianism, the philosophical system founded on the teaching of Confucius (551 - 479 BC), dominated Chinese sociopolitical life for most of Chinese history and largely influenced the cultures of Korea, Japan, and Indochina.儒学,哲学体系对孔子教学成立(551 - 479年),统治了中国历史上最中国社会政治生活,在很大程度上影响了韩国,日本和印度支那的文化。The Confucian school functioned as a recruiting ground for government positions, which were filled by those scoring highest on examinations in the Confucian classics.儒家充当了政府的立场,这是由在得分最高的考试儒家经典填补那些招募场所。It also blended with popular and imported religions and became the vehicle for articulating Chinese mores to the peasants.它也与流行的和进口的宗教混合,并成为阐明中国习俗给农民的车辆。The school's doctrines supported political authority using the theory of the mandate of heaven.学校的理论支持的政治权力使用的天命论。It sought to help the rulers maintain domestic order, preserve tradition, and maintain a constant standard of living for the taxpaying peasants.它寻求帮助的统治者维持国内秩序,维护传统,维护了纳税人的农民的生活一常量。 It trained its adherents in benevolence, traditional rituals, filial piety, loyalty, respect for superiors and for the aged, and principled flexibility in advising rulers.它训练了上级和长者的仁慈,传统礼仪,孝顺,忠诚,尊重其信徒,原则性的建议统治者的灵活性。

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Confucianism - Confucius (551 - 478 BC)儒学 - 孔子(551 - 公元前478年)

Advanced Information先进的信息

Confucius was born of a poor family, but secured an education.孔子出生在一个贫穷的家庭,而有担保的教育。His Chinese name was K'ung Fu - tze.他的中文名字叫孔公富 - 赐。He acquired such a reputation as a teacher that he was appointed to a position in the government, and eventually became Minister of the State of Lu.他获得的一个,他被任命为政府的立场,在老师这样的声誉,并最终成为鲁国务部长。Some years later, after becoming disgusted with his ruler and the government, he resigned and spent the rest of his life studying and teaching.一些年后成为他的统治者和政府反感,他辞职,并度过了他人生学习和教学的其余部分。

Confucianism became the basis of the Chinese State during the Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD).儒学成为了中国在汉代的国家基础上(公元前206 - 公元220年)。Chinese society recognized a relatively classless society, only recognizing two: the educated and theuneducated.中国社会公认的一个相对无阶级社会,只承认两个:受过教育和theuneducated。Scholarship was revered.奖学金是推崇。

Confucius was not a religious thinker like Buddha, Christ or Mohammed, but a social reformer.孔子是不是像佛陀,基督和穆罕默德,而是一个社会改革者的宗教思想家。"I am not an originator but a transmitter."“我不是一个发端,但发射器。”He edited, compiled or wrote the 'Five Canons' and the 'Four Books' which contain the morals and philosophy that the Chinese people have followed consistently for the past 2500 years.他编辑,编译或写了'五经'和'四书',其中包含的道德和哲学,中华民族已经遵循了过去2500年一致。

The Five Canons (or Five Classics) are:五经(或五经)是:

Priorities are: First - family (or family clan); Second - community. 重点是:第一-家庭(或家庭宗族);第二-社区。The individual is unimportant. Ancestors are worshipped as part of the religion. 个人是不重要的。祖先崇拜是宗教的一部分。

Importance is placed on adherence to the traditional ways of doing things.重要的是放置在坚持传统的做事方式。He discussed at length the five important relationships:,他详细地讨论了五个重要关系:

A modern Chinese scholar suggested that the core of Confucian philosophy is contained in these words:一个现代的中国学者提出,儒家哲学的核心是在这些话中:

The men of old, when they wished their virtues to shine throughout the land, first had to govern their states well.老,当他们希望自己的美德,闪耀整个大陆的人,首先要治理好自己的状态。To govern their states well, they first had to establish harmony in their families.要治理他们的国家好,他们首先要建立在家庭和谐。 To establish harmony in their families, they first had to discipline themselves.建立自己的家庭和谐,他们首先要自律。To discipline themselves, they first had to set their minds in order.要自律,他们首先建立以他们的思想。To set their minds in order, they first had to make their purpose sincere.要在以自己的头脑,他们首先使他们的目的诚意。To make their purpose sincere, they first had to extend their knowledge to the utmost.为了使他们的宗旨真诚的,他们首先要扩展他们的知识,以最大的。Such knowledge is acquired through a careful investigation of things.这种知​​识是通过收购的事情仔细的调查。For with things investigated knowledge becomes complete.事情调查与知识变得完整。With knowledge complete the purpose becomes sincere.随着知识的目的,成为真诚的完成。With the purpose sincere the mind is set in order.的宗旨真诚的心灵中设置顺序。With the mind set in order there is real self discipline.用心灵才能有真正的一套自律。With real self discipline the family achieves harmony.真正做到自律,家庭和谐。With harmony in the family the state becomes well governed.在家庭和谐的国家成为治理良好。With the state well governed there is peace throughout the land.随着国家治理良好有整个土地的和平。


General Information一般资料

Confucius, (551 - 479 BC), was the Chinese sage who founded Confucianism.孔子(551 - 479年),是中国的圣人谁创立儒学。Born of a poor but aristocratic family in the state of Lu (now Shantung province), he was orphaned at an early age.出生在一个贫穷的鲁国的贵族家庭,但(现在山东省),他是在幼年孤儿。As a young man, he held several minor government posts; in later years, he advanced to become minister of justice in his home state.作为一个年轻人,他召开了几次小规模的政府职位,在晚年,他提前成为在他的家乡州司法部长。But he held these positions only intermittently and for short periods because of conflicts with his superiors.但他只担任过这些职务断断续续,因为与他的上司冲突的时间很短。Throughout his life, he was best known as a teacher.终其一生,他是最出名的当老师。When he died at the age of 72, he had taught a total of 3,000 disciples who carried on his teaching.当他在72岁高龄去世时,他曾教了3000弟子谁在他的教学进行总计。

Three doctrines of Confucius are particularly important.孔子学说的三个特别重要。The first is benevolence (jen). Confucius considered benevolence as something people cultivate within themselves before it can affect their relations with others.首先是善(仁)。其他孔子认为仁是人的内心的东西,才可以培养自己的关系,影响他们。The best way to approach benevolence is in terms of enlightened self interest, that is, putting the self in the position of the other and then treating the other accordingly.最好的办法是接近仁开明的自我利益,也就是上,把在其他位置,然后自我治疗其他据此。Two sayings of Confucius best express this idea: "Do not do to others what you would not like yourself"; and "Do unto others what you wish to do unto yourself." Benevolence means the practice of these two sayings.两个孔子的格言来表达这一想法:和“不要告诉别人你想,勿施”的想法。“不要做自己”别人不喜欢什么你就没有;仁是指这两种说法的做法。 The second doctrine concerns the superior man (chun - tzu).第二项原则涉及君子(津-慈济)。The superior man is one who practices benevolence regardless of family background. 君子是谁的做法仁不论家庭 ​​背景。Ritual propriety is the third doctrine.礼礼是第三个原则。Confucius emphasized right behavior in one's relations; man should act in accordance with propriety.孔子强调一个人的关系的正确行为,人要按照适当规定。Thus one behaves ritualistically with the other.因此,人们的行为ritualistically与其他。Such behavior is called li; it refers to social and aesthetic norms that guide people in their social relations.这种行为被称为里,它是指社会和美学规范,在引导人们的社会关系。

The sayings of Confucius were later incorporated into the book called the Analects.孔子的说法后来被纳入到所谓的论书。Confucius is also considered the author of the Book of Rites and the Spring and Autumn Annals, a history of the state of Lu from 771 to 579 BC.孔子也被认为是对礼与春秋,一个国家的路,从公元前771至579历史书的作者。

David C Yu李颂熹于

Bibliography: 参考书目:
HG Creel, Confucius and the Chinese Way (1960); WC Liu, Confucius, His Life and Time (1955); A Waley, The Analects of Confucius, (1938).氢化克雷尔,孔子与中国之路(1960年);厕所刘,孔子,他的生活和时间(1955年);一个韦利,论语,(1938)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Westerners use Confucius as the spelling for K'ung Fu - tzu - Master K'ung - China's first and most famous philosopher.西方人用作为拼写孔子孔公富 - 子 - 主孔公 - 中国的第一和最有名的哲学家。 Confucius had a traditional personal name (Ch'iu) and a formal name (Chung - ni).孔子有一个传统的个人名称(秋)和一个正式的名称(钟 - 镍)。Confucius' father died shortly after Confucius' birth.孔子的父亲去世后不久,孔子的诞生。His family fell into relative poverty, and Confucius joined a growing class of impoverished descendants of aristocrats who made their careers by acquiring knowledge of feudal ritual and taking positions of influence serving the rulers of the fragmented states of ancient China.他的家人陷入相对贫困,孔子加入了贵族的后裔是谁贫困收购的封建礼仪知识,并考虑职位的影响力服务于中国古代的统治者的支离破碎的国家事业发展类。 Confucius devoted himself to learning.孔子投身于学习。At age 30, however, when his short lived official career floundered, he turned to teaching others. 30岁,然而,当他短暂的仕途挣扎,他转身对教导别人。Confucius himself never wrote down his own philosophy, although tradition credits him with editing some of the historical classics that were used as texts in his school.孔子自己从来没有写下他自己的哲学,但传统的学分,他编辑的他被认为是在教科书中使用的一些历史典籍。He apparently made an enormous impact on the lives and attitudes of his disciples, however.他显然做了的生活和他的弟子的态度产生巨大的影响,但是。

The book known as the Analects, which records all the "Confucius said. . . " aphorisms, was compiled by his students after his death.作为著名的论书,记录所有的“孔子说:。。。”警句,是由学生们在他死后,他的编制。Because the Analects was not written as a systematic philosophy, it contains frequent contradictions and many of the philosophical doctrines are ambiguous.因为论没有书面作为一个系统的哲学,它包含了频繁的矛盾和哲学学说的许多含糊不清。The Analects became the basis of the Chinese social lifestyle and the fundamental religious and philosophical point of view of most traditionalist Chinese intellectuals throughout history.论语成为了中国社会的生活方式和基本的宗教和哲学的整个历史中最传统的知识分子观点的基础。The collection reveals Confucius as a person dedicated to the preservation of traditional ritual practices with an almost spiritual delight in performing ritual for its own sake.作为专门收集揭示与表演仪式在几乎精神愉悦,其本身也以传统礼仪习俗保存一个人的孔子。


Confucianism combines a political theory and a theory of human nature to yield a tao - a prescriptive doctrine or way.儒学结合了政治理论和人性论产生一道道 - 一个规范性理论或方法。The political theory starts with a doctrine of political authority based on the mandate of heaven.政治理论,首先在于它具有政治权威对天命的学说。The legitimate ruler derives authority from heaven's command.合法统治者来自天上的指挥权。The ruler bears responsibility for the well being of the people and therefore for peace and order in the empire.标尺承担着造福于人民,为和平与秩序,因此在帝国的责任。

Confucian philosophy presupposes a view of human nature in which humans are essentially social animals whose mode of social interaction is shaped by li (convention or ritual), which establishes value distinctions and prescribes activities in response to those distinctions.儒家哲学的前提是对人性的看法,其中人类基本上是谁的社会互动模式是李(公约或礼仪),其中规定值的区别,并规定针对这些活动形成社会性动物的区别。 Education in li, or social rituals, is based on the natural behavioral propensity to imitate models.李教育,或社会礼仪,是基于对自然的行为倾向模仿模式。Sages, or superior people - those who have mastered the li - are the models of behavior from which the mass of people learn.圣人,或上级人民 - 那些谁掌握了李 - 的行为模式是从其中的人民群众学习。Ideally, the ruler should himself be such a model and should appoint only those who are models of te (virtue) to positions of prominence.理想的情况下,统治者自己应该是​​这样一个模式,应该只任命那些谁是德模式(美德),以突出的位置。People are naturally inclined to emulate virtuous models; hence a hierarchy of merit results in widespread natural moral education.人们自然倾向于效仿良性模式,因此在广泛的自然道德教育的层次结构优异成绩。

Then, with practice, all people can in principle be like the sages, by acting in accordance with li without conscious effort.然后,联系实际,所有的人在原则上可以像圣人,在行事不自觉的努力与李。At that point they have acquired jen (humanity), the highest level of moral development; their natural inclinations are all in harmony with tao (way).在这一点上他们已获得仁(人类),道德发展的最高水平,他们的自然倾向是与道合一所有(方式)。The world is at peace, order abounds, and the harmony between the natural and the social sphere results in material well being for everyone.世界正处于和平,秩序比比皆是,而两者的自然和社会领域的成果以及和谐的材料为大家的福利。This is Confucius' utopian vision, which he regards as modeled on the practice of the ancient sage kings.这是孔子的乌托邦式的设想,他认为随着对古代圣王的做法为蓝本。

Historical Development历史发展

Confucianism emerged as a more coherent philosophy when faced with intellectual competition from other schools that were growing in the fertile social upheavals of preimperial China (c. 400 - c. 200 BC).儒学成为一个更加协调一致的哲学时,智力的竞争,已经于肥沃的社会动乱的preimperial中国面临越来越多其他学校(公元前400 - 公元前200角)。Taoism, Mohism, and Legalism all attacked Confucianism.道家,墨家,法家和儒家的所有攻击。A common theme of these attacks was that Confucianism assumed that tradition or convention (li) was correct.这些攻击的一个共同的主题是儒家认为传统或惯例(李)是正确的。Mencius (c. 372 - c. 289 BC) developed a more idealistic version of Confucianism stressing jen as an innate inclination to good behavior that does not require education.孟子(公元前372 - 公元前289角)开发出了更理想的版本儒学作为一个天生的倾向,强调以良好的行为,这并不需要教育仁。Hsun Tzu (c. 313 - c. 238 BC), on the contrary, argued that all inclinations are shaped by acquired language and other social forms.荀子(公元前313 - 公元前238角),与此相反,认为所有的倾向是由获得语言和其他社会形态的塑造。

Confucianism rose to the position of an official orthodoxy during the Han dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD).儒学上升到了一个官方的正统地位在汉代(公元前206 - 公元220年)。It absorbed the metaphysical doctrines of Yin (the female principle) and Yang (the male principle) found in the I Ching (Book of Changes) and other speculative metaphysical notions.它吸收了阴(女原则),杨(男原则)中发现的形而上学学说易经(易经)和其他投机性形而上学的概念。With the fall of the Han, the dynastic model, Confucianism fell into severe decline.随着汉,王朝模式下的,儒学陷入严重衰退。 Except for the residual effects of its official status, Confucianism lay philosophically dormant for about 600 years.除其官方地位的残余影响,儒家哲学奠定了约600年的休眠状态。

With the reestablishment of Chinese dynastic power in the T'Ang dynasty (618 - 906) and the introduction of the Ch'an (Zen Buddhist) premise that "there is nothing much to Buddhist teaching," Confucianism began to revive.随着重建唐朝的中国王朝权力(618 - 906)和禅(禅宗佛教)的前提介绍,“有什么好法”,儒学开始复苏。The Sung dynasty (960 - 1279) produced Neo Confucianism - an interpretation of classical Confucian doctrine (principally that of Mencius) that addressed Buddhist and Taoist issues.宋朝(公元960 - 1279年)制作新儒学 - 儒家学说的经典解释(主要是孟子)的佛教和道教的处理问题。The development of this philosophy was due mainly to Cheng - hao (1032 - 85) and Cheng - i (1033 - 1107), but for the orthodox statement of Neo Confucianism, one turns to Chu Hsi (1130 - 1200).这种哲学的发展,主要是由于程 - 豪(1032至1085年)和程 - 我(1033年至1107年),但对于新儒学正统的声明,其中一位朱熹(1130年至一二〇〇年)。His commentaries on the four scriptures of Confucianism were required study for the imperial civil service examinations.对儒学的四个经文,他的评论被要求为科举考试的研究。

Neo Confucianism focuses on the term li, which here means "lane" or "pattern."新儒学的重点。“模式”这个术语里,在这里的意思是“巷”或Correct behavior is held to follow a natural pattern (li) that is apprehended by hsin (heart - mind).正确的行为是举行遵循自然格局(李),由新(心 - 记)被捕。Mencius' theory of the innate goodness of man is a theory of the innate ability of this heart - mind to apprehend li in situations and to follow it.孟子对人的善良天性理论是这一理论的核心先天能力 - 记李逮捕的情况,并遵循它。To become a sage, one must study li and develop the ability to "see" it by a kind of intuition.要成为一个圣人,必须研究和发展能力里“看到”它由一种直觉。Later, in the Ming dynasty (1368 - 1644), Wang Yang - Ming claimed that the heart projects li on things rather than just noticing external li.后来,在明朝(1368 - 1644),汪洋 - 明称,李心项目的事情,而不是仅仅注意外部议员。To become a sage, one cannot just study situations, one must act before li becomes manifest.要成为一个圣人,不能只研究情况,我们必须采取行动之前,李成为体现。Thus the heart - mind, which guides the action, is the source of li (moral patterns).因此,心 - 思想,是指导行动,是李瑞环(道德模式)的来源。

After the disastrous conflicts with Western military technology at the dawn of the 20th century, Chinese intellectuals blamed Confucianism for the scientific and political backwardness of China.在与西方的军事技术在20世纪来临之际灾难性冲突,中国的知识分子指责中国的科学和政治落后儒学。Chinese Marxism, nonetheless, differs from Western Marxism in ways that reveal the persistence of Confucian attitudes toward politics, metaphysics, and theories of human psychology.中国马克思主义,然而,不同于的方式,揭示了对政治,形而上学,心理学理论和人类持续的儒家态度西方马克思主义。 Anti Confucianism has been a theme in various political campaigns in modern China - most notably during and just after the Cultural Revolution.反儒学在现代已经在中国各种政治运动的主题 - 最显着的期间和刚刚结束文化大革命。 Increased toleration for all religions since Mao Tse - tung's death may lead to a moderate revival of Confucianism, although the interest seems to be mostly in historical issues.增加宽容毛泽东以来所有的宗教 - 东的死亡可能导致儒学温和复苏,虽然利息似乎在历史问题居多。

In Taiwan, by contrast, Confucian orthodoxy has survived and serves to underpin an anti Marxist, traditional authoritarianism.在台湾,相比之下,儒家的正统已存活和服务,以支持反马克思主义,传统的权威主义。Serious, ongoing Confucian philosophy, however, is found mainly in Hong Kong and among Chinese scholars working in the West.严重的,持续的儒家哲学,但是,主要分布在香港和西方之间的工作中学者。

Chad Hansen乍得汉森

Bibliography: 参考书目:
W Chan, trans., A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy (1963); HG Creel, Confucius, the Man and the Myth (1949); H Fingarette, Confucius: The Secular as Sacred (1972); Y Fung, A History of Chinese Philosophy (1952); DY Lee, An Outline of Confucianism (1987); DJ Munro, The Concept of Man in Ancient China (1972); BI Schwartz, The World of Thought in Ancient China (1985).W生,转,在中国哲学(1963年)资料来源的书;氢化鱼篓,孔子,人与神话(1949年); ħ芬格莱特,孔子:。即凡而圣世俗(1972年); Ÿ冯一中史哲学(1952年);,​​一个儒学纲要(1987年)李道溢; DJ试听蒙罗,男人在中国古代概念(1972年);毕施瓦茨,在古代中国(1985)思想的世界。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

By Confucianism is meant the complex system of moral, social, political, and religious teaching built up by Confucius on the ancient Chinese traditions, and perpetuated as the State religion down to the present day.受儒家思想,指的是建立了孔子对古代中国的传统道德,社会,政治和宗教教职复杂的系统,并为国教向下延续到今天。Confucianism aims at making not simply the man of virtue, but the man of learning and of good manners.儒学的目的是使不单单是好人,但学习和良好的风度的人。The perfect man must combine the qualities of saint, scholar, and gentleman.完美的男人必须结合圣人,学者和绅士的品质。 Confucianism is a religion without positive revelation, with a minimum of dogmatic teaching, whose popular worship is centered in offerings to the dead, in which the notion of duty is extended beyond the sphere of morals proper so as to embrace almost every detail of daily life.儒学是一个没有积极的启示宗教,一种教条式的教学,其受欢迎的崇拜是对死者的产品,在其中的责任的概念已经超出了道德的正确,以拥抱几乎每一个生活细节领域扩展中心最低。


The chief exponent of this remarkable religion was K'ung-tze, or K'ung-fu-tze, latinized by the early Jesuit missionaries into Confucius.该指数是显着的宗教行政孔公赐,或孔公福赐,由早期的耶稣会传教士进入孔子拉丁化。Confucius was born in 551 BC, in what was then the feudal state of Lu, now included in the modern province of Shan-tung.孔子出生于公元前551年,在当时的封建国家的路,现在在山东省现代包括在内。His parents, while not wealthy, belonged to the superior class.他的父母,而并不富裕,属于上级类。His father was a warrior, distinguished no less for his deeds of valour than for his noble ancestry.他的父亲是一名战士,杰出没有为他的高贵血统比他的英勇事迹少。Confucius was a mere boy when his father died.孔子是一个单纯的男孩时,他的父亲去世了。From childhood he showed a great aptitude for study, and though, in order to support himself and his mother, he had to labour in his early years as a hired servant in a noble family, he managed to find time to pursue his favourite studies.从童年起,他的研究显示,一个伟大的性向,虽然,为了养活自己和他的母亲,他不得不在他早年的劳动作为一个贵族家庭雇工人,他设法找到时间去追求他最喜欢的研究。 He made such progress that at the age of twenty-two years he opened a school to which many were attracted by the fame of his learning.他犯了这样的进展,在二十二个岁,他开了一家学校,其中许多是由他的学习名声所吸引。His ability and faithful service merited for him promotion to the office of minister of justice.他的能力和忠诚的服务值得为他晋升为司法部长办公室。Under his wise administration the State attained to a degree of prosperity and moral order that it had never seen before.在他的明智的管理达到了繁荣和道德秩序,它从未见过的程度的国家。But through the intrigues of rival states the Marquis of Lu was led to prefer ignoble pleasures to the preservation of good government.但通过对鲁侯爵敌对国家的阴谋是导致喜欢卑鄙的乐趣,以维护良好的政府。Confucius tried by sound advice to bring his liege lord back to the path of duty, but in vain.孔子试图通过健全的意见,使他老爷子回的道路税,但不成功。He thereupon resigned his high position at the cost of personal ease and comfort, and left the state.他随即辞去了个人安逸夺去他的崇高地位,离开了国家。For thirteen years, accompanied by faithful disciples, he went about from one state to another, seeking a ruler who would give heed to his counsels.对于伴随着忠实弟子十三年,他着手从一国对另一国,寻求统治者谁给他的律师听取。Many were the privations he suffered.许多人在他遭受匮乏。More than once he ran imminent risk of being waylaid and killed by his enemies, but his courage and confidence in the providential character of his mission never deserted him.他不止一次地跑被伏击和他的敌人杀害的危险迫在眉睫,但他的勇气和性格,他的任务天赐始终萦绕在他的信心。At last he returned to Lu, where he spent the last five years of his long life encouraging others to the study and practice of virtue, and edifying all by his noble example.最后,他回到鲁国,在那里他度过了过去五年他长期鼓励他人生命年的研究和实践的美德,并启发了他的崇高榜样。He died in the year 478 BC, in the seventy-fourth year of his age.他死于公元前478年中,在他的年龄第七十四一年。His lifetime almost exactly coincided with that of Buddha, who died two years earlier at the age of eighty.他的一生几乎完全一致的佛像,谁去世,享年八十岁两年前的。

That Confucius possessed a noble, commanding personality, there can be little doubt.拥有一个高尚的,指挥的个性,孔子,就不可能有毫无疑问的。It is shown by his recorded traits of character, by his lofty moral teachings, by the high-minded men that he trained to continue his life-work.它表明了他的记录的性格特征,他的崇高的道德说教,以高尚的人,他训练,继续他的生命的工作。In their enthusiastic love and admiration, they declared him the greatest of men, the sage without flaw, the perfect man.在他们的热爱和敬佩,他们宣布他成为天下最伟大的,无缺陷圣人,完美的男人。That he himself did not make any pretension to possess virtue and wisdom in their fullness is shown by his own recorded sayings.他本人没有作出任何自称拥有的美德和智慧,是他们的丰满由他自己记录的说法所示。He was conscious of his shortcomings, and this consciousness he made no attempt to keep concealed.他意识到自己的缺点,而这个意识,他并没有试图保持隐蔽。But of his love of virtue and wisdom there can be no question.但他的美德和智慧,爱就没有问题。He is described in "Analects", VII, 18, as one "who in the eager pursuit of knowledge, forgot his food, and in the joy of attaining to it forgot his sorrow".他被描述在“论语”,第七章,18人,“谁在知识的渴望追求,忘记了他的食物,以及在实现它的喜悦忘了他的悲哀”。 Whatever in the traditional records of the past, whether history, lyric poems, or rites and ceremonies, was edifying and conducive to virtue, he sought out with untiring zeal and made known to his disciples.无论在过去的传统的记录,无论是历史,抒情诗,或仪式和庆典,是有启发性,有利于以德治国,他要求与不懈的热情和认,他的弟子。 He was a man of affectionate nature, sympathetic, and most considerate towards others.他是一个深情的性质,同情的人,对待他人,最体贴。He loved his worthy disciples dearly, and won in turn their undying devotion.他爱他的门徒的代价值得,从而赢得了他们的鼎力奉献。 He was modest and unaffected in his bearing, inclined to gravity, yet possessing a natural cheerfulness that rarely deserted him.他谦虚,在他的影响没有受到影响,倾向于严重性,但拥有一个自然的快乐很少遗弃了他。Schooled to adversity from childhood, he learned to find contentment and serenity of mind even where ordinary comforts were lacking.从童年逆境中接受教育,他学会了寻找满足和平静的心态,即使普通的舒适的缺乏。He was very fond of vocal and instrumental music, and often sang, accompanying his voice with the lute.他很喜欢音乐,声乐和器乐,常常唱,陪同他与琵琶的声音。His sense of humour is revealed in a criticism he once made of some boisterous singing "Why use an ox-knife", he said, "to kill a fowl?"他的幽默感,他曾经在一些热闹的歌唱“为什么要用牛刀”提出批评透露,他说,“杀一鸡?”

Confucius is often held up as the type of the virtuous man without religion.孔子是经常举行了作为君子没有宗教的类型。His teachings, it is alleged, were chiefly ethical, in which one looks in vain for retribution in the next life as a sanction of right conduct.他的教诲,据称,他们主要是道德,其中一个看起来是徒劳的,在未来的生活作为一种报复的权利的行为的制裁。Now an acquaintance with the ancient religion of China and with Confucian texts reveals the emptiness of the assertion that Confucius was devoid of religious thought and feeling.现在,一个与中国和古老的宗教与儒家文揭示了熟人空虚的断言,孔子是宗教思想和感情也没有。He was religious after the manner of religious men of his age and land.他后,他的年龄和土地的方式宗教宗教男子。In not appealing to rewards and punishments in the life to come, he was simply following the example of his illustrious Chinese predecessors, whose religious belief did not include this element of future retribution.在没有吸引力的奖励和惩罚的生活中来,他只是跟随他的杰出的中国前辈,他们的宗教信仰并没有包括这个未来的报应元素的示例。 The Chinese classics that were ancient even in the time of Confucius have nothing to say of hell, but have much to say of the rewards and punishments meted out in the present life by the all-seeing Heaven.甚至认为,在孔子时代中国古代经典没什么可说的地狱,但有很多要说的奖励和惩处在目前的生活之外的所有观光天的处罚。 There are numbers of texts that show plainly that he did not depart from the traditional belief in the supreme Heaven-god and subordinate spirits, in Divine providence and retribution, and in the conscious existence of souls after death.有数字,显示的文本显然,他并没有偏离在最高法院天命之神的信仰和服从的精神传统在天意和报复,并在死后灵魂意识的存在。 These religious convictions on his part found expression in many recorded acts of piety and worship.他的这些宗教信念的虔诚和崇拜的许多记录行为的表达。


As Confucianism in its broad sense embraces not only the immediate teaching of Confucius, but also the traditional records customs, and rites to which he gave the sanction of his approval, and which today rest largely upon his authority, there are reckoned among the Confucian texts several that even in his day were venerated as sacred heirlooms of the past.作为儒家思想在其广泛的意义不仅包括直接教学的孔子,也是海关传统的记录,和仪式来,他给了他的批准制裁,并今日休息很大程度上取决于他的权威,有属于儒家文本计算数,在他的一天,甚至连过去被作为神圣的传家宝崇敬。 The texts are divided into two categories, known as the "King" (Classics), and the "Shuh" (Books).课文分为为“国王”(经典),和“树”(书籍)已知的两大类。The texts of the "King", which stand first in importance, are commonly reckoned as five, but sometimes as six.的“国王”,这第一站的重要性,文本通常估计为五个,但有时在六。

The first of these is the "Shao-king" (Book of History), a religious and moral work, tracing the hand of Providence in a series of great events of past history, and inculcating the lesson that the Heaven-god gives prosperity and length of days only to the virtuous ruler who has the true welfare of the people at heart.其中第一项就是“少王”(尚书),一个宗教和道德教育工作,追查在对过去历史的一系列事件的普罗维登斯手,灌输的教训的天堂,上帝赋予的繁荣和长度只向良性统治者谁的心里真正的人民的福利天。 Its unity of composition may well bring its time of publication down to the sixth century BC, though the sources on which the earlier chapters are based may be almost contemporaneous with the events related.其组成团结很可能将其发布到公元前六世纪时,在其上虽然前面几章是根据来源可几乎与同时代的相关事件。

The second "King" is the so-called "She-king" (Book of Songs), often spoken of as the "Odes".第二个“国王”是所谓的“社王”(诗经),常常谈到的“诗经”了。Of its 305 short lyric poems some belong to the time of the Shang dynasty (1766-1123 BC), the remaining, and perhaps larger, part to the first five centuries of the dynasty of Chow, that is, down to about 600 BC The third "King" is the so-called "Y-king" (Book of Changes), an enigmatic treatise on the art of divining with the stalks of a native plant, which after being thrown give different indications according as they conform to one or another of the sixty-four hexagrams made up of three broken and three unbroken lines.其305短一些抒情诗属于商朝(公元前1766年至1123年),剩下的,也许大,部分的第一个五年的周王朝,即下降到约公元前600年的百年时间第三个“国王”是所谓的“Y -王”(易经),一个在与原生植物,其中被抛出后,给予不同的迹象,根据它们符合一个或秸秆神秘的占卜艺术论文在六十四卦又由三破三线从未间断。 The short explanations which accompany them, in large measure arbitrary and fantastic, are assigned to the time of Wan and his illustrious son Wu, founders of the Chow dynasty (1122 BC).简短解释为陪他们在很大程度上任意和美妙的,是分配到万和他的杰出的儿子吴的周王朝(1122年)创办的时间。Since the time of Confucius, the work has been more than doubled by a series of appendixes, ten in number, of which eight are attributed to Confucius.孔子时代以来,工作已超过一倍的附录系列,数,其中八个是由于孔子十。Only a small portion of these, however, are probably authentic.其中只有一小部分,但是,可能是真实的。

The fourth "King" is the "Li-ki" (Book of Rites).第四个“国王”是“立基”(礼记)。In its present form it dates from the second century of our era, being a compilation from a vast number of documents, most of which date from the earlier part of the Chow dynasty.在其目前的形式它的日期从第二个世纪我们的时代,正在从广大的文件汇编,其中大部分日期从周王朝早期的一部分。It gives rules of conduct down to the minute details for religious acts of worship, court functions, social and family relations, dress--in short, for every sphere of human action.它使行为下降到宗教崇拜的行为,法院的职能,社会的和家庭的关系,衣服上的细节规则 - 总之每个人的行动范围。It remains today the authoritative guide of correct conduct for every cultivated Chinese.今天仍然是正确的行为,每栽培中的权威指南。In the "Li-ki" are many of Confucius's reputed sayings and two long treatises composed by disciples, which may be said to reflect with substantial accuracy the sayings and teachings of the master.在“立基”,是孔子的知名谚语和弟子组成的两个长的论文,这可以说是拥有大量准确反映的言论,主教导很多。One of these is the treatise known as the "Chung-yung" (Doctrine of the Mean).其中之一是为“中庸”(中庸)已知的论文。It forms Book XXVIII of the "Li-ki", and is one of its most valuable treatises.它形成的“立基”书二十八,是其最有价值的论文之一。It consists of a collection of sayings of Confucius characterizing the man of perfect virtue.它由一组孔子刻画完美的好人收集格言。The other treatise, forming Book XXXIX of the "Li-ki", is the so-called "Ta-hio" (Great Learning).其他论文,形成书的“立基”第39届,是所谓的“大安hio”(大学习)。It purports to be descriptions of the virtuous ruler by the disciple Tsang-tze, based on the teachings of the master.它宣称要成为由弟子曾赐德行的统治者,根据主人的教诲描述。The fifth "King" is the short historical treatise known as the "Ch'un-ts'ew" (Spring and Autumn), said to have been written by the hand of Confucius himself.第五个“国王”是短期的历史著作为“春秋- ts'ew”(春季和秋季)已知的,据说是由孔子自己手写的。It consists of a connected series of bare annals of the state of Lu for the years 722-484 BC To these five "Kings" belongs a sixth, the so-called "Hiao-king" (Book of Filial Piety).它由一对鲁国裸史册为公元前722-484年串接这五个“国王”属于第六,所谓的“Hiao -王”(孝经)。The Chinese attribute its composition to Confucius, but in the opinion of critical scholars, it is the product of the school of his disciple, Tsang-tze.在中国的属性及其组成,以孔子,但在关键的学者认为,这是对他的弟子,曾赐产品的学校。

Mention has just been made of the two treatises, the "Doctrine of the Mean" and the "Great Learning", embodied in the "Li-ki".刚刚提到的两个论文提出,“中庸”和“大学习”,在“立基”的体现。In the eleventh century of our era, these two works were united with other Confucian texts, constituting what is known as the "Sze-shuh" (Four Books).在我们这个时代的十一世纪,这两个工程是联合国与其他儒家文本,构成所谓的“诗树”(四书)而闻名。First of these is the "Lun-yu" (Analects).其中第一项就是“伦玉”(论语)。It is a work in twenty short chapters, showing what manner of man Confucius was in his daily life, and recording many of his striking sayings on moral and historical topics.这是一个在二十短章的工作,表现出孔子的方式什么样的人在他的日常生活,并记录在道义上和历史性课题,他的许多惊人的说法。 It seems to embody the authentic testimony of his disciples written by one of the next generation.这似乎体现了由下一代人写了他的弟子真实的证词。

The second place in the "Shuh" is given to the "Book of Mencius".第二个地方在“树”是考虑到“孟子”。 Mencius (Meng-tze), was not an immediate disciple of the master.孟子(孟梓),是不是一个主立即弟子。He lived a century later.他住在一个世纪以后。He acquired great fame as an exponent of Confucian teaching.他获得作为儒家思想的指数享有盛誉。His sayings, chiefly on moral topics, were treasured up by disciples, and published in his name.他的说法,主要是道德议题,被珍藏的弟子,并以他的名义出版。Third and fourth in order of the "Shuh" come the "Great Learning" and the "Doctrine of the Mean".第三次和在“树”来了“大学习”和“中庸”的第四。

For our earliest knowledge of the contents of these Confucian texts, we are indebted to the painstaking researches of the Jesuit missionaries in China during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, who, with an heroic zeal for the spread of Christ's kingdom united a diligence and proficiency in the study of Chinese customs, literature, and history that have laid succeeding scholars under lasting obligation.为我国最早的这些儒家文本内容的知识,我们非常感激,在十七和十八世纪,艰苦的在中国的耶稣会传教士研究谁,一为基督的王国一个统一的勤奋和精通蔓延英雄的热情对中国的习俗,文学,历史研究,奠定了成功的学者根据持久的义务。 Among these we may mention Fathers Prémare, Régis, Lacharme, Gaubil, Noël, Ignacio da Costa, by whom most of the Confucian texts were translated and elucidated with great erudition.其中我们可以提到的是谁最父亲Prémare儒家文本,雷吉斯,Lacharme,Gaubil,诺埃尔,伊格纳西奥达科斯塔,被翻译并以极大的博学阐明。 It was but natural that their pioneer studies in so difficult a field should be destined to give place to the more accurate and complete monuments of modern scholarship.这是自然的,但在如此困难的一个领域的先驱研究应是注定,让地方的现代学术更准确和完整的古迹。But even here they have worthy representatives in such scholars as Father Zottoli and Henri Cordier, whose Chinese studies give evidence of vast erudition.但即使在这里,他们有作为父亲Zottoli和Henri Cordier的,其提供的证据广大博学值得汉学研究学者等代表。The Confucian texts have been made available to English readers by Professor Legge.在儒家文本已提供给理雅各教授英文读者。Besides his monumental work in seven volumes, entitled "The Chinese Classics" and his version of the "Ch'un ts'ew", he has given the revised translations of the "Shuh", "She", "Ta-hio", "Y", and "Li-Ki" in Volumes III, XVI, XXVII, and XXVIII of "The Sacred Books of the East".除了他的巨著中七卷题为“中国经典”和他的“春ts'ew”版本,他已发出的“树”修订翻译,“她”,“大安健康欠佳人员” “Y”型和“立基”的第三卷,十六,二十七,与“东方的圣书”二十八。


A. Religious GroundworkA.宗教根基

The religion of ancient China, to which Confucius gave his reverent adhesion was a form of nature-worship very closely approaching to monotheism.古代中国的宗教,而孔子给他的虔诚粘附是一种自然崇拜的形式非常密切接近一神教。While numerous spirits associated with natural phenomena were recognized--spirits of mountains and rivers, of land and grain, of the four quarters of the heavens, the sun, moon, and stars--they were all subordinated to the supreme Heaven-god, T'ien (Heaven) also called Ti (Lord), or Shang-ti (Supreme Lord).虽然众多的自然现象有关的精神得到了承认 - 山川,土地和粮食,精神的天空,太阳,月亮,星星的四个季度, - 他们都从属于天堂的最高神,天子(天)也称为钛(主),或尚钛(最高法院主)。 All other spirits were but his ministers, acting in obedience to his will.所有其他烈酒人,但他的部长们,在服从他的意志行事。T'ien was the upholder of the moral law, exercising a benign providence over men.天子是道德法律的维护者,在行使一个良性的普罗维登斯超过男性。Nothing done in secret could escape his all-seeing eye.一事无成秘密无法逃脱他的全盲。His punishment for evil deeds took the form either of calamities and early death, or of misfortune laid up for the children of the evil-doer.他对邪恶行为的处罚形式,无论发生灾害和早期死亡,或者不幸奠定了恶人的孩子。 In numerous passages of the "Shao-" and "She-king", we find this belief asserting itself as a motive to right conduct.在“少”和“社王”的许多段落,我们发现这种信念主张作为权利的行为动机本身。That it was not ignored by Confucius himself is shown by his recorded saying, that "he who offends against Heaven has no one to whom he can pray".这是不是忽视了自己是孔子说他的记录显示,“他对谁冒犯天有没有一个人,他可以祈祷”。Another quasi-religious motive to the practice of virtue was the belief that the souls of the departed relatives were largely dependent for their happiness on the conduct of their living descendants.另一种准宗教动机美德的做法是相信的灵魂离开亲人在很大程度上由于他们的后代的行为,他们的生活幸福而定。 It was taught that children owed it as a duty to their dead parents to contribute to their glory and happiness by lives of virtue.这是教孩子欠作为他们的死者父母的义务是协助他们的荣耀和美德的生活幸福。To judge from the sayings of Confucius that have been preserved, he did not disregard these motives to right conduct, but he laid chief stress on the love of virtue for its own sake.判断从孔子的名言已被保存下来,但他不能无视这些动机以正确的行为,但他并凭借对爱情本身的行政压力。The principles of morality and their concrete application to the varied relations of life were embodied in the sacred texts, which in turn represented the teachings of the great sages of the past raised up by Heaven to instruct mankind.道德及其具体应用到生活的各种关系的原则体现在神圣的文本,这反过来又代表提出的天堂,指导人类过去的伟大先哲的教诲。 These teachings were not inspired, nor were they revealed, yet they were infallible.这些教诲,没有灵感,也没有透露,但他们犯错。The sages were born with wisdom meant by Heaven to enlighten the children of men.圣人与天出生旨在启发儿童智慧的男人。 It was thus a wisdom that was providential, rather than supernatural.因此,有人认为是天赐的智慧,而不是超自然的。 The notion of Divine positive revelation is absent from the Chinese texts.积极的神圣启示的概念是从中文文本缺席。 To follow the path of duty as laid down in the authoritative rules of conduct was within the reach of all men, provided that their nature, good at birth, was not hopelessly spoiled by vicious influences.要按照规定,作为权威的行为规则下的职责范围内的道路是所有的人达到规定其性质,出生时好,是没有绝望惯坏了恶性的影响。 Confucius held the traditional view that all men are born good.孔子举行的传统观点认为,所有的人都出生好。Of anything like original sin there is not a trace in his teaching.任何事物一样原罪没有一丝在他的教导。He seems to have failed to recognize even the existence of vicious hereditary tendencies.他似乎没有认识到甚至恶性遗传倾向的存在。In his view, what spoiled men was bad environment, evil example, an inexcusable yielding to evil appetites that everyone by right use of his natural powers could and ought to control.在他看来,什么是坏男人宠坏了的环境,邪恶例如,一个不可原谅的屈服邪恶的欲望,通过他的自然力量的正确运用每个人都可以而且应该控制。 Moral downfall caused by suggestions of evil spirits had no place in his system.道德衰败所造成的建议邪灵在他的系统没有发生。 Nor is there any notion of Divine grace to strengthen the will and enlighten the mind in the struggle with evil.也没有任何概念的神圣的宽限期,以加强意志和启迪​​,在与邪恶的斗争精神。There are one or two allusions to prayer, but nothing to show that daily prayer was recommended to the aspirant after perfection.有一个或两个典故,以祈祷,但没有表明,每天祈祷被推荐到完善后的野心。

B. Helps to Virtue二有助于为德性

In Confucianism the helps to the cultivation of virtue are natural and providential, nothing more.在儒家有助于美德的培育,是自然和天赐,仅此而已。But in this development of moral perfection Confucius sought to enkindle in others the enthusiastic love of virtue that he felt himself.但是,在这种道德完美试图在其他点燃美德的热爱孔子的发展,他觉得自己。 To make oneself as good as possible, this was with him the main business of life.为了使自己尽可能好,这是他生命的主要业务。 Everything that was conducive to the practice of goodness was to be eagerly sought and made use of.一切有利于善良的做法是将急切地寻求和利用。To this end right knowledge was to be held indispensable.为此,正确的知识是不可或缺的举行。Like Socrates, Confucius taught that vice sprang from ignorance and that knowledge led unfailingly to virtue.像苏格拉底,孔子教导副兴起从无知和知识领导始终不渝地为德性。The knowledge on which he insisted was not purely scientific learning, but an edifying acquaintance with the sacred texts and the rules of virtue and propriety.这些知识对他坚持不单纯是科学的学习,而是一种与神圣文本和美德的熏陶和适当的规则相识。Another factor on which he laid great stress was the influence of good example.另一个因素,对他奠定了巨大的压力,是很好的例子影响。He loved to hold up to the admiration of his disciples the heroes and sages of the past, an acquaintance with whose noble deeds and sayings he sought to promote by insisting on the study of the ancient classics.他喜欢容纳他的弟子钦佩的英雄和圣人的过去,与他的高尚事迹和格言,他试图推动对古代典籍的研究坚持相识。Many of his recorded sayings are eulogies of these valiant men of virtue.他记录的说法很多是美德这些勇士悼词。Nor did he fail to recognize the value of good, high-minded companions.他也没有不承认良好,高尚的同伴价值。His motto was, to associate with the truly great and to make friends of the most virtuous.他的座右铭是,联想到的最善良,真正的伟大和广交朋友。Besides association with the good, Confucius urged on his disciples the importance of always welcoming the fraternal correction of one's faults.除了与良好的协会,孔子对他的弟子的要求,始终欢迎一个人的过错兄弟般的校正的重要性。Then, too, the daily examination of conscience was inculcated.然后,太,良心被灌输日常检查。As a further aid to the formation of a virtuous character, he valued highly a certain amount of self-discipline.作为进一步的援助,以形成一个良性的性格,他高度评价了自律一定的数额。He recognized the danger, especially in the young, of falling into habits of softness and love of ease.他认识到的危险,尤其是在年轻人,到柔软性和安逸的习惯下降。Hence he insisted on a virile indifference to effeminate comforts.因此,他坚持刚健漠不关心一个柔弱的舒适。In the art of music he also recognized a powerful aid to enkindle enthusiasm for the practice of virtue.在音乐艺术,他也认识到一个强大的援助,以点燃的实践美德的积极性。He taught his pupils the "Odes" and other edifying songs, which they sang together to the accompaniment of lutes and harps.他教他的学生的“诗经”等启发性的歌曲,他们唱起来的琵琶,弹琴伴奏。This together with the magnetism of his personal influence lent a strong emotional quality to his teaching.再加上他个人的影响力磁性伸出了强烈的情感,他的教学质量。

C. Fundamental Virtues三基本美德

As a foundation for the life of perfect goodness, Confucius insisted chiefly on the four virtues of sincerity, benevolence, filial piety, and propriety.作为一个完美的善良生命的基础,坚持主要是对孔子的诚意,善,孝,和适当四德。Sincerity was with him a cardinal virtue.诚信是与他为枢机主教的美德。As used by him it meant more than a mere social relation.经他用它意味着不仅仅是一种社会关系更多。To be truthful and straightforward in speech, faithful to one's promises, conscientious in the discharge of one's duties to others--this was included in sincerity and something more.说实话,直接在讲话,忠实于自己的诺言,在一个人的自觉履行职责对他人 - 这是包括在诚意和更多的东西。The sincere man in Confucius's eyes was the man whose conduct was always based on the love of virtue, and who in consequence sought to observe the rules of right conduct in his heart as well as in outward actions, when alone as well as in the presence of others.在孔子的眼睛真诚的人,是人的行为总是在爱的美德为基础,谁在寻找,观察,以及在对外行动,因为,在他心里的权利的行为规则的后果独自一人时,以及在存在其他人。 Benevolence, showing itself in a kindly regard for the welfare of others and in a readiness to help them in times of need, was also a fundamental element in Confucius's teaching.仁,显示在一个好心的人的福利方面,并在准备在需要的时候帮助他们本身,这也是一个在孔子的教学的基本要素。It was viewed as the characteristic trait of the good man.它被看成是对好人的特征特性。Mencius, the illustrious exponent of Confucianism, has the remarkable statement: "Benevolence is man" (VII, 16).孟子,儒家杰出指数,具有显着的声明说:“仁是人”(第七章,16条)。In the sayings of Confucius we find the Golden Rule in its negative form enunciated several times.在孔子的名言,我们发现在其否定形式阐述了几次黄金法则。In "Analects", XV, 13, we read that when a disciple asked him for a guiding principle for all conduct, the master answered: "Is not mutual goodwill such a principle? What you do not want done to yourself, do not do to others".在“论语”,十五,13,我们读到,当一个弟子问了他所有行为的指导原则,主人回答说:“是不是相互善意这样一个原则什么你不想自己做,不这样做?他人“。 This is strikingly like the form of the Golden Rule found in the first chapter of the "Teaching of the Apostles"--"All things soever that you would not have done to yourself, do not do to another"; also in Tobias, iv, 16, where it appears for the first time in Sacred Scripture.这是惊人的类似的黄金法则形成了“教学的使徒”第一章发现 - “所有接受该等土地,你会不会做自己的事情,不这样做的另一个”;也托比亚斯,四16,它为在第一次出现神圣的经文。He did not approve the principle held by Lao-tze that injury should be repaid with kindness.他不赞成由老挝赐认为,损伤应偿还的原则与善良。His motto was "Requite injury with justice, and kindness with kindness" (Analects, XIV, 36).他的座右铭是“报答损伤与正义,善良与仁慈”(论​​语,第十四条,36条)。He seems to have viewed the question from the practical and legal standpoint of social order.他似乎已经看从社会秩序和法律的角度实际问题。"To repay kindness with kindness", he says elsewhere, "acts as an encouragement to the people. To requite injury with injury acts as a warning" (Li-ki, XXIX, 11). “为了报答善良与仁慈”,他说其他地方,“作为一个对人民的鼓舞。报答作为一个警告伤害行为伤害”(李基,第29届,11)。The third fundamental virtue in the Confucian system is filial piety.第三,在儒家制度的基本美德是孝顺。In the "Hiao-king", Confucius is recorded as saying: "Filial piety is the root of all virtue."--"Of all the actions of man there are none greater than those of filial piety."在“Hiao -王”,是记载孔子的话说:“。孝道是一切美德的."--"根所有的行动的人有没有比这些更孝顺”To the Chinese then as now, filial piety prompted the son to love and respect his parents, contribute to their comfort, bring happiness and honour to their name, by honourable success in life.对于中国当时和现在,孝顺的儿子促使爱和尊重他的父母,有助于其舒适性,带来幸福和荣幸地在生活中他们的名字光荣成功。 But at the same time it carried that devotion to a degree that was excessive and faulty.但在同一时间进行的忠诚,也有程度过高和错误的。In consequence of the patriarchal system there prevailing, filial piety included the obligation of sons to live after marriage under the same roof with the father and to give him a childlike obedience as long as he lived.在家长制有普遍的后果,包括孝顺的儿子结婚后住的义务根据与父亲同一个屋檐,并给他一个小孩子,只要服从他生活。The will of the parents was declared to be supreme even to the extent that if the son's wife failed to please them he was obliged to divorce her, though it cut him to the heart.该会的家长被宣布为至上甚至程度,如果儿子的妻子没有请他们,他不得不与她离婚,虽然把他的心。If a dutiful son found himself compelled to admonish a wayward father he was taught to give the correction with the utmost meekness; though the parent might beat him till the blood flowed he was not to show any resentment.如果一个孝子发现自己不得不告诫一个任性的父亲,他教给最温顺的修正,虽然母公司可能击败他,直到血液流到他没有表现出任何不满。 The father did not forfeit his right to filial respect, no matter how great his wickedness.父亲并没有放弃他的权利,孝敬,无论多么伟大的邪恶。Another virtue of primary importance in the Confucian system is "propriety".另一个最重要的美德在儒家系统是“礼”。It embraces the whole sphere of human conduct, prompting the superior man always to do the right thing in the right place.它包含了整个领域的人类行为,促使优秀的人总是在正确的地方做正确的事。It finds expression in the so-called rules of ceremony, which are not confined to religious rites and rules of moral conduct, but extend to the bewildering mass of conventional customs and usages by which Chinese etiquette is regulated.它发现在仪式等所谓的规则,这些规则不仅限于宗教仪轨和道德行为规则,而是延伸到传统的习俗和惯例扑朔迷离的质量,其中中国礼仪表达上调。 They were distinguished even in Confucius's day by the three hundred greater, and the three thousand lesser, rules of ceremony, all of which had to be carefully learned as a guide to right conduct.他们是杰出的孔子的一天,即使是在三百更大,三千较小,规则的仪式,所有这些都必须仔细地进行指导,以正确的教训。 The conventional usages as well as the rules of moral conduct brought with them the sense of obligation resting primarily on the authority of the sage-kings and in the last analysis on the will of Heaven.传统的惯例以及道德行为带来了他们的休息对圣王权威和对过去的分析主要是天意义务感的规则。To neglect or deviate from them was equivalent to an act of impiety.忽视或偏离他们相当于一个不虔诚的行为。

D. Rites四仪式

In the "Li-ki", the chief ceremonial observances are declared to be six: capping, marriage mourning rites, sacrifices, feasts, and interviews.在“立基”,行政礼仪纪念活动被宣布为六:上限,婚姻悼念仪式,祭祀,节日和面试。It will be enough to treat briefly of the first four.这将足以治疗前四个简单。They have persisted with little change down to the present day.他们有没有什么变化下降到目前的每天坚持。Capping was a joyous ceremony, wherein the son was honoured on reaching his twentieth year.封盖是一个愉快的仪式,其中的儿子是在他20年达到荣幸。In the presence of relatives and invited guests, the father conferred on his son a special name and a square cornered cap as distinguishing marks of his mature manhood.在亲属在场,并邀请客人,父亲授予他的儿子一个特别的名字和一个广场来区别他成熟的标志成年三角帽。It was accompanied with a feast.它是伴随着盛宴。The marriage ceremony was of great importance.结婚仪式是非常重要的。To marry with the view of having male children was a grave duty on the part of every son.嫁给​​了有男性儿童的看法是对每一个儿子的一部分严重的责任。This was necessary to keep up the patriarchal system and to provide for ancestral worship in after years.这是需要保留了家长制,并提供祭祖经过多年研究。The rule as laid down in the "Li-ki" was, that a young man should marry at the age of thirty and a young woman at twenty.规则中规定的“李棋”下降的时候,一个年轻男子应该结婚的年龄在三十和二十岁的年轻女子。The proposal and acceptance pertained not to the young parties directly interested, but to their parents.的建议,并接受pertained不直接兴趣,但他们的父母年轻的政党。The preliminary arrangements were made by a go between after it was ascertained by divination that the signs of the proposed union were auspicious.初步安排了由之间去后,这是由占卜确定,拟议联盟的迹象,吉祥。 The parties could not be of the same surname, nor related within the fifth degree of kindred.当事人不能是同一姓氏,也没有亲属范围内的第五度有关。On the day of the wedding the young groom in his best attire came to the house of the bride and led her out to his carriage, in which she rode to his father's home.对年轻的新郎在婚礼上他最好的服装一天来到新娘家,并导致她出去他的马车,她骑在他父亲的家。There he received her, surrounded by the joyous guests.在那里,他收到了她,欢乐的客人包围。Cups improvised by cutting a melon in halves were filled with sweet spirits and handed to the bride and groom.杯子即兴削减了一半瓜充满了甜蜜的精神和交给新郎和新娘。By taking a sip from each, they signified that they were united in wedlock.通过从每个一小口,他们标志着他们在婚姻团结。 The bride thus became a member of the family of her parents-in-law, subject, like her husband, to their authority.新娘从而成为她的公婆,但像她的丈夫,家人,他们的权威。Monogamy was encouraged as the ideal condition, but the maintenance of secondary wives known as concubines was not forbidden.一夫一妻制是鼓励作为理想状态下,但称为妾二级保养是没有明令禁止的妻子。It was recommended when the true wife failed to bear male children and was too much loved to be divorced.有人建议,当真正的妻子无法承受男性儿童和爱太多了离婚。There were seven causes justifying the repudiation of a wife besides infidelity, and one of these was the absence of male offspring.有7个原因理由拒绝​​了妻子不忠之外,其中之一是缺乏雄性后代。The mourning rites were likewise of supreme importance.的悼念仪式,同样的,至高无上的重要性。Their exposition takes up the greater part of the "Li-ki".他们的论述占据了“立基”更大的作用。They were most elaborate, varying greatly in details and length of observance, according to the rank and relationship of the deceased.他们是最详细,不同的细节和长度的遵守很大,根据其职级和死者的关系。 The mourning rites for the father were the most impressive of all.对父亲的悼念仪式是最令人印象深刻。For the first three days, the son, clad in sackcloth of coarse white hemp, fasted, and leaped, and wailed.对于前三天,儿子,穿着粗白麻禁食,麻布,文艺界,哀号。After the burial, for which there were minute prescriptions, the son had to wear the mourning sackcloth for twenty-seven months, emaciating his body with scanty food, and living in a rude hut erected for the purpose near the grave.葬后,其中有一分钟的处方,儿子穿二七个月哀悼麻布,emaciating他微薄的食物与身体,生活在一个粗鲁的小屋附近的坟墓为目的建造。 In the "Analects", Confucius is said to have condemned with indignation the suggestion of a disciple that the period of the mourning rites might well be shortened to one year.在“论语”,孔子是说,有愤慨地谴责了一个悼念仪式的时间可能会缩短到一年弟子的建议。Another class of rites of supreme importance were the sacrifices.另一个极为重要的仪式类是牺牲。They are repeatedly mentioned in the Confucian texts, where instructions are given for their proper celebration.他们一再提到,在儒家文本,其中指示,给予他们适当的庆祝活动。From the Chinese notion of sacrifice the idea of propitiation through blood is entirely absent.从血液中牺牲通过和解思想中的概念是完全没有了。It is nothing more than a food-offering expressing the reverent homage of the worshippers, a solemn feast to do honour to the spirit guests, who are invited and are thought to enjoy the entertainment.它只不过是一个粮食表达了信徒,一个庄严的节日做嘉宾荣誉的精神,谁邀请,被认为是虔诚的娱乐享受提供更多的敬意。 Meat and drink of great variety are provided.肉类及饮料的提供种类繁多。There is also vocal and instrumental music, and pantomimic dancing.也有声乐和器乐,舞蹈和哑剧。The officiating ministers are not priests, but heads of families, the feudal lords, and above all, the king.主礼部长是不是神父,但家庭,封建领主头,最重要的是国王。

There is no priesthood in Confucianism.在儒家思想有没有神职人员。

The worship of the people at large is practically confined to the so-called ancestor-worship.人民大众的崇拜实际上是局限在所谓的祖先崇拜。Some think it is hardly proper to call it worship, consisting as it does of feasts in honour of dead relatives.有些人认为这是很难妥善称之为崇拜,因为它包含的节日并在死者亲属的荣誉。In the days of Confucius, as at present, there was in every family home, from the palace of the king himself down to the humble cabin of the peasant, a chamber or closet called the ancestral shrine, where wooden tablets were reverently kept, inscribed with the names of deceased parents, grandparents, and more remote ancestors.在孔子的天,截至目前,有在每一个家庭从国王亲自下到农民简陋小屋宫殿,一室或壁橱称为神龛,在那里虔诚地保持木粒,刻与死者的父母,祖父母,以及较偏远的祖先的名字。 At stated intervals offerings of fruit, wine, and cooked meats were set before these tablets, which the ancestral spirits were fancied to make their temporary resting-place.在规定的时间间隔的水果产品,葡萄酒,熟肉制品是摆在这些药片,其中祖灵的幻想,使他们暂时安息的地方。 There was, besides, a public honouring by each local clan of the common ancestors twice a year, in spring and autumn.有,此外,每个共同祖先,每年两次,春季和秋季,当地部族公开表彰。This was an elaborate banquet with music and solemn dances, to which the dead ancestors were summoned, and in which they were believed to participate along with the living members of the clan.这是一个庄严的音乐和舞蹈精心宴会,对于这些死亡的祖先被传唤,并在他们被认为参与与家族成员一起生活。More elaborate and magnificent still were the great triennial and quinquennial feasts given by the king to his ghostly ancestors.更详细和宏伟仍然是伟大的三年期和五年期由他的祖先的幽灵王定节日。This feasting of the dead by families and clans was restricted to such as were united with the living by ties of relationship.这种由家庭,家族死宴会仅限于如被通过与美国生活的纽带关系。There were, however, a few public benefactors whose memory was revered by all the people and to whom offerings of food were made.有,但是,有少数的记忆是由全体人民和他们的食品产品进行了崇敬公共恩人。Confucius himself came be to honoured after death, being regarded as the greatest of public benefactors.孔子本人来是荣幸亡故后,被视为最大的公共视为恩人。Even today in China this religious veneration of the master is faithfully maintained.即使在今天中国的宗教崇拜的主人是忠实地维护。In the Imperial College in Peking there is a shrine where the tablets of Confucius and his principal disciples are preserved.在帝国学院在北京有一个地方的孔子和他的主要弟子的牌位被保留靖国神社。Twice a year, in spring and autumn, the emperor goes there in state and solemnly presents food-offerings with a prayerful address expressing his gratitude and devotion.每年两次,春季和秋季,皇帝去那里的状态,并郑重提出一个虔诚的奉献精神表示感谢,并解决粮食产品。

In the fourth book of the "Li-ki" reference is made to the sacrifices which the people were accustomed to offer to the "spirits of the ground", that is to the spirits presiding over the local fields.在“立基”的提法第四本书是向其中的人都习惯于提供的,那就是在当地的精神领域主持了“地面精神”牺牲。In the worship of spirits of higher rank, however, the people seem to have taken no active part.在对更高级别的鬼神崇拜,然而,人们似乎没有采取任何积极的作用。This was the concern of their highest representatives, the feudal lords and the king.这是他们的最高代表,封建领主和国王的关注。Each feudal lord offered sacrifice for himself and his subjects to the subordinate spirits supposed to have especial care of his territory.每个领主提供的为自己和他的臣民的牺牲,应该有特殊的照顾他的领土下属精神。It was the prerogative of the king alone to sacrifice to the spirits, both great and small, of the whole realm, particularly to Heaven and Earth.这是国王的特权,仅牺牲的精神,不论规模大小,对整个领域,特别是对天地。Several sacrifices of this kind were offered every year.这种牺牲几个,每年共提供。The most important were those at the winter and summer solstice in which Heaven and Earth were respectively worshipped.最重要的是在冬季和夏季在冬至这天与地分别崇拜的。To account for this anomaly we must bear in mind that sacrifice, as viewed by the Chinese, is a feast to the spirit guests, and that according to their notion of propriety the highest deities should be feted only by the highest representatives of the living.考虑到这种不正常现象,我们必须牢记,牺牲,正如中国人看的,是对客人的精神盛宴,而且根据自己的礼的概念应该是最高的神,只有在生活的最高代表宴请。 They saw a fitness in the custom that only the king, the Son of Heaven, should, in his own behalf and in behalf of his people, make solemn offering to Heaven.他们看到了一个自定义健身,只有国王,天子,应在自己的名义和他的人民代表做出的庄严提供天堂。And so it is today.因此,这是今天。The sacrificial worship of Heaven and Earth is celebrated only by the emperor, with the assistance, indeed, of a small army of attendants, and with a magnificence of ceremonial that is astonishing to behold.在祭祀天地的崇拜是庆祝只能由皇帝的协助,事实上,一个服务员小军,并配有华丽的仪式是惊人的外表。To pray privately to Heaven and burn incense to him was a legitimate way for the individual to show his piety to the highest deity, and this is still practised, generally at the full moon.祈祷上天,私下给他烧香是一个合法的方式为个人表现出他的虔诚的最高神,这仍然是普遍实行在满月的时候。

E. Politics五政治

Confucius knew but one form of government, the traditional monarchy of his native land.孔子知道,但一个政府形式,他的家乡土地的传统君主制。It was the extension of the patriarchal system to the entire nation.这是对家长制延伸到整个国家。The king exercised an absolute authority over his subjects, as the father over his children.国王行使比他的臣民的绝对权威,因为在他的孩子的父亲。He ruled by right Divine.他的神权统治。He was providentially set up by Heaven to enlighten the people by wise laws and to lead them to goodness by his example and authority.他providentially由天堂,启发人的智慧的法律,并引导他的榜样,他们善良的权威。Hence his title, the "Son of Heaven".因此他的称号,“天子”。To merit this title he should reflect the virtue of Heaven.要取得这个称号,他应反映天的美德。It was only the high-minded king that won Heaven's favour and was rewarded with prosperity.这是只有高尚的国王,赢得上天的青睐,并与繁荣的奖励。The unworthy king lost Divine assistance and came to naught.卑微的国王失去了神圣的援助,来到化为乌有。The Confucian texts abound in lessons and warnings on this subject of right government.丰富的儒家文本中的经验教训和警告,对这个右翼政府的问题。The value of good example in the ruler is emphasized most strongly.在统治者的好例子值是强调最强烈。The principle is asserted again and again, that the people cannot fail to practise virtue and to prosper when the ruler sets the high example of right conduct.其原理是一次又一次地断言,我们的人民能够不辜负实践美德和繁荣时,统治者设置高的权利的行为榜样。On the other hand the implication is conveyed in more than one place that when crime and misery abound, the cause is to be sought in the unworthy king and his unprincipled ministers.另一方面的含义是传达在多个地方,当犯罪和苦难比比皆是,其原因是在无原则不配国王和他的部长们追捧。


It is doubtless this uncompromising attitude of Confucianism towards vicious self-seeking rulers of the people that all but caused its extinction towards the end of the third century BC In the year 213 BC, the subverter of the Chow dynasty, Shi Hwang-ti, promulgated the decree that all Confucian books, excepting the "Y-king", should be destroyed.这是毫无疑问,这对恶性不妥协的儒家自我寻求统治者,所有的人,但造成对第三个世纪,在公元前213年公元前结束其灭绝的态度,搞乱了周王朝,石黄,钛,颁布该法令,所有儒家书籍,除的“Y -王”,应予以销毁。The penalty of death was threatened against all scholars who should be found possessing the proscribed books or teaching them to others.死刑的威胁对所有谁是应该发现藏有被禁的书籍或教学给他人的学者。Hundreds of Confucian scholars would not comply with the edict, and were buried alive.儒家学者数百名不符合法令,被活埋。 When the repeal came under the Han dynasty, in 191 BC, the work of extermination was wellnigh complete.当废除在汉代,在公元前191个,工作的灭绝是wellnigh完成。Gradually, however, copies more or less damaged were brought to light, and the Confucian texts were restored to their place of honour.渐渐地,然而,副本或多或少被损坏败露,与儒家文本恢复到了自己地方的荣誉。Generations of scholars have devoted their best years to the elucidation of the "King" and "Shuh", with the result that an enormous literature has clustered around them.一代又一代的学者投入到自己的最好的年份的“国王”和“树”的阐释,是一个巨大的文学他们周围聚集的结果。As the State religion of China, Confucianism has exercised a profound influence on the life of the nation.作为中国国家宗教,儒学已行使了对国家生活产生深远影响。This influence has been little affected by the lower classes of Taoism and Buddhism, both of which, as popular cults, began to flourish in China towards the end of the first century of our era.这种影响一直不大受道教和佛教,都低下阶层,正如流行的邪教,开始在中国蓬勃发展对我们这个时代的第一个世纪的结束。In the gross idolatry of these cults the ignorant found a satisfaction for their religious cravings that was not afforded by the religion of the State.在毛崇拜这些邪教的无知发现他们不是由国家的宗教赋予宗教渴望一种满足感。But in thus embracing Taoism and Buddhism they did not cease to be Confucianists.但是,在这样拥抱道教和佛教,他们也没有停止将儒家。These cults were and are nothing more than accretions on the Confucian beliefs and customs of the lower classes, forms of popular devotion clinging like parasites to the ancestral religion.这些邪教过去和现在都没有什么比对儒家信仰和习俗添加物的低下阶层更喜欢流行的形式奉献给祖先的宗教寄生虫附着。 The educated Chinese despises both Buddhist and Taoist superstitions.受过教育的两个佛教和道教迷信中蔑视。But while nominally professing Confucianism pure and simple, not a few hold rationalistic views regarding the spirit world.不过,虽然名义上信奉儒学的纯粹和简单,而不是少数持有有关精神世界理性的看法。In number the Confucianists amount to about three hundred millions.在数量儒家金额约三百万元。


In Confucianism there is much to admire.在儒家思想有许多让人敬佩。It has taught a noble conception of the supreme Heaven-god.它给了一个至高无上的天之神的崇高理念。It has inculcated a remarkably high standard of morality.它灌输非常高的道德标准。It has prompted, as far as it knew how, the refining influence of literary education and of polite conduct.它提示,就因为它知道如何,文学教育和礼貌的行为细化的影响。But it stands today encumbered with the serious defects that characterize the imperfect civilization of its early development.这却与所特有的,其文明的早期发展不完善的严重缺陷担保今天。The association of T'ien with innumerable nature-spirits, spirits of sun, moon, and stars, of hills and fields and rivers, the superstitious use of divination by means of stalks and tortoise shells, and the crude notion that the higher spirits, together with the souls of the dead, are regaled by splendid banquets and food-offerings, cannot stand the test of intelligent modern criticism.与无数自然的灵魂,太阳,月亮的精神,和星星,丘陵和田野和河流,占卜用秸秆和龟甲手段迷信的使用,以及原油的概念,即较高的烈酒协会天子,与死者的灵魂,是一起由辉煌regaled宴会和粮食产品,不能经得起考验的智能现代批评。 Nor can a religion answer fully to the religious needs of the heart which withdraws from the active participation of the people the solemn worship of the deity, which has little use of prayer, which recognizes no such thing as grace, which has no definite teaching in regard to the future life.也不能完全回答一个宗教的心是从人民的神,它没有多大用处的祈祷,承认没有为宽限期这样的东西,它没有明确的教学积极参与在庄严的崇拜宗教需要撤回至于未来的生活。 As a social system it has lifted the Chinese to an intermediate grade of culture, but has blocked for ages all further progress.作为一种社会制度已经解除了中到一个中级职称的文化,但他们却为所有年龄的进一步进展受阻。In its rigid insistence on rites and customs that tend to perpetuate the patriarchal system with its attendant evils of polygamy and divorce, of excessive seclusion and repression of women, of an undue hampering of individual freedom, Confucianism stands in painful contrast with progressive Christian civilization.在其关于礼仪和习俗,往往是为了永远伴随而来的邪恶的一夫多妻制和离婚过度隔离和压迫的妇女不应有的妨碍个人自由,坚持严格的家长制,儒家主张在基督教文明与进步的痛苦的对比。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Rick McCarty.转录由里克麦卡蒂。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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