General Information一般资料

The Essenes were members of an ascetic Jewish sect of the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD. Most of them lived on the western shore of the Dead Sea. 爱色尼人成员的苦行犹太节在公元前1世纪和公元1世纪。大多数生活在他们的死在西部海岸。They are identified by many scholars with the Qumran community that wrote the documents popularly called the Dead Sea Scrolls.他们确定了与昆兰社区写的文件,俗称死海古卷的许多学者。They numbered about 4,000 members.他们的人数约4000名成员。Admission required two to three years of preparation, and new candidates took an oath of piety, justice, and truthfulness.入学要求的两到三年的准备,以及新的候选人参加了一个虔诚,正义和真理的誓言。

According to Philo of Alexandria and other writers of the 1st century AD, the Essenes shared their possessions, lived by agriculture and handicrafts, rejected slavery, and believed in the immortality of the soul. Their meals were solemn community affairs.据斐洛世纪的亚历山大和其他作家的公元1,爱色尼分享他们的财产,生活的农业和手工业,拒绝奴役和灵魂信奉了不朽的。吃饭是庄严的社区事务。 The main group of Essenes opposed marriage.爱色尼集团的主要反对结婚。They had regular prayer and study sessions, especially on the Sabbath.他们经常祈祷和读书会,尤其是在安息日。Transgressors were excluded from the sect.违者被排除在该教派。

The similarity between a number of Essene and Christian concepts and practices (kingdom of God, baptism, sacred meals, the position of a central teacher, titles of officeholders, and community organization) has led some people to assume that there was a close kinship between the Essenes and the groups around John the Baptist and Jesus Christ. It is possible that after the dissolution of the Essene community some members followed John the Baptist or joined one of the early Christian communities, but any other direct connection seems unlikely. 相似的做法之间的一个数字的概念和厄色尼和基督教(餐饮王国的上帝,洗礼,神圣的,教师地位的一环,officeholders职称和社区组织)已导致一些人认为有密切的亲缘关系爱色尼和耶稣周围的群体和施洗约翰。很可能不会解散后,部分社会成员的厄遵循施洗约翰或加入一个基督教早期的社区,但任何其他直接的联系似乎。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Beall, Todd S., Josephus' Descriptions of the Essenes Illustr艾赛尼几篇文章。信息来源,以便更深入地了解宗教科目。"> (1988); Davies, Philip, Behind the Essenes (1987); Larson, Martin, The Essene-Christian Faith (1980); Simon, Marcel, Jewish Sects at the Time of Jesus, trans.比尔,托德学,约瑟夫'说明由死海古卷的爱色尼画报(1988年),戴维斯,菲利普,背后的爱色尼(1987年);拉尔森,马丁,厄基督教信仰(1980年);西蒙,马塞尔,在耶稣的时代,反犹太人的教派。 by James Farley (1980).由詹姆斯法利(1980)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The Essenes were an important Jewish group which flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first century AD爱色尼是一个重要的犹太团体的蓬勃发展在巴勒斯坦从公元前二世纪后期到公元一世纪末期


Our understanding of the Essenes is determined to a large degree by how we delimit our sources.我们的理解是,爱色尼在很大程度上决定了我们如何划定的来源。Certainly the sources which explicitly mention the Essenes are pertinent.当然,来源,明确提及爱色尼是中肯的。The most valuable among these are Philo's Apology for the Jews (now lost but preserved in part by Eusebius, Praeparatio evangelica 8.2) and Every Good Man Is Free, both written in the first half of the first century AD; Flavius Josephus's The Jewish War and The Antiquities of the Jews, dating from about AD 75 and 94 respectively; and the elder Pliny's Natural History, completed in about AD 77.其中最有价值的是斐罗的道歉的犹太人(现在已经失去,但在部分保存了尤西比乌斯,Praeparatio evangelica 8.2),每一个良好的人是自由的,在公元一世纪前半书面两者;弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫的犹太战争犹太人的古物,约公元75和94分别定年;和老普林尼的自然史,在大约公元77完成。 Also of some independent value is Hippolytus's Philosophumena, written in the third century AD还有一些独立的价值是西波吕的Philosophumena,在公元三世纪的书面

Though they explicitly mention the Essenes, these sources present several problems.虽然他们明确提及的essenes,目前这些来源的几个问题。None of them gives a firsthand, inside view of the Essenes.他们没有给出第一手资料,查看里面的ess​​enes。Furthermore, these sources generally cater to Greekor hellenized readers and thus, on some points, misrepresent Essene practices, doctrines, and motives.此外,这些源一般迎合读者和希腊化Greekor因此,在某些点,谎称厄实践,理论和动机。Finally, it is doubtful that any of these sources has anything to say, by way of description, about the Essenes as they existed before the reign of Herod the Great (37-4 BC).最后,这是值得怀疑的任何这些来源有话想说,通过描述的方式对爱色尼,因为他们之前的希律王统治的大(37-4 BC)的存在。

In the last thirty years scholars have sought to mitigate these difficulties by using information derived from the Dead Sea Scrolls.在过去的三十年学者都试图减轻使用从死海古卷得到的信息这些困难。This approach has problems of its own, however.这种方法有它自己的问题,但是。The relationship between the Essenes and the Qumran sectaries is uncertain.爱色尼之间的关系和昆兰sectaries是不确定的。 The name "Essene" never appears in the Qumran literature, and viable cases have been made for identifying the Qumran sectaries with Pharises, Zealots, Sadducees, and other Jewish and Christian groups.命名为“厄”从未出现在昆兰文学,可行的案件已经确定了与Pharises昆兰sectaries,狂热者,撒​​,和其他犹太和基督教团体提出。 Nevertheless, on the basis of archaeological and literary evidence most scholars now believe that the Qumran sectaries were Essenes, though not necessarily the Essenes.然而,根据考古和文学证据的基础上现在多数学者认为,昆兰sectaries是爱色尼,虽然不一定是爱色尼。The inhabitants of Qumran may have been the leaders, or perhaps only a small branch, of a broad Essene movement.的库姆兰的居民可能是领导人,或者只有一个小分支的广泛厄运动。In either case it is impossible to know just how and to what extent the Qumran documents reflect standard Essene practices and beliefs.在这两种情况下是不可能知道如何以及在何种程度上昆兰文件反映了标准厄习俗和信仰。 For this reason, it would seem prudent to make at least a provisional distinction between what Philo and Josephus claim to know about the Essenes and the potentially relevant evidence of Qumran.出于这个原因,看来至少要做出审慎的事情之间斐洛和约瑟夫声称了解昆兰爱色尼和潜在的相关证据的临时区别。Of the Qumran documents the Manual of Discipline, the Damascus Document, the War Scroll, the recently published Temple Scroll, and the various pesher-type commentaries on the Minor Prophets are proving to be the most useful in the discussion of Essene life, doctrine, and history.该手册的学科,大马士革文件,战争滚动,最近发表的庙滚动,以及各种pesher式上的小先知被证明是最生活中的厄色尼,理论讨论的有益评论昆兰文件,和历史。


"Essenes" is an English transliteration of the Greek Essenoi.“爱色尼”是希腊Essenoi英文音译。The derivation and meaning of the Greek word have been a mystery since the first century AD Philo, our earliest source (ca. AD 40), speculated that "Essenes" was derived from the Greek hosios, meaning "holy."推导和希腊词的含义已自公元一世纪斐洛是个谜,我们最早的来源(约公元40),推测,“爱色尼”是来自希腊hosios,意为“圣洁的。” Modern scholars have preferred to go back to Semitic originals.现代学者们更愿意回到犹太人的原件。The two most probable etymologies offered to date are from the Aramaic 'asen,' asayya, "healers," and from the East Aramaic hasen, hasayya, "the pious."这两个最有可能提供最新的词源是从阿拉姆'奥森,'asayya,“医士”,并从东方阿拉姆哈森,hasayya“的虔诚。” The first etymology would suggest a link between the Essenes and the Therapeutae (Gr. "healers"), a similar Jewish group flourishing contemporaneously in Egypt.第一词源建议之间的爱色尼和Therapeutae(Gr.“医士”),类似的犹太团体蓬勃发展在埃及contemporaneously链接。 The second etymology would imply a historical relationship between the Essenes and the Hasidim (Hebrew: "pious ones"), the faithful Jews who distinguished themselves during the Maccabean revolt (ca. 167 BC).第二词源将意味着与爱色尼之间的Ḥasidim(希伯来文:“虔诚者”)的历史关系,忠实犹太人谁尊敬在Maccabean起义(约公元167年)自己。 Extant evidence will not allow a firm decision between the two etymologies, though it would seem that the latter currently enjoys more credence.现存的证据将不会允许这两个词源坚定的决定,尽管它似乎是后者目前享有更多的信任。In any case, there is no reason to assume that "Essenes," or Semitic equivalent, was a selfdesignation.在任何情况下,没有理由认为,“爱色尼”,或犹太人的当量,是一个selfdesignation。 It may have been a label applied to the group by outsiders.它可能已被应用到组由外人一个标签。As such, it would point to the manner in which the Essenes were perceived by their contemporaries.因此,它会指向在其中爱色尼被视为他们的同时代人的方式。

Life and Doctrine生活与学说

Philo, Josephus, Pliny, and Hippolytus generally agree quite closely on the main characteristics of the group.斐洛,约瑟夫,普林尼,并普遍认同相当密切西波吕对本集团的主要特征。Asceticism was a central triat.禁欲主义是一个中央triat。Many Essenes were devoted to the celibate ideal, though Josephus mentions a group who married.许多爱色尼人专门独身主义的理想,尽管约瑟夫提到一组谁结婚。They eschewed luxury items, such as oil, and avoided all unnecessary social and economic contacts with non-Essenes.他们回避的奢侈品,如石油,并避免一切不必要的社会和经济上与非爱色尼接触。Their highly regimented life centered on prayer, rigorous work, frequent lustrations, and the study of Scriptures.他们高度自由的生活为中心的祈祷,严谨的工作,经常lustrations,以及研究圣经。

Essene life was also communal.厄色尼的人生也是社区。Not only was property held in common, but it seems that many, if not all, of their meals were taken together as well.不仅具有共同的属性,但它似乎很多,如果不是全部,吃饭在一起,并采取了。An essene traveler could always be certain of finding free lodging wherever fellow Essenes lived.一个essene旅行者总是可以找到免费住宿的地方住某些同胞爱色尼。Essene communities were highly structured with four different classes of membership divided according to seniority.厄社区被高度结构化的四个不同类别的会员分为按资排辈。It would seem that priests occupied the top rung of the Essene social ladder; Josephus explicity mentions that the ones who administered the communal finances were priests.这似乎是说祭司占领了厄社会阶梯的顶部;约瑟夫明确地提到,谁管理的公共财政状况的司铎。The internal social structure of Essene communities was maintained by careful and exacting discipline.厄色尼社区内部的社会结构是维持谨慎和严格的纪律。An entrance procedure requiring a three-year novitiate and solemn vows ensured a committed membership.一个入口程序需要一个为期三年的见习和庄严的誓言,保证了承诺的成员。

There is some disagreement between Philo and Josephus on the Essene attitude toward the temple and sacrifices.有一些斐洛和约瑟夫之间,朝寺庙和牺牲厄态度分歧。Philo claims that the Essenes abstained from animal sacrifices altogether, while Josephus reports that, because of their views on purity, the Essenes were excluded from the temple courts and for this reason sacrificed among themselves.菲洛称,从动物的牺牲爱色尼共投了弃权票,而约瑟夫说,因为对纯度的看法,爱色尼人从殿里和报告,因此排除彼此牺牲。

Finally, Josephus says that the Essenes were thoroughgoing predestinarians, and that along with a belief in the immortality of the soul they held to a doctrine of preexistence.最后,约瑟夫说,爱色尼被彻底predestinarians,这与在一个灵魂,他们举行神仙信仰学说的前世沿。

This picture of Essene life and doctrine is, on the whole, corroborated by the information derived from Qumran and its documents.这样的厄色尼的生活和教义图片上,由昆兰及其文件所得出的资料证实了整体。As one might expect, however, the agreement is not perfect; there are some outright contradictions.正如人们所期望的,然而,该协议并不完美,也有一些直接的矛盾。For example, the Manual of Discipline mandates a two-year, not a three-year, novitiate.例如,手册的学科任务两年,而不是三年,见习。According to Philo, the Essenes eschewed oaths, but the Damascus Document prescribes several oaths for the Qumran sectaries.根据斐洛,回避的爱色尼宣誓,但大马士革文件规定的昆兰sectaries几个宣誓。These and other incongruities highlight the uncertainties of using the Dead Sea Scrolls to illuminate Essenism.这些和其他不协调的突出使用死海古卷的不确定性照亮Essenism。Even if one assumes that Philo and Josephus were mistaken on some points (and this is quite probable), one must still reckon with the possibility that the Dead Sea Scrolls do not reflect universal Essene characteristics.即使人们假定斐洛和约瑟夫是在一些问题上错误的(这是非常可能的),仍必须估计的可能性,死海古卷没有反映普遍厄色尼的特点。

Yet, with this possibility in mind, one can still appreciate the tremendous value of the Qumran scrolls for Essene studies.然而,考虑到这一可能性,但是人们还是可以理解为厄研究的昆兰卷轴的巨大价值。 The scrolls give clear evidence that at least some of the Essenes followed a solar, 364-day calendar as opposed to official Judaism, which used a lunar one.春联提供明确的证据表明,至少有一些爱色尼随后太阳能,364天的日历,而不是官方犹太教,它使用了月球之一。Moreover, the scrolls intimate that the Qumran Essenes (if no others) were implacable foes of the Hasmonean high priests.此外,春联亲密的昆兰爱色尼(如果没有其他人)是无情的Hasmonean高神父的敌人。In fact, it seems that many Essene leaders were Zadokites, members of the high priestly family displaced by the Hasmoneans.事实上,似乎许多厄领导人Zadokites,高级祭司的哈斯摩年王朝流离失所的家庭成员。This information has in turn shed light on the vexing problem of the Essenes and temple sacrifices.这一信息,从而揭示了爱色尼和寺庙的牺牲令人烦恼的问题光。It seems that the Qumranians abstained from temple sacrifices because of a rift with the ruling priests in Jerusalem, not because they repudiated the sacrificial system, as Philo implies.看来,Qumranians弃权因与执政的神职人员在耶路撒冷圣殿裂痕牺牲,不是因为他们否定了祭祀制度,意味着斐罗。 Finally, the scrolls expose an Essenism which was thoroughly eschatological in outlook.最后,揭露了春联Essenism这是彻底的前景末世论。The writers of the scrolls believed themselves the true remnant of Israel living in the last days.对春联的作者认为自己真正的以色列剩下的最后几天的生活。They eagerly awaited the appearance of both a political messiah and an eschatological high priest.他们热切地等待着双方的政治救世主和末世论的大祭司的外观。

In general it can be said that the Dead Sea Scrolls have preserved a place for Essenism within the mainstream of Judaism.总的来说,可以说,死海古卷都保留了Essenism内的犹太教主流的地方。Josephus's and Philo's accounts show it was difficult to fit the Essenes into what was known about late second temple Judaism.约瑟夫的和斐罗的帐目显示,难以适应什么是关于已故称为第二圣殿犹太教爱色尼。The Essenes were often regarded as syncretistic monastics, imbued with a hellenistic asceticism.爱色尼人通常被视为充满了希腊禁欲主义融出家人。Recent studies on the Qumran scrolls, however, have revealed an ascetic and communal life style not based on some Greek philosophical ideal but on an overwhelming concern for ritual purity.在最近的研究昆兰春联,然而,发现一个苦行和社区生活作风不是一些希腊哲学理想,而是一种仪式的纯洁性最关心的基础。 Regardless of the identity of the Qumran sectaries, it is now possible to understand the Essenes as one of the numerous purity-conscious groups which flourished in Judaism before AD 70.无论身份的昆兰sectaries,现在可以理解为众多纯度意识的蓬勃发展之前,这在公元70犹太教集团之一的爱色尼。

History and Influence历史及影响

Our explicit sources contain very little information of a historical nature.我们明确的来源包含极少的历史性质的资料。 The Qumran documents are full of historical allusions, but they are notoriously ambiguous.昆兰文件是历史典故,但他们是众所周知的含糊不清。Moreover, the history of the Qumran community may not accurately reflect the history of Essenism as a whole.此外,历史上的昆兰社区可能无法准确反映的Essenism作为一个整体的历史。By using a combination of sources, however, scholars have developed the following tentative outline of Essene history.通过使用各种来源的组合,但是,学者们开发出了以下初步提纲厄色尼的历史。The Essenes seem to have arisen after the Maccabean revolt (ca. 167-160 BC).爱色尼似乎后Maccabean起义(约公元167-160年)产生。Sometime between 152 and 110 BC at least some of the Essenes, perhaps only the leaders, retreated to Qumran, on the shores of the Dead Sea.有时152和公元前110年之间至少有一些爱色尼也许只有领导人,撤退到昆兰,对死海岸边。 There they stayed until the Parthian invasion of 40 BC or the earthquake of 31 BC forced them to leave.他们在那里,直到公元前40帕提亚入侵或逗留了31个地震公元前迫使他们离开。At that time they settled in the regions around Jerusalem.当时,他们定居在耶路撒冷周围地区。Soon after Herod the Great's death (4 BC) at least some of the Essenes returned to Qumran.不久之后的大希律王死后(4年)至少有一些人回国后昆兰爱色尼。Some seventy years later Essenes were involved in the revolt against the Romans.一些70年后,爱色尼人参与了反对罗马人的反抗。 The survival and persistence of the Essenes as a separate group after AD 70 is still debated.的生存和作为一个单独的组持久的essenes公元70后仍是辩论。Many scholars have found traces of Essenism within such later sects as the Ebionites, the Mandaeans, and the Karaites.许多学者发现踪迹的Essenism内的以便尼派的曼德安,以及后来的卡拉等教派。

Also still undecided is the importance and influence of Essenism within pre-AD 70 Judaism and early Christianity.是也仍然悬而未决的重要性和影响力的Essenism内预先公元70犹太教与早期基督教。 It has often been dismissed as a peripheral Jewish sect or hailed as the very seedbed of the Christian faith.它经常被解雇作为外围犹太节或作为基督教信仰非常苗床欢呼。Both of these positions are too extreme.这些职位都过于极端。It is more likely that the Essenes were one expression of a widespread pietistic reaction to the pragmatic and tepid spirit of the official Judaism.它更可能是爱色尼人的一个普遍的虔诚的反应,官方犹太教务实和温和精神的表现。From the ranks of such a reaction the early church would have drawn heavily.从这样的反应队伍的早期教会将十分依赖。

S Taylor S泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
G. Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English; A. Dupont-Sommer, The Jewish Sect of Qumran and the Essenes; M. Burrows, the Dead Sea Scrolls; FF Bruce, Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls; WS LaSor, The Dead Sea Scrolls and the NT; R. deVaux, Archaeology and the Dead Sea Scrolls; JH Charlesworth, "The Origin and Subsequent History of the Authors of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Four Transitional Phases among the Qumran Essenes," RQum 10:213-33; CD Ginsburg, The Essenes.克Vermes,在英国死海古卷的A.杜邦,索默,对昆兰爱色尼和犹太节的M. Burrows的,死海古卷;法郎布鲁斯,对死海古卷的再思考,是LaSor时,死海古卷和NT,河deVaux,考古学和死海古卷; Jh的查尔斯沃思“的由来和死海古卷的作者后来的历史:四昆兰爱色尼之间的过渡阶段,”RQum 10:213 - 33;光盘金斯伯格,在爱色尼。

Also, see:此外,见:
(Advanced) Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes(高级) ,法利赛,撒都该人,和essenes

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