Hasidism or ḤasidismHasidism

General Information一般资料

Hasidism is a pietistic movement within Judaism that was founded by the Baal Shem Tov in the 18th century.Hasidism是一个虔诚的犹太教运动,是由巴尔闪Tov始建于18世纪。It began in the Carpathian border provinces of Walachia, Podolia, and Volhynia, among persecuted lower class Jews who resented the domination of Jewish community life by an elite of the wealthy and the learned and were disappointed following the collapse of the hopes raised by Sabbatian messianism, a movement founded by Sabbatai Zevi.它开始在瓦拉几亚,波多利亚和沃里尼亚喀尔巴阡边境省份,其中受迫害的犹太人谁不满低下阶层由一个富有的犹太精英统治和社区生活的经验教训和失望之后,崩溃的希望通过Sabbatian弥赛亚提出,运动创立的萨瓦塔伊赛维。 Inspired in part by comparable pietistic movements in both Eastern and Western European Christianity, Hasidism stressed the superiority of religious enthusiasm and devotion over study and intellectualism.在中东欧和西欧都比较虔诚的基督教运动的鼓舞,Hasidism强调了宗教热情和献身精神在学习和理智的优越性。 The Jewish masses found this message heartening, and the movement quickly spread through the depressed rural areas.犹太人的群众发现了这个消息令人振奋,以及运动迅速通过农村贫困地区的蔓延。

The Baal Shem Tov taught largely through parables that stressed humility and purity of heart.巴力闪Tov教主要是通过寓言,强调谦卑和纯洁的心。His immediate successor, Dov Baer of Mezhirich, began systematizing the doctrinal implications of these parables in light of the kabbalistic doctrines of Isaac Luria.他的直接继承人,多弗的Mezhirich贝尔,开始在系统化的艾萨克卢里亚卡巴拉教义根据这些比喻的教义的影响。Later, divisions appeared in the movement, and leadership became vested in dynastic families, the heads of which were known as tzaddikim ("righteous ones").后来,师出现在运动,并领导成为王朝的家庭归属,其分别为tzaddikim已知(“正义者”)负责人。These groups, which still persist, differ in the degree to which they combine an intellectual emphasis with their emotional pietism; they agree, however, in their opposition to the forces of reform and secularization in Jewish life.这些群体,这依然存在,在不同的程度,他们结合自己的情绪与智力虔诚主义强调,他们同意,但是在反对犹太人生活在改革和世俗化的力量。 Most Hasidic groups today live in Israel and the United States大多数哈西德派团体今天生活在以色列和美国

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
M Buber, Hasidism (1948); AL Lowenkopf, The Hasidim (1973); HM Rabinowicz, The World of Hasidism (1970); B Safran, ed., Hasidism (1985); IB Singer, Hasidism (1973); E Wiesel, Souls on Fire (1972). M布伯,Hasidism(1948年);美联Lowenkopf,的Ḥasidim(1973年);陛下Rabinowicz中,世界的Ḥasidism(1970年);乙赛峰,版,Hasidism(1985);。兴业歌手,Hasidism(1973),电子商务威塞尔,火魂(1972年)。


Ḥasidism, ḤasidimḤasidism,的ḥasidim

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Ḥasidism is a religious movement which arose among the Polish Jews in the eighteenth century, and which won over nearly half of the Jewish masses. Ḥasidism是一个宗教运动,间升起的波兰犹太人在18世纪,赢得了将近一半的犹太群众。In its literal meaning the word "Ḥasidism" is identical with "pietism" ("Ḥasid" = "the pious"), and the Ḥasidic teachings resemble the synonymous Protestant teachings in so far as they both assign the first place in religion not to religious dogma and ritual, but to the sentiment and the emotion of faith.在其字面意义的单词“Ḥasidism”与“虔诚主义”(“Ḥasid”=“的虔诚”),以及相同的哈西德派教义类似于新教教义的代名词,只要他们都指派首先在宗教宗教不到位教条和仪式,但对情绪和情感的信念。

Presenting in its inner motives one of the most peculiar phenomena of religious psychology in general, Ḥasidismshould in Jewish history be classed among the most momentous spiritual revolutions that have influenced the social life of the Jews, particularly those of eastern Europe.在其内在动机的一般宗教心理学的最奇特的现象之一,在犹太人的历史Ḥasidismshould,呈现被归类其中最重大的精神已经影响了社会生活的犹太人,特别是东欧国家的革命。

There has been apparent from time immemorial a struggle for supremacy between two principles in Judaism: the formalism of dogmatic ritual and the direct religious sentiment.出现了明显的从远古时代两个原则为霸权的斗争,在犹太教:在仪式和教条式的宗教感情的直接形式主义。The discipline of the Law was in continual conflict with mystical meditation, which gave considerable latitude to individual inclinations in the domain of religion.该法的纪律是与神秘的冥想,这给了相当大的余地,在宗教领域的个人倾向不断发生冲突。Such was the nature of the struggle between Pharisaism and Essenism in ancient times, between Talmudism and the Cabala in the Middle Ages, and between rabbinism and the mystic-Messianic movements from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century.这是大之间的法利赛和Essenism在古代斗争的性质,以及之间Talmudism在中世纪Cabala之间,以及rabbinism和神秘的第十六次-弥赛亚运动,到十八世纪。

Origin in the Ukraine.原产于乌克兰。

In Poland, where since the sixteenth century the great bulk of the Jewry had firmly established itself, the struggle between rabbinism and mysticism became particularly acute after the Messianic movement called into being by Shabbethai Ẓebi.在波兰,自16世纪的犹太人大批量已牢牢确立了自己,rabbinism和神秘主义之间的斗争变得特别项目建成后由沙比太Ẓebi被称为救世主运动严重。 Leanings toward mystical doctrines and sectarianism showed themselves prominently among the Jews of the southwestern or Ukraine provinces of Poland (Volhynia, Podolia, and Galicia); while in the north-western provinces, in Lithuania, and in White Russia, rabbinical Orthodoxy held undisputed sway.对神秘主义和宗派主义的倾向表现突出之中,波兰(沃里尼亚,波多利亚,和加利西亚)或乌克兰西南部省份犹太人自己,而在西北部省份,在立陶宛和俄罗斯在白宫,举行犹太教正统无可争议的统治。 This was due to the pronounced social difference between the northern or Lithuanian Jews and the southern Jews of the Ukraine.这是由于发音之间的北部或立陶宛犹太人和乌克兰南部的犹太社团的社会差异。In Lithuania the Jewish masses were mainly gathered in densely populated towns where rabbinical academic culture (in the yeshibot) was in a flourishing state; while in the Ukraine the Jews were more scattered in villages far removed from intellectual centers, and were frequently steeped in ignorance.在立陶宛的犹太群众主要聚集在人口密集的城镇犹太教的学术文化的地方(在yeshibot)在一个蓬勃发展的状态,而在乌克兰的犹太人更在远离村庄的智力中心拆除分散,并常常沉浸在无知。

The social decay in the south became more intense after the Cossacks' Uprising under Chmielnicki and the turbulent times in Poland (1648-60), which completely ruined the Jewry of the Ukraine, but left comparatively untouched that of Lithuania.在南部的社会变得更加腐烂后,哥萨克起义下Chmielnicki和波兰的动荡时期(1648至1660年),这完全破坏了乌克兰的犹太人激烈,但离开立陶宛相对不变的。 The economic and spiritual decline of the South-Russian Jews created a favorable field for mystical movements and religious sectarianism, which spread there from the middle of the seventeenth to the middle of the eighteenth century, and brought about, among other things, the appearance of the Christianizing sect of the Frankists.南方和俄罗斯犹太人的经济和精神上的下降创造了神秘的宗教运动和宗派主义,它的传播有从中间的第十七至十八世纪中叶,并带来了除其他外,有利的领域,外观该Frankists教派基督教化。 (See Frank, Jacob.) (见弗兰克,雅各布。)

Besides these external influences there were deeply seated causes that produced among the greater portion of the Jewish people a discontent with rabbinism and a gravitation toward mysticism.除了这些外部影响有深层次原因,跻身于同rabbinism神秘主义的不满和对犹太人民的引力更大的部分生产。 Rabbinism, which in Poland had become transformed into a system of book-lore and dry religious formalism, satisfied neither the unlearned common people nor the learned men who sought in religion an agreeable source of consolation and of forgetfulness of worldly cares. Rabbinism,在波兰已成为成书本知识和干燥系统满足宗教形式主义,转变既不是胸无点墨普通老百姓谁也不是有学问的人在宗教中寻求安慰同意的来源和世俗关怀健忘。 Although rabbinism itself had adopted some features of the Cabala, it had adapted them to fit into its own religious system: it added to the stern discipline of ritualism the gloomy asceticism of the "practical cabalists" of the East, who saw the essence of earthly existence only in fasting, in penance, in self-torture, and in spiritual sadness.虽然rabbinism本身已经采取了一些功能的Cabala,它已适应他们融入自己的宗教系统:它添加到形式主义严厉的纪律的“实际cabalists的”东方的,谁看​​到了阴暗的世俗禁欲主义的精髓只有在空腹​​的存在,忏悔,自我折磨,在精神和悲伤。 Such a combination of religious practises, suitable for individuals and hermits, was not suitable to the bulk of the Jews.这样的宗教习俗,适合个人和隐士,组合不适合的犹太人大部分。Ḥasidism gave a ready response to the burning desire of the common people in its simple, stimulating, and comforting faith.Ḥasidism了一个现成的回应百姓的强烈愿望在其简单,刺激,并安慰的信仰。In contradistinction to other sectarian teaching, Ḥasidism aimed not at dogmatic or ritual reform, but at a deeper psychological one.在对比其他教派教学,Ḥasidism目的不是教条或仪式的改革,但在更深的心理之一。Its aim was to change not the belief, but the believer.其目的是改变不了的信念,但信徒。By means of psychological suggestion it created a new type of religious man, a type that placed emotion above reason and rites, and religious exaltation above knowledge.通过心理暗示是指它创造了一种新型的宗教的人,放在上面的类型,原因和宗教仪式情感,知识,宗教及以上的提高。

The Ba'al Shem.该Ba'al闪。

The founder of Ḥasidism was a man of the obscure Podolian Jewry, Israel b.在创始人的Ḥasidism是一个晦涩的Podolian犹太人,以色列男子湾Eliezer Ba'al Shem-Ṭob (BeShT).埃利泽Ba'al闪,尖(贝施特)。His personal fame as a healer spread not only among the Jews, but also among the non-Jewish peasants and the Polish nobles.他作为一个治疗者个人的名利蔓延不仅是犹太人,但也属于非犹太农民和波兰贵族。He often cured the Jews by fervent prayer, profound ecstasies, and gesticulations.他经常治愈祈祷,深刻狂喜,和手势的犹太人。He also at times successfully prognosticated the future, and revealed secrets.他有时也成功地预测式的未来,并透露秘密。Soon acquiring among the masses the reputation of a miracle-worker, he came to be known as "the kind Ba'al Shem" ("Ba'al Shem-Ṭob").不久,在群众中取得的一个奇迹工作者的声誉,他来到被称为“那种Ba'al闪”(“Ba'al闪,尖”)。 Besht was the idol of the common people.贝施特是百姓的偶像。Characterized by an extraordinary sincerity and simplicity, he knew how to gain an insight into the spiritual needs of the masses.由一个非凡的诚意和简单为特点,他知道如何获得精神上的洞察到了群众的需求。He taught them that true religion was not Talmudic scholarship, but a sincere love of God combined with warm faith and belief in the efficacy of prayer; that a plain man filled with a sincere belief in God, and whose prayers come from the heart, is more acceptable to God than the rabbi versed in the Law, and who throughout his life is absorbed in the study of the Talmud and in the observance of petty ceremonials.他教他们,真正的宗教是没有塔木德奖学金,但上帝的真诚的爱与温暖的信仰和祈祷的效能信念相结合,这与一个普通的人真诚地相信上帝,和发自内心的祈祷来填补,是更容易接受上帝比拉比精通法律,谁在他的生命是在学习的犹太法典中的小国富遵守吸收。 This democratization of Judaism attracted to the teachings of Besht not only the common people, but also the scholars whom the rabbinical scholasticism and ascetic Cabala failed to satisfy.这种民主化的犹太教吸引到贝施特的教诲,不仅普通百姓,他们也是学者犹太教院和禁欲Cabala未能满足。

About 1740 Besht established himself in the Podolian town of Miedzyboz.约1740贝施特成立于Miedzyboz Podolian镇自己。He gathered about him numerous disciples and followers, whom he initiated into the secrets of his teachings not by systematic exposition, but by means of sayings and parables.他收集了许多有关他的弟子和追随者,他开始进入他的教导的秘密通过系统的阐述,而是通过比喻的说法和手段。These sayings were transmitted orally, and were later written down by his disciples, who developed the disjointed thoughts of their master into a system.这些话已转交口头,书面,后来由他的弟子,谁开发成一个系统,他们的主人脱节的想法记下来。Besht himself did not write anything.贝施特本人并没有写任何东西。Being a mystic by nature, he regarded his teachings as a prophetic revelation.作为一个天生的神秘主义者,他认为作为一个先知的启示他的教诲。Toward the end of his life he witnessed the spread in Podolia of the teachings of the Frankists, which, like Ḥasidism, were the outcome of popular dissatisfaction with the existing order of religious matters, but led to negative results.朝他的生命结束时,他目睹了波多利亚的Frankists的,其中,像Ḥasidism,均与宗教事务的现存秩序不满的流行蔓延的教诲的结果,反而导致消极的结果。

Fundamental Conceptions.基本概念。

The teachings of Ḥasidism, as laid down in the sayings of Besht and his first disciples, are founded on two theoretical conceptions: (1) religious pantheism, or the omnipresence of God, and (2) the idea of communion between God and man. The的Ḥasidism教诲,如在规定贝施特和他的第一个弟子的说法了,是建立在两个理论概念:(1)宗教泛神论,或上帝无所不在,及(2)神与人之间交流的想法。 "Man," says Besht, "must always bear in mind that God is omnipresent and is always with him; that He is, so to speak, the most subtle matter everywhere diffused. . . . Let man realize that when he is looking at material things he is in reality gazing at the image of the Deity which ispresent in all things. With this in mind man will always serve God even in small matters." “人说,”贝施特,“必须始终牢记,上帝是无所不在,总是与他同在。。。。,他是,这么说吧,最微妙的问题到处弥漫让男人意识到,当他在看在现实物质的东西,他在神性在所有的事情ispresent形象凝视的。考虑到这名男子将永远服务于上帝的小事,甚至“。

The second of the above-named conceptions, one which was adopted from the Cabala, consists in the belief that between the world of the Deity and the world of humanity there is an unbroken intercourse.上述命名的概念,一个是从通过的Cabala,第二在于相信神之间的世界和人类世界有一个完整的性交。It is true not only that the Deity influences the acts of man, but also that man exerts an influence on the will and mood of the Deity.这是事实不仅影响了神人的行为,但还发挥一人的意愿和情绪影响的神。Every act and word of man produces a corresponding vibration in the upper spheres.每个行动,人字在上产生相应的振动领域。 From this conception is derived the chief practical principle of Ḥasidism-communion with God for the purpose of uniting with the source of life and of influencing it.从这个概念是根据与上帝的生命之源与团结的目的及影响它的Ḥasidism共融的首席务实的原则。This communion is achieved through the concentration of all thoughts on God, and consulting Him in all the affairs of life.这共融是通过对神的思想集中,咨询所有的生活事务他。The righteous man is in constant communion with God, even in his worldly affairs, since here also he feels His presence.正义的人是在不断的交流与神,甚至在他的世俗事务,因为他觉得自己在这里也存在。An especial form of communion with God is prayer.一种特殊形式的交流与神的祈祷。In order to render this communion complete the prayer must be full of fervor, ecstatic; and the soul of him who prays must during his devotions detach itself, so to speak, from its material dwelling.为使这一共融祈祷必须完成全部的热情,欣喜若狂;以及他的灵魂,谁在他的灵修祈祷必须分离本身,所以说从它的材料住房。 For the attainment of ecstasy recourse may be had to mechanical means, to violent bodily motions, to shouting and singing.为了达到忘我追索可能不得不机械手段,身体暴力的议案,以呼喊和歌唱。According to Besht, the essence of religion is in sentiment and not in reason.据贝施特,宗教的本质是情感而不是原因。 Theological learning and halakic lore are of secondary importance, and are useful only when they serve as a means of producing an exalted religious mood.神学学习和halakic传说是次要的,并且有用的,只有当他们作为一个崇高的宗教情绪产生一种服务手段。It is better to read books of moral instruction than to engage in the study of the casuistic Talmud and the rabbinical literature.这是更好地阅读书籍的道德教育,而不是在搞诡辩塔木德和犹太教文学的研究。In the performance of rites the mood of the believer is of more importance than the externals; for this reason formalism and superfluous ceremonial details are injurious.在礼性能的信徒的心情是比外部的重要性;基于这个原因形式主义和多余的礼仪细节都是有害的。

Communion the Essence.圣餐的本质。

It is necessary to live and to serve God in a cheerful and happy frame of mind: sadness and sorrow darken the soul and interfere with communion; hence the injuriousness of asceticism.这是必要的居住和服务于心灵的快乐和幸福的框架神:悲伤和悲哀变暗的灵魂和干扰的共融,因此injuriousness的禁欲主义。 By means of constant spiritual communion with God it is possible to secure clear mental vision, the gift of prophecy, and to work miracles.通过不断的精神交流与上帝意味着它有可能取得明显的精神视野,礼品的预言,并创造奇迹。The righteous man, or "ẓaddiḳ," is one who has reached the ideal of communion in the highest degree, and therefore appears before God as "one of His own."正义的人,或“ẓaddiḳ”,是一个谁也达到了最高程度的共融的理想,因此,在神面前显示为“对他自己的。”The rôle of the ẓaddiḳ is that of mediator between God and ordinary people.该角色的ẓaddiḳ就是神和普通百姓之间的调解人。 Through the ẓaddiḳ salvation of the soul is achieved, and earthly blessings are obtained: it is merely necessary to believe in the power of this mediator and favorite of God, who has more or less influence in the "higher spheres."通过对灵魂ẓaddiḳ救恩是实现,俗世的祝福,得到:它仅仅是要相信在这个调解员和上帝,谁拥有或多或少的影响,最喜欢的力量“更高的领域。”

Ẓaddiḳism, which in time became a complete system, had a far-reaching influence on the later destiny of Ḥasidism. Ẓaddiḳi​​sm,这在当时成为一个完整的体系,对后来的Ḥasidism的命运产生深远的影响。From among the numerous disciples of Besht, two-the preachers Baer of Meseritz and Jacob Joseph Cohen of Polonnoye-more than any others contributed to the spread of his teachings.从贝施特之间的众多弟子,两个贝尔的传教士的Meseritz和雅各布约瑟夫科恩Polonnoye比任何其他人更助长了他的教诲的传播。 In Meseritz (Mezhirechye) and Rovno the future great leaders of Ḥasidism were trained.在Meseritz(Mezhirechye)和罗夫诺未来的伟大领导人的Ḥasidism接受了培训。Here also originated what may be termed the ẓaddiḳ dynasties of Poland and Russia.在这里,也源于什么可称为波兰和俄罗斯的ẓaddiḳ朝代。Jacob Joseph Cohen, on his part, spread the Ḥasidic teachings by sermons and books.雅各布约瑟夫科恩,他的一部分,散布的说教和书籍哈西德派的教义。He laid the foundations of Ḥasidic literature, which in the last three decades of the eighteenth century spread with extraordinary rapidity among the Jewish masses in Poland and Russia.他哈西德派文学奠定了基础,这在过去三个具有非凡的速度在十八世纪在波兰和俄罗斯的犹太群众的蔓延数十年。

The Ẓaddiḳim.该Ẓaddiḳi​​m。

This development was favored by the decline in the economic condition of the Jews and by the political disturbances of the period owing to the partition of Poland.这种发展是赞成由在犹太人的经济状况恶化以及由由于波兰分区时期的政治动荡。The renewed Haidamack movement in the Ukraine, which reached its height in 1768, reminded the Jews of the bloody epoch of Chmielnicki; and the disruption of Poland, which soon followed (1772-95), brought about the division of the entire Polish Jewry among three foreign governments, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, which paid little heed to the old patriarchal organization and communal autonomy of the Polish Jews.重新开始的Haidamack在乌克兰,达到1768年它的高度,动作提醒Chmielnicki血腥的时代犹太人和波兰,随后不久(1772年至1795年),中断对整个波兰犹太人之间的分工带来三名外国政府,俄罗斯,奥地利和普鲁士,其中支付很少关注旧宗法组织和社区自治的波兰犹太人。 During this turbulent time the Jews listened eagerly to teachings which distracted their attention from the existing disturbances, and which lured them into the region of the mysterious and the supernatural.在这个动荡时期犹太人急切地聆听教诲的注意力从现有的干扰他们的注意力,并吸引到的神秘和超自然的地区他们。 In Podolia, Volhynia, and in a portion of Galicia, Ḥasidism attracted entire communities.在波多利亚,沃里尼亚,并在部分加利西亚,Ḥasidism吸引了整个社区。There arose everywhere Ḥasidic prayer-houses where service was held according to the system of Besht, with its ecstasies of prayer, its shoutings, and its bodily motions.因而产生了无处不在哈西德派祈祷的地方举行了仪式根据贝施特系统与狂喜的祈祷,它的喊叫声,它的身体运动,住宅。 The Ḥasidim introduced the prayer-book of the Palestinian cabalists ("Nusaḥ Ari"), which differed from the commonly accepted forms by various modifications in the text and in the arrangement of the prayers.该Ḥasidim介绍了巴勒斯坦cabalists的祈祷书(“Nusaḥ阿里”),这相差各种修改从普遍接受的形式,并在文本中的祈祷安排。 They did not observe the hours for morning prayer, but held their service at a late hour; they made some changes in the mode of killing cattle; and dressed on Sabbath in white as symbolic of the purification of the soul.他们不遵守晨祷的时间,但在一晚的时间举行他们的服务,他们提出,在宰杀牛的方式有所改变,而且在穿着白色安息日作为灵魂净化的象征。 The Ḥasidim were, however, particularly noted for the exalted worship of their "holy" ẓaddiḳim.该Ḥasidim了,然而,特别是为他们的“圣地”ẓaddiḳi​​m表示崇高的崇拜。The logical result of Ḥasidism, Ẓaddiḳism in many places actually prepared the soil for it.本的Ḥasidism,Ẓaddiḳi​​sm合乎逻辑的结果,在许多地方实际上准备为它的土壤。The appearance of some miracle-working ẓaddiḳ very often led to the general conversion of the local inhabitants to Ḥasidism.一些奇迹出现工作ẓaddiḳ往往导致对当地居民Ḥasidism一般转换。Crowds of credulous men and women gathered around the ẓaddiḳ with requests for the healing of bodily ills, for blessings, for prognostications, or for advice in worldly matters.轻信男人和女人围在人群的身体与弊病,为祝福的预言,愈合ẓaddiḳ请求,或在世俗的事宜提供意见。When the ẓaddiḳ succeeded in affording relief in one of the many cases, or gave fortunate advice, his fame as a miracle-worker was established, and the population of the district remained faithful to the cause of Ḥasidism.当在提供成功的ẓaddiḳ在许多情形之一的救济,或给幸运的意见,他作为一个奇迹工作者成名成立,该地区的人口仍然忠于事业的Ḥasidism。

Such were the conditions in South Russia.这种在南俄罗斯的条件。In the north, however, in Lithuania and in White Russia, Ḥasidism did not sweep entire communities one after another, but spread sporadically; and its adherents remained long in the condition of exclusive sectarians.在北方,但是,在立陶宛和俄罗斯在白宫,Ḥasidism没有一个又一个横扫整个社区,但零星分散,而且它的信徒仍留在长期独家宗派主义条件。 Fearing the persecution of the powerful rabbis, the Lithuanian Ḥasidim often organized secret meetings where they prayed in their own way, held conversations, and read of the truth of Besht's teachings.由于害怕受到迫害的强大拉比,立陶宛的ḥasidim经常组织秘密会晤,他们以自己的方式祈祷,举行对话,并宣读了贝施特的教导的真理。 Here the fundamental principles of Ḥasidism were acquired in a more conscious way, and less significance was attached to the cult of the Ẓaddiḳim.这里的基本原则的Ḥasidism被收购更自觉的方式,同样重要的是重视邪教的Ẓaddiḳi​​m。

The Two Schools.的两种流派。

In this way Ḥasidism gradually branched out into two main divisions: (1) in the Ukraine and in Galicia and (2) in Lithuania.这样Ḥasidism逐步跨足两个主要部门进行:(1)在乌克兰和加利西亚和(2)在立陶宛。The first of these divisions was directed by three disciples of Bär of Meseritz,Elimelech of Lizianka, Levi Isaac of Berdychev, and Nahum of Chernobyl, besides the grandson of Besnt, Baruch of Tulchin.这些第一师的导演是三对Meseritz,以利米勒的Lizianka,利维的Berdychev以撒,那鸿切尔诺贝利柏尔弟子,除了受Besnt,巴鲁克的Tulchin孙子。 Elimelech of Lizianka affirmed that belief in Ẓaddiḳism is a fundamental doctrine of Ḥasidism. Lizianka利米勒的肯定,在Ẓaddiḳi​​sm信念是一个根本性的Ḥasidism学说。In his book "No'am Elimelek" he conveys the idea that the ẓaddiḳ is the mediator between God and the common people, and that through him God sends to the faithful three earthly blessings, life, a livelihood, and children, on the condition, however, that the Ḥasidim support the ẓaddiḳ by pecuniary contributions ("pidyonim"), in order to enable the holy man to become completely absorbed in the contemplation of God.在他的著作“No'am Elimelek”他的想法传达的ẓaddiḳ是上帝之间的调解人和普通百姓,并通过他上帝派给教友三人间的祝福,生活,生计和儿童的状况,然而,支持的Ḥasidimẓaddiḳ由金钱捐款(“pidyonim”),以使神圣的人,成为完全在神的沉思吸收。 Practically this teaching led to the contribution by the people of their last pennies toward the support of the ẓaddiḳ ("rebbe"), and the ẓaddiḳ untiringly "poured forth blessings on the earth, healed the sick, cured women of sterility," etc. The profitable vocation of ẓaddiḳ was made hereditary.实际上这对领导的支持他们的ẓaddiḳ的最后便士人民的贡献教学(“rebbe”),并不懈的ẓaddiḳ“倾注了地球上的祝福,医治病人,治好了不育的妇女”等赚钱的天职ẓaddiḳ作了世袭。 There was a multiplication of ẓaddiḳ dynasties contesting for supremacy.有一种至高无上的角逐ẓaddiḳ朝代的乘法。The "cult of the righteous" as defined by Besht degenerated into a system of exploitation of the credulous.在“邪教的正义”作为由贝施特定义沦为剥削制度的轻信。Baruch, the grandson of Besht, deriving an immense income from his adherents, led the life of a Polish lord.巴鲁克,在贝施特孙子,从他的追随者产生巨大的收入,带动了波兰领主的生活。He had his own court and a numerous suite, including a court jester.他有自己的法庭和众多的套房,包括一个宫廷小丑。

Ḥabad, or Rational Ḥasidism.Ḥabad,或理性Ḥasidism。

The Ḥasidic organization in Lithuania and in White Russia shaped itself along different lines.在立陶宛和俄罗斯在白宫哈西德派组织形成沿不同路线本身。The teachings of Besht, brought thither from the south, adopted many features of the prevailing tendencies in contemporary rabbinism.对贝施特的教导,从南方带来的渴望,通过在当代rabbinism根据当时的许多功能的倾向。The leading apostle of the northern Ḥasidim, Rabbi Zalman of Liozna (1747-1812), created the remarkable system of the so-called Rational Ḥasidism, or "Ḥabad" (the word "ḤaBaD" being formed of the first letters of the words "Ḥokmah," "Binah," "De'ah" = "wisdom," "understanding," "knowledge").如北方的ḥasidim领导使徒,拉比Liozna Zalman(1747年至1812年),创造了所谓的理性Ḥasidism显着的系统,或“Ḥabad”(这个词“ḤaBaD:”作为这些词的第一个字母组成“ Ḥokmah“,”Binah“,”De'ah“=”智慧“,”理解“,”知识“)。In his "Tanya" (Slavuta, 1796) and in his sermons he advocates an intelligent and not a blind faith, requiring from the Ḥasidim a certain mental preparation, and he assigns the cult of the Ẓaddiḳim a very modest place.在他的“陈淑庄”(Slavuta,1796年),并在他的说教,他主张一个智能,而不是盲目的信仰,需要从一定的Ḥasidim心理准备,他指派的Ẓaddiḳi​​m一个非常温和的地方邪教。 In the system of Ḥabad the ẓaddiḳ appears more as a teacher than a miracle-worker.在系统中出现的ẓaddiḳḤabad一个比一个奇迹工作者教师更多。The teachings of Zalman were adapted to the comparatively advanced mental level of the Jewish masses of the northwestern region; and the inevitable process of degeneration which mystical doctrines ultimately underwent apappeared here less prominently than in the south.作者:Zalman的教导被适应的比较先进的西北地区的犹太群众的心理水平,堕落的必然过程,神秘的学说最终在这里接受apappeared少诈在南部。

Opposition to Ḥasidism.反对Ḥasidism。

The rapid spread of Ḥasidism in the second half of the eighteenth century greatly troubled the Orthodox rabbis.The的Ḥasidism快速普及,大大困扰东正教拉比十八世纪后半叶。Rabbinism from the very beginning recognized in it a dangerous enemy.Rabbinism从一开始就承认它一个危险的敌人。 The doctrine of Besht, claiming that man is saved through faith and not through mere religious knowledge, was strongly opposed to the principal dogma of rabbinism, which measures man's religious value by the extent of his Talmudic learning.在贝施特学说,宣称这名男子是因信得救,而不是通过单纯的宗教知识,是强烈反对的主要教条的rabbinism,该措施由他的塔木德学习程度的人的宗教价值。 The ritual formalism of Orthodoxy could not reconcile itself to modifications in the customary arrangement of the prayers and in the performance of some of the rites.形式主义的正统仪式本身无法调和的修改在祈祷的习惯安排以及在这些仪式的一些性能。Moreover, the Ḥasidic dogma of the necessity of maintaining a cheerful disposition, and the peculiar manner of awakening religious exaltation at the meetings of the sectarians-as, for instance, by the excessive use of spirituous liquors-inspired the ascetic rabbis with the belief that the new teachings induced moral laxity or coarse epicureanism.此外,维持一个性格开朗的必要性哈西德派的教条,而觉醒的宗派主义的会议上提高宗教特有的方式,因为,例如,由过度使用烈酒的灵感与信念,即禁欲拉比新的教义诱发道德懈怠或粗享乐主义。 Still under the fear of the Shabbethaians and the Frankists, the rabbis suspected Ḥasidism of an intimate connection with these movements so dangerous to Judaism.仍在对Shabbethaians和Frankists恐惧,怀疑的拉比与这些动作很危险犹太教的密切联系Ḥasidism。 An important factor in connection with this was the professional antagonism of the rabbis: they saw in the ẓaddiḳ a threatening competitor, a new type of the popular priest, who was fed by the superstition of the masses, and who acquired his popularity quickly.在这方面的重要因素是专业对立的拉比:他们看到的ẓaddiḳ在恐吓竞争对手,广受欢迎的牧师,谁是助长了迷信的群众,谁收购了他的知名度迅速的新类型。 In consequence of these facts a bitter struggle soon arose between rabbinical Orthodoxy and the Ḥasidim.在这些事实的后果很快就出现了激烈的斗争,东正教和犹太教之间的Ḥasidim。At the head of the Orthodox party stood Elijah ben Solomon, the stern guardian of learned and ritualistic Judaism.在头部的正统党站在以利亚贲所罗门,走过场的教训和严峻的犹太教监护人。In 1772, when the first secret circles of Ḥasidim appeared in Lithuania, the rabbinic "ḳahal" (council) of Wilna, with the approval of Elijah, arrested the local leaders of the sect, and excommunicated its adherents. 1772年,当第一个秘密的ḥasidim界出现在立陶宛,拉比“ḳahal”(理事会)的维尔纳,在以利亚批准,逮捕了当地的教派领袖,并驱逐其信徒。 Circulars were sent from Wilna to the rabbis of other communities calling upon them to make war upon the "godless sect."通告被送往从维尔纳的呼吁他们让战争后,其他社区的拉比“不信神节。”In many places cruel persecutions were instituted against the Ḥasidim.在许多地方被残酷迫害提起的Ḥasidim。The appearance in 1780 of the first works of Ḥasidic literature (eg, the above-named book of Jacob Joseph Cohen, which was filled with attacks on rabbinism) created alarm among the Orthodox.在哈西德派文学的(例如,雅各约瑟夫科恩,这是充满攻击与rabbinism上述命名书)1780年出现的第一部作品中设立东正教报警。 At the council of rabbis held in the village of Zelva, government of Grodno, in 1781, it was resolved to uproot the destructive teachings of Besht.在中的Zelva,政府的格罗德诺,在1781年举行的拉比村理事会,它是决心根除贝施特破坏性的教诲。In the circulars issued by the council the faithful were ordered to expel the Ḥasidim from every Jewish community, to regard them as members of another faith, to hold no intercourse with them, not to intermarry with them, and not to bury their dead.由信徒被勒令驱逐从每一个犹太人社区的Ḥasidim会,发出视为他们的另一种信仰的成员,不得担任与他们交往,而不是与他们通婚,而不是埋葬死人的通告。 The antagonists of Ḥasidism called themselves "Mitnaggedim" (Opponents); and to the present day this appellation still clings to those who have not joined the ranks of the Ḥasidim.拮抗剂的Ḥasidism人称自己是“Mitnaggedim”(对手),以及到今天这个称谓仍然对那些谁没有加入队伍的ḥasidim紧贴。

The "Mitnaggedim."该“Mitnaggedim。”

Ḥasidism in the south had established itself so firmly in the various communities that it had no fear of persecution.在南方建立了自己Ḥasidism如此坚定地在它没有受到迫害的恐惧各个社区。The main sufferers were the northern Ḥasidim.患者的主要是北部的ḥasidim。Their leader, Rabbi Zalman, attempted, but unsuccessfully, to allay the anger of the Mitnaggedim and of Elijah Gaon.他们的领导人,拉比Zalman,尝试,但未能成功,以减轻对Mitnaggedim和以利亚gaon的愤怒。On the death of the latter in 1797 the exasperation of the Mitnaggedim became so great that they resolved to denounce the leaders of the Ḥasidim to the Russian government as dangerous agitators and teachers of heresy.关于后者在1797年死亡的恼怒的Mitnaggedim变得如此之大,他们决心声讨是危险的异端煽动者和教师的ḥasidim向俄罗斯政府的领导人。 In consequence twenty-two representatives of the sect were arrested in Wilna and other places.在后果二十二代表该教派被拘捕维尔纳等地。Zalman himself was arrested at his court in Liozna and brought to St. Petersburg (1798). Zalman自己被逮捕了他在Liozna法庭,并提请圣彼得堡(1798)。There he was kept in the fortress and was examined by a secret commission, but he and the other leaders were soon released by order of Paul I. The Ḥasidim remained, however, under "strong suspicion."在那里,他被关在一个堡垒,被秘密委员会审查,但他和其他领导人很快被保罗一令获释该Ḥasidim依然存在,但根据“强烈怀疑”。 Two years later Zalman was again transported to St. Petersburg, through the further denunciation of his antagonists, particularly of Abigdor, formerly rabbi of Pinsk.两年后,Zalman又运到圣彼得堡​​,通过进一步谴责他的对手,尤其是Abigdor,原平斯克拉比。Immediately after the accession to the throne of Alexander I., however, the leader of the Ḥasidim wasreleased, and was given full liberty to proclaim his religious teachings, which from the standpoint of the government were found to be utterly harmless (1801).后,立即向亚历山大一世登基,然而,领导者的Ḥasidimwasreleased,并给予充分自由地宣扬他的宗教教义,从政府的立场被认为是完全无害的(1801)。 Thereafter Zalman openly led the White-Russian or Ḥabad Ḥasidim until his death, toward the end of 1812.此后Zalman公开领导的,直到他去世白俄语或Ḥabad的ḥasidim,朝着1812年结束。He had fled from the government of Moghilef to that of Poltava, in consequence of the French invasion.他在躲避Moghilef政府对波​​尔塔瓦的是,在法国入侵的后果。

The struggle of rabbinism with Ḥasidism in Lithuania and White Russia led only to the formation of the latter sect in those regions into separate religious organizations; these existing in many towns alongside of those of the Mitnaggedim.用的Rabbinism在立陶宛和俄罗斯Ḥasidism白斗争只会导致了在进入这些地区独立的宗教组织教派形成后,这些在旁边的Mitnaggedim对现有的许多城镇。 In the south-western region, on the other hand, the Ḥasidim almost completely crowded out the Mitnaggedim, and the Ẓaddiḳim possessed themselves of that spiritual power over the people which formerly belonged to the rabbis.在西南地区,另一方面,几乎完全的Ḥasidim拥挤了Mitnaggedim,并Ẓaddiḳi​​m拥有这种精神力量对人民的原属于自己的拉比。

Organization.组织。

In the first half of the nineteenth century Ḥasidism spread unmolested, and reached its maximum development.在十九世纪上半Ḥasidism蔓延不受干扰,并达到最大的发展。About half of the Jewish population of Russia, as well as of Poland, Galicia, Rumania, and Hungary, professes Ḥasidic teachings and acknowledges the power of the Ẓaddiḳim.大约有一半的俄罗斯犹太居民,以及波兰,加利西亚,罗马尼亚,匈牙利,自称哈西德派教义,并承认该Ẓaddiḳi​​m力量。 In Russia the existence of the Ḥasidim as a separate religious organization was legalized by the "Enactment Concerning the Jews" of 1804 (See Russia).在俄罗斯,作为一个独立的宗教组织的ḥasidim的存在合法化的“关于犹太人颁布”1804年(见俄罗斯)。

The Ḥasidim had no central spiritual government.该Ḥasidim没有中央精神的政府。With the multiplication of the ẓaddiḳim their dioceses constantly diminished.随着乘法的ẓaddiḳi​​m其教区不断减少。Some ẓaddiḳim, however, gained a wide reputation, and attracted people from distant places.一些ẓaddiḳi​​m然而,获得了广泛的声誉,并吸引了来自遥远地方的人。To the most important dynasties belonged that of Chernobyl (consisting of the descendants of Nahum of Chernobyl) in Little Russia; that of Ruzhin-Sadagura (including the descendants of Bär of Meseritz) in Podolia, Volhynia, and Galicia; that of Lyubavich (composed of the descendants of Zalman, bearing the family name Schneersohn") in White Russia; and that of Lublin and Kotzk in the kingdom of Poland. There were also individual ẓaddiḳim not associated with the dynasties. In the first half of the nineteenth century there were well known among them: Motel of Chernobyl, Nachman of Bratzlav, Jacob Isaac of Lublin, Mendel of Lyubavich, and Israel of Luzhin. The last-named had such unlimited power over the Ḥasidim of the southwestern region that the government found it necessary to send him out of Russia (1850). He established himself in the Galician village of Sadagura on the Austrian frontier, whither the Ḥasidim continued to make pilgrimages to him and his successors.最重要的朝代是属于俄罗斯的切尔诺贝利小(作者:那鸿切尔诺贝利的后代组成),这对Ruzhin - Sadagura在波多利亚,沃里尼亚,和加利西亚(包括Meseritz发生一宗扎后裔),即对Lyubavich(组成对Zalman后裔,承载着姓Schneersohn“的白色俄罗斯);。,而卢布林和Kotzk在波兰王国,也有个别ẓaddiḳi​​m不与王朝相关的十九世纪上半叶有。其中已知的好:。汽车旅馆的切尔诺贝利,Nachman的Bratzlav,雅各布的卢布林,孟德尔的Lyubavich以撒,以色列Luzhin过去命名了对西南地区的ḥasidim这种无限的权力,政府认为有必要派遣他为俄罗斯出(1850)。他确立了在奥地利的边境Sadagura加利西亚村自己,何处的Ḥasidim继续作出对他和他的继任者朝圣。

Rabbinical Orthodoxy at this time had discontinued its struggle with Ḥasidism and had reconciled itself to the establishment of the latter as an accomplished fact.犹太教正统派在这个时候已经停止了与Ḥasidism调和的斗争,并作为既成事实自己后者的建立。Gradually the Mitnaggedim and the Ḥasidim began to intermarry, which practise had formerly been strictly forbidden.渐渐地,Mitnaggedim和的Ḥasidim开始通婚,其中执业以前是严格禁止的。

Attacked by the Haskalah.攻击的启蒙运动。

In the first quarter of the nineteenth century Ḥasidism met new opposition from the younger generation of intelligent Jews, who had received a modern education.在十九世纪的Ḥasidism会见了第一季度的智能犹太人,谁收到了现代教育年轻一代新的反对派。The crusade against Ḥasidism was started by the Mendelssohnian school in Austria.反对Ḥasidism讨伐是开始由奥地利Mendelssohnian学校。The Galician writer Joseph Perl published in 1819 a bitter satire against the sect in the form of "Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum" ("Megalleh Temirin").加利西亚作家约瑟夫Perl的发表在1819年一对在“Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum”(“Megalleh Temirin”)的形式教派辛辣的讽刺。He was followed in Russia by Isaac Bär Levinsohn of Kremenetz with his "Dibre Ẓaddiḳim" (1830).接着是在俄罗斯的Kremenetz艾萨克柏尔文索恩与他的“DibreẒaddiḳi​​m”(1830年)。At times the embittered foes of Ḥasidism went so far as to urge the government (in Austria and Russia) to adopt repressive measures against the Ẓaddiḳim and the Ḥasidic literature.有时是苦的敌人的Ḥasidism竟然促请政府(在奥地利和俄罗斯)采取措施,防止该Ẓaddiḳi​​m和哈西德派文学的镇压措施。 But at first none of these attacks could weaken the power of the Ḥasidim.但是,在这些攻击的第一道没有人能削弱权力的Ḥasidim。They showed everywhere a more stubborn opposition to European culture than did rabbinical Orthodoxy; for they felt instinctively that free criticism was more dangerous to the mysticism of the Ẓaddiḳim than to Talmudic casuistry and ritualistic formalism.无论在何处,他们表现出更多的顽固反对欧洲文化比没有正统犹太教,因为他们直觉地感到,自由的批评是比塔木德诡辩形式主义和走过场更危险的神秘主义的Ẓaddiḳi​​m。

It was only in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the educational movement among the Russian Jews became stronger, that a period of stagnation and decline for Ḥasidism began.这是在十​​九世纪后半期只有当俄罗斯犹太人之间的教育运动变得更强,这是停滞和衰退期的Ḥasidism开始。A considerable portion of the younger generation, under the influence of the new movement for enlightenment, repudiated Ḥasidism and began to struggle against the power of the Ẓaddiḳim.一个年轻一代的相当一部分下的新启蒙运动,批驳Ḥasidism的影响,并开始作斗争的Ẓaddiḳi​​m力量。 The enlightening literature of the Haskalah attacked Ḥasidism with bitter satire, and the periodicals exposed the adventures of the miracle-working Ẓaddiḳim.在启蒙运动的启蒙文学袭击了辛辣的讽刺Ḥasidism,并暴露了奇迹期刊工作Ẓaddiḳi​​m的冒险故事。 Moreover, early in the second half of the century the Russian government instituted a police super-vision over the numerous ẓaddiḳim within the Pale of Settlement, and limited their freedom of movement in order to counteract their propaganda.此外,早在本世纪下半叶俄罗斯政府设立了一个警察超级视觉在定居区范围内的众多ẓaddiḳi​​m,并限制他们的行动自由,以抵消他们的宣传。 All of these blows, external and internal, together with the general decline of piety among certain classes of the Russian Jews, weakened the growth of Ḥasidism and Ẓaddiḳism.所有这些冲击,外部和内部加上虔诚俄国犹太人之间的某些类别的普遍下降,削弱了的Ḥasidism和Ẓaddiḳi​​sm增长。 The decay of ẓaddiḳ dynasties and the impoverishment of the Ḥasidic literature became apparent.衰变的ẓaddiḳ朝代和贫困哈西德派文学变得明显。

Decline of the Movement.运动的衰落。

Nevertheless Ḥasidism is so deeply grounded in Russo-Polish Judaism that it has proved impossible to uproot it.然而Ḥasidism是这么深的俄波兰犹太教,它已证明无法根除它接地。It still has its hundreds of thousands of adherents; and, although its development has been temporarily arrested, its vitality can not be doubted.它仍然拥有数以十万计的信徒,而且,虽然其发展已被暂时逮捕,其生命力不容怀疑。 Started as a counterpoise to rabbinical and ritual formalism, it still satisfies the religious requirements of the uneducated masses.作为犹太教和礼仪形式主义平衡开始,但仍然满足了群众的宗教没有受过教育的要求。In the last two decades of the nineteenth century, owing to a general social reaction in the life of the Russian Jews, a measure of revival was noticed in Ḥasidic circles.在过去的二十年,十九世纪,由于一般在俄罗斯犹太人生活的社会反应,一看到复苏的措施是在哈西德派圈子。In the past ten years the administrative surveillance of the Ẓaddiḳim and the limitation of their movements have been abolished.在过去十年的Ẓaddiḳi​​m和限制他们的行动已取消的行政监察。 The result has been a reenforcement of Ẓaddiḳism in some places, where it had been almost superseded.该成果已在一些地方,在那里一直是Ẓaddiḳi​​smreenforcement几乎取代。Though not producing at present any prominent personalities in literature or in communal life, Ḥasidism nourishes itself by its stored-up reserves of spiritual power.虽然目前没有任何文献或知名人士在社区生活生产,滋养了它的存储Ḥasidism后续储备本身的精神力量。In the eighteenth century it was a great creative force which brought into stagnant rabbinical Judaism a fervent stream of religious enthusiasm.早在十八世纪,它是一个伟大的创造力量,为停滞犹太教犹太教带来了强烈的宗教热情流。Under the influence of Ḥasidism the Russo-Polish Jew became brighter at heart but darker in intellect.根据影响的Ḥasidism日俄波兰犹太人成为光明的心,但在智力上更暗。In the nineteenth century, in its contact with European culture, it was more reactionary than rabbinism.在十九世纪,在其与欧洲文化的接触,它比rabbinism反动。The period of stagnation which it has lately passed through must, however, result in its gradualdecay.停滞时期,它最近已通过但是,必须在其gradualdecay结果。After having been the object of apology or of vituperation in literature, Ḥasidism has become an object of scientific investigation.后一直是道歉或在文学谩骂的对象,Ḥasidism已成为科学调查的对象。

Herman Rosenthal, SM Dubnow赫尔曼塔尔,钐Dubnow
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Orshanski, Mysli o Khasidizmye, in Yevreiskaya Biblioteka, i., St. Petersburg, 1871; S. Dubnow, Vvedeniye v Istoriyu Khasidizma; idem, Vozniknoveniye Khasidizma; idem, Istoriya Khasidskavo Raskola; idem, Religioznaya Borba in Voskhod, 1888-93; J. Gessen, K Istorii Religioznoi Borby, etc., in Voskhod, 1902, Nos. 1-2; Jost, Gesch. Orshanski,Mysli Ø Khasidizmye,在Yevreiskaya Biblioteka岛,圣彼得堡,1871年;学Dubnow,Vvedeniye v Istoriyu Khasidizma;同上,Vozniknoveniye Khasidizma;同上,Istoriya Khasidskavo Raskola;同上,Religioznaya波尔巴在Voskhod,1888年至1893年; j的格森,钾Istorii Religioznoi Borby等,在Voskhod,1902年,第1-2;乔斯特,Gesch。des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten, iii.德Judenthums有限公司高阶Steine​​r Sekten,三。184; Löw, Vergangenheit und Gegenwart der Chasidäer, 1859; Grätz, Gesch. 184,低,Vergangenheit有限公司Gegenwart明镜Chasidäer,1859年,格拉茨,Gesch。xi., ch.十一。,甲烷。iii.三。and note 2; Schechter, Studies in Judaism, p.并注意2;谢克特,在犹太教研究,第1, Philadelphia, 1896; O. Rabinovich, Sochineniya, iii.1,费城,1896年,澳拉比诺维奇,Sochineniya,三。207; Ehrlich, Der Weg Meines Lebens, Vienna, 1874; Sternhartz, 'Alim li-Terufah, Berdychev, 1896; Gottlober, in Ha-Boḳer Or, passim; Entziklopedicheski Slovar, xxxvii., St. Petersburg, 1903.HRSMD207;埃利希,明镜完了Meines Lebens,维也纳,1874年; Sternhartz,'阿利姆立Terufah,Berdychev,1896年,Gottlober,在哈博克或者,各处; Entziklopedicheski Slovar,三十七,圣彼得堡,1903.HRSMD。



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