Heaven天堂

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Heaven, a concept found in various forms in most world religions, refers to the dwelling place of God, gods, and other celestial beings and the place or state of being of the elect or righteous after death. In the Old Testament heaven is the abode of the Hebrew God Yahweh to which only exceptional human beings, such as Elijah, are raised after life on Earth. In the New Testament heaven is the place where all believers in Jesus Christ will reign with him in glory after the Last Judgment. The traditional Christian belief is that after the general Resurrection of the dead, bodies and souls will be reunited in heaven. 天堂,世界宗教的一个概念,发现的各种形式的大部分,是指,神居住的地方的神,人类和其他天体的地方或正义的状态或死亡后的选举。在旧约天堂是居留权在希伯来上帝耶和华其中只有特殊的人以利亚,如被提出后,地球上的生命。 在新约的地方是天堂所有基督信徒在耶稣会在他统治与荣耀后,最后判决。传统基督教信仰是,在死者中,身体和灵魂一般的复活将在天堂重聚。 In Islam, paradise (al-janna, "the garden") is a place of physical as well as spiritual delights for the saved.在伊斯兰教的天堂(铝詹纳,“花园”)是一个物理地点,以及为保存精神的愉悦。Some conceptions of heaven in Eastern religions, such as the Orthodox Buddhist Nirvana, differ vastly from Judeo-Christian and Islamic views; many, however, bear strong resemblance.在东方宗教,如佛教​​涅槃东正教,天堂的一些概念,悬殊的犹太教和基督教和伊斯兰教的意见;很多人来说,承受非常相似。

Although the popular theological interpretation of heaven is a condition of Grace with God, the allegorical depictions of heaven in the Bible, in other sacred scriptures, and in mythologies throughout the world are typically elaborate.虽然天上的神学流行的解释是与上帝的恩典条件下,在圣经中描绘天堂的寓言,在其他神圣的经文,并在世界各地的神话一般阐述。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Kohler, K., Heaven and Hell in Comparative Religion (1923); McDannell, C., and Lang, B., Heaven: A History (1988); Simon, UE, Heaven in the Christian Tradition (1958).科勒,光,天堂与地狱比较宗教学(1923); McDannell,C.与郎湾,天堂:历史(1988年),西蒙,UE的,在基督教传统天堂(1958年)。


Heaven天堂

Advanced Information先进的信息

The most frequently used Hebrew word for heaven in the OT is samayim, signifying "heaved up things" or "the heights."最常使用的希伯来文在加时赛天堂字samayim,标志着“长叹了东西”或“的高度。”In the Greek NT it is ouranos, which denotes "sky", or "air."在希腊新台币它是乌拉诺斯,这是指“天”,或“空”。These words refer to the atmosphere just above the earth (Gen. 1:20, etc.); to the firmament in which the sun and moon and stars are located (Gen. 1:17, etc.); to God's abode (Ps. 2:4, etc.); to the abode of the angels (Matt. 22:30).这句话指的是地球大气层上方的(创1:20,等等);以何种太阳,月亮和星星是位于苍穹(创1:17,等等),对上帝的居留权(诗。2:4等);向居留权的天使(太22:30)。 The OT has no word for universe, and to express the idea there is the frequent "heaven and earth."催产素并没有为宇宙的话,并表示知道有频繁的“天地”。We read of "the heaven and the heaven" (Deut. 10:14), and of a man's being "caught up into the third heaven" (II Cor. 12:2), but such references are probably to be thought of metaphorically.我们读到的“天堂与天堂”(申命记10:14),以及一个人的被“捕获到第三层天”(二肺心病。12:2),但这种提法可能设想到的比喻。

Although some, like Plato, imagine heaven to be a disembodied state where naked minds contemplate the eternal, unchanging ideas, in the Bible this is not so.虽然有些像柏拉图,想象天堂是一个无形的状态,赤裸裸的头脑考虑在圣经中的永恒的,不变的理念,这却不是这样。According to Paul, the whole person survives.根据保罗,整个人生存。Even the body is raised again, so that, if it is no longer flesh and blood (I Cor. 15:50), it nevertheless has a continuity with the present body, a sameness in form if not in material element (see Matt. 5:29, 30; 10:28; Rom. 8:11, 23; I Cor. 15:53).即使是身体复活的,所以,如果它不再是有血有肉的(我肺心病。15时五十分),但它有一个与目前的身体连续性,形式雷同,如果不是在物质因素(见马特。 5:29,30; 10:28;。罗8:11,23,我肺心病15:53​​)。。So there is nothing in the Bible (nor in the main creeds of the church) about disembodied spirits in the next world existing in vacuo.因此,有没有在圣经对未来在真空中现有的世界游魂(也不在教堂的主要信条)。Yet there is no eating nor drinking (Rom. 14:17), nor appetite of sex (Matt. 22:30; Mark 12:25; Luke 20:35).然而,没有吃,也不喝(罗马书14:17),也不食欲性别(太22:30,马可福音12:25,路加福音20:35)。 Feasting there is evidently to be understood symbolically, according to Matt.吃喝有象征意义显然可以理解,根据马特。 26:29 where Jesus speaks of that day when he will drink the fruit of the vine "new" with the disciples in his Father's kingdom.26:29耶稣说的那一天,当他喝的葡萄“新”,在他父亲的王国门徒水果。In heaven the redeemed will be in the immediate presence of God; will forever feed on the splendor of God's majesty, beholding the Father's face.天上的赎回将立即在神的存在;将永远吃上帝的威严壮观,看着父亲的脸。 In the present life men "see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face" (I Cor. 13:12).在目前的生命中的男人“见通过玻璃,黑暗,但随后面对面”(林前13:12)。。And the sons of God will see Christ "as he is" (I John 3:2).和上帝的儿子会看到基督“,因为他是”(约翰一书3:2)。The childlike in faith, even as the angels do now, will "always behold the face" of the Father (Matt. 18:10).在信心孩子气,即使现在的天使,将“总是看哪面子”的父(太18:10)。They will not so much glory in the presence of Supreme Reason, as the Greeks anticipated, but in the wonder of the All-Holy One (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 4:8).他们不会因此在最高法院的原因存在很多的荣耀,作为希腊人预期,但在全圣地之一(以赛亚书6:3;启示录4:8)的奇迹。 And this God is a Father, in whose house (John 14:2) the redeemed will dwell, where "they shall be his people," and where "God himself shall be with them" (Rev. 21:3).而这个神是一位父亲,在其家(约翰14:2)的赎回要住​​,这里的“他们要作他的人”,其中“神要亲自与他们同在”(启示录21:3)。

There will be activities in heaven to engage man's highest faculties.有在天上的活动将进行男子的最高学院。For one thing, there will be governmental ministries.一方面,将有政府各部。The "spirits of just men made perfect" (Heb. 12:23) will be in the "city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem" (Heb. 12:22), and men are to assist in governing the whole.而“义人的精神得以完全”​​(希伯来书12:23)将在(希伯来书12:22)“活着的上帝,天上的耶路撒冷城”,而男人是协助管的整体。 Thus in the parable of the nobleman the good servant, who has been "faithful in a very little" on earth, is in heaven to be given "authority over ten cities" (Luke 19:17).因此,在对贵族的好公仆,谁是“在一个很小的忠实”在地球上,寓言,是考虑“权威十城市”(路加福音19:17)在天堂。 In Matthew the servant who had been given five talents and who had "gained beside them five talents more" is told: "Well done, thou good and faithful servant: I will make thee ruler over many things: enter thou into the joy of thy lord" (25:20-21).谁在马太已获得五人才,谁的仆人“赚了五千多”是说:“干得好,你这善良又忠心的仆人: 我要把许多事派你:你将进入你的主“的喜悦(25:20-21)。 Perhaps new songs are to be written and sung (Rev. 5:9).也许新的歌曲将被写入,宋(启示录5:9)。The "redeemed from the earth," too, are to learn a "new song" (Rev. 14:3).“从地球赎回”,同样是学习“新曲”(启示录14:3)。 And the kings of the earth are to "bring their glory and honour into it" (Rev. 21:24).和地上的君王要“使他们的荣耀和进去荣誉”(启示录21:24)。So while there is to be on the part of the redeemed a continuous worship in heaven, it seems to be in the sense that all activities engaged in will be for the sole glory of God and will therefore partake of the nature of worship.因此,尽管要对在天上连续赎回崇拜的一部分,它似乎在某种意义上是因为从事的所有活动将是唯一的神的荣耀,因此将分享大自然的崇拜。

JK Grider jk的格里德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
R. Lewis, A New Vision of Another Heaven; DL Moody, Heaven; K. Schilder, Heaven: What Is It?河刘易斯的另一个天堂的新视野; DL的穆迪,天堂的K. Schilder,天堂:它是什么?B. Siede et al., NIDNTT, II, 184ff.; JS Bonnell, Heaven and Hell; HB Swete, The Ascended Christ; WM Smith, The Biblical Doctrine of Heaven; G. von Rad et al., TDNT, V, 497ff.二Siede等,NIDNTT,二,184ff。。js的邦内尔,天堂与地狱;正面Swete,提升基督;西医史密斯,天坛圣经教义;克冯RAD数据通信等,TDNT,五,497ff。 。


Heav'en Heav'en

Advanced Information先进的信息

(1.) Definitions., The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24). 。(1。)定义中,“天地”是用来表示整个宇宙(创1:1。耶23:24,徒17:24)。According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens, (a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19; 7:3, 23; Ps. 8:8, etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc. (b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29).根据犹太人的概念有三个天,(一)苍穹,为“天堂鸟”(创2:19; 7:3,23;诗8:8,等等。)“的鹰的天堂“(Lam. 4:19)等(二)星空(申命记17:3;耶8:2;。。马特24:29)。(c) "The heaven of heavens," or "the third heaven" (Deut. 10:14; 1 Kings 8: 27; Ps. 115:16; 148:4; 2 Cor. 12:2).(三)“天上的天”,或“第三天堂”(申命记10时14分1国王8:27;诗115:16; 148:4,2肺心病12时02分。。)。

(2.) Meaning of words in the original, (a) The usual Hebrew word for "heavens" is shamayim, a plural form meaning "heights," "elevations" (Gen. 1:1; 2:1). 。(2)在原来的意义,(一)通常希伯来字的字为“天”是shamayim,复数形式,意为“高峰”,“高地”(创1:1,2:1)。(b) The Hebrew word marom is also used (Ps. 68:18; 93:4; 102:19, etc.) as equivalent to shamayim, "high places," "heights." (b)在希伯来文马姆也被用来(诗篇68:18,93:4,102:19,等等)。等同shamayim,“高的地方”,“高地”(c) Heb.(三)河北。galgal, literally a "wheel," is rendered "heaven" in Ps.galgal,确切地说是“车轮”,是呈现在诗“天堂”。77:18 (RV, "whirlwind"). 77:18(风疹病毒,“旋风”)。(d) Heb.(四)河北。shahak, rendered "sky" (Deut. 33:26; Job 37:18; Ps. 18:11), plural "clouds" (Job 35:5; 36:28; Ps. 68:34, marg. "heavens"), means probably the firmament.沙哈克,呈现“天空”(申命记33:26,职业37:18;诗18:11。),复数“云”(伯35:5,36:28,诗68:34,玛格“天堂”。。 ),是指可能苍穹。(e) Heb. (五)河北。rakia is closely connected with (d), and is rendered "firmamentum" in the Vulgate, whence our "firmament" (Gen. 1:6; Deut. 33:26, etc.), regarded as a solid expanse. rakia是紧密联系在一起(四),并呈现“firmamentum”在武加大,何时我们的“苍穹”(创1:6;。申命记33:26,等等),作为一个坚实广阔认为。

(3.) Metaphorical meaning of term.(3。)隐喻意义的术语。Isa.伊萨。14:13, 14; "doors of heaven" (Ps. 78:23); heaven "shut" (1 Kings 8:35); "opened" (Ezek. 1:1). 14:13,14;(诗篇78:23)“天堂门”;天堂“关闭”(1国王8:35),“开放”(结1:1)。(See 1 Chr. 21:16.) (4.) Spiritual meaning.(见1染色体。21:16。)(4。)精神意义。The place of the everlasting blessedness of the righteous; the abode of departed spirits.作者:义人的永恒幸福的地方;居亡灵。(a) Christ calls it his "Father's house" (John 14:2).(一)基督称之为他的“父亲的房子”(约翰福音14:2)。(b) It is called "paradise" (Luke 23:43; 2 Cor. 12:4; Rev. 2:7).(二)被称为“人间天堂”(路加福音23:43; 2肺心病12:4。启示录2:7)。(c) "The heavenly Jerusalem" (Gal. 4: 26; Heb. 12:22; Rev. 3:12). (三)“天上的耶路撒冷”(加拉太书4:。26;希伯来书12:22;启示录3:12)。(d) The "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 25:1; James 2:5).(四)“天国”(太25:1;雅各书2:5)。(e) The "eternal kingdom" (2 Pet. 1:11).(五)“永恒的国度”(2宠物。1:11)。(f) The "eternal inheritance" (1 Pet. 1: 4; Heb. 9:15).(六)“永恒的遗产”(1宠物1:4。;希伯来书9:15)。。(g) The "better country" (Heb. 11:14, 16).(七)“更美好的国家”(希伯来书11:14,16)。(h) The blessed are said to "sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," and to be "in Abraham's bosom" (Luke 16:22; Matt. 8:11); to "reign with Christ" (2 Tim. 2:12); and to enjoy "rest" (Heb. 4:10, 11). (八)有福的说是“坐下来与亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各”,并为“在亚伯拉罕的怀里”(路加福音16:22;马特8:11。)以“统治与基督”(2添。2:12);和享受“休息”(希伯来书4:10,11)。 In heaven the blessedness of the righteous consists in the possession of "life everlasting," "an eternal weight of glory" (2 Cor. 4:17), an exemption from all sufferings for ever, a deliverance from all evils (2 Cor. 5:1, 2) and from the society of the wicked (2 Tim. 4:18), bliss without termination, the "fulness of joy" for ever (Luke 20:36; 2 Cor. 4:16, 18; 1 Pet. 1:4; 5:10; 1 John 3:2).天上的正义幸福组成,在“生命永恒”,“一重永远的荣耀”藏(2肺心病。4:17),从所有的苦难永远豁免,从所有的罪恶(2肺心病解脱。 5:1,2)和来自社会的邪恶(2添4:18),没有终止的幸福,是永远的“喜乐”(路加福音20:36; 2。肺心病4:16,18; 1。宠物1:4。5:10;约翰一书3:2)。The believer's heaven is not only a state of everlasting blessedness, but also a "place", a place "prepared" for them (John 14:2).信徒的天堂,不仅是永恒的幸福状态,而且也是一个“地方”,一个地方“准备”他们(约翰福音14:2)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Heaven天堂

Advanced Information先进的信息

New Testament usage of the word "Heaven" is used chiefly in three senses:新约圣经的使用这个词就是“天堂”,主要用于三种含义:

The phrases "new heaven" and "new earth," in contrast with "first heaven" and "first earth," refer to some unexplained change by which God will revolutionise our portion of the physical universe, cleansing it from the stain of sin and qualifying it to be the abode of blessedness.短语“新天堂”和“新地球”与“第一天”,对比“第一个地球”,指一些原因不明的改变,其中神将彻底改变我们对物理世界的一部分,清洗从罪的污点,这排位赛它是幸福的居留权。

Terms used to designate the future blessedness of the saints术语用于指定未来幸福的圣人

Literal terms:--字面而言: -

Figurative terms:--比喻条款: -

Heaven as a place作为一个地方天堂

The Scriptures represent heaven as a definite place as well as a state of blessedness.圣经明确地表示为一,以及一个国家的幸福天堂。
Joh 17:24 2Co 5:6-10 Re 5:6约17:24林后5:6-10 5:6再

Wherein does the blessedness of heaven consist as far as revealed?其中不包括幸福的天堂,据透露?

In perfect deliverance from sin and all its evil consequences physical, moral, and social.从罪恶和所有的身体,精神和社会恶果完美的解脱。
Re 7:16,17 21:4,27再7:16,17 21:4,27

In the perfection of our nature在完善我们的天性
1Co 13:9-12 15:45-49 1Jo 3:2林前13:9-12 15:45-49约一3:2

In the sight of our Redeemer, communion with his person, and fellowship in all his glory and blessedness, and through him with saints and angels.在我们的救世主,共融与他的人,金在他的所有荣耀和幸福,视力和通过他与圣徒和天使。
Joh 17:24 1Jo 1:3 Re 3:21 21:3-5约17时24分约一1点03分再3点21 21:3-5

In that "beatific vision of God" which, consisting in the ever increasingly clear discovery of the divine excellence lovingly apprehended, transforms the soul into the same image, from glory to glory.在这其中,在被捕的亲切神圣精益求精,不断发现,越来越清楚地组成“上帝的幸福的愿景”转化为相同的图像的灵魂,从辉煌走向辉煌。
Mt 5:8 2Co 3:18林后3:18 5:8山


Heaven天堂

Catholic Information天主教新闻

This subject will be treated under seven headings:这一主题将被视为下七个标题:

I. Name and Place of Heaven;一,名称和天广场;

II.二。Existence of Heaven;存在的天堂;

III.三。Supernatural Character of Heaven and the Beatific Vision;天坛超自然的性质和幸福的远景;

IV.四。Eternity of Heaven and Impeccability of the Blessed;永恒的天堂和无罪的祝福;

V. Essential Beatitude;五,基本乐的;

VI.六。Accidental Beatitude;意外乐的;

VII.七。Attributes of Beatitude.乐的属性。

I. NAME AND PLACE OF HEAVEN一,名称和天上地点

The Name of Heaven天堂的名称

Heaven (Anglo-Saxon heofon, OS hevan and himil, originally himin) corresponds to the Gothic himin-s.天堂(盎格鲁撒克逊heofon,操作系统hevan和himil,原本皇明)对应的哥特式皇明- S的。 Both heaven and himil are formed from himin by a regular change of consonants: heaven, by changing m before n into v; and himil, by changing n of the unaccented ending into l.天与himil形成了从皇明是由一个辅音的变化规律:通过改变米天前,到V氮;和himil,通过改变成N湖重音结束Some derive heaven from the root ham, "to cover" (cf. the Gothic ham-ôn and the German Hem-d).有的从根火腿,推导天堂“,以涵盖”(见的哥特式火腿上和德国下摆- D)的。According to this derivation heaven would be conceived as the roof of the world.根据这一推导天堂将视为世界的屋顶。 Others trace a connection between himin (heaven) and home; according to this view, which seems to be the more probable, heaven would be the abode of the Godhead.其他微量元素之间的皇明(天)和家庭联系;根据这种观点,这似乎是更可能的,天堂将是神的源头居留权。The Latin coelum (koilon, a vault) is derived by many from the root of celare "to cover, to conceal" (coelum, "ceiling" "roof of the world").拉丁coelum(koilon,跳马)则是由许多根的celare“掩盖,隐瞒”(coelum,“上限”,“屋顶的世界”)。 Others, however think it is connected with the Germanic himin.另一些人则认为它与日耳曼皇明相连。The Greek ouranos is probably derived from the root var, which also connotes the idea of covering.希腊乌拉诺斯可能是来自风险的根源,这也暗示着覆盖的想法。The Hebrew name for heaven is thought to be derived from a word meaning "on high"; accordingly, heaven would designate the upper region of the world.对于天堂希伯来名字被认为是从一个字,意思是“高”派生出来的;因此,天将指定世界上地区。

In the Holy Bible the term heaven denotes, in the first place, the blue firmament, or the region of the clouds that pass along the sky.在圣经一词的天堂表示,摆在首位,蓝色的苍穹,或云的天空,沿通地区。Genesis 1:20, speaks of the birds "under the firmament of heaven".创世纪1:20,说的是“苍穹下的天堂”的鸟类。In other passages it denotes the region of the stars that shine in the sky.它是指在其他段落的星星,在天空中闪烁的地区。Furthermore heaven is spoken of as the dwelling of God; for, although God is omnipresent, He manifests Himself in a special manner in the light and grandeur of the firmament.此外天堂是口语的,作为神的帐幕,因为,虽然上帝是无所不在的,表现在他在光明和宏伟的苍穹自己特殊的方式。 Heaven also is the abode of the angels; for they are constantly with God and see His face.天堂也是居留权的天使,因为他们不断与上帝,看看他的脸。With God in heaven are likewise the souls of the just (2 Corinthians 5:1; Matthew 5:3, 12).与上帝在天上也同样的正义灵魂(哥林多后书5:1;马太5:3,12)。In Ephesians 4:8 sq., we are told that Christ conducted to heaven the patriarchs who had been in limbo (limbus patrum).在以弗所书4:8平,有人告诉我们,基督进行谁曾在天堂地狱(缘patrum)被先祖。Thus the term heaven has come to designate both the happiness and the abode of just in the next life.因此,这个词已经到了天堂的幸福和划定双方的只是在未来的生活居所。The present article treats as heaven in this sense only.本文章只对待这个意义上天堂。

In Holy Scripture it is called:在神圣的经文,它被称为:

the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 5:3), the kingdom of God (Mark 9:46), the kingdom of the Father (Matthew 13:43), the kingdom of Christ (Luke 22:30), the house of the Father (John 14:2), city of God, the heavenly Jerusalem (Hebrews 12), the holy place (Hebrews 9:12; DV holies), paradise (2 Corinthians 12:4), life (Matthew 7:14), life everlasting (Matthew 19:16), the joy of the Lord (Matthew 25:21), crown of life (James 1:12), crown of justice (2 Timothy 4:8), crown of glory (1 Peter 5:4), incorruptible crown (1 Corinthians 9:25), great reward (Matthew 5:12), inheritance of Christ (Ephesians 1:18), eternal inheritance (Hebrews 9:15).天上的王国(马太5:3),神(马可福音9:46),父(马太13:43),基督(路加福音22:30)王国王国王国,父家(约翰福音14:2),市神,天上的耶路撒冷(希伯来书12),圣地(希伯来书9:12;神圣的DV),天堂(哥林多后书12:4),生活(马太7:14),生活永恒(马太19:16),主(马太25:21),生命的冠冕(雅各1:12),司法冠(2蒂莫西4:8),荣耀的冠冕的喜悦(1彼得5点04分),廉洁冠(哥林多前书9:25),伟大的奖励(马太5:12),基督(弗1:18),永恒的遗产(希伯来书9:15)继承。

The Location of Heaven天堂的位置

Where is heaven, the dwelling of God and the blessed?哪里是天堂,神的帐幕和祝福?

Some are of opinion that heaven is everywhere, as God is everywhere.有些是认为天堂无处不在,因为上帝是无处不在。According to this view the blessed can move about freely in every part of the universe, and still remain with God and see everywhere.据祝福可以自由行动的每一个宇宙的一部分,仍然与神,看到到处这一观点。Everywhere, too, they remain with Christ (in His sacred Humanity) and with the saints and the angels.无处不在,他们也仍然与基督(在他的神圣的人性),并与圣人和天使。For, according to the advocates of this opinion, the spatial distances of this world must no longer impede the mutual intercourse of blessed.因为,根据本意见的倡导者,这个世界的空间距离再也不能阻碍相互交往的祝福。

In general, however, theologians deem more appropriate that there should be a special and glorious abode, in which the blessed have their peculiar home and where they usually abide, even though they be free to go about in this world.但一般来说,神学家认为比较合适,应该有一个特殊而光荣的居留权,其中有其特殊的祝福家,其通常遵守的,尽管他们可以自由地走在这个世界上什么。 For the surroundings in the midst of which the blessed have their dwelling must be in accordance with their happy state; and the internal union of charity which joins them in affection must find its outward expression in community of habitation.对于在复杂多变的环境,其中有他们的祝福住宅必须与他们的幸福按照国家和国内的慈善机构加入联盟,这在感情的人必须在居住的社区找到其向外表达。 At the end of the world, the earth together with the celestial bodies will be gloriously transformed into a part of the dwelling-place of the blessed (Revelation 21).在世界的尽头,与地球天体一起将光荣地变成了一个该住宅-的祝福(启示录21)居住的地方。Hence there seems to be no sufficient reason for attributing a metaphorical sense to those numerous utterances of the Bible which suggest a definite dwelling-place of the blessed.因此,似乎有没有归于一个隐喻意义的圣经那些提出一个明确的住宅,许多地方的祝福话语的充分理由。Theologians, therefore, generally hold that the heaven of the blessed is a special place with definite limits.神学家,因此,一般认为,天上的祝福是一个特殊的地方有明确的限制。Naturally, this place is held to exist, not within the earth, but, in accordance with the expressions of Scripture, without and beyond its limits.当然,这个地方是认为存在不属于地球,但是,按照圣经的表达,并没有超出其极限。All further details regarding its locality are quite uncertain.所有关于它的地方进一步的细节是相当的不确定性。The Church has decided nothing on this subject.教会已决定对这个问题没有。

II.二。EXISTENCE OF HEAVEN存在的天堂

There is a heaven, ie, God will bestow happiness and the richest gifts on all those who depart this life free from original sin and personal mortal sin, and who are, consequently, in the state of justice and friendship with God.有天堂,即上帝会赐给幸福而所有这些谁离开原罪和个人弥天大罪,这辈子最富有的免费礼物,谁是,因此在与上帝的正义和友谊的状态。

Concerning the purification of those just souls who depart in venial sin or who are still subject to temporal punishment for sin, see PURGATORY.至于那些刚刚离开的灵魂在谁或谁venial单净化仍受到时间的惩罚为罪,见炼狱。On the lot of those who die free from personal sin, but infected with original sin, see LIMBO (limbus pervulorum).在这些谁无死,从个人的罪过,但随着原罪感染很多,看到地狱(缘pervulorum)。On the immediate beginning of eternal happiness after death, or eventually, after the passage through purgatory, see PARTICULAR JUDGMENT.作者:永恒的幸福后立即开始通过后死亡,或最终通过炼狱,见特定的判断。The existence of heaven is, of course, denied by atheists, materialists, and pantheists of all centuries as well as by those rationalists who teach that the soul perishes with the body - in short, by all who deny the existence of God or the immortality of the soul.存在的天堂,当然是由无神论者,唯物主义者,和所有百年,以及由这些理性谁教的灵魂与身体泛神论者亡否认 - 总之,所有谁否认上帝或不朽的灵魂存在灵魂。But, for the rest, if we abstract from the specific quality and the supernatural character of heaven, the doctrine has never met with any opposition worthy of note.但是,对于其他的,如果我们从抽象的特定质量和天坛超自然的性质,学说从来没有遇到任何反对值得注意。Even mere reason can prove the existence of heaven or of the happy state of the just in the next life.即使是单纯的理由可以证明天堂的正义在未来的生活幸福的状态存在。

We shall give a brief outline of the principal arguments.我们将给出一个简要概述的主要论据。From these we shall, at the same time, see that the bliss of heaven is eternal and consists primarily in the possession of God, and that heaven presupposes a condition of perfect happiness, in which every wish of the heart finds adequate satisfaction.从这些我们应在同一时间,看到天上的幸福是永恒的和组成,在神藏为主,而且天上的先决条件是完美的幸福条件,其中的每一个心愿找到足够满意。

God made all things for His objective honour and glory.神为他的荣誉和荣耀的客观事物。Every creature was to manifest His Divine perfections by becoming a likeness of God, each according to its capacity.每一个生物是为了体现他的神圣的成全,成为一个神,每个根据其能力相似。But man is capable of becoming in the greatest and most perfect manner a likeness of God, when he knows and loves His infinite perfections with a knowledge and love analogous to God's own love and knowledge.但人在最大的和最完美的方式对神的形像,成为当他知道,爱与他的无限完善的知识和爱类似于上帝自己的爱和知识的能力。 Therefore man is created to know God and to love Him.因此,人是创造知道上帝和爱他。Moreover, this knowledge and love is to be eternal; for such is man's capability and his calling, because his soul is immortal.此外,这方面的知识和爱,是永恒,这种是人的能力和他通话,因为他的灵魂是不​​朽的。Lastly, to know God and to love Him is the noblest occupation of the human mind, and consequently also its supreme happiness.最后,要知道上帝和爱他是人类心灵最高贵的职业,因此也是其最大的幸福。Therefore man is created for eternal happiness; and he will infallibly attain it hereafter, unless, by sin, he renders himself unworthy of so high a destiny.因此,人是创造永恒的幸福,他会实现它绝对无误以后,除非罪恶,他呈现自己如此高的命运不值得。

God made all things for His formal glory, which consists in the knowledge and love shown Him by rational creatures.上帝为他正式的荣耀,其中包括在知识和爱表现出理性的动物,他所有的东西。Irrational creatures cannot give formal glory to God directly, but they should assist rational creatures in doing so.非理性的动物不能提供正式的荣耀上帝直接,但他们应该这样做有助于理性的动物。This they can do by manifesting God's perfections and by rendering other services; whilst rational creatures should, by their own personal knowledge and love of God, refer and direct all creatures to Him as their last end.为此,他们可以通过体现上帝的完美性和提供其他服务;理性的动物,而应通过自己的个人知识和上帝的爱,是指直接为他们最后停止一切对他的生物。 Therefore every intelligent creature in general, and man in particular, is destined to know and love God for ever, though he may forfeit eternal happiness by sin.因此每一个通用智能生物,尤其是人,是注定要知道,永远爱上帝,但他可能会失去被罪永恒的幸福。

God, in his infinite justice and holiness, must give virtue its due reward.上帝,在他的无限正义与圣洁,必须给予其应有的报酬美德。But, as experience teaches, the virtuous do not obtain a sufficient reward here; hence they will be recompensed hereafter, and the reward must be everlasting, since the soul is immortal.但是,随着经验的教导,仁者没有获得足够的奖励在这里,因此他们将酬报以后,和奖励必须是永恒的,因为灵魂是不朽的。 Nor can it be supposed that the soul in the next life must merit her continuance in happiness by a continued series of combats; for this would be repugnant to all the tendencies and desires of human nature.也不能可以这样认为,在未来的生活灵魂必须值得一系列的战斗继续延续她的幸福,因为这将是令人厌恶的所有的倾向和对人性的欲望。

God, in His wisdom, must set on the moral law a sanction, sufficiently appropriate and efficacious.上帝,在他的智慧,必须树立的道德法律的制裁,充分适当和有效的。But, unless each man is rewarded according to the measure of his good works, such a sanction could not be said to exist.但是,除非每个人都是按照奖励优秀作品,他的措施,这样的制裁不能说存在。Mere infliction of punishment for sin would be insufficient.仅仅是对罪施加惩罚是不够的。In any case, reward for good deeds is the best means of inspiring zeal for virtue.在任何情况下,善行的奖励,是为美德的热情鼓舞人心的最佳手段。Nature itself teaches us to reward virtue in others whenever we can, and to hope for a reward of our own good actions from the Supreme Ruler of the universe.大自然本身告诉我们,以奖励在其他的美德时,我们可以,而且希望为我们自己从宇宙的最高统治者的良好行动的奖励。 That reward, not being given here, will be given hereafter.,奖励,没有得到这里,将给予以下。

God has implanted in the heart of man a love of virtue and a love of happiness; consequently, God, because of His wisdom, must by rewarding virtue establish perfect harmony between these two tendencies.上帝已植入了人类美德的爱心和幸福的爱,因此,神,因为他的智慧,通过奖励必须凭借这两种倾向之间建立完美的和谐。 But such a harmony is not established in this life; therefore it will be brought about in the next.但这种和谐不是建立在此生活,因此这将是在未来带来了约。Every man has an innate desire for perfect beatitude.每个人都有一个完美的乐的内在愿望。Experience proves this.经验证明这一点。The sight of the imperfect goods of earth naturally leads us to form the conception of a happiness so perfect as to satisfy all the desires of our heart.对地球的不完善商品视线自然地使我们形成了一个幸福的如此完美,以满足所有的欲望,我们的心的概念。But we cannot conceive such a state without desiring it.但是,我们不能想象没有它渴望这样一种状态。Therefore we are destined for a happiness that is perfect and, for that very reason, eternal; and it will be ours, unless we forfeit it by sin.因此,我们注定的幸福是完美的,正是由于这个原因,永恒的;这将是我们的,除非我们放弃了,罪也。A natural tendency without an object is incompatible both with nature and with the Creator's goodness.一个自然的趋势没有对象既与自然和造物主的善良不兼容。The arguments thus far advanced prove the existence of heaven as a state of perfect happiness.到目前为止,先进的论据证明自己是一个完美的幸福的状态存在的天堂。

We are born for higher things, for the possession of God.我们出生的更高的东西,为神的占有。This earth can satisfy no man, least of all the wise.这个地球能满足任何人,所有聪明的最少。"Vanity of vanities", says the Scripture (Ecclesiastes 1:1); and St. Augustine exclaimed: "Thou hast made us for Thyself (O God) and our heart is troubled till it rests in Thee." “虚空的虚空”,说的经文(传道书1:1)和圣奥古斯丁喊道:“你使为自己(上帝啊)我们和我们的心是不安,直到它在你里面休息。”We are created for wisdom, for a possession of truth perfect in its kind.我们正在创造智慧,一定的道理拥有完美的同类。 Our mental faculties and the aspirations of our nature give proof of this.我们的智力和自然的愿望给我们证明了这一点。 But the scanty knowledge, that we can acquire on earth stands in no proportion to the capabilities of our soul.但微薄的知识,我们可以在地球上获得不站在我们的灵魂的能力比例。We shall possess truth in higher perfection hereafter.我们应具备较高的完美真相以后。

God made us for holiness, for a complete and final triumph over passion and for the perfect and secure possession of virtue.神为圣洁我们,较完整和最后胜利的激情和美德的完美和安全的占有。Our natural aptitudes and desires bear witness to this.我们的天然能力和欲望见证了这一点。But this happy goal is not reached on earth, but in the next life.但是这个美好的目标没有达到在地球上,但在未来的生活。

We are created for love and friendship, for indissoluble union with our friends.我们正在创建的爱和友谊牢不可破的联盟与我们的朋友。At the grave of those we love our heart longs for a future reunion.在这些坟墓,我们爱我们​​的心渴望为未来的团聚。This cry of nature is no delusion.这自然是没有哭错觉。A joyful and everlasting reunion awaits the just man beyond the grave.团聚的欢乐,等待着永恒超越死亡正义的人。

It is the conviction of all peoples that there is a heaven in which the just will rejoice in the next life.这是所有人民坚信,有一个天堂,在其中只是将欢庆在未来的生活。But, in the fundamental questions of our being and our destiny, a conviction, so unanimous and universal, cannot be erroneous.但是,在我们的幸福和我们的命运,一个信念,如此的一致和普遍的,不能是错误的根本问题。Otherwise this world and the order of this world would remain an utter enigma to intelligent creatures, who ought to know at least the necessary means for reaching their appointed end.否则,这个世界和这个世界的秩序将仍然是一个谜,就完全,智慧生物谁应该知道,以求实现其委任结束至少必要的手段。

Very few deny the existence of heaven; and these few are practically all atheists and epicureans.极少数否认存在的天堂,而这些少数是几乎所有的无神论者和伊壁鸠鲁。But surely it cannot be that all the rest have erred, and an isolated class of men such as these are not the true guides in the most fundamental questions of our being.但是肯定不能说所有的休息有偏差,以及对这些人隔绝开来,如类没有在我们生存的最根本问题的真正的指南。For apostasy from God and His law cannot be the key to wisdom.对于来自上帝和他的法律叛教不能成为智慧的钥匙。

Revelation also proclaims the existence of heaven.启示,也宣告了天堂的存在。This we have already seen in the preceding section from the many names by which the Bible designates heaven; and from the texts of Scripture, still to be quoted on the nature and peculiar conditions of heaven.这一点我们已经看到在上一节的圣经,其中许多名称指定天堂,以及来自圣经的文本,还是要在天上的性质和特殊条件报价。

III.三。SUPERNATURAL CHARACTER OF HEAVEN AND THE BEATIFIC VISION超自然的性质作者:天堂和幸福的远景

(1) In heaven the just will see God by direct intuition, clearly and distinctly. (1)在天上看到的只是将上帝直接的直觉,明确和清晰。Here on earth we have no immediate perception of God; we see Him but indirectly in the mirror of creation.在地球上我们没有上帝的直接感知,我们在他,但间接创造的镜子里看到的。We get our first and direct knowledge from creatures, and then, by reasoning from these, we ascend to a knowledge of God according to the imperfect likeness which creatures bear to their Creator.我们从这些推理得到的,从生物第一,直接的知识,然后,我们提升到一个知识的上帝根据不完善相似的动物承担他们的造物主。 But in doing so we proceed to a large extent by way of negation, ie, by removing from the Divine Being the imperfections proper to creatures.但在这样做,我们进行了否定,即方法在很大程度上消除由神圣存在的不完善恰当的生物。In heaven, however, no creature will stand between God and the soul.在天上,但是,没有一种生物会站之间的上帝和灵魂。He himself will be the immediate object of its vision.他本人也将是其直接目标对象。Scripture and theology tell us that the blessed see God face to face.圣经和神学告诉我们,见上帝的祝福面对面。And because this vision is immediate and direct, it is also exceedingly clear and distinct.而且,由于这一设想是立即和直接的,也是非常明确和独特。Ontologists assert that we perceive God directly in this life, though our knowledge of Him is vague and obscure; but a vision of the Divine Essence, immediate yet vague and obscure, implies a contradiction.本体论者断言,我们认为上帝直接在此生活,尽管我们知道他是含糊和模糊,而是一种神圣的本质,立即又含糊和模糊的视野,隐含着矛盾。 The blessed see God, not merely according to the measure of His likeness imperfectly reflected in creation, but they see Him as He is, after the manner of His own Being.见上帝的祝福,而不是仅仅根据他的肖像创作反映措施不完善,但他们看到他,因为他是经过他自己的存在方式。That the blessed see God is a dogma of faith, expressly defined by Benedict XII (1336):见上帝的祝福这是一个信仰教条,明确由本笃十二(1336)定义:

We define that the souls of all the saints in heaven have seen and do see the Divine Essence by direct intuition and face to face [visione intuitivâ et etiam faciali], in such wise that nothing created intervenes as an object of vision, but the Divine Essence presents itself to their immediate gaze, unveiled, clearly and openly; moreover, that in this vision they enjoy the Divine Essence, and that, in virtue of this vision and this enjoyment, they are truly blessed and possess eternal life and eternal rest" (Denzinger, Enchiridion, ed. 10, n. 530--old edition, n, 456; cf. nn. 693, 1084, 1458 old, nn. 588, 868).我们定义,所有在天堂的圣徒的灵魂所看到的和直接的直觉也看到,面对神圣的本质面对这种明智的,没有什么创建为视觉目标干预[visione intuitivâ等etiam faciali],但神本质提出了自己切身的目光,推出,明确和公开,而且,在这一设想他们享有神的本质,而且,在此享受这一远景和美德,他们是真正的幸福,具有永恒的生命和永恒的休息“ (登青格,便览,编辑10,注530 - 老版本,氮,456;。比照神经网络693,1084,1458岁,神经网络588,868。。。)。

The Scriptural argument is based especially on 1 Corinthians 13:8-13 (cf. Matthew 18:10; 1 John 3:2; 2 Corinthians 5:6-8, etc.).在圣经的论点是基于尤其是在哥林多前书13:8-13(参见马修18:10;约翰一书3:2;哥林多后书5:6-8,等等)。 The argument from tradition is carried out in detail by Petavius ("De. theol. dogm.", I, i, VII, c. 7).从传统的参数进行了详细的Petavius​​(“德。theol。dogm。”,我,我,七角七)。Several Fathers, who seemingly contradict this doctrine, in reality maintain it; they merely teach that the bodily eye cannot see God, or that the blessed do not fully comprehend God, or that the soul cannot see God with its natural powers in this life (cf. Francisco Suárez, "De Deo", l. II, c. 7, n. 17).几个父亲,谁似乎与这一理论在现实中,维护它,他们只是告诉我们,身体的眼睛不能见上帝,或者说,幸福并不完全理解上帝,或者说,灵魂不能看到在此生活的自然权力神(比照。弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,“德迪奥”湖二角七,注17)。

(2) It is of faith that the beatific vision is supernatural, that it transcends the powers and claims of created nature, of angels as well as of men. (2)它是幸福的远景的信念,即是超自然的,它超越了天使,以及作为人的权力和创造性质的索赔。The opposite doctrine of the Beghards and Beguines was condemned (1311) by the Council of Vienne (Denz., n. 475 -- old, n. 403), and likewise a similar error of Baius by Pius V (Denz., n. 1003 -- old, n. 883).该Beghards和伯格音运动相反的学说被谴责(1311)由维埃纳省议会(Denz.,注475 - 老,注403),同样的Baius的庇护五世(Denz.,类似的错误全1003 - 老,注883)。The Vatican Council expressly declared that man has been elevated by God to a supernatural end (Denz., n. 1786 -- old, n. 1635; cf. nn. 1808, 1671 -- old, nn. 1655, 1527).梵蒂冈理事会明确宣布该男子已被提升到一个超自然的上帝结束(Denz.,注1786 - 老,全1635年;比照nn的1808年,1671年 - 旧,神经网络1655年,1527年。。。)。In this connection we must also mention the condemnation of the Ontologists, and in particular of Rosmini, who held that an immediate but indeterminate perception of God is essential to the human intellect and the beginning of all human knowledge (Denz., nn. 1659, 1927 -- old, nn. 1516, 1772).在这方面,我们还必须提到了本体论的谴责,并在罗斯米尼,谁认为神的即时但不确定的感觉是必不可少的人类智慧和人类一切知识(Denz.,特别是神经网络的开始。1659年, 1927年 - 旧,神经网络1516年,1772年)。。

That the vision of God is supernatural can also be shown from the supernatural character of sanctifying grace (Denz., n. 1021 -- old, n. 901); for, if the preparation for that vision is supernatural.这是神超自然的远见,也可以从超自然的sanctifying宽限期字符显示(Denz.,注1021 - 老,注901),因为,如果将这一设想是超自然的准备。Even unaided reason recognizes that the immediate vision of God, even if it be at all possible, can never be natural for a creature.即使外援的原因认识到,神立即视野,即使在所有可能的是,绝不可能为生物自然。For it is manifest that every created mind first perceives its own self and creatures similar to itself by which it is surrounded, and from these it rises to a knowledge of God as the source of their being and their last end.因为这是明显的,首先想到看待每一个建立其自身和动物类似,它本身所包围,并从这些它上升到神的作为其福利和去年年底的来源的知识。 Hence its natural knowledge of God is necessarily mediate and analogous; since it forms its ideas and judgments about God after the imperfect likeness which its own self and its surroundings bear to Him.因此,它自然知识的上帝一定是调解和类似的;因为它不完美的肖像后形成的想法和对上帝的判决,其自身及其周围舍不得他。Such is the only means nature offers for acquiring a knowledge of God, and more than this is not due to any created intellect; consequently, the second and essentially higher way of seeing God by intuitive vision can but be a gratuitous gift of Divine goodness.这就是唯一的手段获取知识的上帝性质提供,而且比这更不是因为任何创造的智慧,因此,在看到直观的视觉神的第二和更高的方式可以,但本质上是一个神的善良无偿的礼物。 These considerations prove, not merely that the immediate vision of God exceeds the natural claims of all creatures in actual existence; but they also prove against Ripalda, Becaenus, and others (Recently also Morlias), that God cannot create any spirit which would, by virtue of its nature, be entitled to the intuitive vision of the Divine Essence.这些因素证明,不仅在于神立即视力超过实际存在的所有生物的天然索赔,但他们也证明对里帕尔达,Becaenus,和其他人(最近还Morlias),即上帝不能创造任何精神将在不迟于凭借其性质,有权的神圣本质直观的视觉。 Therefore, as theologians express it, no created substance is of its nature supernatural; however, the Church has given no decision on this matter.因此,作为神学家表示它,没有创造实质是超自然的性质,但是,教会也没有就此事作出决定。Cf.比照。Palmieri, "De Deo creante et elevante" (Rome, 1878), thes.帕尔迈,“德迪奥creante等elevante”(罗马,1878年),帖。39; Morlais, "Le Surnaturel absolu", in "Revue du Clergé Français", XXXI (1902), 464 sqq., and, for the opposite view, Bellamy, "La question du Surnaturel absolu", ibid., XXXV (1903), 419 sqq. 39。莫莱克斯,“乐Surnaturel绝对完美”,在“杂志杜Clergé法语”,三十一(1902),464 sqq,并持相反的观点,贝拉米,“香格里拉问题都Surnaturel绝对完美”,同上,三十五(1903年。 ),419 sqq。St. Thomas seems to teach (I, Q. xii, a. 1) that man has a natural desire for the beatific vision.圣托马斯似乎教导(一,问:十二,甲1)人有一个幸福的远景自然的愿望。Elsewhere, however, he frequently insists on the supernatural character of that vision (eg III, Q. ix, a. 2, ad 3um).在其他地方,但是,他经常坚持这一设想的(如三,问:九,甲2,广告3um)超自然的性质。Hence in the former place he obviously supposes that man knows from revelation both the possibility of the beatific vision and his destiny to enjoy it.因此,在原地方,他显然是支撑人类从启示的可能性都在幸福的远景和自己的命运享有知悉。On this supposition it is indeed quite natural for man to have so strong a desire for that vision, that any inferior kind of beatitude can no longer duly satisfy him.在这个假设它确实是很自然的人才能有如此强烈的视觉欲望,乐的劣势,任何一种不能及时满足他。

(3) To enable it to see God, the intellect of the blessed is supernaturally perfected by the light of glory (lumen gloriae). (3),使其能够看见神,超自然的祝福是由光的荣耀(流明gloriae)完善的智慧。This was defined by the Council of Vienne in 1311 (Denz., n. 475; old, n. 403); and it is also evident from the supernatural character of the beatific vision.这是定义的维埃纳省议会在1311(Denz.,注475,旧,注403),它也是从幸福的远景超自然的性质明显。 For the beatific vision transcends the natural powers of the intellect; therefore, to see God the intellect stands in need of some supernatural strength, not merely transient, but permanent as the vision itself.对于幸福的愿景超越自然的智慧力量,因此,看到上帝的智慧矗立在某种超自然力量的需要,而非仅仅是短暂的,但由于本身的永久视力。 This permanent invigoration is called the "light of glory", because it enables the souls in glory to see God with their intellect, just as material light enables our bodily eyes to see corporeal objects.这是永久的振兴被称为“荣耀之光”,因为它使在荣耀的灵魂,看看他们的智慧与神,正如材料光使我们的身体的眼睛看到有形的物体。

On the nature of the light of glory the Church has decided nothing.论荣耀的教会没有光的性质决定。 Theologians have elaborated various theories about it, which, however, need not be examined in detail.神学家对此,阐述了其中,但是,没有必要在详细研究各种理论。According to the view commonly and perhaps most reasonably held, the light of glory is a quality Divinely infused into the soul and similar to sanctifying grace, the virtue of faith, and the other supernatural virtues in the souls of the just (cf. Franzelin, "De Deo uno", 3rd ed., Rome, 1883, thes. 16).根据一般的看法,也许是最合理的举行,是神荣耀的光注入灵魂和类似sanctifying宽限期,美德的信念,一个质量,以及在刚刚(参见Franzelin的灵魂其他超自然的美德, “德迪奥乌诺”,第3版。,罗马,1883年,帖。16)。It is controverted among theologians whether or not a mental image, be it a species expressa or a species impressa, is required for the beatific vision.这是神学家之间与否精神形象,无论是一个物种或一个物种impressa expressa,对于幸福的愿景需要有争议。But by many this is regarded as largely a controversy about the appropriateness of the term, rather than about the matter itself.但是,这被看作是许多主要是对这个词是否恰当,而不是对事件本身争议。The more common and probably more correct view denies the presence of any image in the strict sense of the word, because no created image can represent God as He is (cf. Mazzella, "De Deo creante", 3rd ed., Rome, 1892, disp. IV, a. 7, sec. 1).比较常见的,也许更正确的观点否定了任何图像在严格意义上的存在,因为没有创建的图像可以代表上帝,因为他是(参见Mazzella,“德迪奥creante”,第3版。,罗马,1892年,DISP键。四,答:7秒。1)。 The beatific vision is obviously a created act inherent in the soul, and not, as a few of the older theologians thought, the uncreated act of God's own intellect communicated to the soul.幸福的远景显然是一个创造行为所固有的灵魂,而不是上了年纪的神学家数,思想,神自己的智慧传达给灵魂毁灭的行为。For, "as seeing and knowing are immanent vital actions, the soul can see or know God by its own activity only, and not through any activity exerted by some other intellect. Cf. Gutherlet, "Das lumen gloriae" in "Pastor bonus", XIV (1901), 297 sqq.因为,“如同看见和知道是内在的重要行动,灵魂可以看到或只,而不是通过一些其他的智慧。比照。Gutherlet,施加任何活动知道自己的活动神”之腔gloriae“中的”牧师奖金“ ,第十四条(1901年),297 sqq。

(4) Theologians distinguish the primary and the secondary object of the beatific vision. (4)神学家区分主要和次要的幸福的远景目标。The primary object is God Himself as He is.主要对象是因为他是上帝。The blessed see the Divine Essence by direct intuition, and, because of the absolute simplicity of God, they necessarily see all His perfections and all the persons of the Trinity.一件值得庆幸的看到神的本质直接的直觉,而且,由于神的绝对简单,他们一定会看到所有的成全和所有的三位一体的人。 Moreover, since they see that God can create countless imitations of His Essence, the entire domain of possible creatures lies open to their view, though indeterminately and in general.此外,由于他们看到,上帝可以创造无数模仿他的本质,可能的生物整个域在于开放他们的观点,但indeterminately和一般。 For the actual decrees of God are not necessarily an object of that vision, except in as afar as God pleases to manifest them.为上帝的实际法令并不一定是这一设想的对象除了作为远方,上帝高兴来体现他们。Therefore finite things are not necessarily seen by the blessed, even if they are an actual object of God's will.因此,有限的东西不一定看到的祝福,即使他们是神的旨意实际的对象。Still less are they a necessary object of vision as long as they are mere possible objects of the Divine will.更是他们的眼光,只要他们是神的意志仅仅是可能的对象必需的对象。Consequently the blessed have a distinct knowledge of individual possible things only in so far as God wishes to grant this knowledge.因此有福了只有在迄今为止的神要给予这方面的知识是个人独特的知识可能的事情。Thus, if God so willed, a blessed soul might see the Divine Essence without seeing in it the possibility of any individual creature in particular.因此,如果上帝意欲,可能会看到一个幸福的灵魂也没有看到任何生物的可能性,特别是个别的神圣本质。But in fact, there is always connected with the beatific vision a knowledge of various things external to God, of the possible as well as of the actual.但事实上,总有幸福的远景与该事物的各种可能的外部知识的神,以及实际的作为。All these things, taken collectively, constitute the secondary object of the beatific vision.所有这些事情,采取集体,构成了幸福的远景第二个对象。

The blessed soul sees these secondary objects in God either directly (formaliter), or in as far as God is their cause (causaliter).一件值得庆幸的灵魂在上帝直接看到这些辅助对象(formaliter),或在尽可能上帝是他们的事业(causaliter)。 It sees in God directly whatever the beatific vision discloses to its immediate gaze without the aid of any created mental image (species impressa).它认为无论幸福的远景披露其立即没有任何创造精神的形象(物种impressa)凝视上帝直接援助。In God, as in their cause, the soul sees all those things which it perceives with the aid of a created mental image, a mode of perception granted by God as a natural complement of the beatific vision.神,因为在他们的事业,灵魂看到所有这些事情,它与创造精神形象的援助,是上帝赐予的感知模式是一个天然的补幸福的视觉感知。 The number of objects seen directly in God cannot be increased unless the beatific vision itself be intensified; but the number of things seen in God as their cause may be greater of smaller, or it may very without any corresponding change in the vision itself.看到神的直接对象的数量不能增加,除非幸福的远景本身得到加强,但在神的事情看作是他们的事业可能是更小的数目更大,也很可能在视觉上没有任何相应的变化本身。

The secondary object of the beatific vision comprises everything the blessed may have a reasonable interest in knowing.作者:幸福的远景第二个对象包括所有的祝福在明知可能有合理的利益。 It includes, in the first place, all the mysteries which the soul believed while on earth.它包括,首先,所有的奥秘它的灵魂,在地球上相信。Moreover, the blessed see each other and rejoice in the company of those whom death separated from them.此外,祝福看到的那些人死于他们彼此分开公司欢喜。The veneration paid them on earth and the prayers addressed to them are also known to the blessed.地球上的敬仰支付给他们,他们的祈祷也是众所周知的祝福。All that we have said on the secondary object of the beatific vision is the common and reliable teaching of theologians.所有这一切,我们对幸福的远景第二个对象说是共同的神学家和可靠的教学。In recent times (Holy Office, 14 Dec., 1887) Rosmini was condemned because he taught that the blessed do not see God Himself, but only His relations to creatures (Denz., 1928-1930 -- old, 1773-75).在(圣办事处,1887年12月14日)是近代罗斯米尼谴责,因为他告诉我们,没有看到上帝保佑自己辩护,但只有他的关系,以动物(Denz.,1928年至30年 - 老,1773年至1775年)。In the earlier ages we find Gregory the Great ("Moral.", l. XVIII, c. liv, n. 90, in PL, LXXVI, XCIII) combating the error of a few who maintained that the blessed to not see God, but only a brilliant light streaming forth from Him.在较早的时代,我们发现高利大(“道德”。湖十八角丽芙,全在特等,LXXVI,XCIII 90)打击少数错误谁主张,幸运地没有看到上帝,但只有一个灿烂的光流出来了他。Also in the Middle Ages there are traces of this error (cf. Franzelin, "De Deo uno", 2nd ed., thes. 15, p. 192).另外,在中世纪有此错误的痕迹(见Franzelin,“德迪奥乌诺”,第二版。,帖。15,第192页)。

(5) Although the blessed see God, they do not comprehend Him, because God is absolutely incomprehensible to every created intellect, and He cannot grant to any creature the power of comprehending Him as He comprehends Himself. (5)虽然见上帝的祝福,他们不理解他,因为上帝是绝对不可理解的每造的理智,而且他也没有给予任何生物的理解他,因为他领悟自己的力量。Francisco Suárez rightly calls this a revealed truth ("De Deo", l. II, c. v, n. 6); for the Fourth Council of the Lateran and the Vatican Council enumerated incomprehensibility among the absolute attributes of God (Denz., nn. 428, 1782 -- old nn. 355, 1631).弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯正确地要求这是一个揭示真理(“德迪奥”湖二角五,注6);为的lateran和梵蒂冈会第四届理事会列举其中的神(De​​nz.绝对不可理解的属性, nn的428,1782 - 。nn的355岁,1631年)。。The Fathers defend this truth against Eunomius, an Arian, who asserted that we comprehend God fully even in this life.父亲为自己辩护的反对Eunomius,阿里安,谁主张事实,我们理解神在此生活完全均匀。The blessed comprehend God neither intensively nor extensively - not intensively, because their vision has not that infinite clearness with which God is knowable and with which He knows Himself, nor extensively, because their vision does not actually and clearly extend to everything that God sees in His Essence.理解上帝的祝福,也没有广泛深入 - 不深入,因为他们的眼光已经不是无限的清晰与上帝是可知的,并与他知道自己,也不广泛,因为他们的眼光并不实际,明确扩大到一切,上帝看到了他的本质。 For they cannot by a single act of their intellect represent every possible creature individually, clearly, and distinctly, as God does; such an act would be infinite, and an infinite act is incompatible with the nature of a created and finite intellect.因为他们不能用他们的智慧代表一切可能的生物个体,清晰,有明显的单一行为,因为上帝不会;这样的行为将是无限的,无限的行为是与一个有限的智力创造和性质不符。 The blessed see the Godhead in its entirety, but only with a limited clearness of vision (Deum totum sed non totaliter).一件值得庆幸的看到在整个神体,但只有一个清晰的电视有限公司(赞美颂totum桑达非totaliter)。 They see the Godhead in its entirety, because they see all the perfections of God and all the Persons of the Trinity; and yet their vision is limited, because it has neither the infinite clearness that corresponds to the Divine perfections, nor does it extend to everything that actually is, or may still become, an object of God's free decrees.他们看到神体的全部,因为他们看到所有的完美性的上帝和所有的三位一体的人;,但他们的目标是有限的,因为它没有清晰的无限对应神圣完美,也没有延伸到一切实际上是,或仍成为,成为神的自由法令的对象。 Hence it follows that one blessed soul may see God more perfectly than another, and that the beatific vision admits of various degrees.因此,可以得出一个得天独厚的灵魂可能会看到更完美的上帝比另一个,而幸福的远景不同程度的承认。

(6) The beatific vision is a mystery.(6)幸福的远景是一个谜。Of course reason cannot prove the impossibility of such a vision.当然原因不能证明这样的远景是不可能的。For why should God, in His omnipotence, be unable to draw so near and adapt Himself so fully to our intellect, that the soul may, as it were, directly feel Him and lay hold of Him and look on Him and become entirely immersed in Him?对于为什么要上帝,在他的全能,所以无法得出自己这么近,完全适应我们的智慧,即灵魂可能,因为它是直接感觉到他打下抓住他,并期待在他身上,成为完全沉浸在他呢? On the other hand, we cannot prove absolutely that this is possible; for the beatific vision lies beyond the natural destiny of our intellect, and it is so extraordinary a mode of perception that we cannot clearly understand either the fact or the manner of its possibility.另一方面,我们不能证明绝对认为这是可能的;为幸福的远景超出了我们的智慧自然的命运在于,它是如此非凡的感知模式,我们不能清楚地了解无论是事实还是其可能性的方式。

(7) From what has been thus far said it is clear that there is a twofold beatitude: the natural and the supernatural.(7)从已表示,迄今为止,有一个明确的双重乐的:自然和超自然的。As we have seen, man is by nature entitled to beatitude, provided he does not forfeit it by his own fault.正如我们所看到的,人是有资格对乐的性质,只要他不放弃他自己的过错了。We have also seen that beatitude is eternal and that it consists in the possession of God, for creatures cannot truly satisfy man.我们也看到,乐的是永恒的,它包含在上帝的身上,因为动物不能真正满足的人。Again, as we have shown, the soul is to possess God by knowledge and love.同样地,我们已经表明,灵魂是拥有的知识和爱上帝。But the knowledge to which man is entitled by nature is not an immediate vision, but an analogous perception of God in the mirror of creation, still a very perfect knowledge which really satisfies the heart.但是,这名男子的知识本质上是有权不立即视力,而且是上帝在创造镜子,仍然是一个非常完美的知识,真正满足了心类似的看法。 Hence the beatitude to which alone we have a natural claim consists in that perfect analogous knowledge and in the love corresponding to that knowledge.因此,乐的,就因为只有我们有一个天然的索赔包括在这完美的类似的知识和爱的相应的知识。This natural beatitude is the lowest kind of felicity which God, in His goodness and wisdom, can grant to sinless man.这自然beatitude是最低的一种幸福是上帝,在他的善良和智慧,可以授予对无罪的人。But, instead of an analogous knowledge of His Essence He may grant to the blessed a direct intuition which includes all the excellence of natural beatitude and surpasses it beyond measure.但是,而不是其本质类似的知识,他可能给予直接的直觉的祝福,其中包括所有的自然乐的卓越和超越无可估量的。It is this higher kind of beatitude that it has pleased God to grant us.正是这种乐的一种,它具有更高的高兴上帝给我们。And by granting it He not merely satisfies our natural desire for happiness but He satisfies it in superabundance.并给予它的时候,不仅满足了我们对自然的愿望,但他的幸福满足中过剩的。

IV.四。ETERNITY OF HEAVEN AND IMPECCABILITY OF THE BLESSED永恒天堂和无罪的祝福

It is a dogma of faith that the happiness of the blessed is everlasting.这是一个信仰教条,幸福的祝福是永恒的。This truth is clearly contained in the Holy Bible (see Section I); it is daily professed by the Church in the Apostles' Creed (credo . . . vitam aeternam), and it has been repeatedly defined by the Church, especially by Benedict XII (cf. Section III).这个真理显然是包含在圣经(见​​第一节),它是由教会自称每天在使徒们的信条,并已多次明确由教会,特别是由本笃十二(信条vitam aeternam。。。) (参见第三节)。Even reason, as we have seen, can demonstrate it.即使原因,正如我们所看到的,可以证明它。And surely, if the blessed knew that their happiness was ever to come to an end, this knowledge alone would prevent their happiness from being perfect.而且可以肯定,如果知道他们的幸福祝福到底要走到了尽头,单是这方面的知识防止被完美的幸福感。

In this matter Origen fell into error; for in several passages of his works he seems to incline to the opinion that rational creatures never reach a permanent final state (status termini), but that they remain forever capable of falling away from God and losing their beatitude and of always returning to Him again.在这个问题上俄陷入错误;在他的作品为几个段落,他似乎倾向于认为,理性的动物,从来没有达成永久的最终状态(状态总站),但他们永远远离上帝下降,失去他们的能力乐的和总是回到他了。 The blessed are confirmed in good; they can no longer commit even the slightest venial sin; every wish of their heart is inspired by the purest love of God.一件值得庆幸的是确认好的,他们再也不能犯哪怕是一丁点venial单,每一个他们心中的愿望,是由上帝的最纯粹的爱的启发。 That is, beyond doubt, Catholic doctrine.也就是说,毫无疑问,天主教的教义。Moreover this impossibility of sinning is physical.而且这种斯辛宁不可能是物质的。The blessed have no longer the power of choosing to do evil actions; they cannot but love God; they are merely free to show that love by one good action in preference to another.的祝福已不再是选择做邪恶的行动的力量,他们不能不爱上帝,他们只是自由地表明,一个良好的行动优先爱到另一个地方。 But whilst the impeccability of the blessed appears to be unanimously held by theologians, there is a diversity of opinion as to its cause.不过,虽然无罪的祝福似乎是一致的神学家举行,有一种意见就其起因的多样性。According to some, its proximate cause consists in this that God absolutely withholds from the blessed His co-operation to any sinful consent.据一些,其直接原因在于这是神绝对扣发的祝福他合作,任何有罪的同意。The beatific vision does not, they argue, of its very nature exclude sin directly and absolutely; because God may still displease the blessed soul in various ways, eg, by refusing a higher degree to beatitude, or by letting persons whom that soul loves die in sin and sentencing them to eternal torment.不幸福的远景,他们认为,其本身的性质直接和绝对排除罪,因为上帝可能仍然以各种方式不悦得天独厚的灵魂,如拒绝向乐的程度较高,或出租者,他们的灵魂,爱死在罪恶和判刑他们永恒的折磨。 Moreover, when great sufferings and arduous duties accompany the beatific vision, as was the case in the human nature of Christ on earth, then at least the possibility of sin is not directly and absolutely excluded.此外,在极大的痛苦和艰巨的任务伴随着幸福的远景,因为是在地球上的基督人性的话,那么至少罪的可能性不是直接和绝对排除在外。

The ultimate cause of impeccability is the freedom from sin or the state of grace in which at his death man passes into the final state (status termini), ie into a state of unchangeable attitude of mind and will.对无罪的根本原因是从罪自由或国家的宽限期,其中在他去世的人传递到最终状态(状态总站),成为一个不可改变的思想和意志,即国家​​的态度。 For it is quite in consonance with the nature of that state that God should offer only such co-operation as corresponds to the mental attitude man chose for himself on earth.因为这是在灵犀相当符合该国的神应该只提供这种合作的性质,对应于人的心理态度,为自己选择了在地球上。For this reason also the souls in purgatory, although they do not see God, are still utterly incapable of sin.也是由于这个原因在炼狱中的灵魂,虽然他们没有看到上帝,但仍然不能完全罪。The beatific vision itself may be called a remote cause of impeccability; for by granting so wondrous a token of His love, God may be said to undertake the obligation of guarding from all sin those whom He so highly favours, whether by refusing all co-operation to evil acts or in some other manner.幸福的远景本身可称为一个无罪远因;供给予如此奇妙的是他的爱的象征,上帝可以说承担一切的罪的责任人,他守卫如此高度的青睐,无论是拒绝所有合作操作罪恶行径或以其他方式。 Besides, even if the clear vision of God, most worthy of their love, does not render the blessed physically unable, it certainly renders them less liable, to sin.此外,即使上帝明确的目标,最值得他们的爱情,不使身体无法有福了,这当然使他们少承担责任,向罪。

Impeccability, as explained by the representatives of this opinion, is not, properly speaking, extrinsic, as is often wrongly asserted; but it is rather intrinsic, because it is strictly due to the final state of blessedness and especially to the beatific vision.无罪,按本意见的代表解释说,不,正确地说,外在的,正如人们经常错误地断言,但比较内在的,因为它是由于严格的幸福,特别是对幸福的愿景最终状态。 This is substantially the opinion of the Scotists, likewise of many others, especially in recent times.这是大致的Scotists认为,同样的,许多其他国家,特别是在近代。Nevertheless the Thomists, and with them the greater number of theologians, maintain that the beatific vision of its very nature directly excludes the possibility of sin.尽管如此,,并与他们更多的神学家,Thomists坚持认为,其本身的性质直接排除了幸福的远景罪的可能性。For no creature can have a clear intuitive view of the Supreme Good without being by that very fact alone irresistibly drawn to love it efficaciously and to fulfil for its sake even the most arduous duties without the least repugnance.对于没有一种生物可以在没有仅仅依靠不可抗拒提请喜欢它efficaciously,并为其着想,即使是最艰巨的任务完成毫不反感着这样一个事实身为至善清晰直观的看法。 The Church has left this matter undecided.教会已经离开这个问题悬而未决。The present writer rather inclines to the opinion of the Scotists because of its bearing on the question of the liberty of Christ.目前的作家,而倾向于对由于其对自由问题的基督轴承Scotists意见。(See HELL under the heading Impenitence of the Damned.)(看见地狱。诅咒下的标题不知悔改)

V. ESSENTIAL BEATITUDE五,乐的本质

We distinguish objective and subjective beatitude.我们区分客观和主观乐的。Objective beatitude is that good, the possession of which makes us happy; subjective beatitude is the possession of that good.乐的目的是好的,藏,使我们快乐;主观beatitude是该藏好。The essence of objective beatitude, or the essential object of beatitude is God alone.客观乐的,或者是乐的主要对象实质是上帝。For the possession of God assures us also the possession of every other good we may desire; moreover, everything else is so immeasurably inferior to God that its possession can only be looked upon as something accidental to beatitude.因为神的占有也向我们保证每一个其他好,我们可能希望拥有,而且,一切是那么不可估量不如上帝,其所拥有的,只能被看作偶然的东西时,就乐的。 Finally, that all else is of minor importance for beatitude is evident from the fact that nothing save God alone is capable of satisfying man.最后,这一切为乐的未成年人的重要性是显而易见的事实是,没有什么拯救只有上帝是满足人的能力。Accordingly the essence of subjective beatitude is the possession of God, and it consists in the acts of vision, love, and joy.因此,主观乐的本质是神藏,并在远见,爱和欢乐的行为组成。The blessed love God with a twofold love; with the love of complacency, by which they love God for His own sake, and secondly with the love less properly so called, by which they love Him as the source of their happiness (amor concupiscentiae).爱上帝的祝福与双重爱与爱的自满,由他们为了自己的爱上帝,其次较少的所谓正确的爱,由他们爱你,如同他们的幸福源(阿穆尔concupiscentiae)他, 。In consonance with this twofold love the blessed have a twofold joy; firstly, the joy of love in the strict sense of the word, by which they rejoice over the infinite beatitude which they see in God Himself, precisely because it is the happiness of God whom they love, and secondly, the joy springing from love in a wider sense, by which they rejoice in God because He is the source of their own supreme happiness.在这双重的和谐与爱的祝福有双重的喜悦:首先,在严格意义上的字,由他们在无限乐的,他们看在上帝的爱的欢乐喜悦,正是因为它是上帝的幸福他们爱的人,其次,欢乐从更广泛的意义,由他们在神欢喜,因为他是自己最大的幸福源泉爱如雨后春笋。 These five acts constitute the essence of (subjective) beatitude, or in more precise terms, its physical essence.这五种行为构成,或者更确切而言,其物理本质的(主观)乐的精髓。In this theologians agree.在这种神学家同意。

Here theologians go a step farther and inquire whether among those five acts of the blessed there is one act, or a combination of several acts, which constitutes the essence of beatitude in a stricter sense, ie its metaphysical essence in contradistinction to its physical essence.在这里,神学家去更远了一步,并询问是否在这五个行为的祝福有一个行为,或几种行为组合,构成了在严格意义上乐的本质,即其在对比其物理本质的形而上学的本质。 In general their answer is affirmative; but in assigning the metaphysical essence their opinions diverge.一般情况下他们的回答是肯定的,但在分配的形而上学本质​​的意见分歧。The present writer prefers the opinion of St. Thomas, who holds that the metaphysical essence consists in the vision alone.现在的作家更喜欢的圣托马斯,谁认为,在视觉上的形而上学本质​​单独组成意见。For, as we have just seen, the acts of love and joy are merely a kind of secondary attributes of the vision; and this remains true, whether love and joy result directly from the vision, as the Thomists hold, or whether the beatific vision by its very nature calls for confirmation in love and God's efficacious protection against sin.因为,正如我们刚才看到的那样,爱和喜悦的行为只是一个次要的远见一种属性的人,这仍是如此,无论是爱和喜悦的结果直接从视觉,作为Thomists持有,还是幸福的远景由于其本身的性质要求确认在爱和上帝的反罪恶有效的保护。

VI.六。ACCIDENTAL BEATITUDE意外乐的

Besides the essential object of beatitude the souls in heaven enjoy many blessings accidental to beatitude.除了对乐的主要目的在天堂的灵魂乐的欣赏到许多意外的祝福。We shall mention only a few:我们将只提几个:

In heaven there is not the least pain or sadness; for every aspiration of nature must be finally realized.在天堂里有没有最痛苦或悲伤,为每一个自然的愿望必须得到最终实现。The will of the blessed is in perfect harmony with the Divine will; they feel displeasure at the sins of men, but without experiencing any real pain.的祝福将是符合神的意志的完美和谐,他们感到不满的人的罪,但没有遇到任何真正的痛苦。

They delight greatly in the company of Christ, the angels, and the saints, and in the reunion with so many who were dear to them on earth.他们喜欢在基督,天使,圣人,公司和大团聚有这么多谁是他们亲爱的地球上。After the resurrection the union of the soul with the glorified body will be a special source of joy for the blessed.复活后的荣耀的身体与灵魂的联盟将是一个幸福快乐的特殊来源。

They derive great pleasure from the contemplation of all those things, both created and possible, which, as we have shown, they see in God, at least indirectly as in the cause.他们能从所有这些因素都沉思非常高兴,同时创造和可能,这正如我们已经表明,他们见上帝,至少间接的事业。And, in particular, after the last judgment the new heaven and the new earth will afford them manifold enjoyment.而且,特别是在最后判决的新天堂和新的地球将给予他们多方面的享受。(See GENERAL JUDGMENT.) (见总体判断。)

The blessed rejoice over sanctifying grace and the supernatural virtues that adorn their soul; and any sacramental character they may have also adds to their bliss.过圣洁的恩典和超自然的美德装饰他们的灵魂幸福快乐,以及任何神圣性,他们可能也增加了他们的幸福。

Very special joys are granted to the martyrs, doctors, and virgins, a special proof of victories won in time of trial (Revelation 7:11 sq.; Daniel 12:3; Revelation 14:3 sq.).非常特别的喜悦被授予烈士,医生和处女,一个特殊的胜利证明在审判时韩元(启示录7:11平方米;丹尼尔12:3;启示录14:3平方米)。 Hence theologians speak of three particular crowns, aureolas, or glorioles, by which these three classes of blessed souls are accidentally honoured beyond the rest.因此,神学讲三个特别冠,aureolas,或glorioles,其中灵魂的祝福这三个类是意外之外,其余荣幸。Aureola is a diminutive of aurea, ie aurea corona (golden crown).光环是罗非鱼矮小,即罗非鱼电晕(金皇冠)。(Cf. St. Thomas, Supp:96.) (参见圣托马斯,增刊:96。)

Since eternal happiness is metaphorically called a marriage of the soul with Christ, theologians also speak of the bridal endowments of the blessed.因为永恒的幸福是所谓的比喻与基督灵魂的婚姻,神学家也讲的祝福新娘禀赋。They distinguish seven of these gifts, four of which belong to the glorified body - light, impassibility, agility, subtility (see RESURRECTION); and three to the soul - vision, possession, enjoyment (visio, comprehensio, fruitio).他们区分七个这些礼物,其中四个属于荣耀的身体 - 光,impassibility,敏捷性,subtility(见复活),以及三至灵魂 - 远见,拥有,享受(Visio中,理解能力,fruitio)。Yet in the explanation given by the theologians of the three gifts of the soul we find but little conformity.然而,在通过我们的灵魂找到,但符合三个小礼物的神学家的解释。We may identify the gift of vision with the habit of the light of glory, the gift of possession with the habit of that love in a wider sense which has found in God the fulfilment of its desires, and the gift of enjoyment we may identify with the habit of love properly so called (halitus caritatis) which rejoices to be with God; in this view these three infused habits would he considered simply as ornaments to beautify the soul.我们可以认同的荣耀之光的视觉习惯的礼物,与更广泛的意义上,在对上帝的爱,已发现了它的愿望实现的习惯拥有的礼物,礼物的享受,我们可以认同爱的习惯所谓正确(halitus caritatis)的欢欣和上帝,在这三个观点,他认为注入习惯,也只是作为装饰美化的灵魂。(Cf. St. Thomas, Supp:95) (参见圣托马斯,增刊:95)

VII.七。ATTRIBUTES OF BEATITUDE乐的属性

There are various degrees of beatitude in heaven corresponding to the various degrees of merit.有不同程度的天堂乐的对应于不同程度的好处。This is a dogma of faith, defined by the Council of Florence (Denz., n. 693 -- old, n. 588).这是一个教条的信仰,由理事会确定的佛罗伦萨(Denz.,注693 - 老,注588)。The Bible teaches this truth in very many passages (eg, wherever it speaks of eternal happiness as a reward), and the Fathers defend it against the heretical attacks of Jovinian.圣经教导这个真理在很多段落(例如,无论它是永恒的幸福说,作为一个奖励),父亲抵御Jovinian邪教攻击。 It is true that, according to Matthew 20:1-16, each labourer receives a penny; but by this comparison Christ merely teaches that, although the Gospel was preached to the Jews first, yet in the Kingdom of Heaven there is no distinction between Jew and Gentile, and that no one will receive a greater reward merely because of being a son of Judah.这是事实,根据马修20:1-16,每个劳动者收到一分钱,而是由这种比较基督只是教导我们,虽然福音是鼓吹向犹太人第一,在天国还没有任何区别犹太人和外邦人,而且没有人会接受一个仅仅因为犹大的儿子是一个更大的回报。 The various degrees of beatitude are not limited to the accidental blessings, but they are found first and foremost in the beatific vision itself.作者:乐的各种学位不限于意外的祝福,但他们首先发现在幸福的远景本身。 For, as we have already pointed out, the vision, too, admits of degrees.因为,正如我们已经指出,远见,也承认学位。These essential degrees of beatitude are, as Francisco Suárez rightly observes ("De beat.", d. xi, s. 3, n. 5), that threefold fruit Christ distinguishes when He says that the word of God bears fruit in some thirty, in some sixty, in some a hundredfold (Matthew 13:23).这些基本的乐的程度,正如弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯正确指出(“德击败。”四席,第3条,注5),这三方面的水果基督区别时,他说,上帝的话,熊在大约30个水果在某些六十,在一些一百倍(马太13:23)。 And it is by a mere accommodation of the text that St. Thomas (Supp:96, aa. 2 sqq.) and other theologians apply this text to the different degrees in the accidental beatitude merited by married persons, widows, and virgins.它是由文字,圣托马斯仅仅住宿(增刊:。。96,机管局2 sqq)和其他神学家在适用本已婚者,寡妇,和处女值得意外乐的不同程度的文本。

The happiness of heaven is essentially unchangeable; still it admits of some accidental changes.幸福的天堂基本上是不可改变的,但仍然是一些意外的变化承认。Thus we may suppose that the blessed experience special joy when they receive greater veneration from men on earth.因此,我们可以假设经验特别高兴的祝福,当他们收到来自地球上的人更大的尊敬。In particular, a certain growth in knowledge by experience is not excluded; for instance, as time goes on, new free actions of men may become known to the blessed, or personal observation and experience may throw a new light on things already known.特别是,在一定的增长知识的经验是不排除,例如,随着时间的推移,新的自由行动的男子可能成为众所周知的祝福,或个人的观察和经验,可能会引发对已知事物的新灯熄灭。 And after the last judgment accidental beatitude will receive some increase from the union of soul and body, and from the sight of the new heaven and the earth.和之后的意外乐的最后判决将收到一些来自工会的灵魂和身体的增加,从天地新景象。

Publication information Written by Joseph Hontheim.出版信息撰稿约瑟夫洪特海姆。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


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