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Fasting is the practice of abstaining from food, either completely or partially, for a specified period.禁食是从食物中投弃权票的做法,或者完全或部分在规定的期限。It is an ancient practice found in most religions of the world.这是一个古老的实践中发现大多数宗教的世界。Recent scientific research suggests that fasting may be healthful and, when engaged in carefully, may bring about heightened states of consciousness and sensibility. Traditionally, fasting has been a widely used form of Asceticism and a penitential practice observed for the purpose of purifying the person or of atoning for sins and wrongdoing.最近的科学研究表明,空腹可能是健康的,并在认真从事,可能会带来意识和情感有关国家的高度。 传统,斋戒已成为广泛使用的形式,禁欲主义和悔罪的做法或观察人的目的,净化捷联惯导系统的不法行为和赎罪。

Most religions designate certain days or seasons as times of fasting for their adherents, such as Lent, Yom Kippur and Ramadan.大多数宗教都指定某些日子或为他们的追随者如封斋期,赎罪日和斋月禁食时间的季节。Certain events in the lives of individual persons have been considered appropriate times for fasting, such as the day or night before a major personal commitment.在个别人的生命的某些事件被认为是禁食,如前一天或一​​个重大的个人承诺的夜晚,适当的时间。The vigil of knighthood is a historical instance of this practice.守夜的爵位是这一实践的历史实例。Prayer is supposed to accompany fasting. Fasting should be distinguished from abstinence, the religious practice of not eating meat on a specified day or at a designated meal.祈祷是伴随空腹。 空腹应有别于禁欲,指定用餐的宗教实践上不吃肉或在指定日期。

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Fasting is the act of total or partial abstinence from food for a limited period of time, usually undertaken for moral or religious reasons.禁食是完全或部分从一个有限的时间内通常为道德或宗教原因进行,食品禁欲的行为。Religious dicta concerning fasting range from Zoroastrianism, which forbade it, to Jainism, which teaches that the believer's goal is a life of passionless detachment culminating ideally in death by voluntary starvation.宗教法官意见关于从拜火教,其中禁止它,耆那教禁食范围,这教导我们,信徒的目标是一种感情的最终饿死在自愿脱离生活理想。

Nearly all religions promote or sanction fasting in some form or another.几乎所有的宗教宣传或以某种形式的制裁或其他禁食。In primal religions it is often a means to control or appease the gods, a way to produce virility, or preparation for a ceremonial observance, such as initiation or mourning.在原始宗教往往是一种手段,控制或安抚神灵,这是一种以生产为纪念仪式,如启动或哀悼,男子气概,或准备。The fast was used by the ancient Greeks when consulting oracles, by the American Indians to acquire their private totem, and by African shamans to make contact with spirits.快速使用的是古希腊人咨询神谕时由美国印第安人,掌握他们的私人图腾,使非洲巫师与精​​神联系。Many Eastern religions use it to gain clarity of vision and mystical insight.许多东方宗教用它来获得洞察力的远见和神秘的清晰度。 Judaism, several branches of Christianity, and Islam all have fixed fast days, and usually associate fasting with the discipline of the flesh or with repentance for sin.犹太教,基督教几个分支,和伊斯兰教都有固定的快速天,通常联想到纪律的肉或为罪悔改禁食。Islam undertakes the annual fast of Ramadan, an entire month when Muslims are obliged to abstain from all food and water from sunrise to sunset.伊斯兰教斋月承担,整个月份的穆斯林必须从所有食物和水从日出到日落弃权年度快。

In Judaism the day of atonement is the only public fast day prescribed by the law (Lev. 16:29, 31; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11).在犹太教赎罪日是唯一的公共快一天由法律规定(利未记16:29,31; 23:26-32;数量29:7-11。)。However, the OT also refers to many special public and private fasts, usually coupled with prayer, to signify mourning (1 Sam. 31:13; 11 Sam. 1:12), to show repentance and remorse (11 Sam. 12:15-23; 1 Kings 21:27-29; Neh. 9:1-2; Joel 2:12-13), or to demonstrate serious concern before God (11 Chr. 20:1-4; Pss. 35:13; 69:10; 109:24; Dan. 9:3).然而,催产素还提到了许多特殊的公共和私人斋戒,通常与祈祷相结合,以示哀悼(1萨姆31:13。。11三1:12),以示忏悔和反省(11山姆12:15。 -23 1国王21:27-29;尼9:1-2。乔尔2:12-13),或表现出严重关切上帝面前(11染色体20:1-4;。诗篇35:13。 69:10; 109:24;丹9:3)。。However, fasting that was not accompanied by genuine repentance and righteous deeds was denounced as an empty legal observance by the prophets (Isa. 58; Jer. 14:11-12).然而,空腹不是由真正的忏悔和行善的陪同下被指责为一个空遵守法律的先知(以赛亚书58;耶14:11-12。)。

Jesus himself apparently fasted during his so, called wilderness experience as a part of the preparation for his formal ministry (Matt. 4:1-2; Luke 4:1-2).耶稣自己似乎在他禁食的话,作为他的正式部准备工作的一部分称为荒野的经验(太4:1-2;路加福音4:1-2)。 However, the Gospels report that he spoke only twice about fasting, once to warn his disciples that it was to be a private act of simple devotion to God and once to indicate that it would be appropriate for his followers to fast after he left them (Matt. 6:16-18; 9:14-15; cf. Mark 2:18-20; Luke 5:33-35).然而,福音报告,他只说约禁食两次,一次警告他的弟子,这将是一个简单的私人行为奉献给上帝,一旦表示,这将是他的追随者适当快后,他离开他们(马特6:16-18。9:14-15;比照马克2:18-20;。路加福音5:33-35)。 It is clear that he did not stress fasting, nor did he lay down any rules concerning its observance as had John the Baptist and the Pharisees for their disciples.很显然,他没有强调禁食,也没有订定任何有关其遵守规则,正如在施洗约翰的门徒和法利赛人。

The early Christian community did not emphasize fasting but observed it in connection with certain occasions of solemn commitment (Acts 13:2-3; 14:23).早期基督教社会不强调禁食,但观察与庄严承诺(使徒13:2-3; 14:23)某些场合连接​​它。Moreover, Jewish Christians apparently followed the Jewish custom of fasting and prayer on Mondays and Thursdays until around the end of the first century when Wednesdays and Fridays were observed, probably in reaction against the Judaizers.此外,犹太基督徒显然其次,直到大约在一世纪时,每周三,五,观察可能在反对犹太化反应,结束了斋戒和祈祷在星期一和星期四犹太习俗。 However, such fasts were usually concluded by midafternoon and were not universally enforced.然而,这种斋戒通常最后午后,并没有普遍执行。Also, from the second century on, two intensive fast days were observed in preparation for Easter.此外,从第二世纪,两个密集的快速天,观察在复活节做准备。

In the fourth century, when Christianity finally became the only recognized faith of the Roman Empire, the consequent institutionalization of the church led to a much greater stress on form, ritual, and liturgy.在第四世纪时,基督教终于成为罗马帝国的衰亡,导致了形体,礼仪,礼仪和更大的压力随之而来的制度化,教会只承认信仰。 Fasting thus became increasingly linked with a legalistic theology and the concept of meritorious works.空腹从而成为越来越多地与一个墨守成规的神学和有功工程概念联系在一起的。For example, the early church's two-day fast before Easter came, in the fourth century, to be a Lenten observance of forty fast days, which by the tenth century was obligatory upon the entire Western church.例如,早期教会的为期两天的复活节前快出来,在第四世纪,是一个四十快速天四旬期遵守,这是由第十届世纪对整个西方教会的义务。 In addition, fasting was a common element of discipline in the early monastic communities from the second century onward.此外,空腹是一个自律,早期寺院的社区共同的元素,从第二世纪前进。When the monastic way replaced martyrdom as the highest act of devotion of the Christian life in the fourth century, monastic practices such as fasting were also elevated in the eyes of the faithful.当寺院的方式取代了的基督徒生活奉献的最高法令,在第四世纪殉难,如禁食寺院的做法也是信徒们的眼睛升高。

The church of Rome added a number of fast days to the calendar of the Christian year during the Middle Ages.罗马教会说的快天数的基督教在中世纪年日历。It adopted the days of the chief agricultural operations in Italy as obligatory fasts called ember days: the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday following the first Sunday in Lent; Pentecost; and September 14.它通过在意大利主要农业经营斋戒的日子作为强制性要求余烬天:周三,周五,周六后,在四旬期的第一个星期日,圣灵降临节,以及9月14日。 A fourth season of fasting from December 13 to Christmas was added later.阿空腹从12月13日圣诞节的第四个赛季是后来补拍。 Also during the Middle Ages the Eastern Orthodox Church added obligatory fast days beginning November 15 during Advent, from Trinity Sunday until June 29, and the two weeks prior to August 15.另外,在中世纪东正教教会说,直到6月29日开始强制快速天,从11月15日在临三位一体周日,和两个星期前8月15日。

The Protestant Reformers of the sixteenth century, with the exception of the Anglicans, rejected obligatory fast days along with much of the other prescribed ritual and formal religious acts of the Roman Church.新教改革者的16世纪,随着英国圣公会教徒异常,拒绝随着罗马教会大部分的其他规定的仪式和正式的宗教行为的强制性斋戒日。 The Anabaptists, more than any other reform group of the period, relegated fasting once more to the private sphere, leaving it up to the individual believer to determine its appropriateness for enhancing self-discipline and prayer.再洗礼派,比任何时期的其他改革小组降级,空腹再次向私人领域,留下它的个别的信徒,以确定其加强自律和祈祷更合适。

The Roman Catholic Church maintained its church calendar of fast days until the twentieth century, when it was modified by several acts related to Vatican Council II.罗马天主教会一直维持到二十世纪,当它被有关梵蒂冈理事会第二多项行为的斋戒日修改了其教会年历。Moreover, the modern Catholic approach has been to link fasting to the call to love one's neighbor and to see it as a symbol of the Christian's identification with the poor and hungry of the world.此外,现代天主教的方针,是连结禁食的号召,爱自己的邻居,并相信这是基督教与世界的贫困和饥饿的识别象征。In some Christian circles, Catholic and non-Catholic, evangelical and nonevangelical, there is the growing custom of meeting for a simple repast and giving the cost of the normal meal to relieve world hunger as a kind of modern-day version of fasting.在一些基督教界,天主教和非天主教徒,福音派和nonevangelical,有一个简单的会议就餐,并给予正常膳食费用,以减轻作为一个现代版的那种世界饥饿空腹增长的习俗。 Twentieth century Pentecostal charismatics have written extensively about the benefits of the fast, nearly always linking it with prayer, as a means to deepen spiritual life and/or to obtain God's favor.二十世纪五旬节灵恩已经写了大量关于该快的优势,几乎始终连接它与祈祷,为手段,以深化精神生活和/或获得上帝的青睐。 Some charismatic leaders even claim that the course of history can be shaped by prayer and fasting.有些魅力的领导人甚至宣称,历史过程中可以通过祈祷和禁食形。

As with any religious practice, there are dangers in fasting, especially when emphasized at the expense of other biblical teachings or misused for selfish ends.与任何宗教习俗,有禁食的危险,特别是当强调,在其他圣经教义开支或自私目的滥用。The Bible notes such abuses as fasting as a means of getting things from God, as a substitute for genuine repentance, as a mere convention and therefore an end in itself, and as an occasion for outward religiosity (Isa. 58; Zech. 7:5; Matt. 6:16).圣经注释一样,让他们知道神的意思是指空腹等弊端,​​作为一个真正悔改的替代品,仅仅是一个约定,因此,本身就是一个目标,并作为对外的宗教场合(以赛亚书58;撒加利亚7。: 5;马特6:16)。。Moreover, there is psychological evidence that fasting lends itself to self-induced visions which sometimes prove harmful.此外,还有心理上的证据表明,空腹适合于自我引发的看法有时证明是有害的。 On the other hand, there is biblical evidence that fasting and prayer practiced together can be a useful part of individual and congregational life, though the practice should never be allowed to degenerate into an empty formal observance or a device for attempting to manipulate God.另一方面,有证据表明,圣经的禁食和祈祷一起练可以是个人和公理的生活有用的部分,虽然这种做法绝不应允许进入一空正式纪念活动或设备退化企图操纵上帝。

RD Linder林德路
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
H. Franke, Lent and Easter; A. Wallis, God's Chosen Fast; JL Beall, The Adventure of Fasting; D. Prince, Shaping History Through Prayer and Fasting; EN Rogers, Fasting: The Phenomenon of Self-Denial; A. Cott et al., Fasting: A Way of Life; AM Fulton, ed., The Fasting Primer; D. Dewelt, What the Bible Says about Prayer and Fasting.阁下弗兰克,四旬期和复活的A.瓦利斯,上帝的选民快,巨浪比尔,在空腹的冒险;四王子,塑造历史通过祈祷和禁食;恩罗杰斯,空腹:自我否定现象的A.科特等,空腹:一种生活方式;上午富尔顿,教育署,空腹底漆;四Dewelt,什么圣经关于祈祷和禁食说。。。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day of Atonement (qv), Lev.快速的唯一靠摩西的法律规定是,伟大的赎罪日(​​请参阅),列弗。23:26-32.23:26-32。It is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9).这是所谓的“快速”(徒27:9)。The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zech.唯一的其他期刊快速提及在旧约中撒加利亚。7:1-7; 8:19, from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts.7:1-7; 8:19,从它出现,他们在被囚禁的犹太人观察四个年度斋戒。(1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, the anniversary of the capture of Jerusalem by the Chaldeans; to commemorate also the incident recorded Ex. (1。)快速四月初,在塔木兹,对耶路撒冷的迦勒底人捕获周年的第十七天保管;为了纪念这一事件也记录前。32:19.32:19。(Comp. Jer. 52:6, 7.) (2.) The fast of the fifth month, kept on the ninth of Ab (comp. Num. 14:27), to commemorate the burning of the city and temple (Jer. 52:12, 13). (comp.哲。52:6,7。)(2。)的第五个快捷,保存的抗体九届(可比序号。14:27),以纪念燃烧的城市和寺庙(耶。52:12,13)。 (3.) The fast of the seventh month, kept on the third of Tisri (comp. 2 Kings 25), the anniversary of the murder of Gedaliah (Jer. 41:1, 2). (3。)快速的7个月,对Tisri第三(可比2国王25)保持,该基大利(耶41:1,2)谋杀周年。(4.) The fast of the tenth month (comp. Jer. 52:4; Ezek. 33:21; 2 Kings 25:1), to commemorate the beginning of the siege of the holy city by Nebuchadnezzar.(4。)第十次月快(。以西结书33:21;。comp.哲52:4 2国王25:1),以纪念圣城的尼布甲尼撒围攻的开始。There was in addition to these the fast appointed by Esther (4:16).有除了这些由埃斯特(4:16)委任快。

Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate divine favour were sometimes held.有关帐户罪或恳求神恩公共国家斋戒有时举行。(1.) 1 Sam.(1。)1萨姆。 7:6; (2.) 2 Chr. 7:6;。(2)2染色体。20:3; (3.) Jer.20:3;(3。)哲。36:6-10; (4.) Neh. 36:6-10;(4。)尼。9:1. 9:1​​。There were also local fasts.也有当地的斋戒。(1.) Judg.(1)。Judg。 20:26; (2.) 2 Sam. 20:26;。(2)2萨姆。1:12; (3.) 1 Sam.1:12;(。3)1萨姆。31:13; (4.) 1 Kings 21:9-12; (5.) Ezra 8:21-23: (6.) Jonah 3:5-9. 31:13(4。)1国王21:9-12;(5)。以斯拉8:21-23:约拿3:5-9(6。)。There are many instances of private occasional fasting (1 Sam. 1:7: 20:34; 2 Sam. 3:35; 12:16; 1 Kings 21:27; Ezra 10:6; Neh. 1:4; Dan. 10:2,3).有许多情况下,私人偶尔空腹(1萨姆1点07分:。。20时34分; 2萨姆3点35分,12点16 1国王21时27分;以斯拉10点06;尼1:4;丹。。 10:2,3)。Moses fasted forty days (Ex. 24:18; 34:28), and so also did Elijah (1 Kings 19:8).摩西禁食四十天(出24:18,34:28),所以也没有以利亚(列王记19点08分)。Our Lord fasted forty days in the wilderness (Matt. 4:2).我们的主在旷野禁食(太4:2)四十天。In the lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably abused (Isa. 58:4; Jer. 14:12; Zech. 7:5).在时间的推移禁食的做法是可悲滥用(以赛亚书58:4,耶14:12;。撒加利亚7:5。)。Our Lord rebuked the Pharisees for their hypocritical pretences in fasting (Matt. 6:16).我们的主斥责禁食(太6:16)为他们的虚伪借口法利。He himself appointed no fast.他本人没有委任快。The early Christians, however, observed the ordinary fasts according to the law of their fathers (Acts 13:3; 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:5).早期的基督徒,不过,观察普通斋戒根据法律,他们的父亲(使徒13时03; 14时23分,2肺心病6时05分。)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

Just as there are times for feasting in the Church, there are also times for fasting.正如有教会在灯红酒绿的时候,也有禁食倍。 Jesus Christ Himself often fasted and insisted that the people fast as well (See Matt. 4:2, Matt. 6:16-18, Mk. 9:14-29, Acts 14:23).耶稣基督自己常常禁食,并坚持认为,人快以及(见马特。4:2,马特。6:16-18,马可福音。9:14-29,徒14:23)。

The Orthodox Church, regarding man as a unity of soul and body, has always insisted that the body must be trained and disciplined as well as the soul.东正教教堂,就作为一个统一的灵魂和身体的人,一直坚持,该机构必须经过培训和纪律,以及为灵魂。"Fasting and self-control are the first virtue, the mother, the root, source, and foundation of all good." “禁食和自我控制是第一美德,母亲,根,源,和所有良好的基础。”

Fasting is not a set of dietary laws or legalistic requirements.禁食是不是一个法律或法律性的饮食要求。 Rather, fasting accompanied by prayer, is a spiritual aid which disciplines the body and soul and enables them to strive together to bring the whole person closer to God, especially during the preparation periods of the great feast days of the Church.相反,禁食祈祷的陪同下,这是一种精神上的援助学科的身体和灵魂,使他们能够一起努力,使整个人更接近上帝,尤其是在教会的伟大节日的准备期。

The following are fast days and seasons:以下是快速天,季节:

The following are fast days on which fish is allowed:以下为其中鱼是不允许斋戒日:

The following days are completely fast-free:在接下来的几天是完全快速免费电话:


Catholic Information天主教新闻

In general abstinence from food or drink, a term common to the various Teutonic tongues.从食物或饮料,长期共同的各种日尔曼舌头一般禁欲。Some derive the word from a root whose primary signification means to hold, to keep, to observe or to restrain one's self.有些推算其根,其主要含义指持有,保持,字观察或限制一个人的自我。The Latin term jejunium denotes an animal intestine which is always empty.拉美来说是指动物的肠道jejunium,始终是空的。 Such abstinence varies according to the measure of restriction circumscribing the use of food and drink.这种禁欲根据不同的限制措施circumscribing的食物和饮料。Hence it may denote abstinence from all kinds of food and drink for a given period.因此,它可能是指由一个特定时期内所有的食品和饮料种类禁欲。Such is the nature of the fast prescribed by the Church before Holy Communion (natural fast).这就是由教会规定的前圣餐(自然快)的快速性。It may also mean such abstinence from food and drink as is dictated by the bodily or mental dispositions peculiar to each individual, and is then known as moral or philosophical fast.这可能也意味着从食物和由身体或精神上的每一个人特有的性格决定的喝这种禁欲,然后作为道德或哲学的快速而闻名。In like manner the term comprehends penitential practices common to various religious communities in the Church.同样地,长期领会,通用于各种宗教教会社区悔罪做法。Finally, in the strict acceptation of the term, fasting denotes abstinence from food, and as such is an act of temperance finding its raison d'être in the dictates of natural law and its full perfection in the requirements of positive ecclesiastical legislation.最后,是在严格验收的任期,空腹是指从食品禁欲,并作为这样一个发现其存在的理由禁酒法的自然法及其在积极教会法规的要求全面完善的支配。

In Christian antiquity the Eustathians (Sozomen, Hist. Eccl. II, 33) denied the obligation, for the more perfect Christians, of the Church fasts; they were condemned (380) by the Synod of Gangra (can. xiv) which also asserted incidentally the traditional antiquity of the ecclesiastical fasts (Hefele-Leclercq, Hist. des Conciles. French tr. Paris, 1908, 1, p. 1041).在基督教古代Eustathians(。。Sozomen,历史传道书二,33岁)否认了义务,为更完美的基督徒,教会斋戒;他们谴责了Gangra主教(can.十四),其中还声称(380)顺便说一下,传统的教会斋戒古代(黑弗勒,勒克莱尔,历史。德Conciles。法国风帆。巴黎,1908年,一,页1041)。 Contrary to the groundless assertions of these sectaries, moralists are one in maintaining that a natural law inculcates the necessity of fasting because every rational creature is bound to labour intelligently for the subjugation of concupiscence.相反,这些无端的sectaries断言,在维护道德是一个自然法则灌输的斋戒,因为每一个理性的动物,势必劳动征服的concupiscence智能的必要性之一。 As a consequence, rational creatures are logically obliged to adopt means commensurate with the attainment of this end (see MORTIFICATION).因此,在逻辑上是理性的动物必须采取的手段与本月底(见屈辱)达到相称。Amongst the means naturally subserving this purpose fasting lays claim to a place of primary importance.当中的手段自然subserving为此禁食号称拥有一个头等重要的位置。The function of positive law is to intervene in designating days whereon this obligation must be observed, as well as the manner in which the same obligation is to be discharged on days authoritatively appointed.在实在法的功能是在指定天耸立干预这一义务必须遵守,以及以何种方式在同样的义务,以对权威性委任天出院。

What pertains to the origin as well as to the historical development of this obligation in the Church may be gleaned easily from the articles on ABSTINENCE and BLACK FAST.什么涉及到的原产地,以及对这一义务在教会的历史发展可能是很容易收集从禁欲和黑快的文章。The law of fasting, ecclesiastical in its genius, is unwritten in its origin, and consequently must be understood and applied with due regard for the customs of various times and places.在空腹,在其天才的教会法,在其原产地是不成文的,因此必须理解和与不同的时间和地点的海关充分考虑应用。See the corresponding historico-archaeological articles in the various modern dictionaries and encyclopedias of Christian Archaeology, eg Martigny, Kraus, Smith and Cheetham, Cabrol and Leclercq.看到一个个现代化的字典和百科全书的基督教考古学,如马蒂尼,克劳斯,史密斯和奇塔姆,Cabrol和勒克莱尔相应的历史一,考古文章。 Details will be found under ADVENT; LENT; VIGIL; EMBER DAYS.详情将于下找到的到来;四旬期;守夜;恩伯天。

In the United States of America all the days of Lent; the Fridays of Advent (generally); the Ember Days; the vigils of Christmas and Pentecost, as well as those (14 Aug.) of the Assumption; (31 Oct.) of All Saints, are now fasting days.在美国所有的大斋天将临星期五(一般);的余烬天;圣诞节和圣灵降临节守夜,以及那些(8月14日)的假设;(10月31日)的诸圣,现在禁食两天。 In Great Britain, Ireland, Australia and Canada, the days just indicated, together with the Wednesdays of Advent and (28 June) the vigil of Saints Peter and Paul, are fasting days.在英国,爱尔兰,澳大利亚和加拿大的日子刚刚表示,连同降临周三和(28日)的圣徒彼得和保罗守夜,是空腹天。Fasting essentially consists in eating but one full meal in twenty-four hours and that about midday.空腹吃,但基本上是由一个在二十四小时全餐,约中午了。It also implies the obligation of abstaining from flesh meat during the same period, unless legitimate authority grants permission to eat meat.这也意味着从弃权肉肉类在同一期间内的义务,除非合法权力授予权限吃肉。 The quantity of food allowed at this meal has never been made the subject of positive legislation.在这一餐的食物数量允许从未作出了积极的立法问题。Whosoever therefore eats a hearty or sumptuous meal in order to bear the burden of fasting satisfies the obligation of fasting.因此,凡吃一顿丰盛的或打牙祭,以承受的负担,满足了空腹禁食义务。Any excess during the meal mitigates against the virtue of temperance, without jeopardizing the obligation of fasting.用餐过程中的任何多余的缓解反对节制的美德,同时又不损害的义务空腹。

According to general usage, noon is the proper time for this meal.按照一般的使用情况,中午是这一餐适当的时候。For good reasons this hour may be legitimately anticipated.这个时候有充分理由可以合法预期。Grievous sin is not committed even though this meal is taken a full hour before noon without sufficient reason, because the substance of fasting, which consists in taking but one full meal a day, is not imperiled.罪孽不承诺即使这餐是采取了中午之前没有足够的理由充分小时,因为物质的禁食,在服用,但一个完整的一天只吃一顿饭,不危及组成。 In like manner, the hour for the midday meal and the collation, may for good reasons be conscientiously inverted.在这样的方式,为中午吃饭和整理时,可有充分理由得到切实倒置。In many of our larger cities this practice now prevails.在我们的许多大城市现在流行这种做法。According to D'Annibale (Summa Theologiae Moralis, 4 ed. III, 134) and Noldin (Summa Theologiae Moralis, n. 674) good reasons justify one in taking a collation in the morning, dinner at noon, and the morning allowance in the evening, because the substance of fasting still remains intact.据德Annibale(总结Theologiae莫拉利斯,四版。三,134)和诺尔丁(总结Theologiae莫拉利斯,注674)充分理由证明在采取中午在早上整理,晚餐之一,在上午津贴晚上,因为空腹还是物质仍然完好无损。 Nothing like a noteworthy interruption should he admitted during the course of the midday meal, because such a break virtually forms two meals instead of one.值得注意的中断,没有像他承认应该在中午吃饭的过程中,因为这样的突破几乎形成两个而不是一个餐。Common sense, taking into consideration individual intention and the duration of the interruption, must finally determine whether a given interruption is noteworthy or not.常识,考虑到个人的意图和采取的停电持续时间,必须最终确定是否给予或不中断是值得注意的。Ordinarily an interruption of one half hour is considered slight.通常一个半小时的中断,被认为是轻微的。Nevertheless, an individual, after having commenced the midday meal and meeting with a bonafide interruption lasting for an hour or more is fully justified in resuming and finishing the meal after the termination of an interruption.然而,一个人,开始后的午餐与bonafide一个小时或更持久的中断和会议是完全恢复和整理后的一餐理由中断终止。 Finally, unless special reasons suggest the contrary, it is not allowed to give immoderate length to the time of this meal.最后,除非特殊原因建议相反,它是不允许给予过高的长度,这个吃饭的时间。Ordinarily, a duration of more than two hours is considered immoderate in this matter.通常,一个两个多小时的时间被认为在这个问题上无节制。

Besides a complete meal, the Church now permits a collation usually taken in the evening.除了全餐,教会现在允许通常在晚上采取了整理。In considering this point proper allowance must be made for what custom has introduced regarding both the quantity and the quality of viands allowed at this repast.在考虑这一点,必须作出适当的津贴什么习俗已推出的数量方面,以及在此就餐可以viands质量。In the first place, about eight ounces of food are permitted at the collation even though this amount of food would fully satisfy the appetites of some persons.摆在首位,约8盎司的食物被允许在整理,即使这种食物量将完全满足某些人的胃口。Moreover, the attention must be paid to each person's temperament, duties, length of fast, etc. Hence, much more food is allowed in cold than in warm climates, more to those working during the day than to those at ease, more to the weak and hungry than to the strong and well fed.此外,必须注意每个人的气质,职责,快速长度等,因此,更多的食物是不允许的,除了在寒冷在温暖的气候,白天工作的人更多,而不是那些安心,更重要的弱到强,比喂饥饿和福祉。 As a general rule whatever is deemed necessary in order to enable people to give proper attention to their duties may be taken at the collation.无论作为一般规则被认为是必要的,以便使人们充分重视其可能在整理采取的职责。 Moreover, since custom first introduced the collation, the usage of each country must be considered in determining the quality of viands permitted thereat.此外,由于首先介绍了自定义排序规则,每个国家必须考虑使用在确定该处viands允许的质量。In some places eggs, milk, butter, cheese and fish are prohibited, while bread, cake, fruit, herbs and vegetables are allowed.在一些地方,鸡蛋,牛奶,黄油,奶酪和鱼被禁止,而面包,蛋糕,水果,药材和蔬菜是允许的。In other places, milk, eggs, cheese, butter and fish are permitted, owing either to custom or to Indult.在其他地方,牛奶,鸡蛋,奶酪,黄油和鱼类是允许的,因为无论是自订或Indult。This is the case in the United States.这是美国的情况。However, in order to form judgments perfectly safe concerning this point, the Lenten regulations of each diocese should be carefully read.然而,以形成判决关于这一点绝对安全,各教区的四旬期规定应仔细阅读。Finally, a little tea, coffee, chocolate or such like beverage together with a morsel of bread or a cracker is now allowed in the morning.最后,一​​个小茶,咖啡,巧克力或类似饮料用的一口面包或饼干一起现在允许在上午。Strictly speaking, whatever may be classified under the head of liquids may be taken as drink or medicine at any time of the day or night on fasting days.严格来说,不论是在头部的液体分类可作为饮料或药品在一天中的任何或禁食两天晚上的时间。Hence, water, lemonade, soda, water, ginger ale, wine, beer and similar drinks may be taken on fasting days outside meal time even though such beverages may, to some extent, prove nutritious.因此,水,柠檬水,苏打水,姜汁啤酒,葡萄酒,啤酒和饮料可能会在类似吃饭的时间禁食两天外,尽管这种饮料可能在一定程度上证明采取营养。 Coffee, tea, diluted chocolate, electuaries made of sugar, juniper berries, and citron may be taken on fasting days, outside meal time, as medicine by those who find them conducive to health.咖啡,茶,巧克力稀释,electuaries制成的糖,杜松浆果,柚子可采取空腹天吃饭的时间以外的药品,这些谁找到他们有利于健康。 Honey, milk, soup, broth, oil or anything else having the nature of food, is not allowed under either of the two categories already specified.蜂蜜,牛奶,汤,肉汤,石油或其他任何有食物的性质,是不容许已经指定的任何两类。It is impossible to decide mathematically how much food is necessary to involve a serious violation of this law.这是不可能的决定数学多少粮食,要涉及本法规定的严重违反。Moralists as well as canonists concur in holding that an excess of four ounces would seriously militate against the obligation of fasting, whether that much food was consumed at once or at various intervals during the day because Alexander VII (18 March, 1666) condemned the teaching of those who claimed that food so taken was not to be regarded as equalling or exceeding the amount allowed (Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum et Definitionum, tenth ed. Freiburg im Br., 1908, No. 1129).道德以及canonists同意举办的一个四盎司过量会严重妨碍对义务的禁食,在一次或在不同的时间间隔是否被消耗的食物中的一天,因为亚历山大七世(1666年3月18日)谴责教学这些谁声称所以采取的是不被视为等于或超过允许的金额视为食物(登青格,便览Symbolorum等Definitionum,第十版。弗赖堡的IM溴。,1908年,第1129)。

Though Benedict XIV (Constitutions, Non Ambiginius, 31 May, 1741; in superna, 22 Aug. 1741) granted permission to eat meat on fasting days, he distinctly prohibited the use of fish and flesh at the same meal on all fasting days during the year as well as on Sundays during Lent.尽管本笃十四(宪法,非Ambiginius,1741年5月31日,在superna,1741年8月22日)获准在禁食两天吃的肉,他清楚地禁止在所有禁食两天的鱼和肉用期间,在同一餐以及对今年四旬期期间星期日。 (Letter to the Archbishop of Compostella, 10 June, 1745, in Bucceroni Enchiridion Morale No. 147). (信部Compostella,1745年6月10日在Bucceroni便览士气大主教第147号)。This prohibition binds all exempted from fasting either because they are compelled to labour or because they are not twenty-one years old.这项禁令规定所有免于空腹要么因为他们是被迫劳动,或因为它们不是二十一岁。Furthermore this prohibition extends to those allowed meat on fasting days either by dispensation or by Indult.此外,这种禁令扩大到这些允许肉禁食两天无论是免除或Indult。Sin is Committed each time the prohibited action takes place.每次所犯的罪是被禁止的行为发生。The ecclesiatical law of fasting embodies a serious obligation on all baptized individuals capable of assuming obligations provided they have completed their twenty-first year and are not otherwise excused.空腹ecclesiatical的法律体现了对所有有能力承担的义务严重义务提供个人受洗,他们已经完成了第二十一届第二年,也没有其他借口。 This doctrine is merely a practical application of a universally accepted principle of moralists and canonists whereby the character of obligation in human legislation is deemed serious or light in so far as the material element, involved in the law bears or does not bear a close and intimate relation to the attainment of a prescribed end.这一学说仅仅是一个道德家和,即在人类法律义务的性质被认为是严重的或轻元素为材料圣教法典至今普遍接受的原则的实际应用,在法律上承担或参与不承担紧密和亲密关系到一个指定的最终实现。 Inasmuch as fasting considered as a function of the virtue of temperance bears such a relation to the promotion of man's spiritual well-being (see Lenten Preface in the Roman Missal), it certainly embodies an obligation generally serious.以空腹作为美德的节制功能考虑这种关系的身上承担的人的福祉(见罗马missal四旬期前言)精神的推​​广,它体现了一定的义务普遍严重。 To this a priori reason may be added what Church history unfolds concerning the grave penalties attached to transgressions of this law.为了达到这个先天的原因可能是添加什么教会的历史展开关于重视这部法律的越轨行为的严重惩罚。The sixty-ninth of the Apostolic Canons decrees the degradation of bishops, priests, deacons, lectors or chanters failing to fast during Lent, and the excommunication of laymen, who fail in this way.第六十二使徒大炮的第九法规的规定,主教,神父,执事,讲师或不调旋律四旬期期间快速下降,而外行,谁以这种方式失败逐出教会。 The fifty-sixth canon of the Trullan Synod (692) contains similar regulations.该Trullan主教第五十六届佳能(692)载有类似规定。Finally Alexander VII (24 Sept., 1665) condemned a proposition formulated in the following terms: Whoso violates the ecclesiastical law of fasting to which he is bound does not sin mortally unless he acts through contempt or disobedience (Denzinger, op. cit., no. 1123).最后亚历山大七世(1665年9月24日)谴责在以下方面制定了命题:幼时违反空腹,他是教会的法律约束的不犯罪致命的,除非他通过蔑视或不服从(登青格,同前引书的行为。。没有。1123)。 Though this obligation is generally serious, not every infraction of the law is mortally sinful.虽然这通常是严重的义务,不是每个违法性是致命的罪过。Whenever transgressions of the law fail to do substantial violence to the law, venial sins are committed.每当越轨的法律没有做大量的暴力行为的法律,venial罪孽承诺。Inability to keep the law of fasting and incompatibility of fasting with the duties of one's state in life suffice by their very nature, to extinguish the obligation because as often as the obligation of positive laws proves extremely burdensome or irksome the obligation is forthwith lifted.无法保持空腹和空腹与生活中的一个人的国家义务就其性质而言是不够的,灭火的义务,因为经常作为积极的法律义务不相容的法律证明极其令人厌烦的负担或义务是立即解除。 Hence, the sick, the infirm, convalescents, delicate women, persons sixty years old and over, families whose members cannot have the necessaries for a full meal at the same time, or who have nothing but bread, vegetables or such like viands, those to whom fasting brings loss of sleep or severe headaches, wives whose fasting incurs their husband's indignation, children whose fasting arouses parent's wrath; in a word, all those who can not comply with the obligation of fasting without undergoing more than ordinary hardship are excused on account of their inability to fulfil the obligation.因此,病人,体弱者,疗养,微妙的妇女,人数六十多岁以上,家庭的成员不能在同一时间全餐的必需品,或谁没有什么,但面包,蔬菜或类似viands,那些向谁禁食带来的睡眠或严重的头痛,妻子的空腹招致其丈夫的愤慨,儿童的空腹引起家长的愤怒损失;总之,所有这些谁不能与空腹义务遵守不接受比普通困难的借口上考虑到他们无法履行义务。 In like manner unusual fatigue or bodily weakness experienced in discharging one duty and superinduced by fasting lifts the obligation of fasting.在喜欢的方式不同寻常的疲劳或身体虚弱经验在履行一个责任和空腹升降机的义务空腹superinduced。However, not every sort of labour, but only such as is hard and protracted excuses from the obligation of fasting.然而,并不是每样的劳动,但只有这样的是从义务空腹艰苦而漫长的借口。These two conditions are not confined to manual labour, but may be equally verified with regard to brain work.这两个条件并不局限于体力劳动,但可能会同样对于大脑的工作验证。Hence bookkeepers, stenographers, telegraph operators, legal advisers and many others whose occupations are largely mental are entitled to exemption on this score, quite as well as day-labourers or tradesmen.因此,簿记员,速记员,电报员,法律顾问和他的职业主要是心理有资格在这一点上许多人的豁免,相当以及日常劳动者或商人。 When these causes begetting exemption by their very nature, do not exist, lawfully constituted superiors may dispense their subjects from the obligation of fasting.当这些原因begetting豁免就其性质,根本不存在,构成上级依法可免除从他们的臣民义务空腹。

Accordingly the Sovereign Pontiff may always and everywhere grant valid dispensations from this obligation.因此,主权教宗总是可以和世界各地从这一义务授予特许有效。His dispensations will be licit when sufficient reasons underlie the grant.他的特许合法时,将充分理由依据的赠款。In particular cases and for good reasons, bishops may grant dispensations in their respective dioceses.在特殊情况下和有充分理由,主教可授予特许在各自的教区。Unless empowered by Indult they are not at liberty to dispense all their subjects simultaneously.除非他们通过Indult授权不能随意免除其所有科目同时进行。It is to be noted that usually bishops issue just before Lent circulars or pastorals, which are read to the faithful or otherwise made public, and in which they make known, on the authority of the Apostolic See, the actual status of obligahon, dispensations, etc. Priests charged with the care of souls may dispense individuals for good reason.这是必须指出,通常就在主教四旬期通告或田园诗,这是阅读的忠实或以其他方式公开,并在他们使已知对使徒见,对obligahon,特许实际的权威地位,发行,等牧师担负着照顾灵魂可免除个人有很好的理由。 Superiors of religious communities may dispense individual members of their respective communities provided sufficient reasons exist.宗教团体上级可免除其各自社区个别成员提供足够的理由存在。Confessors are not qualified to grant these dispensations unless they have been explicitly delegated thereunto.坦白是没有资格给予这些特许,除非他们已经明确下放定的。They may, however, decide whether sufficient reason exists to lift the obligation.他们可能,但是,决定是否有足够的理由存在,解除义务。

Those who have permission from the Holy See to eat meat on prohibited days, may avail themselves of this concession at their full meal, not only on days of abstinence but also on fasting days.这些谁已经从圣许可不得见天,吃的肉,都可以利用这项优惠在他们自己吃得过饱,不仅对禁欲天,但也禁食两天。When age, infirmity or labour releases Christians from fasting, they are at liberty to to eat meat as often as they are justified in taking food, provided the use of meat is allowed by a general indult of their bishop (Sacred Penitentiaria, 16 Jan., 1834).当年龄,体弱或劳动释放基督徒禁食,他们在自由吃肉是因为他们经常在进食理由,只要使用的肉类是由他们的主教一般indult(神圣Penitentiaria,1月16日获准,1834)。 Finally, the Holy See has repeatedly declared that the use of lard allowed by Indult comprehends butter or the fat of any animal.最后,罗马教廷一再宣称,由Indult允许使用领会猪油牛油或任何动物脂肪。

No student of ecclesiatical discipline can fail to perceive that the obligation of fasting is rarely observed in its integrity nowadays.没有ecclesiatical纪律的学生可能无法觉察到的义务空腹很少观察到如今在其完整性。Conscious of the conditions of our age, the Church is ever shaping the requirements of this obligation to meet the best interests of her children.我们时代的条件意识到,教会是以往任何时候都塑造这一义务的要求,满足她的孩子的最佳利益。At the same time no measure of leniency in this respect can eliminate the natural and divine positive law imposing mortification and penance on man on account of sin and its consequences.在同一时间没有在这方面从宽处理措施可以消除自然和神圣的积极的法律强加给男人的罪恶及其后果帐户屈辱和忏悔。 (Council of Trent, Sess. VI. can. xx)(理事会的遄达,sess。六。能。二十)

Publication information Written by JD O'Neill.出版信息撰稿第纳尔奥尼尔。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全书,体积诉公布1909年。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909.Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约

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