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The word convent was first used by the mendicant friars of the 13th century, in place of "abbey" or "monastery."这个词最早是由修道院的修士13世纪乞讨在“修道院”或地方,“修道院”。Signifying the building in which monks shared a common life, it was later extended to mean any residence in which the members of a Religious Order lived in community under vows.标志着中有着共同的僧侣生活的建设,后来扩大为指居住在其中的任何一个宗教秩序的成员共同生活在誓言。Today, however, the word is applied almost exclusively to the domiciles of religious women, or nuns, although it is also frequently used to refer to convent life in general.今天,然而,这个词几乎只适用于对宗教的妇女,或尼姑的住所,虽然也经常用来指修道院一般的生活。Roman Catholic canon law requires a minimum of three members to establish a convent.罗马天主教教会法需要至少三名成员建立了修道院。

Both general and specific requirements are imposed on a person wishing to join a convent. They include normal intelligence, sound mental and physical health, and a desire to serve God in a life dedicated to the work of the church. 一般和具体要求施加于修道院的人希望加入。它们包括智力正常,健全的心理和身体健康,并渴望成为上帝的教会在生命奉献给工作。Specific requirements are set according to the makeup and work of a particular religious group.具体要求按照设定的化妆和特定的宗教组的工作。Cloistered religious orders are called to a life of prayer and contemplation, whereas missionary orders are called to a life of compassionate, loving service.与世隔绝的宗教命令被称为一个祈祷和沉思的生活,而传教士的命令被称为一个富有同情心,热爱使用寿命。Still others teach and do nursing work in schools and hospitals.还有一些人做护理教学和在学校和医院工作。The various orders seek to respond to every human need; thus specific requirements depend on the kind of work undertaken.各种订单寻求回应每个人的需要,因此对具体要求进行的工作种类而定。

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The Second Vatican Council called for a renewal of convent life, with adaptation of rules and constitutions in a manner appropriate to the needs of the church and world today.第二届梵蒂冈理事会要求的修道院生活重建,与适应的规则和章程适当的方式,教会和当今世界的需求。This renewal has led to a diversity of life-styles and structures in the concept of convents and convent living.这导致了重建生命的风格和结构的修道院和修道院的生活理念的多样性。This diversity, pursued in a spirit of creative fidelity, serves to make more evident the gospel witness that should characterize religious life.这种多样性,在一个创造性的忠诚的精神追求,使服务更为明显的福音见证,应该刻画的宗教生活。

Agnes Cunningham艾格尼丝坎宁安


Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Latin conventus).(拉丁conventus)。

Originally signified an assembly of Roman citizens in the provinces for purposes of administration and justice.最初标志着在行政和司法的目的各省罗马公民大会的。In the history of monasticism the word has two distinct technical meanings:在历史上的修道词有两种截然不同的技术含义:

A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity.一个宗教社区不论男女,当谈到在其企业的能力。The word was first used in this sense when the eremitical life began to be combined with the cenobitical.这个词最初是用在这个意义上说,当eremitical生活开始要与cenobitical相结合。The hermits of an Eastern laura, living in separate cells grouped around that of their common superior, when spoken of collectively, were called a conventus.劳拉的一个东方隐士,居住在不同的细胞分组围绕它们的共同上级,集体发言的时候,被称为一个conventus。 In Western monasticism the term came into general use from the very beginning and the technical phrase abbas et conventus signifies to this day the entire community of a monastic establishment.在西方修道一词来成从一开始就和阿巴斯等conventus技术短语一般使用,标志着这一天寺院建立一个整个社会。

The buildings in which resides a community of either sex.该建筑物,居住社区的任一性别。In this sense the word denotes more properly the home of a strictly monastic order, and is not correctly used to designate the home of what is called a congregation.在这个意义上,更恰当的词是指一个严格的寺院秩序的家,也是不正确使用指定了什么是所谓的众家。In addition to these technical meanings, the word has also a popular signification at the present day, by which it is made to mean in particular the abode of female religious, just as monastery denotes that of men, though in reality the two words are interchangeable.除了这些技术含义,这个词也有一个在现今流行的含义,它是由其中特别是指宗教居留权的女性与男子一样修道院表示,尽管现实中的两个词是可以互换。 In the present article the word is taken chiefly in its popular sense.在本文章中的字是在其主要采取的流行感。The treatment, moreover, is limited to those features which are common to all, or nearly all, convents, while peculiarities due to the special purpose, rule, or occupation of each religious order are explained in the pertinent article.治疗,而且,只限于那些特点是共同所有,或者几乎所有的修道院,而特殊性,由于特殊的目的,规则,或每个宗教秩序的占领是在有关文章中所述。


The life lived by the inmates of a convent naturally varies in its details, according to the particular object for which it has been founded, or the special circumstances of time and place by which it is affected.生命在生活中的囚犯一个修道院自然在其细节各不相同,根据具体对象,它已经成立,或时间和地点由它受到影响的特殊情况。 Convents are often roughly divided into two classes, strictly enclosed and unenclosed, but with regard to the convents existing at the present day this division, though correct as far as it goes, it not a very satisfactory one, because both classes are capable of subdivision, and, on account of the varied kinds of work undertaken by the nuns, these subdivisions overlap one another.修道院常常大致分为严格封闭和封闭型两大类,但考虑到修道院在当今现有的这个师,正确的,因为虽然目前来看,它不是一个非常理想的,因为这两个类是细分能力,并根据所开展的工作的修女们的不同种类的帐户,这些分支相互重叠。 Thus, of the strictly enclosed communities, some are purely contemplative, other mainly active (ie engaged in educational or rescue work), while other again combine the two.因此,在严格封闭的社区,有些是纯粹的沉思,其他主要活动(即在教育或从事救援工作),同时又结合了其他两个。Similarly, of the unenclosed orders, some are purely active (ie undertaking educational, parochial, hospital, or other work), and others unite the contemplative with the active life, without, however, being strictly enclosed.同样,在封闭型的订单,有些是纯粹的活动(即开展教育,狭隘,住院,或其他工作),和其他团结与积极的生活中沉思,如果没有,但是,由于严格封闭。 As a general deduction it may be stated that the contemplative life, in which women are actuated by a desire to save their own souls and the souls of other by their lives of prayer, seclusion, and mortification, was the idea of the older orders, while the distinctive note of the more modern congregations is that of active work amongst others and the relief of their bodily wants.作为一般扣除这可能是说,沉思的生活,其中妇女的愿望驱动拯救自己的灵魂及按祈祷,隐居,​​他们的生活和其他屈辱的灵魂,是上了年纪的订单的想法,而更值得注意的是鲜明的现代教会的积极工作,其中包括他人和自己的身体想要救济。

With regard to the educational work of the convents, it may here be stated that this includes the teaching of both elementary and secondary schools, as well as the training of teachers for such schools and higher education.关于修道院教育的工作,它可能会在这里表示,这包括小学和中学的教学,以及为这些学校和高等教育教师的培训。 The hospital and nursing work comprises the management of hospitals, bother general and for special classes of patients, as well as the nursing of both rich and poor in their own homes.医院及护理工作包括对医院的管理,不要打扰一般和特殊类别的病人,以及富国和穷国都在自己家里护理。Rescue work includes the conduct of penitentiaries, orphanages, and homes for the aged poor.救援工作包括监狱,孤儿院,老人院和穷人的行为。A few convents make special provision for the reception of guests, for retreats and other spiritual purposes, and a large proportion of them receive boarders at moderate charges.一些修道院弥补精神的务虚会和其他用途的客人,接待特别规定,而且其中很大一部分接收中等寄宿费。Some, mostly of enclosed communities, have undertaken the work of Perpetual Adoration, while others devote themselves to ecclesiastical embroidery and the making of church vestments.主要是一些封闭的社区,已进行工作的永恒的崇拜,而另一些致力于教会刺绣和教堂法衣决策。This particular kind of work has always been characteristic of English nuns, whose embroidery, known as the opus anglicanum, was famous in medieval times (Matthew Paris, Rolls, ed., IV, an. 1246).这种特定种类工作一直是英国的修女,其刺绣,作为巨著anglicanum称,特点是在中世纪著名的(马修巴黎,劳斯莱斯,编辑。,四,一。1246)。 The ordinary routine of life in a nunnery has always corresponded approximately with that of a monastery.对生活在一个尼姑庵日常工作一直大约相当于同一个修道院的。The nunUs day is divided between the choir, the workroom, the schoolroom, the refectory, the recreation room, the cell, and, with the active orders, the outside work, in periodical rotation.一天中被划分的nunUs之间的合唱团,车间,教室,食堂,娱乐室,细胞,并与积极的订单,在外面工作,定期轮换,。 Idleness or lack of occupation is never permitted.懒惰或缺乏职业永远不会允许的。The earliest rules for nuns, as well as the most modern, all prescribe labour of some useful kind.为尼姑最早的规则,以及最现代的,都规定了一些有益的一种劳动。The medieval nuns could always read and write Latin, and they also employed themselves in transcribing and illuminating sacred books, and in many of the fine arts, the cultivation of which they consecrated to the service of God.中世纪的修女们总是可以读,写拉丁文,他们还受聘于抄写书籍本身的神圣和富有启发性,在美术,培养他们奉献给神的服务很多,。 The convents thus were always homes of industry, and just as formerly they played no small part in the spread of civilization, so now they are almost indispensable handmaids to the cause of the Catholic Church.因此,总是修道院产业家园,就像以前他们没有发挥在传播文明的一小部分,所以现在他们几乎是不可缺少的婢女到天主教教会的原因。


It is not necessary here to refute the many base and vile charges that have from time to time been brought against the conventual system; a mere general reference to them is sufficient, for the evidence of the salutary work done by convents and the gruits of the lives of the nuns are in themselves ample refutation.这是没有必要在这里驳斥了许多基地和邪恶的指控不时有时间已对系统所带来的修道院,一个仅仅笼统地提到他们已足以由修道院所做的有益工作的证据和学校的gruits,修女们的生活本身就是充分的驳斥。 In the past there have been "anti-convent" and "convent-inspection" societies, as well as the lectures of "escaped nuns" and literature in abundance of the "Maria Monk" type, and they may be expected to crop up again periodically in the future.在过去曾有“反修道院”和“修​​道院检查”,以及社会,讲座的“逃脱修女”,并在“玛丽亚僧”文学类型丰富,而且可预期可以再次出现定期的未来。 These may and do for a time hamper the work of the nuns and cause a certain amount of disquietude in some quarters, but it is a significant fact that, whatever excitement they may raise for the time being, the agitation always dies down again as suddenly as it arises, and its harmful effects never appear to leave behind them any lasting results, except perhaps an increased interest in, and respect for, the conventual life that has been vilified.这些可能做一段时间阻碍了修女们的工作和事业,在一些方面不安一定金额,但它是一个重要的事实,不管他们的兴奋可能暂时提高,搅拌总是一样突然去世下来了因为它发生,它的有害影响,决不会出现在他们身后留下也许除了增加的兴趣,以及,在修道院的生活方面已诋毁任何持久的结果。


Canon law contains a large and important section relating to the establishment and government of convents.佳能法包含一个庞大而重要的部分有关建立和修道院的政府。The privileges of such as are exempt from episcopal jurisdiction, the appointment of confessors for the nuns, and the duties of the same, the regulations of the Church concerning enclosure, and the admission and testing of candidates, the nature and obligations of the vows, the limits of the powers of superiors, and the conditions regarding the erection of new convents are among the many points of detail legislated for.这样的特权是由主教管辖,对修女的师的任命,并在相同的职责,教会有关规定免征外壳,以及入学和候选人的性质和义务的誓言测试,对上级的权力范围,条件和关于新的修道院勃起是立法中的许多细节问题。 One or two points may be alluded to here.一个或两个点可能会提到这里。The law of the Church requires that no new convent be established, whether it be one that is exempt from episcopal jurisdiction or not, without the consent of the bishop of the diocese; for what is technically called canonical erection further formalities, including approbation from Rome, have to be complied with.教会的法律规定,设立任何新的修道院,不论它是一个是由主教管辖或不能免除未经教区的主教的同意;对于什么是所谓的典型安装技术上进一步手续,包括从罗马赞许,都必须遵守。 All confessors for nuns must be specially approved by the bishop, even those of convents that are exempt from his ordinary jurisdiction, and the bishop has also to provide that all nuns can have access two or three times in the year to an "extraordinary" confessor, other than their usual one.坦白所有的修女必须特别批准的主教,修道院甚至是他的管辖豁免那些普通的,和主教还规定,所有尼姑在新的一年能有两,三次获得一个“特殊”忏悔,比他们平常对方。 The bishop also is obliged periodically to visit and inspect all the convents in his diocese, excepting those that are exempt, at the time of which visitation every nun must be free to see him privately in order to make any complaints or suggestions that she may wish.主教也有义务定期访问和检查所有在他的教区修道院,除那些被豁免在探视时间,其中每一个尼姑必须可以自由地看到他私下以使任何投诉或建议,她不妨。 With regard to the admission of postulants the law provides for every precaution being taken, on the one hand, to prevent coercion and, on the other, to safeguard the community from being obliged to receive those about whose vocation there may be any doubt.关于入学的postulants法律规定正在采取一切预防措施,一方面,防止强迫,另一方面,为了维护被有义务接受谁的职业可能有任何怀疑的人的社会。 Physical fitness on the part of a candidate is in most orders an indispensable condition, thought there are some which admit women of delicate health; but, once admitted and professed, the tract becomes reciprocal, and while the nun undertakes to keep her vows, the convent, on its side, is bound to provide her with lodging, food, and clothing, and to maintain her in sickness or in health (see NOVITIATE; VOW).对候选人的一部分体能是在大部分订单必不可少的条件,思想有抵触的一些微妙的健康妇女,但是,一旦被接纳,并声称,成片变成倒数,而尼姑承诺使她的誓言,在修道院,在其一侧,必将为您提供住宿,食品和衣物等她,并保持在健康的疾病或她的(见见习期;发誓)。


With regard to the dowry required of a nun, the customs and rules of the different orders vary much according to circumstances.关于一个尼姑所需的嫁妆,海关和规则的不同订单根据情况变化不大。 Some convents, on account of their poverty, are obliged to insist upon it, and, generally speaking, most expect their members to bring some contribution to the general fund.有些修道院,对他们的贫困帐户,有义务坚持要求它,一般来说,最期望其成员带来一些贡献的普通基金。A convent that is rich will often dispense with the dowry in the case of a highly promising candidate, but it must always depend upon particular circumstances.修道院是丰富往往会免除在一个极有希望的候选人嫁妆,但它必须始终取决于具体情况。The minimum amount of the dowry required is generally fixed by the rule or constitutions of the convent or order.所要求的最低金额为嫁妆一般是固定的规则或修道院或宪法秩序。


In most of the older contemplative orders the choir nuns are bound to rthe whole Divine Office in choir.在合唱团势必rthe修女在整个神圣办事处老年合唱团沉思订单最多。In only a very few of the English convents, eg Cistercians, Dominicans, and Poor Clares, do the nuns rise in the night for Matins and Lauds; in the others these Offices are generally said in the evening "by anticipation".只在极少数的英国修道院,如熙,多米尼加,差克拉雷斯,请在晚上的晨祷和赞扬尼姑上升;说,在这些人一般都在办公室“的期待”的夜晚。 In some there are other additional offices recited daily; thus the Cistercians and the Poor Clares say the Office of Our Lady and that of the Dead every day, and the Brigittines say the latter thrice in the week, as well as an Office of the Holy Ghost.在一些有其他额外的办事处每天背诵,因此熙和穷人克拉雷斯说,我们的夫人办事处和死者的每一天,而Brigittines说,后者在本周三次,以及作为神圣办公室鬼。 Almost all the active orders, both enclosed and unenclosed, use the Office of Our Lady, but some, like the Sisters of Charity, are not bound to the recitation of any Office at all.几乎所有的,积极的订单都封闭和封闭型,利用我们的夫人办公室,但有些,如慈善修女,都没有绑定到任何Office背诵的。


In most orders the nuns are divided into choir sisters and lay sisters.在大多数订单修女分为合唱团姐妹打下姐妹。The latter are usually employed in the household duties and other manual work.后者通常受聘于家务和其他体力劳动。They take the usual vows and are as truly religious as the choir nuns, but they are not bound to the choir Office, though they often attend the choir at the time of Office and recite certain prayers in the vernacular.他们采取一贯的誓言和合唱团一样修女真正的宗教,但他们不是绑定到办事处合唱团,虽然他们经常参加在任职期间的合唱团和背诵某些祈祷的白话。 There is always a distinction between their habit and that of the choir nuns, sometimes very slight and sometimes strongly marked.之间总是有他们的习惯和修女的合唱团,有时也很轻微,有时强烈明显的区别。In some orders where the choir sisters are enclosed the lay sisters are not; but in others they are as strictly enclosed as the choir nuns.在一些国家的合唱团的姐妹们都附上订单奠定姐妹都没有,但在其他人,他们是严格封闭的唱诗班修女。Several orders have, by their rule, no lay sisters, among them being the Sisters of Notre Dame, the Sisters of Charity, the Sisters of Bon Secours, the Little Sisters of the Poor, and the Poor Servants of the Mother of God.几个订单,通过自己的统治,没有躺在其中被巴黎圣母院修女姐妹,慈善姐妹,邦塞科尔,穷人的小姐妹姐妹,和天主之母可怜的仆人。


The internal arrangement of a properly constituted convent is, for the most part, similar to that of a monastery for men (see ABBEY and MONASTERY), but from poverty and other obvious causes, many convents have had to be established in already-existing ordinary dwelling-houses, which do not always lend themselves to ideal adaption.一个适当组成修道院内部的安排是,在大多数情况下,类似的为男性修道院(见修道院和修道院),但贫困和其他明显的原因,许多修道院都必须建立在已经存在的普通住宅,这并不总是借给自己理想的适应。 (See CLOISTER; DOWER OF RELIGIOUS; NUN; OFFICE; SCHOOLS.)(见回廊;宗教嫁妆;修女,办公,学校。)

Publication information Written by G. Cyprian Alston.出版信息撰稿,由G.塞浦路斯阿尔斯通。Transcribed by Marcia L. Bellafiore.转录由玛茜亚L. Bellafiore。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全书,第四卷。Published 1908.发布1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat.Nihil Obstat。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

Also, see:此外,见:
Religious Orders宗教命令
Jesuits 耶稣会士
Benedictines benedictines
Trappists trappists
Cistercians cistercians
Christian Brothers基督教兄弟
Carmelites carmelites
Discalced Carmelitesdiscalced carmelites
Augustinians 奥古斯丁会士
Dominicans 多米尼加
Marist Brothers圣母兄弟

Monasticism 修道
Nuns 修女
Friars 方济各会士
Ministry 财政部
Major Orders大订单
Holy Orders神圣的订单

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