Hinduism - Brahmanism印度教 - 婆罗门教

General Information一般资料

Developed in northern India about 950 BC发达国家在印度北部的约公元前950

The Four Vedas are the sacred books of the Hindi四吠陀是神圣的书籍的印地文

Hinduism emphasizes the necessity of escaping from material life and of extinguishing desire.印度教强调,从物质生活和灭火的愿望逃跑的必要性。Hinduism is very ritualistic and includes extreme self denial and self punishment.印度教是非常仪式,其中包括极端的自我否定和自我惩罚。Cows are considered sacred as are rivers.奶牛被认为是神圣的,因为是河流。Most Hindus believe in the transmigration of souls (reincarnation), where when a person dies, his soul enters the body of a newborn child or even the body of an animal.大多数印度教徒相信灵魂轮回(轮回),就是当一个人去世,他的灵魂进入了一个新生婴儿的身体,甚至动物的身体。Over and over.一遍又一遍。 Therefore, devout Hindus will not kill even a fly.因此,虔诚的教徒不会杀连一只苍蝇。They are vegetarians, lest by eating meat they become cannibals.他们是素食主义者,免得他们就会成为食人吃肉。

The caste system in India is directly related to their religious beliefs.印度的种姓制度,直接关系到他们的宗教信仰。About 2500 years before Christ, a white people called the Aryans came to India (probably from Persia.)约2500年前基督,一个白色的人称为雅利安人来到印度(可能来自波斯。)

The Aryans formed a caste system in order to maintain the purity of their blood and to maintain white supremacy.雅利安人形成了种姓制度,以维持其血液的纯度和维护白人至上。Originally, they recognized only four castes:原来,他们认识到只有四个种姓:

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息来源
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

我们2300 宗教科目名单

Later, these four castes multiplied until today where there are thousands of castes in India.后来,这四个种姓成倍增加,直到今天那里有成千上万的印度种姓。Only Hindus practice the caste system; it is abandoned if a Hindu becomes a Mohammedan or a Christian.只有印度教徒实行种姓制度,它是被遗弃的,如果一个印度教成为伊斯兰教或基督教。

The castes became hereditary which meant that all sons are necessarily members of the same caste as their fathers and that he has to follow his father's occupation.世袭的种姓成为这意味着所有的儿子一定是作为他们的父亲同种姓的成员,而且他已跟随他父亲的职业。The 7000 modern castes even include a caste of thieves!7000现代种姓,甚至包括种姓的小偷!

If someone is expelled from his caste or has no caste by birth, he is known as an Untouchable, a pariah, and such a person is in a hopeless and pitiable condition. There are currently more than 60,000,000 untouchables in India.如果有人被驱逐出他的种姓或没有种姓,因出生,称他是一个贱民,一个贱民,这样的人,条件是在绝望和可怜。 目前有超过60,000,000印度贱民在印度。

Hinduism teaches that anyone born into a lower caste or an Untouchable is being punished for the sins committed in his past life.印度教教导出生到低种姓或一个碰不得的,任何人都正在为自己过去的生活中犯下的罪孽的惩罚。If such a person is calmly resigned to his fate and lives rightly, he will be elevated in caste in his next life. This premise tends to make the members of the lower castes and the untouchables submissive to the terrible economic and social conditions under which they live.如果这样的人是冷静地辞职,他的命运和生活正确的,他将在他的种姓提高未来的生活。 这个前提往往使低种姓成员和贱民顺从可怕的经济和社会条件下,他们生活。

Brahma is the chief god, the omnipresent one who is father of the Brahman Trinity.梵天是主要的神,无处不在一个谁是婆罗门三位一体的父亲。He has four heads, three of which (representing their Trinity) can be seen from any point of view.他有四个头,其中3个(代表其三一)可以从任何角度来看。


Advanced Information先进的信息

Hinduism, one of the great religions of the world, is the major religion of India, where nearly 85 percent of the population is classified as Hindu.印度教,世界上的伟大的宗教之一,是印度,有近百分之85的人口是印度教分类主要宗教。Hinduism has developed over about 4,000 years and has no single founder or creed; rather, it consists of a vast variety of beliefs and practices. Organization is minimal and hierarchy nonexistent.印度教已开发了约4000多年,并没有单一的创始人或信仰而是由一个庞大的多种做法和信仰不存在的组织是最小和层次结构。 In its diversity, Hinduism hardly fits most Western definitions of religion; rather, it suggests commitment to or respect for an ideal way of life, known as Dharma.在它的多样性,印度教并不符合大多数西方的宗教定义,相反,它意味着承诺,或为一个理想的生活方式为佛法称为尊重。

Beliefs and Practices信仰和实践

Caste System种姓制度

The ideal way of life is sometimes referred to in classical sources and by Hindus as the "duties of one's class and station" (varnasramadharma).在理想的生活方式有时被称为古典来源和印度教徒为(varnasramadharma)的“一个人的阶级和站职责”。 The term "class" (varna) is one of the words connoting the Caste system peculiar to India. The ancient texts suggest four great classes, or castes: the Brahmins, or priests; the Ksatriyas, or warriors and rulers; the Vaisyas, or merchants and farmers; and the Sudras, or peasants and laborers.所谓“一流”(瓦尔纳)是印度一对的话connoting种姓制独有的:。 古老文本建议四大类,或种姓的婆罗门,或祭司的Ksatriyas,或战士和统治者;的Vaisyas,或商人和农民,以及首陀罗,或农民和劳动者。 A fifth class, Panchamas, or Untouchables, includes those whose occupations require them to handle unclean objects.第五类,Panchamas,或铁面无私,包括那些职业要求他们处理不干净的对象。It is speculated that the Untouchables were originally assigned such lowly tasks because of their non Aryan origins.据推测,铁面无私最初转让的,因为他们的非雅利安人的起源等低任务。This classification system hardly does justice to the modern complexity of the caste system, however.这个分类系统几乎不正义的种姓制度现代复杂,但是。The classical works on dharma specify distinct duties for different classes, in keeping with the distinct roles each is expected to play in the ideal society.对佛法的经典作品不同类别指定不同的职责,与每一个预计的理想社会中发挥独特的作用一致。

Stages of Life生命阶段

The classical works also outline four ideal stages (asrama), or stations of life, each with its own duties.经典的作品还概述了​​四个理想阶段(asrama),或生活站,有自己的职责每个。The first of these is studentship (brahmacarya), from initiation at 5 to 8 years of age until marriage; the second, householdership (grihasthya), when one marries, raises a family, and takes part in society; the third, forest dwelling (vanaprasthya), after one's children have grown; and the fourth, renunciation (samnyasa), when one gives up attachment to all worldly things and seeks spiritual liberation.其中第一个是助学金(brahmacarya),从5至8岁开始直到结婚;第二,householdership(grihasthya),当一结婚,引起了家庭,并参与社会的一部分,第三,森林居住的( vanaprasthya),一年后的孩子已经长大,第四,放弃(samnyasa),当一个人放弃所有世俗的东西附件,并寻求精神上的解放。Besides the duties that are derived from an individual's class and station, general duties (sanatanadharma) are also incumbent on all moral beings.除了那些从个人的阶级和车站,一般责任派生职责(sanatanadharma)也对所有的道德人的责任。These include honesty, courage, service, faith, self control, purity, and nonviolence.这些包括诚实,勇气,服务,信念,自我控制,纯度,和非暴力。

These ideal classes and stations encompass males only.这些理想的班级和车站仅包括男性。The position of women in Hinduism has always been ambiguous; they are, on the one hand, venerated as a symbol of the divine, on the other, treated as inferior beings.在印度教的妇女的地位一直不明确,他们是,一方面作为神圣象征的崇敬,作为低人一等对待其他。Women were traditionally expected to serve their husbands and to have no independent interests.妇女传统可望成为她们的丈夫,并没有独立的利益。Recent movements within Hinduism, however, such as the Brahmo Samaj, have succeeded in altering this situation.在印度教,但是,如近期走势的Bra​​hmo社会报,已成功地改变这种状况。

Aims of Life生命的目的

Dharma is only one of the four aims of life (purusartha) distinguished within Hinduism. 佛法是唯一的印度教四位一体的目标的生命(purusartha内)不同。It is thought of as superior to two others - kama, or enjoyment of desires, and artha, or material prosperity.它是认为是优于其他两个- 卡马,或享受的欲望的,和artha,或物质繁荣。 These three constitute the aims of those in the world (pravritti).这三个构成的世界(pravritti)这些目的。The fourth aim is liberation (moksa), the aim of those who renounce the world (nivritti), and this is classically viewed as the supreme end of man.第四个目标是解放(moksa)时,这些目标是谁放弃世界(nivritti),这是经典的人视为月底的最高。

Karma and Rebirth因果报应与重生

A widespread feature of classical Hinduism is the belief in Transmigration of Souls, or samsara, the passage of a soul from body to body as determined by the force of one's actions, or Karma.一个普遍的特点是古典印度教中的灵魂,或轮回,一个灵魂从身体到身体通过轮回信仰,由一个人的行动,或业力决定的。The strict karma theory specifies that one's type of birth, length of life, and kinds of experiences are determined by one's previous acts.严格的因果报应说,一个指定的类型的诞生,生命的长度,和经验种由一个以前的行为决定的。 This is modified in popular understanding, but it probably has remained a strong influence on most Hindus throughout history.这是修改流行的理解,但它可能仍然是一个印度教徒在整个历史上最强大的影响力。Liberation is release from this cycle of rebirth.解放是从这个轮回释放。It is typically to be achieved by working out those karmic residues which have already begun to mature, as well as by following certain practices to ensure that no further residues are produced to cause future rebirths.它通常要达到的工作了那些已经开始走向成熟的业力残留,按照一定的做法,以确保不会再产生残留物会导致未来的轮回以及。 The practices by which one can achieve this are frequently termed Yoga, and the theory of liberation is the core of Indian philosophy.的做法,其中一个可以做到这一点常常被称为瑜伽,和解放理论是印度哲学的核心。


Hinduism is usually said to include six philosophical systems.印度教通常说包括六个哲学体系。The systems called Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya, and Yoga emphasize yogic practices coupled with an understanding of basic principles of metaphysics and epistemology.该系统称为正理,Vaisheshika,数论,瑜伽强调与形而上学和认识论的基本原理的理解结合瑜伽做法。 Nyaya, in addition, includes an analysis of logic.正理,此外,包括逻辑分析。The systems called Mimamsa identify the performance of ritual - the Vedic sacrifice, or actions performed in that spirit - as the means to liberation.该系统称为弥曼差识别仪式表演 - 吠陀牺牲,或行动,这种精神表现 - 为解放的手段。The many Vedanta systems, taking their inspiration from the Upanishads, tend to emphasize understanding of the relationship between the self (Atman) and ultimate reality (Brahman) as the critical aspect of any path to liberation.在许多韦丹塔系统,即从奥义书他们的灵感,往往强调之间的自我(阿特曼),并最终现实(婆罗门)作为任何路径,以解放的重要方面关系的理解。 Philosophies associated with sectarian movements, such as the Bhakti cults, frequently localized in a linguistic or cultural area within the subcontinent, emphasize the path of theistic devotion.与宗派运动,如巴克蒂邪教组织经常在本地化的语言或文化领域内的次大陆,相关的哲学,强调有神论的奉献的道路。

Hindu Deities印度教神

The two great theistic movements within Hinduism are Vaishnavism, the cult of Vishnu, and Shaivism, the cult of Shiva.这两个伟大有神论的变动 Vaishnavism印度教毗湿奴邪教和湿婆教,邪教的湿婆。Hindu belief, however, usually holds that the universe is populated by a multitude of gods.印度教的信仰,但是,通常认为,宇宙是由一个人口众多的神。These gods share to some extent the features of the Godhead but are seen as behaving much as humans do and as being related to each other as humans are.这些神份额在一些神性的特点,但为人类做多的表现和程度正在看彼此相关的人类。

This view is similar to that of the ancient Greeks.这种观点是相似的古希腊人。For example, the supreme gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva and some of the other gods are often viewed as activated through their relationships with female deities.例如,梵天,毗湿奴和湿婆神和其他一些最高神往往被视为激活通过与女性神的关系。These female consorts to the deities are called Shakti.这些女性的神后妃被称为沙克蒂。Other well known gods are said to be relatives of a supreme god, such as Ganesha, the elephant - headed god, a son of Shiva and Parvati.其他一些著名的神据说是一个至高无上的神的亲属,如俄尼沙,大象, - 为首的主神,是湿婆与帕尔瓦蒂的儿子。Kali, or Durga, the consort of Shiva, is worshiped widely throughout India in the autumn.卡利,或杜尔加,配偶的湿婆,是供奉印度各地普遍在秋季。Hanuman, the monkey - faced god, is depicted in many shrines, and along with Lakshmi, Vishnu's wife, is among the most important deities associated with Vaishnavism.哈努曼,猴子 - 面对的神,是描绘在许多神社,而且随着拉克什米,毗湿奴的妻子,在与Vaishnavism相关的最重要的神的。The sets of gods recognized by different sects are by no means mutually exclusive, however.神的不同教派认可套绝不是相互排斥的,但是。

Forms of Worship形式的崇拜

Hindu worship takes many forms.印度教崇拜采取许多形式。One of the least frequent is the congregational form so familiar in the West.最不频繁的形式之一,是公理,所以在西方熟悉。 Vedic sacrifices were conducted in any open place properly consecrated. Typical Hindu daily worship (puja) includes a stop at several shrines, a visit to a temple, and home worship. A Hindu may be devoted to several gods: the image of one god, frequently a family deity, is commonly installed in a small shrine in the home; a second god, worshiped at a nearby temple, may be the divinity to which the person's caste is committed; and still another may be the god to whom the individual makes obeisance as his Guru (teacher) or his guru's tutor.吠陀牺牲了在任何地点进行正常打开神圣的神。 典型的印度教日崇拜(puja)和家庭,包括停止在几个参观神社,寺庙中,:崇拜。印度教可用于几个神的形象之一,往往一个家庭神,通常安装在一个小神社在家里;第二个神,在附近的寺庙崇拜,可能是神给该人的种姓承诺;还有一个可能是上帝给谁的人作出了拜他为师(教师)或其导师的导师。 Because everything is sacred in a Hindu's eyes, almost anything may be considered worthy of devotion; rivers, cowpens, and the retreats of holy men are among the holy places frequented by the devout.因为一切都在一个印度教的眼睛神圣的,几乎什么都可以被视为值得奉献;河流,考彭斯和神圣的男子务虚会经由虔诚的常去的圣地。

Home Worship家庭崇拜

Home worship typically involves purification of the area through fire, water, and the drawing of symbolic diagrams.家庭崇拜通常涉及净化,通过火,水区,以及象征性图形的绘制。Depending on one's class and station, the frequency with which a Hindu is expected to perform the rites, and the role performed in them, will differ.根据一个人的阶级和站,与一名印度教预计执行仪式的频率,并在他们执行的角色,会有所不同。The rites involve offering food, flowers, or incense to the deity, together with appropriate recitations of sacred words or texts.仪式包括提供食物,鲜花或香的神,与神圣的词或文字适当朗诵在一起。An especially important ritual is known as sraddha, in which Hindu males symbolically support their father, grandfathers, and great - grandfathers in other worlds by offering water and balls of rice; this ritual dates from Vedic times.一个特别重要的仪式被称为sraddha,其中男性象征印度教支持他们的父亲,祖父,和伟大 - 祖父在其他世界通过提供水和饭团,从吠陀时代这个仪式的日期。The worshiper requires the services of a priest on this occasion, as for other life cycle ceremonies such as birth, initiation, marriage, and death.崇拜者需要一个牧师在这个场合的服务,至于其他的生活,如出生,启蒙,婚姻,生死轮回仪式。

Temple Worship寺礼拜

The priests also carry out temple worship, although the devotee may participate in the reading of certain hymns or prayers and may give flowers or money to the god directly.祭司还开展寺庙朝拜,虽然信徒可以参加某些赞美诗或祷告读,可能会花或钱交给上帝直接。The image of a god is believed to be the god, and the cycle of worship in a temple centers on the daily life of the god, involving preparation of the god for worship - waking him up with bells, purifying him with incense, bathing him, dressing him, and feeding him.一个神的形象被认为是神,崇拜在寺庙中心周期对日常生活的神的崇拜,涉及神准备, - 觉醒的钟声他,净化他的香火,他洗澡,包扎他,喂他。The worshiper comes to the temple to view (darshana) the god and to receive the food (prasada) that the god has touched.崇拜者来到庙观看(darsh​​ana)神和接受食品(prasada)说,神感动。As in the cycle of an ordinary person, special days occur in the cycle of the god of the temple, and on these days special ceremonies are held.正如在一个普通的人周期,特别天发生在神的庙宇周期,在这些天举行特别仪式。 These are frequently the times of festivals and may involve elaborate ceremonies: pilgrimages of vast numbers of devotees, processions bearing the god's image throughout the city or countryside, and special music, plays, and dances for the occasion.这些往往是时代的节日,并可能涉及复杂仪式:对信徒,游行轴承在整个城市或农村,特别音乐之神的形象,戏剧和舞蹈的场合广大朝圣。

Sacred Cities and Festivals神圣的城市和节日

The seven sacred cities of Hinduism are the following: Varanasi (Benares), Hardwar, Ayodhya, Dwarka, Mathura, Kanchipuram (Conjeeveram), and Ujjain.印度教的七个神圣的城市如下:瓦拉纳西(贝拿勒斯),硬件,阿约提亚,德瓦卡,马图拉,Kanchipuram(Conjeeveram)和乌贾因。 Other important pilgrimage spots include Madurai, Gaya, Prayaga (Allahabad), Tirupati, and Puri.其他重要的朝圣景点包括马杜赖,加雅,Prayaga(阿拉哈巴德),蒂鲁帕蒂,和普里。

Each of these places has one or more temples where annual festivals are celebrated that attract large numbers of pilgrims.每个这些地方有一个或多个寺庙当年度节日庆祝吸引大批的朝圣者。

Certain festival days are celebrated throughout India on a day fixed according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar.某些节日是印度各地庆祝固定根据印度教的阴阳历一天。Prominent among these is Dipavali, the "Festival of Lights," occurring in October and November, at which lamps are placed around the house to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity.其中最突出的是Dipavali的“灯节”,在十月和十一月,在这灯是在家里,欢迎拉克什米,繁荣的女神放置发生。 Holi, a spring festival in February or March, is a day of riotous funmaking; this frequently involves temporary suspension of caste and social distinctions, and practical jokes are the order of the day.洒红节,在二月,三月春天的节日,是一个缤纷funmaking天,这常常涉及到种姓和社会的区别暂停,和恶作剧是家常便饭。 In the fall (September and October) a ten day period is set aside to honor the Mother Goddess, culminating in Dashara, the tenth day, a day of processions and celebrations.在秋季(九月和十月)为期10天期限是预留荣誉女神,在Dashara,第十天,一天的游行和庆祝活动的高潮。 This festival is extremely important in Bengal, where it is known as Durga Puja.这个节日是非常重要的孟加拉,它是杜尔加法会而闻名。

History and Literature历史与文学

Scholars sometimes distinguish Vedism, the religion of ancient India based on the Vedas, from Hinduism, although it is difficult to pinpoint a time that demarcates them.学者有时分辨Vedism,古印度宗教对来自印度教吠陀经为基础,虽然这是很难确定的时间,划定他们。The Vedas were hymns of the Aryans, who invaded in the 2d millennium BC.吠陀是赞美诗的雅利安人,谁在二维公元前入侵。

Vedism stressed hope for a future existence in heaven and lacked the concepts of karma and rebirth; Hinduism characteristically includes karma and rebirth, and the greatest hope is for eventual release from their sway. Vedism强调了未来的生存希望在天堂,缺乏因果报应与重生的概念;印度教典型包括业和再生,而最大的希望是最终释放其摆动。

The Vedic deities were somewhat different from those which dominate in Hinduism, although scholars have traced the origins of Vishnu and Shiva back to Vedic counterparts.吠陀神祗有所那些在印度教占主导地位不同,虽然学者们的毗湿奴和湿婆追溯到起​​源回到吠陀同行。Later Vedism is sometimes called Brahmanism because of the authority accorded the Brahmins, or priests, who performed the ritual Vedic sacrifice.后来Vedism有时也被称为是因为赋予了婆罗门,或祭司,谁完成了仪式吠陀牺牲婆罗门教的权威。However, the challenge of non - Vedic religions, notably Buddhism and Jainism, led to the replacement of the rigid Brahmanical rules by more relaxed and varied forms of worship.然而,非挑战 - 吠陀宗教,特别是佛教和耆那教,崇拜领导更轻松,多样形式的刚性婆罗门规则的替代品。

Although the Vedas continue to be spoken of as the final authority in Hinduism, other texts of equal importance exist.虽然吠陀继续谈到的最后权威在印度教,其它文本具有同等的重要性存在。Thus, a literature was developed for each of the four aims of life: various Dharmasastras, such as the Code of Manu, which detail the duties of class and station; Kamasastras, such as the Kamasutras of Vatsyayana, handbooks of pleasure, erotic and otherwise; the Arthasastra, attributed to Kautilya (fl. 300 BC), which, like Machiavelli's The Prince, offers advice to a ruler as to how to keep the throne; and the philosophical literature of the various systems, which deals with liberation and how to achieve it.因此,文学是生活的各个开发的四个宗旨:各种Dharmasastras,如马努守则,其中详细阐述了阶级和站职责; Kamasastras瓦茨亚亚那例如在Kamasutras,手册的乐趣,色情和其他;的Arthasastra,归因于Kautilya(活动于公元前300年),其中,像马基雅维里的王子,提供保持王位的意见,一把尺子,如何,以及系统,各种哲学文献,其中涉及解放和如何实现这一目标。

In addition, certain collections of tales came to be widely known in popular life, especially the two great epics, the Mahabarata and the Ramayana.此外,某些收藏的故事,后来被广泛流行的生活,尤其是两个伟大的史诗,Mahabarata和罗摩衍那闻名。The Mahabharata tells of five princes who were cheated out of their kingdom and who, after a period of banishment in the forest, returned to fight a victorious and righteous war to regain it.讲述的摩诃婆罗多五王子谁是他们的王国,谁被骗去后,在森林里的放逐期间,回到打一场胜利和正义的战争,恢复它。An especially beloved portion of this epic is the section called the Bhagavad Gita, in which Arjuna, one of the brothers, is counseled by his charioteer Krishna, an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.这部史诗的一个特别心爱的部分是一段称为薄伽梵歌,其中阿朱那,兄弟之一,是毗湿奴由他的charioteer克里希纳,主的一个化身。 The Ramayana tells the story of the ideal Hindu man, Rama, whose wife Sita is abducted by a demon, and of Rama's journey to Sri Lanka to recapture her.罗摩衍那讲述了印度教的人的理想,拉玛,他的妻子悉由恶魔绑架的故事,拉玛的旅程,斯里兰卡夺回她。Both epics are filled with didactic tales, edifying poems, and fables. It is probably through their constant retelling in the village that Hinduism is most efficiently disseminated from generation to generation. Another source of Hindu lore is the Puranas, collections of legends and myths.这两个史诗充满说教的故事,启发性的诗,和寓言。 它可能是通过他们的村庄,印度教中不断复述是最有效的一代又一代的传播。另一个来源印度教传说是Puranas,神话传说和珍藏。

The period from roughly 500 BC to 1000 AD is sometimes spoken of as that of classical Hinduism.从大约公元前500年至公元1000有时口语的,因为是古典印度教。It was during this period that the major literature was composed, the great philosophical systems developed, and the basic Vaishnava and Shaiva sects organized.正是在这个时候,文学的主要组成,伟大的哲学体系发达的阶段,其基本毗湿奴和Shaiv​​a教派组织。After 1000, beginning in south India somewhat earlier, a spirit of devotional fervor coupled with social reform swept through India, and the period from that time until near the present is known as the bhakti period.经过1000年,在印度南部稍早,通过一个与社会改革席卷印度加上虔诚热情的精神,从那个时候到现在的近作为巴克提时期的所知时期的开始。 During this time the forms of religious worship changed and diversified further.在此期间,宗教崇拜的形式,多元化的进一步改变。 Singing of devotional songs and poems in the vernacular rather than in Sanskrit, the language in which practically all classical Hindu literature was written, is one example.虔诚的歌曲及白话诗,而不是在梵文,在印度,其中几乎所有的古典文学是书面语言,唱歌是一个例子。Direct approach to the god was emphasized, and the mediating role of the priest somewhat curtailed.直接的办法来强调神,祭司和调解的作用有所削弱。Love, a sentiment common to all but particularly to the most ordinary villager, is now celebrated as the way to the highest end; some bhakti philosophies hold that liberation is not the supreme goal and that loving service to God is a higher one.爱,一种情感共同所有,但尤其是对最普通的村民,现在庆祝结束为最高的方式向;一些巴克提哲学认为,解放是不是最高目标,并热爱服务,以上帝是较高的。

Recent developments in Hinduism are indicative of a movement away from certain aspects of classical practice, such as Suttee, a widow's suicide at her husband's funeral; caste distinctions; and even karma and rebirth.最近的事态发展在印度教是一个运动的指示远离某些方面的经典做法,如Suttee,一个寡妇在丈夫的葬礼自杀;种姓区别,甚至业和再生。

Karl H Potter卡尔ħ波特

Bibliography: 参考书目:
AL Basham, The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism (1989); S Chennakesavan, A Critical Study of Hinduism (1980); TJ Hopkins, The Hindu Religion Tradition (1971); D Kinsley, Hinduism (1982); KK Klostermaier, A Survey of Hinduism (1988); R Lannoy, The Speaking Tree (1974); WD O'Flaherty, Dreams, Illusions and Other Realities (1984); LSS O'Malley, Popular Hinduism (1935); KM Sen, Hinduism (1961); P Thomas, Hindu Religion, Customs and Manners (1981); RC Zaehner, Hinduism (1962).美联巴沙姆,起源和发展古典印度教(1989年)中,S Chennakesavan,是印度教的批判性研究(1980); TJ霍普金斯,印度教宗教传统(1971年); ð金斯利,印度教(1982年);株式会社Klostermaier,一项调查印度教(1988)与r Lannoy,口试树(1974年);的WD奥弗莱厄蒂,梦想,幻想和(1984)其他现实;六标准差奥马利,大众印度教(1935年);知识森,印度教(1961年); P托马斯,印度教宗教,习俗和礼仪(1981年);钢筋混凝土Zaehner,印度教(1962年)。


General Information一般资料

Shiva (Sanskrit for "auspicious one"), also called Siva, is the Hindu god who personifies both the destructive and the procreative forces of the universe.湿婆(梵文为“吉祥人”),也称为湿婆,谁是印度教神的化身都破坏性和宇宙的生育力。As the destroyer, he is represented wearing a necklace of skulls and surrounded by demons.作为驱逐舰,他是代表佩戴项链的头骨和恶魔所包围。His reproductive aspect is symbolized by the lingam, a phallic emblem.他的生殖方面是象征着由林甘,一个阳具象征。Shiva is also the god of asceticism and of art, especially dancing.也是湿婆神的禁欲主义和艺术,尤其是跳舞。He rides on the bull Nandi, and his consort is the mother goddess Uma, or Kali.他骑在牛南迪,和他的配偶是母亲女神乌玛,或卡利。Some Hindus worship Shiva as the supreme deity and consider him a benevolent god of salvation as well as a god of destruction.一些印度教徒崇拜湿婆作为最高神,并认为他是善神的救恩,以及神的破坏。

Some Important Hindu Religious Documents Follow:一些重要的印度教宗教文献遵循:

The Laws of Manu该法律的马努

1500 BC公元前1500年

translated by G Buhler翻译由G布勒

Chapter I第一章

1.1。The great sages approached Manu, who was seated with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped him, spoke as follows:伟大的先贤马努接近,谁坐在一个收集头脑,并有适当的崇拜他,以如下:
2.2。'Deign, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones. '设计,神一,申报准确,我们在适当的顺序(四长)种姓(瓦尔纳)和中间的每一个神圣的法律。
3.3。'For thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (ie) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this whole ordinance of the Self existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.' '因为你,主啊,独自一人所知道的主旨,在这个自我存在(Svayambhu),这是不可知和深不可测的整条条例(IE)的仪式,和灵魂的知识,(教)。'
4. 4。He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high minded great sages, duly honoured them, and answered, 'Listen!'他的权力是无量,正因此,由志同道合的伟大先哲的高要求,及时兑现他们,回答说:'听着!
5.5。This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep.这(宇宙)在黑暗的形状unperceived,独特的标志,高不可攀,以理服人贫困的存在,不可知,完全沉浸,因为它是在深睡眠。

6. 6。Then the divine Self existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness.然后,神圣的自我存在(Svayambhu,本人)无形,(但)制造(全部)这一点,伟大的元素,其余的可辨,出现了不可抗拒的(创造性的)权力,消除黑暗。
7. 7。He who can be perceived by the internal organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal, who contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will).他谁可以被视为由内部器官(单独),谁是微妙的,无形,和永恒的,谁包含了所有创造的人,是不可想象的,照他自己的规定(会)。
8. 8。He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters, and placed his seed in them.他也想能生产出自己的身体,与创建的水域首先想到多种人,并放置在他们自己的种子。
9.9。That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world.这(种子),成为一个金蛋,等于在辉煌的太阳,在这(蛋),他本人是婆罗门,整个世界祖出生。
10.10。The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana.水域被称为narah,(供)水,的确都是在奈良后代;,因为他们是他的第一个居住地(ayana),他从那里被命名为纳拉亚纳。

11. 11。From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male (Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman.从这个(第一)的原因,这是无形的,永恒的,都真实和虚幻,制作,男性(Purusha),谁是这个世界上著名的(根据称谓)婆罗门。
12. 12。The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it into two halves;在这神圣的一蛋居住在整整一年中,他的思想(单独),那么他自己它分为两半;
13. 13。And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters.并且其中两半,他形成了天地,它们之间的中间领域,天边的八个点,并在水面的永久居所。
14.14。From himself (atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the mind egoism, which possesses the function of self consciousness (and is) lordly;从自己做起(atmanah)他还抽出了头脑,这既是现实和虚幻的,同样从头脑利己主义,它具有自我意识的功能(现在也是)气派;
15. 15。Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the five organs which perceive the objects of sensation.此外,一个伟大的灵魂,所有的(产品)的三个素质的影响,并在它们的顺序,五脏的感知感觉的对象。

16. 16。But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of himself, he created all beings.但是,加入与自己颗粒细微颗粒,即使这六个,其中有无量权力,他创造了一切众生。
17.17。Because those six (kinds of) minute particles, which form the (creator's) frame, enter (a - sri) these (creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the body.)由于这些六(种)的微粒,形成的(创作者)帧,输入(一 - 斯里兰卡)这些(生物),因此聪明的呼叫他的骨架舍利,(。身体)
18. 18。That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the framer of all beings, the imperishable one.这是伟大的元素进入,加上其职能和心灵通过其分部分,所有的人,因此不朽一成帧器。
19.19。But from minute body ( - framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the perishable from the imperishable.但是,从分体 - 颗粒非常强大Purushas这七个泉今(世界),从不朽的易腐(帧)。
20.20。Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place (in the sequence) each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess.其中的每一次(元)收购了前面的一个质量,以及任何地方(序列)他们每个人占有,即使如此很多,这是申报拥有的素质。

21. 21。But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even according to the words of the Veda.但在开始时,他选派了几个名字,行为和条件,所有(创建人),甚至根据吠陀的话。
22.22。He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice.他的主,也创造了神,谁是赋予生命,其性质是动作类,以及微妙的Sadhyas类,永恒的牺牲。
23.23。But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, for the due performance of the sacrifice.从火,风,阳光,他抽出了吠陀的三个永恒的,而是叫里克多维,Yagus,与萨满,为牺牲应有的表现。
24. 24。Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, plains, and uneven ground.时间和时间的划分,二十八宿和其他行星,河流,海洋,高山,平原,地面不平。
25.25。Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to call these beings into existence.紧缩,语音,愉悦,欲望,愤怒,整个创作他同样产生,因为他需要调入这些生命的存在。

26. 26。Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to be affected by the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure.此外,为了区别行动,他从记过分离的优点,而且他所造成的生物是由对(对立),如痛苦和快乐,受到影响。
27. 27。But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned, this whole (world) is framed in due order但随着颗粒分钟易腐的五个(元素),其中已提到,整个(世界)是为了在适当的框架
28.28。But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings), that alone it has spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation.但是,当然的任何行动的主,在首次获委任为每个(对人的那种),这本身已经自发地通过在每一个成功的创造。
29. 29。Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it.无论他分配在(一)建立,毒性或无害,温柔或凶猛,或凭借罪,真或假,给每个不放(事后)自发到它。
30.30。As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action.截至季节的每个赛季自行承担其特殊标志的变化,即使这样有形的人(恢复在新产)他们(委任)的行动方针。

31. 31。But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet.但对于他的世界所造成的梵书,该刹帝利的Vaisya,和首陀罗要从他的嘴巴,他的手臂,他的大腿,脚繁荣的缘故。
32. 32。Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Virag.划分自己的身体,主成为半雌雄各半;与该(女),他制作呗。
33.33。But know me, O most holy among the twice born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that male, Virag, himself produced, having performed austerities.但是我知道啊,最受两次出生圣洁的,是这整个(世界)的创造者,其中,男性,维拉格,自己生产的,具有履行austerities。
34. 34。Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and (thereby) called into existence ten great sages, lords of created beings,然后,我也想能产生创造的人,表现的非常困难的苦行,和(从而)到存在的十大圣人,所谓的创建人领主,
35.35。Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Praketas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada. Mariki,阿特里,Angiras,Pulastya,Pulaha,Kratu,Praketas,Vasishtha,Bhrigu和纳茹阿达。

36. 36。They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of measureless power,他们创造了其他七个马努斯拥有巨大的辉煌,神与神和伟大先哲无量电力类,
37.37。Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of the gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the snake deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird deities called) Suparnas and the several classes of the manes, Yakshas(即Kubera仆人,恶魔的称呼)Rakshasas和Pisakas,干达婆(或神音乐家),Apsarases(神的舞者),阿修罗,(即所谓的蛇神)纳迦和Sarpas,(鸟神称为)Suparnas和几个班级的鬃毛,
38. 38。Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds,闪电,雷电和云层,不完善(rohita)和完美的彩虹,落下的流星,超自然的噪音,彗星,和天上的多种灯,
39. 39。(Horse faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, (马面对)Kinnaras,猴子,鱼,许多种,牛,鹿,人,与两排牙齿食肉兽鸟,
40.40。Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several kinds of immovable things.小型和大型蠕虫以及甲虫,蛾类,虱子,苍蝇,臭虫,所有的刺痛和咬昆虫和几种不动产的事情。

41. 41。Thus was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high minded ones by means of austerities and at my command, (each being) according to (the results of) its actions.因此,是整个(创造),无论是不动产和动产,由这些高志同道合的公司生产的苦修方式,在我的命令,(每个)根据(结果)的行动。
42. 42。But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to you, as well as their order in respect to birth.但是,不管行为是指出(属于)至(每个)这些动物在这里下面,我将真正向你声明,以及他们在出生顺序有关。
43.43。Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are born from the womb.牛,鹿,两排牙齿食肉兽,Rakshasas,Pisakas,男人从诞生子宫。
44.44。From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic (animals).从卵出生鸟类,蛇类,鳄鱼,鱼,龟,以及类似的陆地和水生(动物)。
45.45。From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind which are produced by heat.从热湿春刺痛和咬虫,虱子,苍蝇,臭虫,和所有其他(生物)那是一种由产生的热量。

46. 46。All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those) which, bearing many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit;所有的植物,以种子繁殖或单,长出竹笋,每年的植物(是的),其中,轴承后,其果实成熟许多鲜花和水果,亡;
47. 47。(Those trees) which bear fruit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest); but those which bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha. (这些树),其中一些没有鲜花水果被称为vanaspati(领主的森林),而那些熊都鲜花和水果被称为vriksha。
48.48。But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips.但有许多各种植物秸秆,从一个或几个根,草生长的不同种类,以及所有的攀援植物从种子或从攀缘植物春季单。
49.49。These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts (in former existences), possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain.这些(植物),它们由各种形式的黑暗,其行为造成的包围(在以前的存在),具有内在的自觉和体验快乐和痛苦。
50.50。The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just mentioned immovable creatures).在这生死总是很糟糕,不断变化的圆的(各种)条件的创建人是主体,首先是表示(即)婆罗门,并结束与(即)这些(刚才提到的不动产生物) 。

51. 51。When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other.当他的权力是难以理解的,因而产生了宇宙和男人一样,他消失在自己,一再打压由其他手段之一时期。
52.52。When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to sleep.当那神圣的一醒来,那么这个世界搅动,当他睡着了平静,那么宇宙汇睡觉。
53.53。But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions and mind becomes inert.但是,当他寄托在平静的睡眠中,其本质就是行动,停止他们的行动和思想都变得迟钝有形众生。
54. 54。When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly slumbers, free from all care and occupation.当他们一次全部被吸收在这个伟大的灵魂,那么他是谁所有的人甜蜜的睡着了,从所有关心和职业自由的灵魂。
55. 55。When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame.当这个(灵魂)已进入黑暗,但它仍然为各机关(感觉)联合国很长一段时间,但不执行其职能,它然后离开肉体框架。

56. 56。When, being clothed with minute particles (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, united (with the fine body), a (new) corporeal frame.当,正与细微颗粒衣服(只),它进入,它就会假定,团结(与健康的体魄),一个(新)有形的框架将植物或动物的种子。
57. 57。Thus he, the imperishable one, by (alternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys this whole movable and immovable (creation).因此,他的不朽之一(轮流)清醒和沉睡,不断revivifies和摧毁整个动产和不动产(创作)。
58. 58。But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to the rule, to me alone in the beginning; next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages.但他有这些机构组成(神圣法律),亲自教他们,根据规则,在开始时对我独自接我(教他们)到Mariki和其他圣人。
59. 59。Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from me.Bhrigu,在这里,您将充分背诵这些机构,该学会在其圣人从我完全的整体。
60. 60。Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 'Listen!'然后,这个伟大的圣人Bhrigu,因此被处理的马努,发言,很高兴在他心里,所有的圣贤,'听!

61. 61。Six other high minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the Self existent (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created beings,六,其他高头脑,非常强大的马努斯,谁属于这个马努,对自我存在(Svayambhu)后裔的比赛,谁也连带产生的创建人,
62. 62。(Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son of Vivasvat. (是)Svarokisha,Auttami,Tamasa,Raivata,Kakshusha,具有很大的光泽,以及Vivasvat儿子。
63. 63。These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this whole movable and immovable (creation), each during the period (allotted to him).这七个非常光荣马努斯,首先是Svayambhuva其中,生产和保护整个动产和不动产(创作),在此期间(分配给他)每个。
64. 64。Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one muhurta, and as many (muhurtas) one day and night.十八nimeshas(眼睛twinklings,仍是一个kashtha),第三kashthas一黑热病,第三kalas一muhurta,以及多达(muhurtas)一昼夜。
65. 65。The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night (being intended) for the repose of created beings and the day for exertion.太阳分昼夜,包括人力和神圣的,为人类创造的休息和劳累一天的晚上(即意)。

66. 66。A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights.一个月是一天,一晚上的鬃毛,但该部门是根据fortnights。The dark (fortnight) is their day for active exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep.黑暗中(双周)是他们的积极努力,光明(双周)他们对睡眠的昼夜。
67.67。A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards night.一年是一天,一晚上的神,他们的分工是(如下):一年半期间,太阳发展到北部将会有一天,这期间它去南方的夜晚。
68. 68。But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order.但听到现在的简介(描述)的期限一夜一天的婆罗门和几个年龄(世界,尤加)根据它们的顺序。
69.69。They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number.他们宣布Krita年龄四千年(神)条(组成),它在黄昏前尽可能多的数百名组成,和黄昏后同号码。
70.70。In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are diminished by one.在其他三个与他们的黄昏之前和之后的老化,数千,数百人减少了一个。

71. 71。These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are called one age of the gods.这十二万(年),它因而被正如四(人)的年龄总提到的,被称为一神的时代。
72.72。But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman, and that his night has the same length.但是我知道年龄的千神(使)一个婆罗门的一天,他晚上有相同长度的总和。
73.73。Those (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after (the completion of) one thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days and nights.那些(只,谁)都知道,婆罗门圣日,的确,结束后(完成)1000年龄(神)和他的夜晚,只要持续,(是真的)与(男子熟悉的长度)昼夜。
74. 74。At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is both real and unreal.在当天晚上结束时,他和谁是睡着了,醒来,辗转醒来,创造精神,既真实又虚幻。
75.75。Mind, impelled by (Brahman's) desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter.心,由(婆罗门)的愿望,推动创建,执行,修改自己的创作工作,从那里产生乙醚,他们宣布,声音是后者的质量。

76. 76。But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held to possess the quality of touch.但是,从乙醚修改本身,泉水的纯洁,强大的风力,车辆的所有香水,这是举行具备触摸的质量。
77.77。Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that is declared to possess the quality of colour;下一步风修改本身,收益的光辉,照亮和驱散黑暗的,这是被宣布为具有颜色的质量;
78.78。And from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning.而从光,修改本身,(产生)水,藏有水的地球,有质量的嗅觉味觉质量;这就是在开始创作。
79.79。The before mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara).众神之之前提到的年龄(或)一万二千(其年),被乘以七一,(构成什么)在这里命名为一马努(Manvantara)周期。
80. 80。The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, Brahman repeats this again and again.该Manvantaras,在创作和破坏(世界,是)无数;运动,因为它是,婆罗门重复一遍又一遍。

81. 81。In the Krita age Dharma is four footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by unrighteousness.在Krita年龄佛法是四足和整个,以及(也是如此)的真相,也没有任何收益拨归由不义的人。
82. 82。In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one fourth (in each).在其他(三岁)按(不公正)的收益的原因,(阿含),法先后被剥夺了一只脚,并通过(即患病)盗窃,虚假和欺诈的优点(男子获)是减少了四分之一(每个)。
83. 83。(Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter (男性)免于疾病,完成其所有目标,并住在Krita年龄四百年,但在特雷塔和(每个)的成功(年龄)他们的生活是由一季度减少
84.84。The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age.生活的凡人,在吠陀,祭祀仪式和体现(神灵)(超自然)电源所期望的结果中提及的男性比例水果根据(性格)年龄。
85. 85。One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a proportion as those ages decrease in length.一组职责(订明)在克里达纪年龄的男子,在特雷塔和Dvapara不同的人,和(再次)另一台(套)在卡利,在那些年龄下降的长度比例。

86. 86。In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) knowledge, in the Dvapara (performance of) sacrifices, in the Kali liberality alone.在Krita年龄科长(美德)被宣布为(绩效)苦行,在特雷塔(神)的知识在Dvapara(性能)的牺牲,独自在卡利慷慨。
87. 87。But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet.但为了保护这个宇宙,他最辉煌的一,分配单独的(职责和)职业那些谁从他的嘴里,手臂,大腿和脚窜出。
88.88。To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for others, giving and accepting (of alms).为了婆罗门他指派的教学和研究(吠陀),为自己的利益和他人牺牲,付出和接受(施舍)。
89. 89。The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures;该刹帝利他指挥,以保护人民,赠送礼物,祭祀,以研究(吠陀),并附加自己放弃声色犬马;
90.90。The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, and to cultivate land.该Vaisya趋向牛,赐给的礼物,是为了祭祀,以研究(吠陀),贸易,借钱,并耕种土地。

91. 91。One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these (other) three castes.一个职业只订明的首陀罗主,温顺地,即使这些服务(其他)三个等级。
92.92。Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self existent (Svayambhu) has declared the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth.人是表示将高于肚脐(比下文)纯洁,因此存在(Svayambhu)已宣布纯净(部分)自他(是)他的嘴。
93.93。As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman's) mouth, as he was the first born, and as he possesses the Veda, he is by right the lord of this whole creation.由于梵兴起从(婆罗门)的嘴,因为他是第一个出生的,当他拥有吠陀,他是正确的是整个万物之灵。
94.94。For the Self existent (Svayambhu), having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved.对于自我存在(Svayambhu),具有履行austerities,制作他首先从自己的嘴里,以使该产品可能会转达给神和鬃毛,而这个宇宙可能被保留。
95. 95。What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the被造什么能超越他,通过他的嘴

(contimues . . . )(contimues。。。)

The Song Celestial宋朝时富

400 BC公元前400年


Bhagavad - Gita薄伽梵歌 - 歌

translated by Sir Edwin Arnold翻译爵士埃德温阿诺德

Chapter I第一章

Dhritirashtra. Dhritirashtra。Ranged thus for battle on the sacred plain -远程因此,对于神圣的平原上的战斗 -
On Kurukshetra - say, Sanjaya!在古鲁格舍德拉 - 比如说,嘉亚!say
What wrought my people, and the Pandavas?是什么造成我的人,和班度族?
Sanjaya.嘉亚。When he beheld the host of Pandavas,当他看到班度族主机,
Raja Duryodhana to Drona drew,拉贾Duryodhana到Drona提请,
And spake these words: "Ah, Guru! see this line,而这话的话:“啊,大师看到此行,!
How vast it is of Pandu fighting men,这是多么茫茫潘杜作战人员,
Embattled by the son of Drupada,四面楚歌由Drupada的儿子,
Thy scholar in the war!你的学者在战争中!Therein stand ranked站内排名
Chiefs like Arjuna, like to Bhima chiefs,酋长像阿朱,喜欢皮马酋长,
Benders of bows; Virata, Yuyudhan,弓弯管机,Virata,Yuyudhan,
Drupada, eminent upon his car, Drupada,在他著名的汽车,
Dhrishtaket, Chekitan, Kasi's stout lord,Dhrishtaket,Chekitan,卡丝的粗壮的主,
Purujit, Kuntibhoj, and Saivya, Purujit,Kuntibhoj和Saivya,
With Yudhamanyu, and Uttamauj随着Yudhamanyu,并Uttamauj
Subhadra's child; and Drupadi's; - all famed!Subhadra的孩子,和Drupadi的; - 所有著名的!

All mounted on their shining chariots!全部装在他们的光辉战车!
On our side, too, - thou best of Brahmans!在我们一边,也 - 你的婆罗门最好的!see
Excellent chiefs, commanders of my line,优秀的酋长,我的线指挥员,
Whose names I joy to count: thyself the first,谁的名字我的喜悦数:你自己的第一,
Then Bhishma, Karna, Kripa fierce in fight,然后比什马,卡尔纳,Kripa在战斗激烈,
Vikarna, Aswatthaman; next to theseVikarna,Aswatthaman,其次为这些
Strong Saumadatti, with full many more强Saumadatti,以饱满的许多
Valiant and tried, ready this day to die勇敢和审判,准备这一天死
For me their king, each with his weapon grasped,对我来说,他们的国王,他的武器每所掌握,
Each skilful in the field.中的每个领域娴熟。Weakest - meseems -最弱 - meseems -
Our battle shows where Bhishma holds command,我们的战斗表明在比什马持有的命令,
And Bhima, fronting him, something too strong!和皮马,面向他,什么太强了!
Have care our captains nigh to Bhishma's ranks有照顾我们的队长几乎到比什马的行列
Prepare what help they may!准备什么帮助他们!Now, blow my shell!"现在,打击我的壳!“

Then, at the signal of the aged king,然后,在老人的国王信号,
With blare to wake the blood, rolling around随着光泽唤醒血液,左右滚动
Like to a lion's roar, the trumpeter喜欢狮子的吼声,在吹鼓手
Blew the great Conch; and, at the noise of it,吹响了大海螺,并在它的噪音,
Trumpets and drums, cymbals and gongs and horns小号和鼓,钹和锣鼓和喇叭
Burst into sudden clamour; as the blasts成突然叫嚣爆裂;作为爆炸
Of loosened tempest, such the tumult seemed!暴风雨的松动,似乎这样的混乱!
Then might be seen, upon their car of gold然后可能会看到,在他们的黄金车
Yoked with white steeds, blowing their battle shells,负一轭白色骏马,吹他们的战斗弹,
Krishna the God, Arjuna at his side:克里希纳神,阿朱在他的身边:
Krishna, with knotted locks, blew his great conch克里希纳,用打结的锁,他的伟大吹海螺
Carved of the "Giant's bone;" Arjuna blew雕刻的“巨人的骨;”阿朱自爆
Indra's loud gift; Bhima the terrible -因陀罗的响亮的礼物;皮马可怕的 -
Wolf - bellied Bhima - blew a long reed - conch;沃尔夫 - 腹皮马 - 吹长芦苇 - 海螺;
And Yudhisthira, Kunti's blameless son,而Yudhisthira,Kunti的无辜的儿子,
Winded a mighty shell, "Victory's Voice;"嗦一个强大的外壳,“胜利之声”;
And Nakula blew shrill upon his conch而Nakula吹海螺后,他尖锐

Named the "Sweet sounding," Sahadev on his命名为“甜蜜的冠冕堂皇,”他Sahadev
Called "Gem bedecked," and Kasi's Prince on his.所谓的“宝石珠光宝气”,并在他的卡丝的王子。
Sikhandi on his car, Dhrishtadyumn,Sikhandi上他的车,Dhrishtadyumn,
Virata, Satyaki the Unsubdued, Virata,Satyaki的Unsubdued,
Drupada, with his sons, (O Lord of Earth!)Drupada,他的儿子,(呵,土地公!)
Long armed Subhadra's children, all blew loud,长期武装冲突Subhadra的儿童,所有吹大声,
So that the clangour shook their foemen's hearts,所以说,铿锵声摇摇foemen的心,
With quaking earth and thundering heav'n.随着震动地球和雷鸣般的孩童时代。
Then 'twas -然后'第三世界科学院 -
Beholding Dhritirashtra's battle set,刘保国Dhritirashtra的战斗设置,
Weapons unsheathing, bows drawn forth, the war武器出鞘,弓制定出来,战争
Instant to break - Arjun, whose ensign badge瞬间打破 - 阿琼,其旗徽章
Was Hanuman the monkey, spake this thing是哈努曼猴,这个东西说话
To Krishna the Divine, his charioteer:为了克里希纳神,他的charioteer:
"Drive, Dauntless One! to yonder open ground“驱动器,一个无畏!到那边空地
Betwixt the armies; I would see more nigh中间的军队,我会看到更多的亲近

These who will fight with us, those we must slay这些谁会打我们,那些我们必须杀死
Today, in war's arbitrament; for, sure,今天,在战争的仲裁裁决;对,当然,
On bloodshed all are bent who throng this plain,在流血的人群会发生弯曲,这谁平原,
Obeying Dhritirashtra's sinful son."服从Dhritirashtra的罪孽深重的儿子。“

Thus, by Arjuna prayed, (O Bharata!)因此,通过阿朱那祈祷,(海外婆罗!)
Between the hosts that heavenly Charioteer天上的主机之间御夫
Drove the bright car, reining its milk white steeds开着明亮的车,驾驭它的奶白色骏马
Where Bhishma led, and Drona, and their Lords.凡比什马领导,Drona,他们的上议院。
"See!"“看!”spake he to Arjuna, "where they stand,spake他向阿周“,他们的立场,
Thy kindred of the Kurus:" and the Prince你的亲属的Kurus:“和王子
Marked on each hand the kinsmen of his house,标明每手的他家的亲属,
Grandsires and sires, uncles and brothers and sons,Grandsires和种牛,叔伯,兄弟和儿子,
Cousins and sons - in - law and nephews, mixed堂兄弟和儿子 - 中 - 法和侄子,混合
With friends and honoured elders; some this side,与朋友和荣幸的长者;一些这方面,
Some that side ranged: and, seeing those opposed,一些侧面不等:,看到那些反对,
Such kith grown enemies - Arjuna's heart这种侨威成长的敌人 - 阿朱那的心
Melted with pity, while he uttered this:熔炼与怜悯,而他说出这样的:
Arjuna.阿朱。Krishna!克里希纳!as I behold, come here to shed我看哪,来这里棚
Their common blood, yon concourse of our kin,他们共同的血缘,延亨默大堂我们的亲人,
My members fail, my tongue dries in my mouth,我的成员失败,我的舌头在我嘴里变干,
A shudder thrills my body, and my hair阿不寒而栗刺激我的身体,我的头发

Bristles with horror; from my weak hand slips猪鬃与恐惧,从我弱手滑
Gandiv, the goodly bow; a fever burnsGandiv,在优美的弓;发烧烧伤
My skin to parching; hardly may I stand;我的皮肤炒,几乎让我站;
The life within me seems to swim and faint;在我的生活似乎游泳和微弱;
Nothing do I foresee save woe and wail!我没有预见救疾苦,哀号!
It is not good, O Keshav!这是不是好,哦,Keshav!nought of good弃的好
Can spring from mutual slaughter!春天从相互屠杀!Lo, I hate看哪,我讨厌
Triumph and domination, wealth and ease,胜利和统治,财富和易用性,
Thus sadly won!因此,不幸的是赢了! Aho!喂喂!what victory什么胜利
Can bring delight, Govinda!可以带来快乐,戈文达!what rich spoils什么丰富的战利品
Could profit; what rule recompense; what span获益;什么规则的补偿;什么跨度
Of life itself seem sweet, bought with such blood?生命本身似乎甜,买这种血?
Seeing that these stand here, ready to die,看到这些站在这里,随时准备死,
For whose sake life was fair, and pleasure pleased,因为他的缘故生活是公平的,高兴高兴,
And power grew precious: - grandsires, sires, and sons,而电力增长珍贵: - grandsires,种牛,和儿子,
Brothers, and fathers - in - law, and sons - in - law,兄弟,和父亲 - 中 - 法,和儿子 - 中 - 法,
Elders and friends!长老和朋友! Shall I deal death on these难道我处理这些死亡

Even though they seek to slay us?尽管他们试图杀死我们?Not one blow,没有一个打击,
O Madhusudan!Ø Madhusudan!will I strike to gain我将获得罢工
The rule of all Three Worlds; then, how much less三个世界的所有规则,然后,何况
To seize an earthly kingdom!要抓住一个世俗王国!Killing these这些杀害
Must breed but anguish, Krishna!但必须品种痛苦,克里希纳!If they be如果他们是
Guilty, we shall grow guilty by their deaths;有罪的,我们会增长他们的死亡罪;
Their sins will light on us, if we shall slay他们的罪孽将照耀我们,如果我们将杀死
Those sons of Dhritirashtra, and our kin;那些Dhritirashtra儿子,我们的亲属;
What peace could come of that, O Madhava?什么样的和平能来这个啊,玛达瓦?
For if indeed, blinded by lust and wrath,如果确实,欲望和愤怒所蒙蔽,
These cannot see, or will not see, the sin这些不能看,否则将无法看到,罪过
Of kingly lines o'erthrown and kinsmen slain,王道o'erthrown和亲属被杀线,
How should not we, who see, shun such a crime -如何不应该,我们谁看到,顺这样的罪行 -
We who perceive the guilt and feel the shame -我们认为谁感到内疚和耻辱 -
O thou Delight of Men, Janardana?男人啊,你的快乐,Janardana?
By overthrow of houses perisheth通过推翻灭亡的房屋

Their sweet continuous household piety,他们甜蜜的家庭不断的虔诚,
And - rites neglected, piety extinct -而且 - 仪式忽视,虔诚灭绝 -
Enters impiety upon that home;进入不虔诚在那家;
Its women grow unwomaned, whence there spring其妇女成长unwomaned,何处有春天
Mad passions, and the mingling up of castes,疯狂的激情,和交融注册种姓,
Sending a Hellward road that family,发送Hellward道路,家庭,
And whoso wrought its doom by wicked wrath.而无论谁被邪恶的愤怒造成的厄运。
Nay, and the souls of honoured ancestors不仅如此,和荣幸祖先的灵魂
Fall from their place of peace, being bereft从他们的和平到位,被剥夺
Of funeral cakes and the wan death water.葬礼的蛋糕和广域网死亡的水。
So teach our holy hymns.因此,教导我们神圣的赞美诗。Thus, if we slay因此,如果我们杀
Kinsfolk and friends for love of earthly power,亲戚和朋友的人间爱的力量,
Ahovat!Ahovat!what an evil fault it were!什么是邪恶故障它啊!
Better I deem it, if my kinsmen strike,更好,我认为,如果我的亲属罢工,
To face them weaponless, and bare my breast面对他们没有武器,和我的乳房裸露
To shaft and spear, than answer blow with blow.到轴和矛比回答以牙还牙。

So speaking, in the face of those two hosts,所以说,在这两个主机的脸,
Arjuna sank upon his chariot seat,阿朱倒在他的战车上的座位,
And let fall bow and arrows, sick at heart.垂下弓和箭,心里感到很难过。

Here Endeth Chapter I of the这里Endeth的第一章


Entitled "Arjun - Vishad,"这个名为“阿琼 - Vishad”

Or "The Book of the Distress of Arjuna."或“书的阿朱那窘迫。”

Chapter II第二章

Sanjaya.嘉亚。Him, filled with such compassion and such grief,他说,这种同情和悲痛等,
With eyes tear dimmed, despondent, in stern words眼睛泪液变暗,沮丧,严词
The Driver, Madhusudan, thus addressed:该名司机,Madhusudan,从而解决:
Krishna.克里希纳。How hath this weakness taken thee?何等这一弱点,采取你?
Whence springs泉水从何而来
The inglorious trouble, shameful to the brave,该不光彩的麻烦,可耻的勇敢,
Barring the path of virtue?除非美德的道路?Nay, Arjun!不然,阿君!
Forbid thyself to feebleness!禁止你自己到发软!it mars它火星
Thy warrior name!你的战士的名字! cast off the coward - fit!摆脱了懦夫 - 适合!
Wake!醒来!Be thyself!是你自己吧!Arise, Scourge of thy Foes!起来,你的敌人天灾!
Arjuna.阿朱。How can I, in the battle, shoot with shafts我怎样才能,在战斗中,与轴拍
On Bhishma, or on Drona - O thou Chief!在比什马,或Drona - 呵行政!--
Both worshipful, both honourable men?这两种崇拜,无论是正人君子?

Better to live on beggar's bread宁可住在乞丐的面包
With those we love alive,有了这些,我们的爱活着,
Than taste their blood in rich feasts spread,他们的趣味丰富节日血液传播,
And guiltily survive!而内疚地活下去!
Ah!啊!were it worse - who knows?更糟了 - 谁知道?- to be- 要
Victor or vanquished here,维克多或征服这里,
When those confront us angrily当那些我们面临的愤怒
Whose death leaves living drear?他的逝世留下阴郁的生活?
In pity lost, by doubtings tossed,在可惜丢失,由doubtings抛,
My thoughts - distracted - turn我的想法 - 分心 - 转
To Thee, the Guide I reverence most,给你,指引我最崇敬,
That I may counsel learn:律师,我可以学到:
I know not what would heal the grief我不知道会怎样医治悲伤
Burned into soul and sense,烧入灵魂和感情,
If I were earth's unchallenged chief -如果我是地球受到质疑行政 -
A god - and these gone thence!阿神 - 这些从那里走了!

Sanjaya.嘉亚。So spake Arjuna to the Lord of Hearts,所以说话阿朱那的红心主,
And sighing, "I will not fight!"和叹息,“我不会打!”held silence then.然后举行了沉默。
To whom, with tender smile, (O Bharata!)谁,用温柔的微笑,(海外婆罗!)
While the Prince wept despairing 'twixt those hosts,虽然王子哭了绝望的'特威克斯特的主机,
Krishna made answer in divinest verse:克里希纳在神圣的诗句回答:
Krishna.克里希纳。Thou grievest where no grief should be!如果没有你grievest悲痛应!thou speak'st你speak'st
Words lacking wisdom!词缺乏智慧!for the wise in heart聪明的心
Mourn not for those that live, nor those that die.哀悼不是为那些生活,也不是那些死去。
Nor I, nor thou, nor any one of these,我也不,也没有你,也没有任何其中之一,
Ever was not, nor ever will not be,曾是不会,也永远不会,
For ever and for ever afterwards.永远,永远之后。
All, that doth live, lives always!所有,要像生活,生活永远!To man's frame对人的框架
As there come infancy and youth and age,由于幼年和青年来与年龄,
So come there raisings - up and layings - down所以去那里筹集 - 注册和l ayings - 下
Of other and of other life - abodes,其他及其他生命 - 住处,
Which the wise know, and fear not.而智者知道,和不敬畏。This that irks -这表明,厌烦的到底 -

Thy sense - life, thrilling to the elements -你的感觉 - 生命,惊心动魄的元素 -
Bringing thee heat and cold, sorrows and joys,把你热与冷,悲喜
'Tis brief and mutable!那不过短暂的和可变的!Bear with it, Prince!与它所承担的,王子!
As the wise bear.作为明智的熊。 The soul which is not moved,这是不感动的灵魂,
The soul that with a strong and constant calm灵魂,具有强大和持续平静
Takes sorrow and takes joy indifferently,注意到悲伤,并采取漠然的喜悦,
Lives in the life undying!在生活中永恒的生命!That which is这是
Can never cease to be; that which is not永远不能停止,这才是不
Will not exist.将不存在。 To see this truth of both看到这两个真理
Is theirs who part essence from accident,谁是他们从事故的精华部分,
Substance from shadow.物质的阴影。Indestructible,坚不可摧的,
Learn thou!了解你!the Life is, spreading life through all;生命是一切生命的蔓延开来;
It cannot anywhere, by any means,它不能在任何地方,以任何方式,
Be anywise diminished, stayed, or changed.要anywise减少,停留,或改变。
But for these fleeting frames which it informs但对于这些稍纵即逝帧,它通知
With spirit deathless, endless, infinite,与精神不死,无休止的,无限的,

They perish.他们就灭亡。Let them perish, Prince!让他们灭亡,王子!and fight!奋斗!
He who shall say, "Lo! I have slain a man!"谁应他说:“瞧!我把他杀了人!”
He who shall think, "Lo! I am slain!"谁应他认为,“罗!我死!”those both这些都
Know naught!知道化为乌有!Life cannot slay.生活不能杀死。 Life is not slain!生活是不杀!
Never the spirit was born; the spirit shall cease to be never;从来没有精神出生;的精神将永不停止;
Never was time it was not; End and Beginning are dreams!从来就没有时间没有;结束,并开始实现的梦想!
Birthless and deathless and changeless remaineth the spirit for ever; Birthless和不死的和不变的精神永远长存;
Death hath not touched it at all, dead though the house of it seems!死亡祂所没有触及它所有,但它的死亡似乎房子!
Who knoweth it exhaustless, self sustained,谁知道它不竭,自我持续,
Immortal, indestructible, - shall such不朽的,坚不可摧, - 应如
Say, "I have killed a man, or caused to kill?"你说:“我杀了人,或导致杀人?”

Nay, but as when one layeth不然,像人谋害
His worn out robes away,他的破旧长袍了,
And, taking new ones, sayeth,同时,采取新的,sayeth,
"These will I wear today!" “这些我会穿今天!”
So putteth by the spirit因此,把陷于由精神
Lightly its garb of flesh,轻轻的装束肉,
And passeth to inherit而经过的继承
A residence afresh.重新居住。

I say to thee weapons reach not the Life;我说给你的武器达成并不是人生;
Flame burns it not, waters cannot o'erwhelm,火焰烧伤这不,水不能o'erwhelm,
Nor dry winds wither it.干燥的风也枯萎了。Impenetrable,坚不可摧,
Unentered, unassailed, unharmed, untouched,Unentered,unassailed,安然无恙,原封不动,
Immortal, all - arriving, stable, sure,不朽的,所有 - 到达的,稳定的,当然,
Invisible, ineffable, by word无形的,无法形容的,由字
And thought uncompassed, ever all itself,并认为uncompassed,永远都本身,
Thus is the Soul declared!因此,是灵魂声明!How wilt thou, then, -你如何枯萎,然后 -
Knowing it so, - grieve when thou shouldst not grieve?明知如此, - 伤心的时候你总不该悲伤?
How, if thou hearest that the man new - dead如何,如果你听见了,该名男子新 - 死了
Is, like the man new - born, still living man -一样,是该名男子新 - 诞生了,还活着的人 -
One same, existent Spirit - wilt thou weep?一个相同的,存在的精神 - 枯萎你哭泣?
The end of birth is death; the end of death生育的结局就是死,死亡的结束
Is birth: this is ordained!有生:这是注定!and mournest thou,和mournest你,
Chief of the stalwart arm!首席健壮的手臂!for what befalls什么降临
Which could not otherwise befall?而无法以其他方式降临?The birth诞生

Of living things comes unperceived; the death生活的东西来unperceived;死亡
Comes unperceived; between them, beings perceive:来unperceived;它们之间,人类的认识:
What is there sorrowful herein, dear Prince?这里有什么伤感,亲爱的王子?

Wonderful, wistful, to contemplate!好极了,渴望,去思考!
Difficult, doubtful, to speak upon!困难,有疑问,说话时!
Strange and great for tongue to relate,奇怪的和伟大的舌头去联系,
Mystical hearing for every one!神秘的听证会为每一个!
Nor wotteth man this, what a marvel it is,也不wotteth人,什么是一个奇迹,
When seeing, and saying, and hearing are done!当看到,并说,和听力都完成了!

This Life within all living things, my Prince!这在所有的生物,我的王子生活!
Hides beyond harm; scorn thou to suffer, then,超越伤害兽皮;鄙视你受苦,那么,
For that which cannot suffer.对于那些不能没有受到影响。Do thy part!做你的一部分!
Be mindful of thy name, and tremble not!是你的名字铭记,却是战兢不是!
Nought better can betide a martial soulNought可以更好地降临一个武术魂
Than lawful war; happy the warrior比合法的战争,快乐的战士
To whom comes joy of battle - comes, as now,,谁是战争的喜悦 - 来了,和现在一样,
Glorious and fair, unsought; opening for him光荣和公平的,突发的,对外开放对他
A gateway unto Heav'n.直到天上一个网关。But, if thou shunn'st但是,如果你shunn'st
This honourable field - a Kshattriya -这一光荣场 - 一Kshattriya -
If, knowing thy duty and thy task, thou bidd'st如果你知道你的责任和任务,你bidd'st
Duty and task go by - that shall be sin!职责和任务去了 - 这应是罪!
And those to come shall speak thee infamy而那些来谈论你骂名

From age to age; but infamy is worse从年龄的年龄,但更糟糕的是耻辱
For men of noble blood to bear than death!对于贵族血统的男子要承担比死刑!
The chiefs upon their battle chariots在他们的首领上阵
Will deem 'twas fear that drove thee from the fray.会认为'第三世界科学院担心你赶出了战斗。
Of those who held thee mighty souled the scorn你的那些谁举行的蔑视威武魂
Thou must abide, while all thine enemies你必须遵守,而所有的仇敌

(continues . . . )(继续。。。)


Catholic Information天主教新闻

Hinduism in its narrower sense, is the conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices existing in India that have grown out of ancient Brahminism, and which stand in sharp contrast to orthodox, traditional Brahminism today.印度教在其狭义的,是宗教的信仰和习俗在印度的现有早就摆脱了古老的婆罗门教,并形成鲜明对比的是正统的,传统的婆罗门教的立场今天聚集。 Hinduism is the popular, distorted, corrupted side of Brahminism.印度教是受欢迎的,扭曲,腐化的婆罗门教的一面。In its broad sense, it comprises those phases of religous, social, and intellectual life that are generally recognized in India today as the legitimate outgrowth of ancient Brahmin institutions, and hence are tolerated by the Brahmin priests as compatible with Brahmin traditions.在其广泛的意义上讲,它包括宗教,社会,生活和精神生活的那些公认今天在印度古代婆罗门机构合法的产物,因此是由婆罗门祭司,与婆罗门传统相兼容的耐受性。 Far from being a uniform system of worship, Hinduism, in this large sense, comprises, besides orthodox Brahminism, the numerous sectarian developments of cult in honour of Vishnu, Siva, and their associates, in which for centuries the great mass of the people have found satisfaction for their religious cravings.远远不是一个崇拜,印度教,在这个意义上统一的大系统,组成,除了正统的婆罗门教,众多的教派发展的邪教毗湿奴,湿婆,他们的同伙,其中几个世纪以来,人民群众有伟大的荣誉发现他们的宗教渴望满意。 In Hinduism, as distinguished from the heretical sects of India, it is of minor importance what sort of worship is adopted, provided one recognizes the supremacy of the Brahmins and the sacredness of Brahmin customs and traditions.在印度教中,从印度的异端教派区分,它轻微的重要性排序是什么样的崇拜通过,是提供了一个认识到婆罗门婆罗门至上和神圣的习俗和传统。 In the pantheistic all-god Brahma, the whole world of deities, spirits, and other objects of worship is contained, so that Hinduism adapts itself to every form of religion, from the lofty monotheism of the cultivated Brahmin to the degraded nature-worship of the ignorant, half savage peasant.在pantheistic所有之神梵天,对神灵,神灵崇拜的其他对象包含整个世界,因此,印度教本身适应各种形式的宗教从耕地婆罗门崇高的神,对退化的自然崇拜无知的,半野蛮的农民。 Hinduism, to quote Monier Williams, "has something to offer which is suited to all minds. Its very strength lies in its infinite adaptability to the infinite diversity of human characters and human tendencies. It has its highly spiritual and abstract side suited to the metaphysical philosopher151its practical and concrete side suited to the man of affairs and the man of the world-its esthetic and ceremonial side suited to the man of poetic feeling and imagination-its quiescent and contemplative side suited to the man of peace and lover of seclusion. Nay, it holds out the right hand of brotherhood to nature-worshippers, demon-worshippers,印度教,引用莫尼尔威廉姆斯,“已提供的东西是适合于所有的心灵。它非常的力量在于它无限的适应性,人类角色的无限多样性和人类的倾向。它有它的精神和高度抽象的一面相适应的形而上学philosopher151its实际和具体方适合于事务的人与世界的审美和礼仪适合诗意的感觉,适合隐居的和平与情人的幻想,其静态和沉思的一面老人身边的人。不然,它拥有了大自然的兄弟情谊,崇拜者,恶魔崇拜者的右手,

animal-worshippers, tree-worshippers, fetish-worshippers.动物崇拜者,树崇拜者,迷信,崇拜者。It does not scruple to permit the most grotesque forms of idolatry, and the most degrading varieties of superstition.它没有顾忌,允许最奇形怪状的偶像崇拜和迷信最有辱人格的品种。And it is to this latter fact that yet another remarkable peculiarity of Hinduism is mainly due-namely, that in no other system in the world is the chasm more vast which separates the religion of the higher, cultured, and thoughtful classes from that of the lower, uncultured, and unthinking masses" (Brahmanism and Hinduism, 1891, p. 11). Hinduism is thus a national, not a world religion, it has never made any serious effort to proselytize in countries outside of India. The occasional visits of Brahmins to countries of Europe and America, and their lectures on religious metaphysics are not to be mistaken for genuine missionary enterprises. Not to speak of its grosser phases, Hinduism, even in its highest form known as Brahminism, could not take root and flourish in countries where the caste system and the intricate network of social and domestic customs it implies do not prevail. Nor has Hinduism exercised any notable influence on European thought and culture. The pessimism of Schopenhauer and his school is indeed very like the pessimism of Buddhism and of the Vedanta system of philosophy, and seems to have been derived from one of these sources. But apart from this unimportant line of modern speculation, and from the abortive theosophic movement of more recent times, one finds no trace of Hindu influence on Western civilization. We have nothing to learn from India that makes for higher culture. On the other hand, India has much of value to learn from Christian civilization.它是后者的事实,印度教的又一显着特点,主要是由于,即在世界上没有其他系统是更为广阔的鸿沟隔开,较高的宗教,培养,从类的周到低,没有文化,不懂事群众中去“(婆罗门教和印度教,1891年,第11页)。印度教因此是一个国家,不是一个世界宗教,它从来没有认真的努力,在印度以外的国家传教。偶尔访问的婆罗门的欧美国家,他们的演讲对宗教的形而上学是不能被误认为是真正的传教企业。不是向它的格罗瑟阶段,印度教,甚至在其发言作为婆罗门教的最高形式被称为,不能扎根并蓬勃发展所在国家的种姓制度和社会和国内海关这意味着不占上风的复杂网络。印度教也没有行使过任何欧洲的思想和文化的显着的影响。叔本华的悲观主义和他的学校是非常喜欢佛教悲观和韦丹塔的哲学体系,似乎已经从这些来源之一派生但是,除了这不重要线的现代投机,并从流产时间比较近theosophic运动。,人们发现任何痕迹的印度教对西方文明的影响。我们在另一方面没有从印度学习,为更高的文化因素的影响。,印度有很大的价值,学习基督教文明。

According to the census of 1901, the total population of India is a little more than 294,000,000 souls, of which 207,000,000 are adherents of Hinduism.根据1901年人口普查,印度总人口为2.940亿多一点的灵魂,其中二亿〇七百万顷印度教信徒。The provinces in which they are most numerous are Assam, Bengal, Bombay, Berrar, Madras, Agra, and Oudh, and the Central Provinces.各省中,他们最多的是阿萨姆,孟加拉,孟买,Berrar,马德拉斯,阿格拉和奥德,和中部各省。 Of foreign religions, Mohammedanism has, by dint of long domination, made the deepest impression on the natives, numbering in India today nearly 62,500,000 adherents.外国宗教,伊斯兰教已经由长期统治力,作了关于原住民的印象最深,今天,几乎在印度编号62,500,000信徒。 Christianity, considering the length of time it has been operative in India, has converted but an insignificant fraction of the people from Hinduism.基督教,考虑到时间已在印度的执行,已经把从印度教,但一个人微不足道的一小部分。The Christians of all sects, foreign officials included, number but 2,664,000, nearly one-half being Catholics.所有教派,外国官员在内,人数,但2,664,000,近一半是天主教徒的基督徒。

It was not till towards the end of the eighteenth century that Europeans-excepting Father de Nobili and a few other early missionaries-acquired any knowledge of Sanskrit and allied tongues in which the sacred literature of India was preserved.这不是在接近,直到十八世纪末,欧洲人,父亲去除外诺比利和其他一些早期的传教士获得任何知识的梵文和盟军在其中印度神圣的文献保存的舌头。 The extensive commerce which the English developed in Bombay and other parts of India gave occasion to English scholars to make extensive studies in this new field of Oriental research.广泛的商业,其中英语在孟买和印度其他地方发展了机会,英国学者在这一领域研究的新东方广泛的研究。Sir William Jones was one of the first European scholars to master Sanskrit and to give translations of Sanskrit texts.威廉爵士琼斯是第一个欧洲学者掌握梵文,并给予梵语文本翻译。He translated in 1789 one of Kalidasa's classic dramas, the "Sakuntalã", and in 1794 published a translation of the "Ordinances of Manu".他翻译的Kalidasa在1789年的经典电视剧之一,“Sakuntalã”,并在1794年出版了一本“的马努条例”的翻译。 He founded, in 1784, the Royal Asiatic Society, destined to prove a powerful means of diffusing the knowledge of Indian literature and institutions.他创立于1784年,皇家亚洲学会,注定要证明扩散的印度文学和机构的知识的有力手段。An able, but less famous, contemporary was the Portuguese missionary, Father Paulinus a Sancto Bartholomeo, to whom belongs the honour of composing the first European grammar of the Sanskrit tongue, published at Rome in 1790.一个能干的,但不太有名的,当代是葡萄牙传教士,父亲Paulinus一Sancto Bartholomeo,向谁属的组成的第一个梵文舌头在罗马发表于1790年,欧洲的语法荣誉。The first important study of Indian literature and rites was made by Henry T. Colebrooke.印度的第一个重要的研究文献和仪式是由亨利吨科尔布鲁克。His "Miscellaneous Essays on the Sacred Writings and Religion of the Hindus", first published in 1805, became a classic in this new field of research.他的“杂文写作的神圣与宗教的印度教徒”,首先是在1805年出版,成为在这个新的研究领域的经典。The collection was reedited in 1873 by Professor EB Cowell, and is still a work of great value to the student of Hinduism.收集了在1873年重编光大考威尔教授,仍是一个很有价值的印度教的学生作品。Other distinguished scholars of England who contributed to the knowledge of Brahminism and Hinduism were Horace H. Wilson, author of a Sanskrit dictionary and of a translation of the Vishnu Purana (1840) and other Hindu texts; John Muir, author of the great work "Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India, their Religions and Institutions" (5 vols., London, 1858-70), and Sir Monier Williams, whose work "Brahmanism and Hinduism, Religious Thought and Life in India" (4th ed., London, 1891), is a masterly exposition of Hinduism.其他杰出的英国学者谁促成了婆罗门教和印度教知识都贺拉斯阁下威尔逊梵文字典和一个作家的毗湿奴往世书(1840年)和其他印度语言的翻译,约翰缪尔,而伟大的作品的作者“原梵语文献的起源和印度,他们的宗教和机构人民历史“(5卷。,伦敦,1858至1870年),爵士莫尼尔威廉威廉姆斯,他们的工作”婆罗门教和印度教,宗教思想和生活在印度“ (第四版。,伦敦,1891年),是印度教巧妙地阐述。With these may be associated Professor Max Müller, though whose exertions the most important sacred texts of India as well as of other Oriental lands have been made accessible to English readers in the well-known collection, "The Sacred Books of the East".有了这些可能是教授缪勒相关,但其卖力的最重要的神圣的印度文以及其他东方的土地已接触到英文读者在著名的收集,“东方的圣书”。 In America Professor William D. Whitney made valuable contributions to the understanding of the Atharva Veda and other Brahmin texts.在美国教授威廉D惠特尼向阿塔发吠陀的婆罗门文本的理解和其他宝贵的贡献。His labours have been ably supplemented by the studies of Professors CR Lanman, M. Bloomfield, and EW Hopkins.他的劳动已干练辅之以教授华润兰曼,米布卢姆菲尔德,以及电子战霍普金斯大学的研究。The contributions of Continental scholars to the knowledge of the literature and religions of India are of the very greatest importance.大陆学者的贡献,对文学和印度宗教的知识是最伟大的重要性。The distinguished Orientalist Eugène Burnouf, in the midst of his studies on Buddhism and Zoroastrianism, found time to translate in part the "Bhagavata Purana" (Paris, 1840).尊敬的东方尤金比尔努夫在关于佛教和拜火教他的研究之中,发现部分时间翻译的“薄伽梵往世书”(巴黎,1840)。R. Roth and F. Kuhn made valuable studies on the early Vedic texts, while Chr.罗斯和F.库恩河作出早期吠陀文本有价值的研究,而染色体。Lassen produced his "Indische Alterthumskunde" in four volumes (Bonn, 1844-61), a monument of erudition.拉桑生产四卷(波恩,1844年至1861年),他的博学碑“Indische Alterthumskunde”。 A. Weber, among other works in this field, published a "History of Indian Literature" (English translation, London, 1892).韦伯在这一领域的其他作品,出版了“印度文学史”(英文译本,伦敦,1892年)。Eminent modern Indianists are A. Barth, author of the excellent "Religions of India" (London, 1882), H. Oldenberg, and G. Bühler, whose valuable translations of sacred texts may be found in the "Sacred Books of the East".杰出的现代Indianists是A.巴特,优秀的“印度宗教”的作者(伦敦,1882年),阁下奥尔登贝格,和G.比勒,他们的宝贵神圣的文本翻译可能会在“东方圣书”中找到。 Among those who have made valuable contributions to the study of Hinduism are a number of Catholic priests.在这些谁作出了印度教的研究是一种宝贵的贡献天主教神父数目。Besides Father Paulinus, already mentioned, are the Abbé Roussel, who was chosen to assist in completing the translation of the voluminous "Bhagavata Purana", begun by Burnouf, and who has besides published interesting studies on Hinduism; the Abbé Dubois, who published a masterly exposition of Modern Hinduism under the title "Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies" (Oxford, 1897); and Father J. Dahlmann, SJ Finally, it is but fair to note that considerable excellent work is being done by native Hindu scholars in translating and interpreting sacred Hindu texts.除了父亲Paulinus,已经提到,是神甫罗素,谁被选为协助完成了大量的“薄伽梵往世书”的比尔努夫开始,翻译和出版谁除了对印度教有趣的研究有;神甫杜波依斯,谁发表了巧妙地阐述了现代印度教,题目是“印度教的礼仪,习俗和礼仪”(牛津,1897年);和父亲j的Dahlmann,律政司司长最后,但公平地注意到有相当出色的翻译工作是由当地印度教学者所做神圣的印度教和解释文本。 One of the most diligent is Nath Dutt, author of the following works: "The Mahabharata, Translated Literally from the Sanskrit Text", Parts I-XI (Calcutta, 1895-99); "The Bhagavadgita" (Calcutta, 1893); "The Vishnu Purana Translated into English Prose" (Calcutta, 1896).最勤奋的之一是纳特杜特,以下作者的作品:“摩诃婆罗多,从梵文翻译文本字面”,第一部分,第十一章(加尔各答,1895年至1899年),“在薄伽梵歌”(加尔各答,1893年);“毗湿奴往世书的翻译成英文散文“(加尔各答,1896年)。 FB Pargiter has translated into English the "Markandeya Purana", Fasc. FB的Pargiter已翻译成英文的“Markandeya往世书”,汽联。i-vi (Calcutta, 1888-99), and EPC Roy, besides giving an English translation of the Mahabharata (Calcutta. 1883-96), has published the "Sree Krishna" (Calcutta, 1901).我第六(加尔各答,1888年至1899年),和EPC罗伊,除了给人一种摩诃婆罗多(Calcutta. 1883年至1896年)英语翻译,出版了“Sree克里希纳”(加尔各答,1901年)。M. Battacharya has published an interesting work entitled "Hindu Castes and Sects" (Calcutta, 1896).米Battacharya发表了一个有趣的工作,题为“印度种姓和教派”(加尔各答,1896年)。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积七。 Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Ann.安。du Musée Guimet (Paris, 1885); HOPKINS, The Grand Epic of India, its Character and Origin (New York, 1901); India Old and New (New York, 1901); Religions of India (Boston, 1895); MITCHELL, The Great Religions of india (New York, 1906); WILLIAMS, Hinduism (New York, 1897); DAHLMANN, Das Mahabharata als Epos und Rechtsbuch (Berlin, 1895); IDEM, Genesis des Mahabharata (Berlin, 1899); ROUSSEL, Légendes morales de l'Inde empruntées au Bhagavata Purana et au Mahabharata (2 vols., Paris, 1900-01); IDEM, Cosmologie hindoue d'après le Bhagavata Purana (Paris, 1898); DE TASSY, Histoire de la littérature hindoue et hindoustanie (3 vols., Paris, 1870-71); WILKINS, Modern Hinduism (2nd ed., London, 1887); COLINET, Les Doctrines philosophiques et religieuses de La Bhagavadgita (Paris, 1884).吉美博物馆杜(巴黎,1885年);霍普金斯,印度,其特征及成因(纽约,1901年)大史诗,印度新与旧(纽约,1901年);宗教的印度(波士顿,1895年);米切尔印度伟大的宗教(纽约,1906年);威廉斯,印度教(纽约,1897年); DAHLMANN,达斯史诗摩诃婆罗多的ALS有限公司Rechtsbuch(柏林,1895年);同上,成因德摩诃婆罗多(柏林,1899年);罗素,Légendes莫拉莱斯德欧莱雅薄伽梵往世书不知疲倦empruntées金等金摩诃婆罗多(2卷,巴黎,1900年至01年。)同上,Cosmologie hindoue薄伽梵往世书乐德apr镳(巴黎,1898年);德TASSY,历史德拉littérature hindoue等hindoustanie (3卷,巴黎,1870年至1871年。)威尔金斯,现代印度教(第二版,伦敦,1887年。)COLINET,莱斯等学说philosophiques修女德拉薄伽梵歌(巴黎,1884)。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

By Brahminism is meant the complex religion and social system which grew out of the polytheistic nature-worship of the ancient Aryan conquerors of northern India, and came, with the spread of their dominion, to be extended over the whole country, maintaining itself, not without profound modifications, down to the present day.由婆罗门教,指的是复杂的宗教和社会制度的前身是多神教的性质,古代雅利安人征服印度北部的崇拜,以及来了,带着他们的统治的蔓延,将在全国推广,维护本身,而不是没有深刻的修改,下降到目前的一天。 In its intricate modern phases it is generally known as Hinduism.在错综复杂的现代阶段,它通常被称为印度教。


Our knowledge of Brahminism in its earlier stages is derived from its primitive sacred books, originally oral compositions, belonging to the period between 1500-400 BC我们的婆罗门教的知识在其早期阶段,是来自它的原始的神圣的书籍,原来口头作文,属于公元前之间1500-400期

First of all, there are four Vedas (veda means wisdom) dating from 1500 to 800 BC, and consisting首先,有四个吠陀(吠陀是指智慧),可以追溯到1500年至公元前800年,并组成

of a collection of ancient hymns (riks),the so-called Rig-Veda, in praise of the many gods;一(riks)古代诗歌集,所谓的钻机,吠陀,在许多神的好评;

of the Sama-veda, compiled from parts of the Rig-Veda as a song-service for the soma-sacrifice;在萨马-吠陀,从钻机吠陀部分作为歌曲的索玛牺牲服务的编制;

of the Yajur-Veda, a liturgy composed partly of ancient hymns and partly of other prayers and benedictions to be used in the various forms of sacrifice;在雅育尔,吠陀,部分和部分其他的祈祷和祝福古老的赞美诗组成的礼仪在各种形式的牺牲使用;

and of the Atharva-Veda, a collection of popular exorcisms and magical incantations largely inherited from primitive Aryan days.和阿塔发,吠陀,流行驱魔仪式而神奇的咒语收集主要是从原始的雅利安人天继承。

Next in order are the Brahmanas (about 1000-600 BC).接下来是按顺序婆罗门(约公元前1000-600年)。They are a series of verbose and miscellaneous explanations of the texts, rites, and customs found in each of the four Vedas, composed expressly for the use of the Brahmins, or priests.他们是一个冗长和文字,礼仪,并在每一个发现的四吠陀海关杂释系列,组成为婆罗门,或祭司使用明确。They are followed (800-500 BC) by the so-called Upanishads, concerned chiefly with pantheistic speculations on the nature of deity and the end of man; and lastly, by the Sutras (600-400 BC), which are compendious guides to the proper observance of the rites and customs.他们是遵循(800-500年)由所谓的关注对神的性质和人类末日泛神论揣测主要奥义书,以及最后,由经典(公元前600-400),这是简明指南的礼仪和习俗适当遵守。 The most important are the Grhya-Sutras, or house-guides, treating of domestic rites, and the Dharma-sutras, or law-guides, which were manuals of religious and social customs.最重要的是Grhya,佛经,或房子,导游,国内礼仪治疗,而佛法,佛经,或法律指南,这是宗教和社会习俗手册。 Being meant for layman as well as priest, they reflect the popular, practical side of Brahminism, whereas the Brahmanas and Upanishads show us the religion on its priestly, speculative side.正在为门外汉以及牧师的意思,他们反映民意,而实际的一面的婆罗门教的婆罗门,并奥义书向我们展示它的祭司,投机方的宗教。 Closely related to the law-guides is the justly famed metrical treatise, Manava-Dharma-Sastra, known in English as the Laws of Manu.密切相关的法律指南,是著名的格律公正的论文,摩纳婆,达摩,Sastra,在英国被称为法律的马努。 It belongs probably to the fifth century BC These, together with the two sacred epics of a later age, the "Ramayana," and the "Mahabharata," embrace what is most important in sacred Brahmin literature.它属于有可能在公元前五世纪,这些,连同后来的两个时代,神圣的史诗“罗摩衍那”和“摩诃婆罗多”的怀抱才是最重要的文学在神圣的婆罗门。


The religion of the Vedic period proper was comparatively simple.吠陀时期的正确的宗教是比较简单。 It consisted in the worship of many deities, great and small, the personified forces of nature.它包括在许多神,大和小,对自然的人格化力量的崇拜。Prominent among these were其中最突出的是

Varuna, the all-embracing heaven, maker and lord of all things and upholder of the moral law;伐楼拿的包罗一切的天堂,制造商和所有的东西的主人和维护者的道德律;

the sun-god, variously known as太阳神,以各种被称为

Surya, the enemy of darkness and bringer of blessings; as苏里亚,黑暗和祝福bringer的敌人;作为

Pushan the nourisher;普善的哺育;

Mitra, the omniscient friends of the good, and the avenger of deceit; as米特拉,无所不知的良好的朋友,和复仇者的欺骗;作为

Savitar the enlightener, arousing men to daily activity, and as Vishnu, said to have measured the earth in three great strides and Savitar的启蒙,激发官兵的日常活动,并作为毗湿奴,据说有三大步测量地球和

to have given the rich pastures to mortals;已给予凡人富牧场;

the god of the air, Indra, like Mars, also, the mighty god of war, who set free from the cloud-serpent Ahi (or Vritra), the quickening rain; Rudra, later known as Siva, the blessed one, the god of the destructive thunderstorm, an object of dread to evil-doers, but a friend to the good; Agni, the fire-god, the friend and benefactor of man, dwelling on their hearths, and bearing to the gods their prayers and sacrificial offerings; Soma, the god of that mysterious plant whose inebriating juice was so dear to the gods and to man, warding off disease, imparting strength and securing immortality.空气的神,因陀罗,像火星,同时,战争的全能的神,谁设置从云蛇安比(或Vritra),加快雨免费;楼陀罗,后来被称为湿婆众所周知,世尊,神破坏性的雷暴,恐惧对象的恶人,而是一个好的朋友,烈火,火之神,朋友和人,在他们居住的恩人火炉,同时向神祈祷和祭祀;索玛,那个神秘的植物,其inebriating汁是如此亲爱的神和人的神,抵挡疾病,传授实力和确保不死。

There were no temples in this early period.有没有在这个早期阶段寺庙。On a small mound of earth or of stones the offering was made to the gods, often by the head of the family, but in the more important and complicated sacrifices by the priest, or Brahmin, in union with the householder.地球上的石头或开办小土堆是向上帝经常由一家之主,但在由牧师,或婆罗门的联盟,与户主的更为重要和复杂的牺牲。 The object of every sacrifice was to supply strengthening food to the gods and to secure blessings in return.每一个牺牲的目的是加强食品供应给神,并争取在返回的祝福。Human victims, though rare, were not wholly unknown, but animal victims were at this period in daily use.受害的人们,虽然数量很少,并没有完全未知的,但动物的受害者在此期间分别在日常使用。First in importance was the horse, then the ox or cow, the sheep, and the goat.首先在重要的是马,牛或牛,羊和山羊。Offerings of clarified butter, rice, wheat, and other kinds of grain were also very common.黄油的澄清,大米,小麦产品,以及其他种类的粮食也很普遍。But dearer to the gods than any of these gifts, and rivaling the horse-sacrifice in solemnity, was the offering of the inebriating juice of the Soma-plant, the so-called Soma-sacrifice.但是,昂贵的这些礼物比任何神,马相媲美,在庄严的牺牲,是对的索玛,工厂,所谓的索玛牺牲inebriating汁产品。 Hymns of praise and petitions, chiefly for the good things of life, children, health, wealth, and success in undertakings, accompanied these sacrificial offerings.赞美和请愿的赞美诗,主要是为生活,儿童,健康,财富和事业成功的好伴随着这些祭品的东西。But the higher needs of the soul were not forgotten.但心灵的更高需求是不会被遗忘。In hymns of Varuna, Mitra, and the other gods there are striking texts expressing a sense of guilt and asking for forgiveness.在伐楼拿,米特拉,和其他神的赞美诗表达有一种负罪感,并请求原谅惊人的文本。At a time when the earlier Hebrew scriptures were silent as to the rewards and punishments awaiting man in the future life, we find the ancient rik-bards giving repeated expression to their belief in a heaven of endless bliss for the just, and in an abyss of darkness for the wicked.在较早的时候希伯来经文沉默的奖惩等待的人在今后的生活中,我们发现古代里克多维-诗人给予了无尽的幸福天堂反复表达自己的信仰的公正,并在深渊为邪恶的黑暗。

Devotion to the Pitris (Fathers), or dead relatives, was also a prominent element in their religion.奉献给Pitris(父亲),或死去的亲人,这也是一个突出的元素在他们的宗教。Although the Pitris mounted to the heavenly abode of bliss, their happiness was not altogether independent of the acts of devotion shown them by the living.虽然Pitris安装在天上居留权的幸福,他们的幸福是不是完全的奉献,表现出他们的生活行为无关。It could be greatly increased by offerings of Soma, rice, and water; for like the gods they were thought to have bodies of air-like texture, and to enjoy the subtile essence of food.它可以大大增加的索玛,大米和水的产品,对于喜欢他们被认为拥有空气般的质感机构的神,并享受食品微妙的本质。Hence, the surviving children felt it a sacred duty to make feast-offerings, called Sraddhas, at stated times to their departed Pitris.因此,幸存的孩子们感到是一种神圣的责任,使节日,祭,称为Sraddhas,在规定的时间到了自己离开Pitris。 In return for these acts of filial piety, the grateful Pitris protected them from harm and promoted their welfare.在为这些行为孝道回报,感谢Pitris保护他们不受伤害,并促进他们的福利。Lower forms of nature-worship also obtained.大自然的崇拜较低的形式也得到了。The cow was held in reverence.母牛举行了崇敬。Worship was given to trees and serpents.崇拜给予了树木和蛇。Formulae abounded for healing the diseased, driving off demons, and averting evil omens.盛产公式为医治病,驱赶恶魔,并避免邪恶的预兆。Witchcraft was dreaded, and recourse to ordeals was common for the detection of guilt.巫术是可怕的,并诉诸磨难是为共同的犯罪侦查。


In the period that saw the production of the Brahmanas and the Upanishads, the Vedic religion underwent a twofold change.在这段期间,见证了婆罗门和奥义书生产,吠陀宗教经历了一个双重变化。On the practical side there was an exuberant growth of religious rites and of social restrictions and duties, while on the theoretical side, Vedic belief in the efficacy of personal deities was subordinated to a pantheistic scheme of salvation.在实际方面有一个宗教仪式旺盛增长和社会的限制和义务,而在理论方面,在个人效能吠陀神信仰是服从于一个pantheistic拯救计划。 Thus the earlier religion developed on the one hand into popular, exoteric Brahminism, and on the other hand into priestly, esoteric Brahminism.因此,早期的宗教发展,一方面到流行,通俗婆罗门教,并把祭司另一方面,深奥的婆罗门教。The former is reflected in the Brahmanas and the Sutras; the latter in the Upanishads.前者是反映在婆罗门和佛经,在奥义书后者。

The transformation to popular Brahminism was largely due to the influence of the Brahmins, or priests.与流行的婆罗门教的转变,主要是由于婆罗门,或祭司的影响。Owing to their excessive fondness for symbolic words and forms, the details of ritual became more and more intricate, some assuming so elaborate a character as to require the services of sixteen priests.由于他们的象征性词语和形式过多的喜爱,仪式的细节变得越来越复杂,因此制定了一些假设需要一个字符作为十六祭司的服务。 The sacrifice partook of the nature of a sacramental rite, the due performance of which was sure to produce the desired end, and thus became an all-important center around which the visible and invisible world revolved.在牺牲了一个分享了圣事礼仪性质,其中应有的表现肯定会产生预期的目的,从而成为一个非常重要的中心围绕着有形和无形的世界旋转。 Hence it merited liberal fees to the officiating priests.因此,它值得自由收费,主礼神父。Still it was not a mere perfunctory rite, for if performed by an unworthy priest it was accounted as both useless and sacrilegious.不过,这不是一个单纯敷衍成年礼,因为如果由一个卑微的牧师是既是无用和亵渎占演出。In keeping with this complicated liturgy was the multitude of prayers and rites which entered into the daily life of both priest and layman.在这种复杂的礼仪保持一致的祈祷和宗教仪式众多的进入既是神父和外行进入日常生活。 The daily recitation of parts of the Vedas, now venerated as divine revelation, was of first importance, especially for the Brahmins.现在的神的启示的崇敬吠陀,每天背诵部分是第一重要的,特别是婆罗门。It was a sacred duty for every individual to recite, morning and evening, the Savitri, a short prayer in honor of the vivifying sun.这是对每个人的神圣职责朗诵,早上和傍晚,萨维特里,在阳光的生机荣誉简短的祷告。A scrupulous regard for ceremonial purity, surpassing even that of the Jewish Pharisee, gave rise to an endless succession of purifactory rites, such as baths, sprinkling with water, smearing with ashes or cow-dung, sippings of water, suppressions of breath--all sacramental in character and efficacious for the remission of sin.一个严格的礼仪纯度方面,甚至超越的犹太法利赛人,产生了一个purifactory仪式,如洗澡,用清水洒无尽的继承,与骨灰或牛粪,水sippings,呼吸镇压抹黑 - 所有圣事的性质和罪恶的有效缓解。There is reason to believe that the consciousness of guilt for sin committed was keen and vivid, and that in the performance of these rites, so liable to abuse, a penitential disposition of soul was largely cultivated.我们有理由相信,对罪的犯罪意识致力于激烈,生动,而且在这些仪式,所以容易被滥用的表现,悔罪处置的灵魂,主要是耕地。

In popular Brahminism of this period the idea of retribution for sin was made to embrace the most rigorous and far-reaching consequences, from which, save by timely penance, there was no escape.在这个罪恶的报应的想法是向最严格的拥抱和深远的后果,从这里,保存期及时忏悔流行婆罗门教,也没有逃脱。As every good action was certain of future recompense, so every evil one was destined to bear its fruit of misery in time to come.作为每一个良好的行动是未来一定的补偿,所以每一个邪恶的人注定要承担其在今后一个时期的痛苦的果实。 This was the doctrine of karma (action) with which the new idea of rebirth was closely connected.这是业力(行动),通过该重生的新想法是紧密相连的学说。While the lasting bliss of heaven was still held out to the just, different fates after death were reserved for the wicked, varying, according to the nature and amount of guilt, from long periods of torture in a graded series of hells, to a more or less extensive series of rebirths in the forms of plants, animals, and men.虽然天上的持久幸福还是伸出的正义,死后不同的命运则预留给了邪恶,变,根据性质和内疚量从长期来看,在一个地狱酷刑分级系列,更或更少了一系列广泛的轮回在植物,动物和人的形式。 From the grade to which the culprit was condemned, he had to pass by slow transition through the rest of the ascending scale till his rebirth as a man of honorable estate was attained.从上而遭受谴责年级,他不得不通过缓慢的过渡,直到他作为光荣村是实现人的重生规模递增休息。This doctrine gave rise to restrictive rules of conduct that bordered on the absurd.这一学说引起了限制性的行为上的荒谬接壤的规则。Insects, however repulsive and noxious, might not be killed; water might not be drunk till it was first strained, lest minute forms of life be destroyed; carpentry, basket-making, working in leather, and other similar occupations were held in disrepute, because they could not be carried on without a certain loss of animal and plant life.昆虫,然而丑恶和有毒,可能不会被杀死,水可能不是喝醉了,直到它第一次紧张,以免分钟的生命形式予以销毁;木工,篮子的决策,在皮革加工和其它类似职业的人蒙羞举行因为他们不能在没有进行的动物和植物的生命一定损失。 Some zealots went so far as to question the blamelessness of tilling the ground on account of the unavoidable injury done to worms and insects.一些痴迷者竟然质疑翻耕对所做的蠕虫和昆虫的帐户中不可避免地伤害无过失。 But on the other hand, the Brahmin ethical teaching in the legitimate sphere of right conduct is remarkably high.但在另一方面,婆罗门中的合法权利的行为领域的伦理教学是非常高。Truthfulness, obedience to parents and superiors, temperance, chastity, and almsgiving were strongly inculcated.真实性,服从父母和上级,戒酒,贞节,和施舍的强烈灌输。Though allowing, like other religions of antiquity, polygamy and divorce, it strongly forbade adultery and all forms of unchastity.虽然允许,像古代,一夫多妻制和离婚的其他宗教,它坚决禁止通奸和不贞洁的所有形式。It also reprobated suicide, abortion, perjury, slander, drunkenness, gambling, oppressive usury, and wanton cruelty to animals.它还reprobated自杀,堕胎,伪证罪,诽谤,酗酒,赌博,高利贷的压迫,以及肆意虐待动物。Its Christianlike aim to soften the hard side of human nature is seen in its many lessons of mildness, charity towards the sick, feeble, and aged, and in its insistence on the duty of forgiving injuries and returning good for evil.其目的是软化Christianlike人性的一面是很难看到的平和,慈善实现其许多经验教训生病,虚弱,以及老年人,并在其上​​的伤害和宽恕以德报怨责任的坚持。 Nor did this high standard of right conduct apply simply to external acts.也没有这个权利的行为只是为了高标准适用于外部的行为。 The threefold division of good and bad acts into thought, words, and deeds finds frequent expression in Brahmánic teaching.好的和坏的行为纳入思想和言行三分正处在婆罗门教中时常出现。

Intimately bound up in the religious teaching of Brahminism was the division of society into rigidly defined castes.紧密相连的婆罗门教的宗教教职注册是社会分工将严格定义的种姓。In the earlier, Vedic period there had been class distinctions according to which the warrior class (Kshatriyas, or Rajanas) stood first in dignity and importance, next the priestly class (Brahmins), then the farmer class (Vaisyas), and last of all, the servile class of conquered natives (Sudras).在早些时候,吠陀时期出现了阶级差别,根据该战士类(Kshatriyas,或Rajanas)站在尊严和重要性第一,其次是祭司阶层(婆罗门),则农民阶级(Vaisyas),和所有的最后时,(首陀罗)征服了当地人奴性类。 With the development of Brahminism, these four divisions of society became stereotyped into exclusive castes, the highest place of dignity being usurped by the Brahmins.随着婆罗门教的发展,这些社会四个部门成为定型成了独家等级,最高的地方的尊严被​​剥夺的婆罗门。As teachers of the sacred Vedas, and as priests of the all-important sacrifices, they professed to be the very representatives of the gods and the peerage of the human race.作为教师的神圣吠陀,并作为所有重要的祭祀的祭司,​​他们自称是神灵的非常代表和人类的贵族。No honor was too great for them, and to lay hands on them was a sacrilege.没有荣誉是对他们来说太伟大,奠定他们手是亵渎。One of their chief sources of power and influence lay in their exclusive privilege to teach the youth of the three upper castes, for education then consisted largely in the acquisition of Vedic lore, which only priests could teach.的权力和影响力的主要来源之一在于他们独有的特权,教三个上等种姓青年,教育则包括在吠陀的传说,其中只有祭司可以教主要收购。 Thus the three upper castes alone had the right to know the Vedas and to take part in the sacrifices, and Brahminism, far from being a religion open to all, was exclusively a privilege of birth, from which the despised caste of Sudras was excluded.因此,三个上等种姓就有权利知道吠陀,并采取了牺牲的一部分,婆罗门教,远不是一个宗教向所有人开放,是完全是特权出生时,从其中鄙视种姓首陀罗被排除在外。

The rite of initiation into Brahminism was conferred on male children only, when they began their studies under a Brahmin teacher, which took place generally in the eighth year of the Brahmin, and in the eleventh and twelfth years for the Kshatriya and the Vaisya respectively.到婆罗门教的启动仪式上被授予唯一的男性儿童,当他们开始在婆罗门老师,这起发生在第八个年头的婆罗门的地方,一般的研究,并在为刹帝利和Vaisya分别为第十一届和第十二届年。 It consisted in the investiture of the sacred cord, a string of white cotton yarn tired together at the ends, and worn like a deacon's stole, suspended on the left shoulder.它包括在神圣的线,白色的棉花在两端累串investiture纱一起,像一个执事的磨损偷走了,暂停了左肩。 The investiture was a sort of sacrament in virtue of which the youth was freed from guilt contracted from his parents and became Dvi-ja, twice-born, with the right to learn the sacred Vedic texts and to take part in the sacrifices.The investiture是一种美德排序圣餐中的青年是摆脱负罪感从他的父母,并成为承包的DVI - ja的,两次出生的权利,学习的神圣吠陀文本,并采取了牺牲。The period of studentship was not long for members of the warrior and farmer castes, but for the young Brahmin, who had to learn all the Vedas by heart, it consumed nine years or more.该奖学金期间不适合战士和农民的种姓成员长,但对于年轻的婆罗门,谁所有,以了解心脏的吠陀,它消耗九年以上。During this period, the student was subjected to severe moral discipline.在此期间,学生遭受了严重的道德自律。He had to rise before the sun, and was not allow to recline until after sunset.他有早起的太阳,并没有让躺下,直到日落之后。 He was denied rich and dainty foods, and what he ate at his two daily meals he had to beg.他被剥夺丰富,美味的食物,以及他在他的一日两餐吃,他乞讨。He was expected to observe the strictest chastity.他预计遵守最严格的贞洁。He was bound to avoid music, dancing, gambling, falsehood, disrespect to superiors and to the aged, covetousness, anger, and injury to animals.他一定要避免音乐,舞蹈,赌博,虚假,不尊重上级和老人,贪婪,愤怒和伤害动物。

Marriage was held to be a religious duty for every twice-born.婚姻关系是要为每一个两次出生的宗教义务。 It was generally entered upon early in life, not long after the completion of the time of studentship.人们普遍在生命早期进入后,没多久后,在学时间完成。Like the initiation rite, it was a solemn sacramental ceremony.像启动仪式,这是一个庄严的圣仪式。It was an imperative law that the bride and groom should be of the same caste in the principal marriage; for, as polygamy was tolerated, a man might take one or more secondary wives from the lower castes.这是一个必要的法律,新娘和新郎应该是在主体同一种姓婚姻,因为,一夫多妻制是不能容忍的,一个人可能需要从低种姓的一个或多个次要的妻子。 For certain grave reasons, the household might repudiate his wife and marry another, but a wife on her part had no corresponding right of divorce.对于某些严重的原因,家庭可能会否定他的妻子和再婚的,但对她来说没有妻子离婚相应的权利。If her husband died, she was expected to remain for the rest of her life in chaste widowhood, if she would be honored on earth, and happy with him in heaven.如果她的丈夫去世,她预计将保持在为她的纯洁守寡一生,如果她将荣幸在地球上,和他一起快乐的天堂。The later Hindu practice known as the Suttee, in which the bereaved wife threw herself on the funeral pyre of her husband, seems at this period to have been unknown.后来印度教的实践作为Suttee,其中死者的妻子扔在她的丈夫火葬自己知道,似乎在此期间有不明。All knowledge of the Vedic texts was withheld from woman, but she had the right to participate with her husband in the sacrifices performed for him by some officiating priest.所有的吠陀文本知识扣缴的女人,但她有权参加和她一起为他进行一些主牧师的牺牲的丈夫。One important sacrifice remained in his own hands--the morning and evening offering of hot milk, butter, and grain to the fire on the hearth, which was sacred to Agni, and was kept always burning.一个重要的牺牲留在自己手中 - 热牛奶,黄油和粮食早上和傍晚提供上的壁炉,这是神圣的烈火火,被关一直在燃烧。

A strong tendency to asceticism asserted itself in the Brahminism of this period.一个强有力的禁欲主义倾向,主张在这一时期婆罗门本身。It found expression in the fasts preceding the great sacrifices, in the severe penances prescribed for various kinds of sin, in the austere life exacted of the student, in the conjugal abstinence to be observed for the first three days following marriage and on certain specified days of the month, but, above all, in the rigorous life of retirement and privation to which not a few devoted their declining years.它发现前斋戒表达的巨大牺牲,在规定的各种罪恶的学生付出的艰苦生活,严重的苦行,在夫妻禁欲为前三天后结婚并在某些指定日子观察这个月,但最重要的是,在退休和匮乏到这不是少数致力于严格的晚年生活。 An ever increasing number of householders, chiefly Brahmins, when their sons had grown to man's estate, abandoned their homes and spent the rest of their lives as ascetics, living apart from the villages in rude huts, or under the shelter of trees, eating only the simplest kinds of food, which they obtained by begging, and subjecting themselves to extraordinary fasts and mortifications.一个住户,主要是婆罗门,当他们的儿子已成长为人类的遗产数量不断增加,放弃自己的家园和花费的苦行者他们的生活休息,居住在粗鲁的小屋的村庄,或根据树木的住房外,只吃最简单的食物种类,他们以乞讨,并服从非凡的斋戒和mortifications获得。 They were known as Sannyasis, or Yogis, and their severity of life was not so much a penitential life for past offenses as a means of acquiring abundant religious merits and superhuman powers.他们被称为Sannyasis,或瑜伽士,他们的生活的严重程度没有那么多,作为一种宗教的获取丰富的优点和超人的权力意味着过去的罪行忏悔的生活。 Coupled with these mortifications was the practice of Yogi (union).这些mortifications耦合是瑜珈(联盟)的做法。They would sit motionless with legs crossed, and, fixing their gaze intently on an object before them, would concentrate their thought on some abstract subject until they lapsed into a trance.他们将双腿交叉坐在一起一动不动,而且,他们的目光固定在一个对象之前,他们目不转睛地,将集中讨论一些抽象的主题他们的思想,直到他们进入恍惚失效。 In this state they fancied they were united with the deity, and the fruit of these contemplations was the pantheistic view of religion which found expression in the Upanishads, and left a permanent impress on the Brahmin mind.在这种状态,他们以为他们是与神的统一,而这些思索水果是pantheistic宗教的看法,发现在奥义书的表达,并留下了永久的婆罗门心中留下深刻的印象。


The marked monotheistic tendency in the later Vedic hymns had made itself more and more keenly felt in the higher Brahmin circles till it gave rise to a new deity, a creation of Brahmin priests.在后来的显着吠陀赞美诗一神教趋势作出了自己越来越敏锐地在更高的婆罗门教界认为,直到它产生了一个新的神,创造了婆罗门祭司。 This was Prabjapati, lord of creatures, omnipotent and supreme, later known as Brahmá, the personal creator of all things.这是Prabjapati,生物的,无所不能,最高法院后来布拉马,个人创造的一切事物称为主。But in thus looking up to a supreme lord and creator, they were far removed from Christian monotheism.但是,在从而寻找到一个至高无上的领主和创造者,他们远离基督教一神教。The gods of the ancient pantheon were not repudiated, but were worshipped still as the various manifestations of Brahmá.古代神殿的神并没有否定,但崇拜梵天的各种表现形式之中。It was an axiom then, as it has been ever since with the Hindu mind, that creation out of nothing is impossible.这是一个公理,那么,因为它一直以来与印度教心目中,没有什么是不可能创造出来。Another Brahmin principle is that every form of conscious individuality, whether human or Divine, implies a union of spirit and matter.另一个原则是,每一个婆罗门意识的个性形式,无论是人还是神,意味着一种精神和物质的结合。 And so, outside the small school of thinkers who held matter to be eternal, those who stood for the supreme personal god explained the world of visible things and invisible gods as the emanations of Brahmá.因此,外小校的思想家谁举行事情是永恒的,那些谁站在神的最高个人解释,有形的东西和无形的emanations梵天神的世界。 They arrived at a personal pantheism.他们达成了一项个人泛神论。But speculation did not end here.但投机并没有到此为止。To the prevailing school of dreamy Brahmin ascetics, whose teachings are found in the Upanishads, the ultimate source of all things was not the personal Brahmá, but the formless, characterless, unconscious spirit known at Atman (self), or, more commonly Brahmâ.到了梦幻般的婆罗门修行,其教义中的奥义书找到当时的学校里,一切事物的最终来源不是个人的梵天,但无形的,characterless,无意识的精神在阿特曼(自我)已知的,或者更常见的浪。 (Brahmâ is neuter, whereas Brahmá, personal god, is masculine.) The heavens and the earth, men and gods, even the personal deity, Brahmá, were but transitory emanations of Brahmâ, destined in time to lose their individuality and be absorbed into the great, all-pervading, impersonal spirit. (梵天是中性的,而梵天,个人的上帝,是阳性。)天与地,人神,甚至是个人的神,梵天,都是一些暂时性的emanations梵天,及时注定要失去自己的个性和被吸收进入伟大,无所不在,客观的精神。 The manifold external world thus had no real existence.多方面的外部世界因此并没有真正存在。It was Maya, illusion.这是玛雅,幻想。Brahmâ alone existed.梵天独自存在。It alone was eternal, imperishable.它仅是永恒的,不灭的。

This impersonal pantheism of the Brahmin ascetics led to a new conception of the end of man and of the way of salvation.这客观泛神论的婆罗门修行导致了人类末日的新概念和得救的道路。The old way was to escape rebirths and their attendant misery by storing up merits of good deeds so as to obtain an eternal life of conscious bliss in heaven.旧的方式,是和他们的逃脱轮回积行善等优点,以获得一个在天上永恒的生命意识随之而来的痛苦幸福。This was a mistake.这是一个错误。For so long as man was ignorant of his identity with Brahmá and did not see that his true end consisted in being absorbed into the impersonal all-god from which he sprang; so long as he set his heart on a merely personal existence, no amount of good works would secure his freedom from rebirth.对于这样的人,只要是他的无知与布拉马身份,并没有看到他真正的结束而进入客观的全面吸收了神,他兴起组成,只要他开始只是一个个人的存在对他的心,没有金额的优秀作品将确保他从新生的自由。 By virtue of his good deeds he would, indeed, mount to heaven, perhaps win a place among the gods.凭借他的善行,他将实际上,安装到天堂,也许赢得了众神之中的地方。but after a while his store of merits would give out like oil in a lamp, and he would have to return once more to life to taste in a new birth the bitterness of earthly existence.但不久,他的优点商店将发出像一盏灯石油,他将不得不再次返回到一个新的生命诞生在品尝到地球上存在的苦味。 The only way to escape this misery was through the saving recognition of one's identity with Brahmâ.只有这样,才能摆脱这种痛苦是通过一个人的身份与梵天节能的认可。As so as one could say from conviction, "I am Brahmâ," the bonds were broken that held him fast to the illusion of personal immortality and consequently to rebirth.由于等为一体可以说从信念,“我是梵天,”债券被打破是很快抓住了他个人的不朽的幻想,因此对重生。Thus, cultivating, by a mortified life, freedom form all desires, man spent his years in peaceful contemplation till death put an end to the seeming duality and he was absorbed in Brahmâ like a raindrop in the ocean.因此,培养一个屈辱的生命,自由形式的所有欲望,人花了他多年的和平沉思,直到死亡把一到年底,他似乎对偶是在像雨滴在海洋中梵吸收。


The pantheistic scheme of salvation just described, generally known as the Vedanta teaching, found great favor with the Brahmins and has been maintained as orthodox Brahmin doctrine down to the present day. pantheistic拯救计划的刚才所说的,一般被称为韦丹塔教学,发现与婆罗门的青睐,并已作为正统的婆罗门教义下降到目前的一天维持。But it made little progress outside the Brahmin caste.但它使婆罗门种姓之外的进展甚微。The mass of the people had little interest in an impersonal Brahmâ who was incapable of hearing their prayers, nor had they any relish for a final end which meant the loss forever of conscious existence.人民群众已经在客观布拉马谁是无法听到他们的祈祷兴趣不大,他们也没有一个最后的结束,这意味着丧失意识永远存在的任何津津乐道。 And so, while the priestly ascetic was chiefly concerned with meditation on his identity with Brahmâ, and with the practice of mortification to secure freedom from all desires, the popular mind was still bent on prayer, sacrifices, and other good works in honor of the Vedic deities.因此,虽然祭司苦行主要关心的是他与梵天身份冥想,并与屈辱的做法,以确保所有欲望的自由,大众心目中是在祈祷,祭祀,和其他优秀作品中仍然一意孤行的荣誉吠陀神。 But at the same time, their faith in the efficacy of these traditional gods could not be but weakened by the Brahmin teaching that freedom from rebirth was not to be obtained by acts of worship to personal deities who were powerless to secure even for themselves eternal conscious bliss.但与此同时,他们对这些传统的神的信仰不能疗效,但由婆罗门教减弱,从新生的自由是不是由个人崇拜神灵的行为谁是无能为力的,甚至为自己的安全意识得到永恒幸福。 The result was popular development of special cults of two of the old gods, now raised to the position of supreme deity, and credited with the power to secure a lasting life of happiness in heaven.其结果是对旧提高到现在的地位最高的神神,两个特殊的邪教流行的开发,并有权在天上,以确保持久的幸福生活记。

It was in the priestly conception of the supreme personal Brahmá that the popular mind found its model for its new deities.这是在个人梵天的最高祭司的观念,流行的心灵找到了新的神灵及其模式。 Brahmá was not a traditional god, and seems never to have been a favorite object of cult with the people.梵天是不是一个传统的神,似乎永远是一个邪教与人民喜爱的对象。Even today, there are but two temples to Brahmá in all India.即使在今天,有两个寺庙,但在所有的梵天印度。His subordination to the great impersonal all-god did not help to recommend him to the popular mind.他服从一切伟大的人格,神并没有帮助,建议他到流行的想法。Instead we find two of the traditional gods honored with special cults, which seem to have taken rise independently in two different parts of the country and, after acquiring a local celebrity, to have spread in rivalry over the whole land.相反,我们发现有特殊邪教,这似乎已上升两个独立国家的不同地区,并在取得当地的名人,在竞争遍及全地荣获两个传统的神。 One of these gods was the ancient storm-god Rudra, destructive in tempest and lightning, renewing life in the showers of rain, sweeping in lonely solitude over mountain and barren waste.这些神之一,是在暴风雨中闪电的古风暴神楼陀罗,破坏性,延长在雨中淋浴生活,过山和荒芜的寂寞孤独清扫垃圾。As the destroyer, the reproducer, and the type of the lonely ascetic, this deity rapidly rose in popular esteem under the name of Siva, the blessed.由于驱逐舰,reproducer,和孤独的苦行类型,这个神迅速上升在流行的自尊心下,湿婆的名字,祝福。The other was Vishnu, originally one of the forms of the son-god, a mild beneficent deity, whose genial rays brought gladness and growth to living creatures.另一个是毗湿奴,原本的儿子为上帝,温和仁慈的神,他们带来了欢乐和成长,使生物和煦的射线的形式之一。His solar origin was lost sight of as he was raised to the position of supreme deity, but one of his symbols, the discus, points to his earlier character.他的太阳起源是因为他失去了被提升到至高无上的神的位置,但他的符号,铁饼,他早先的特征点的景象。

These two rival cults seem to have arisen in the fourth or fifth century BC As in the case of the personal god Brahmá, neither the worship of Siva nor of Vishnu did away with the honoring of the traditional gods and goddesses, spirits, heroes, sacred rivers and mountains and trees, serpents, earth, heaven, sun, moon, and stars.这两个对手邪教似乎已经出现在第四或第五世纪,在公元前神梵天的个人情况为,既不是崇拜湿婆或毗湿奴那样做是对传统的神和女神,烈酒,英雄,履行了神圣河流和山脉和树木,蛇,土,天,太阳,月亮和星星。 The pantheism in which the Hindu mind is inevitably cast saw in all these things emanations of the supreme deity, Siva or Vishnu.在其中印度教泛神论思想必然是演员看到在所有这些事情的最高神,湿婆或毗湿奴的放射物。In worshiping any or all, he was but honoring his supreme god.在崇拜任何或全部,他只是履行他的最高神。Each deity was credited with a special heaven, where his devotees would find after death an unending life of conscious happiness.每个神是一个特殊的功劳天堂,那里有他的信徒死后会找到一个永无休止的幸福生活的意识。The rapid rise in popular esteem of these cults, tending more and more to thrust Brahminism proper in to the background, was viewed by the priestly caste with no little concern.在这些邪教流行的自尊心,迅速崛起越来越多地倾向于推力婆罗门教在适当的背景,是由祭司种姓,没有不关心观看。To quench these cults was out of the question; and so, in order to hold them iN at least nominal allegiance to Brahminism, the supreme god Brahmá was associated with Vishnu and Siva as a triad of equal and more or less interchangeable deities in which Brahmá held the office of creator, or rather evolver, Vishnu of preserver, and Siva of dissolver.这些邪教是解渴出了问题,等等,以阻止他们至少在名义上效忠婆罗门教,梵天是至高神毗湿奴和湿婆与作为一个平等和或多或少可互换神黑社会其中布拉马举行的创作者,或者说演化法,毗湿奴的保护者办公室,以及溶解湿婆。 This is the so-called Tri-murti (tri-form), or trinity, altogether different from the Christian concept of three eternally distinct persons in one Godhead, and hence offering no legitimate ground for suggesting a Hindu origin for the Christian doctrine.这就是所谓三摩提(三表),或三位一体,从完全不同的三个不同的人永远在一个基督教神性的概念,从而提供了建议,为印度教起源基督教教义没有合法理由。

More remarkable was the intimate association of other new deities--the creations of the religious fancies of the common people--with the gods Siva and Vishnu.更了不起的是其它的新神亲密协会 - 宗教的创造幻想的普通百姓 - 与神湿婆和毗湿奴。With Siva two popular gods came to be associated as sons.随着两个流行的湿婆神来被视为儿子有关。One was Ganesha, lord of troops and mischievous imps, who has remained ever since a favorite object of worship and is invoked at the beginning of every undertaking to ensure success.一个是俄尼沙,部队和淘气的小鬼,谁一直以来最喜欢的崇拜对象,并在每一个承诺,确保成功的开始调用主。The other was Scanda, who seems in great measure to have replaced Indra as the god of battle.另一个是Scanda,谁在很大程度上似乎已经取代了战神因陀罗。Beyond the doubtful derivation of the name Scanda from Alexander, there is nothing to indicate that either of these reputed sons of Siva had ever lived the lives of men.除了从亚历山大的名字Scanda怀疑推导,没有任何迹象表明这些知名的湿婆的儿子曾经住任何人的生命。NoT so the gods that enlarged the sphere of Vishnu's influence.没有那么神毗湿奴是扩大了的势力范围。In keeping with Vishnu's position as god of the people, two of the legendary heroes of the remote past, Rama and Krishna, whom popular enthusiasm had raised to the rank of gods, came to be associated with him not as sons, but as his very incarnations.在与毗湿奴的地位的人,对遥远的过去,拉玛和Krishna的人民众的热情已提高到神职传奇英雄二,上帝让后来被与他有联系而不是儿子,而是因为他非常化身。 The incarnation of a god descending from heaven to assume a human of animal form as a sort of savior, and to achieve some signal benefit for mankind, is known as an avatar.一个从天上降神的化身承担作为一个救世主某种形式的动物人类,并取得了一些为人类造福的信号,是一个化身而闻名。The idea antedates Buddhism and, while applied to Siva and other gods, became above all a characteristic of Vishnu.这个想法antedates佛教,同时适用于湿婆和其他神,首先是毗湿奴的特点成了。Popular fancy loved to dwell on his avatar as a fish to save Manu from the devastating flood, as a tortoise to recover from the depths of the sea precious possessions for gods and men, as a boar to raise the submerged earth above the surface of the waters, but most of all as the god-men Rama and Krishna, each of whom delivered the people from the yoke of a tyrant.大众喜欢喜欢纠缠于他作为一个拯救鱼的毁灭性洪水马努头像,作为一个乌龟恢复从神和人的海洋深处的珍贵遗物作为野猪,提高以上的地球表面淹没水域,但作为神人拉玛和Krishna,从每个人提供了一个暴君枷锁人民最。 So popular became the cults of Rama and Krishna that Vishnu himself was largely lost sight of.如此受欢迎,成为拉玛和Krishna毗湿奴本人认为,主要是忽视的邪教。In time the Vishnuites became divided into two rival schisms:the Ramaites, who worshipped Rama as supreme deity, and the Krishnaites, who gave this honor rather to Krishna, a division that has persisted down to the present day.在时间的Vishnuites成为分为两个对立的分裂:该Ramaites,谁崇拜的最高神罗摩和Krishnaites,谁给了这一荣誉,而到克里希纳,一个分部,一直坚持到今天。 The evidence of the early existence of these innovations on Brahmin belief is to be found in the two great epics known as the "Ramayana" and the "Mahabharata."作者对这些创新婆罗门信仰早期存在的证据是在为“罗摩衍那”和已知发现的两个伟大的史诗“摩诃婆罗多”。 Both are revered by Brahmins, Sivaites and Vishnuites alike, particularly the latter poem, which is held to be directly revealed.两者都是由婆罗门崇敬,Sivaites和Vishnuites一样,特别是后者的诗,这是举行直接显现出来。 In the "Ramayana," which belongs to the period 400-300 BC, the legendary tales of the trials and the triumphs of the hero Rama and his faithful wife Sita were worked into a highly artificial romanbtic poem, largely in the interests of Vishnu worship.在“罗摩衍那”,它属于公元前400-300年期间,该试验的传奇故事和英雄拉玛和他忠实的妻子悉的胜利是工作到一个高度人工romanbtic诗主要是在毗湿奴的利益,崇拜。 The "Mahabharata," the work of many hands, was begun about the fifth century BC under Brahmin influence, and in the folowing centuries received additions and modifications, in the interests now of Vishnuism now of Sivaism, till it assumed its final shape in the sixth century of the Christian Era. “摩诃婆罗多”,许多手中的工作,是开始约五世纪婆罗门的影响下年,并在folowing世纪收到补充和修改,现在的利益Vishnuism现在Sivaism,直到它承担其最终的形状六世纪的基督教时代。 It is a huge conglomeration of stirring adventure, popular legend, myth, and religious speculation.这是一个激动人心的冒险,民间传说,神话和宗教聚集巨大投机。The myth centers chiefly around the many-sided struggle for supremacy between the evil tyrants of the land and the hero Arjuna, aided by his four brothers.主要围绕之间的土地和邪恶的英雄阿朱那他的四个兄弟资助霸至上多方面的斗争的神话中心。The role that Krishna plays is not an integral part of the story and seems to have been interpolated after the substance of the epic had been written.克里希纳扮演的角色,是不是一个故事的组成部分,似乎已插后的实质内容已经写史诗。He is the charioteer of Arjuna and at the same time acts as his religious advisor.他是阿朱那,并在为他的宗教顾问同时动作车夫。 Of his numerous religious instructions, the most important is his metrical treatise known as the "Bhagavad-gita," the Song of the Blessed One, a writing that has exercised a profound influence on religious thought in India.他的许多宗教的指示,最重要的是他的格律论文为“博伽梵歌”的世尊,一个已经行使了印度的宗教思想在歌曲创作的深刻影响而闻名。 It dates from the second or third century of the Christian era, being a poetic version of a late Upanishad, with its pantheistic doctrine so modified as to pass for a personal revelation of Krishna.它的日期从基督教时代的第二或第三世纪,是一个诗意的后期奥义书版本,它的泛神论学说,如此修改,以传递的个人启示克里希纳。 While embodying the noblest features of Brahmin ethics, and insisting on the faithful performance of caste-duties, it proclaims Krishna to be the superior personal all-god who, by the bestowal of special grace helps on his votaries to the attainment of eternal bliss.虽然体现了婆罗门道德崇高的特点,并在种姓坚持忠实地履行职责,它宣布克里希纳是卓越的个人所有的,上帝谁,由特殊恩典赠​​与他votaries到永恒的幸福程度的帮助。 As an important means to this end, it inculcates the virtue of Bhakti, that is a loving devotion to the deity, analogous to the Christian virtue of charity.作为一个重要手段,为此,它灌输的巴克蒂美德,这是一个充满爱心奉献给神,类似于基督教的慈善美德。Unhappily for the later development of Vishnuism, the Krishna of the "Bhagavad-gita" was not the popular conception.不幸的是Vishnuism后来的发展,对“博伽梵歌”克里希纳不是流行的概念。Like most legendary heroes of folk-lore, his character was in keeping with the crude morals of the primitive age that first sounded his praises.像民间传说最富有传奇色彩的英雄,他的性格是在与原始时代,首先响起他赞扬原油道德一致。The narrative portions of the epic show him to have been sly and unscrupulous, guilty in word and deed of acts which the higher Brahmin conscience would reprove.史诗的叙事部分表明他已被狡猾和不择手段,在言语和行为犯更高的婆罗门良心会责备行为。But it is in the fuller legendary story of his life as given in the so-called "Hari-vansa," a later supplement to the epic, and also in some of the Puranas of the ninth and tenth centuries of our era, that the character of the popular Krishna appears in its true light.但它是他生命中的传奇故事,更充分地在所谓的“哈日- vansa,”后来补充史诗,并在我们这个时代的第九和第十世纪往世书有的还给出了流行的克里希纳字符出现在它的真光。Here we learn that Krishna was one of eight sons of noble birth, whom a Herod-like tyrant was bent on destroying.在这里,我们了解到,克里希纳是八高贵的出身,其中一希律般摧毁暴君是弯曲的一个儿子。The infant god was saved from the wicked designs of the king by being secretly substituted for a herdsman's babe.婴儿得救神从邪恶的国王被秘密设计了一个牧民的宝贝取代。Krishna grew up among the simple country-people, performing prodigies of valor, and engaging in many amorous adventures with the Gopis, the wives and daughters of the herdsmen.克里希纳长大了简单的国家之间的民间,表演天才的勇气,并与牧牛姑娘,妻子和女儿的许多牧民多情的冒险事业。Eight of these were his favorites, but one he loved best of all, Radha.其中8个是他的最爱,但有他最喜欢的是,拉达。Krishna finally succeeded in killing the king, and brought peace to the kingdom.克里希纳终于成功地杀死了国王,并带来和平的王国。

Between this deified Hindu Hercules and Our Divine Lord, there is no ground for comparison, one only for contrast.这个神化印度教大力士之间和我们神圣的主啊,有没有比较地上,一只有对比。That the idea of incarnate deity should be found in pre-Christian Hindu thought is not so remarkable when we consider that it answers to the yearning of the human heart for union with God.那神的化身的想法应该是前基督教印度教思想不那么显着的发现是,当我们认为答案是对人的心脏联盟与上帝的向往。But what is at first sight astonishing is to find in the religious writings subsequent to the "Mahabharata" legendary tales of Krishna that are almost identical with the stories of Christ in the canonical and apocryphal Gospels.但令人惊讶的是一见钟情是找到在随后的“摩诃婆罗多”传奇故事的克里希纳是几乎在典型和猜测福音的基督宗教著作相同的故事。 From the birth of Krishna in a stable, and his adoration by shepherds and magi, the leader is led on through a series of events the exact counterparts of those related of Our Divine Lord.从出生在一个稳定的克里希纳,他是牧羊人和贤士崇拜,领袖带领通过一系列活动的那些救主相关的确切同行。Writers hostile to Christianity seized on this chain or resemblances, too close to be mere coincidence, in order to convict the Gospel writers of plagiarism from Hindu originals.作家敌视基督教抓住这个链条或相似之处,太接近仅仅是巧合,为了从印度教正本定罪的福音作家剽窃。But the very opposite resulted.但适得其反的结果。All Indianists of authority are agreed that these Krishna legends are not earlier than the seventh century of the Christian Era, and must have been borrowed from Christian sources.所有的权力都同意,这些Indianists克里希纳传说不早于公元七世纪的基督教时代,而且必须是从基督教的来源借来的。


The steady weakening of Brahmin influence, in consequence of the successive waves of foreign conquest, made it possible for the religious preferences of the huge, heterogeneous population of India to assert themselves more strongly.影响稳定的婆罗门削弱了外国的征服一波又一波的后果,作出的巨大,印度人口的宗教偏好异质能够坚持自己更加强烈。 Both Sivaism and Vishnuism departed more and more strongly from traditional Brahminism, and assumed a decidedly sectarian character towards the older religion and also towards each other.双方Sivaism和Vishnuism离开越来越强烈,从传统的婆罗门教,并承担对老年人的宗教无疑是一种宗派性质,也向对方。 With this weakening of Brahmin influence they absorbed the grosser elements of low-grade popular worship, and became abused by the accretion of immoral rites and groveling superstitions.有了这个婆罗门影响的减弱,他们吸收了低档流行拜大要素,并成为由不道德的仪式和迷信卑躬屈膝积滥用。 While, on the one hand, the practice of asceticism was pushed to its utmost extremes of fanaticism, on the other the doctrine of bhakti was perverted into a system of gross sexual indulgence, for which the amours of Krishna and the Gopis served as the model and sanction.同时,在一方面,禁欲主义的做法是被推到极端狂热竭尽全力,另一方面,对巴克提学说严重扭曲成性放纵系统,其中克里希纳和牧牛姑娘amours为榜样和制裁。 The Brahmin-caste distinctions were broken down, and an equality of all men and women was asserted, at least during the ceremonies of public worship.婆罗门种姓的区别被打破,对所有男人和女人平等是断言,至少在公众礼拜仪式。The Brahmin rites were in great measure replaced by others particular to each cult and held to be all-sufficient for salvation.婆罗门仪式是由每个人特别是邪教,并认为是拯救所有自给自足很大程度上取代。Everywhere splendid temples arose to Siva, Vishnu, and his two human avatars; idols and phallic symbols innumerable filled the land; and each rival cult lauded its own special deity as supreme, subordinating all others to it, and looking down with more or less contempt on forms of worship other than its own.到处出现了灿烂的寺庙到湿婆,毗湿奴,和他的两个人的头像;偶像和阳具符号充满了无数的土地,以及每个对手邪教称赞其自己的特殊作为最高神,所有其他人服从它,并期待与更多或更少的蔑视下降上礼拜不拥有任何形式。 One factor which contributed strongly to the degradation of these sectarian forms of religion was the veneration of the Sakti, or female side, of these deities.其中一个因素造成强烈的这些教派的宗教形式的退化是该萨克蒂崇拜,或女性的一面,这些神灵。Popular theology would not rest until each deity was supplemented with a wife, in whom the active nature of the god was personified.通俗神学不肯休息,直到每个神进行了补充与妻子在其中的积极性是神的化身。With Brahmá was associated an ancient river-goddess, Sarasvati, honored as the patroness of letters.梵天是相关联的古河道女神,辩才,作为施主的信件荣幸。Vishnu's Sakti was Sri, or Lakshmi, patroness of good fortune.毗湿奴的萨克蒂是斯里兰卡,或拉克什米,好运的守护神。With Siva the destroyer there was associated the terrible, blood-thirsty, magical goddess Durga, or Kali, formerly delighting in human victims, now appeased with sacrifices of goats and buffaloes.随着湿婆驱逐舰有关联的可怕,嗜血,神奇的女神杜尔加,或卡利,前身为受害的人们喜出望外,现在山羊和水牛牺牲姑息。 Rama had his consort, Sita, and Krishna his favorite Gopi, Radha.拉玛他的配偶,寺塔,他最喜欢的戈皮和Krishna,拉达。The worship of these Saktis, particularly Siva's consort Durga-Kali, degenerated into shocking orgies of drunkenness and sexual immorality, which even today are the crying scandal of Hinduism.对于特别湿婆的配偶杜尔加-卡利,狂欢到令人震惊的酗酒和淫乱,这即使在今天,是印度教的哭丑闻堕落这些Saktis,崇拜。

Such were the sectarian developments of post-epic times.这些都是后史诗时代的教派发展。They found expression in the inferior, quasi-historic Puranas, of the seventh and following centuries, and in the Tantras, which are more modern still, and teach the symbolic magic of Sakti-worship.他们发现的劣势,准历史往世书表达,第七和几个世纪,并在坦陀罗,这是更现代的是,和传授萨克蒂崇拜的象征魔力。 Neither of these classes of writings is regarded by orthodox Brahmin as canonical.这些类的著作也被认为是正统的婆罗门作为典型。

Of the two hundred million adherents of Hinduism today, only a few hundred thousand can be called orthodox Brahmin worshipers.对印度教信徒的二亿今天,只有十万几可称为正统的婆罗门信徒。 Sivaism and Vishnuism have overshadowed the older religion like a rank growth of poisonous weeds. Sivaism和Vishnuism已经盖过了像毒草级增长旧宗教。In their main outlines, these two great sects have retained the characteristics of the Purana period, but differences of view on minor points have lead to a multiplication of schismatic divisions, especially among Vishnu-worshipers.在他们的主要轮廓,这两个伟大的教派都保留了往世书时代特色,但在细节问题意见分歧已经导致了分裂的分裂增殖,尤其是毗湿奴,朝拜。 Both sects, which today are fairly tolerant of each other, have a number of devotional and liturgical practices that are alike in kind, though marked by differences in sectarian belief.这两个教派,今天是相当互相容忍,有一个虔诚和礼仪习俗的实物一样,虽然由不同教派的信仰标记,编号。Both Sivaite and Vishnuite lay great stress on the frequent recital of the numerous names of their respective supreme gods, and to facilitate this piety, each carries with him, often about his neck, a rosary, varying in material and the number of beads according as it is dedicated to Siva or Vishnu.双方Sivaite和Vishnuite躺在了各自的最高神的名字经常演奏的众多巨大的压力,并促进这个虔诚,每个带有他,经常对他的脖子,念珠,在材料和不同的珠子数据,因为它致力于湿婆或毗湿奴。 Each sect has an initiation rites, which is conferred upon the young at the age of reason and in which the officiating guru puts a rosary around the neck of the applicant and whispers into his ear the mantra, or sacred motto, the recital of which serves as a profession of faith and is of daily obligation.每节有一个启动仪式,这是在少年人授予在理性时代并在其中主持大师把围绕着脖子上的念珠和申请人在他耳边低语六字真言,或神圣的座右铭,其中担任演奏作为一个职业的信念,是日常的义务。 Another rite common to both is that in which the presiding officer brands on the body of the worshiper with hot metal stamps the sacred symbols of his sect, the trident and the linga of Siva, or the discus and conch-shell (or lotus) of Vishnu.另一种仪式,以双方共同的是,在其中对崇拜者与铁水邮票机构主席品牌的他的教派,三叉戟和湿婆林加或铁饼和海螺,贝壳(或Lotus)的神圣象征毗湿奴。

But in their highest act of ceremonial worship the two sects differ radically.但是,在他们的最高礼仪崇拜行为的两个根本不同教派。The Sivaite takes his white stone pebble, the conventional phallic emblem which he always carries with him, and while muttering his mantra, sprinkles it with water and applies to it cooling Bilva leaves.The Sivaite把他的白色石头鹅卵石,传统的阳具象征,他总是与他进行,虽然嘟囔着他的口头禅,洒了水,并适用于它的冷却Bilva叶子。Owing to its simplicity and cheapness, this rite is much in vogue with the ignorant lower classes.由于其简单和便宜,在这个仪式是非常无知的下层与时尚。The Vishnu rite is less degrading but more childish.毗湿奴仪式较少降解,但更孩子气。It consists of an elaborate and costly worship of the temple image of Vishnu, or more often of Rama, or Krishna.它包括,或更经常的拉玛,或克里希纳的毗湿奴的庙宇的形象阐述和昂贵的崇拜。The image is daily awakened, undressed, bathed, decked with rich robes and adorned with necklaces, bracelets, crowns of gold and precious stones, fed with choice kinds of food, honored with flowers, lights, an incense, and then entertained with vocal and instrumental music, and with dancing by the temple girls of doubtful virtue, consecrated to this service.该图像是每天醒来,脱光衣服,洗澡,具有丰富的长袍打扮和装饰项链,手镯,黄金和宝石的皇冠,食品种类与选择用鲜花,灯光,一香,然后荣幸,美联储声乐和招待,并通过可疑凭借寺的少女翩翩起舞器乐,奉献给这项服务。 As Krishna is generally worshipped in the form of a child-image, his diversion consists largely in the swinging of his image, the spinning of tops, and other games dear to the heart of the child.正如克里希纳一般是在以儿童为图像形式的崇拜,他的导流很大程度上在于他的形象,纺上衣,和其他游戏摆动亲爱的孩子的心。

Siva, too, has his temples, vying in magnificence with those of Vishnu, but in all these, the holy place is the linga-shrine, and the temple worship consists in the application of water and Bilva leaves to the stone symbol.湿婆,也有他的庙宇,与毗湿奴的那些辉煌的历程,但在所有这些,神圣的地方是林加-祠,庙供奉在水和Bilva应用程序由叶石的象征。 The interior walls of these, and of Vishnu temples as well, are covered with shocking representations of sexual passion.这些内墙和毗湿奴的寺庙也都覆盖着情欲令人震惊的陈述。and yet, strange to say, these forms of religion, while giving a sanction to the indulgence of the lowest passions, at the same time inspire other devotees to the practice of the severest asceticism.然而,奇怪的是,这些形式的宗教,而给予制裁,以最低的激情放纵的同时,鼓励其他信徒到最严厉的禁欲主义的做法。 They wander about in lonely silence, naked and filthy, their hair matted from long neglect, their bodies reduced to mere skin and bones by dint of incredible fasts.他们徜徉在孤独的沉默赤裸裸的肮脏,从长期忽视他们的头发纠结,约,他们的尸体减少到仅仅是皮肤和骨骼受力难以置信的斋戒。 They will stand motionless for hours under the blazing son, with their emaciated arms uplifted toward heaven.他们将站在下炽热的儿子小时一动不动,他们瘦弱的手臂向天振奋。Some go about with face ever turned upwards.有的去打开约与面临不断向上。Some are known to have kept their fists tightly clenched until their growing nails protruded through the backs of their hands.有些能够一直紧握拳头,直到他们成长的指甲,通过他们的手的背面突出。


Enlightened Hindus of modern times have made attempts to institute a reform in Hinduism by rejecting all idolatrous and immoral rites, and by setting up a purely monotheistic form of worship.近代启蒙印度教徒已试图通过拒绝所有机构盲目崇拜和不道德的仪式,并成立一个纯粹的一神教崇拜形成一个印度教改革。 Of these, the earliest and most noted was the so-called Brahmá Samaj (Congregation of Brahmá), founded in Calcutta in 1828, by the learned Rammohun Roy.其中,最早,最引人注目的是所谓的布拉马社会报(梵天众),罗伊所学到Rammohun在加尔各答创立于1828年。He tried to combine a Unitarian form of Christianity with the Brahmin conception of the supreme personal God.他试图结合至高无上的人格神婆罗门观念的一种形式的基督教寻道。After his death in 1833, differences of view as to the nature of God, the authority of the Vedas, and the obligation of caste-customs caused the society to split up into a number of small congregations.之后,他在1833年死亡,至于神,是吠陀的权威,性质和种姓为海关义务的意见分歧所造成的社会分裂成小的教会了。 At present there are more than a hundred independent theistic congregations in India.目前,有上百个独立的印度有神论教会更多。Some, like the Arya Samaj, rest on the sole authority of the Vedas.有些人,像阿里亚萨马伊,在吠陀唯一权威休息。Others are eclectic, even to the extent of choosing for devotional reading in their public services passages from the Avesta, Koran, and Bible.另一些折衷,甚至到了在他们的公共服务,从阿维斯塔,可兰经,灵修和阅读圣经段落选择范围。Few of them are altogether free from the taint of pantheism, and, being more like clubs for intellectual and moral improvement than for ritualistic forms of worship, they make but little progress in the way of conversion.他们中很少有完全从泛神论污点自由,并正在为智力和道德的崇拜仪式比喜欢俱乐部多形式的改善,他们提出,但在转换方式进展不大。

In short, Brahminism cannot succeed in reforming itself.总之,婆罗门教的改革就不能成功本身。 Its earlier sacred books are steeped in the polytheism out of which it grew, and the pantheistic view of the world, to which it was afterwards committed, has been like a dead weight dragging it hopelessly into the stagnant pool of superstition, pessimism, and immorality.其早先神圣的书籍是沉浸在多神教,其中它的增长,以及世界pantheistic认为,对此它是事后承诺,有死猪一样拖进了迷信,悲观绝望停滞池中重量是,而且不道德。 In virtue of its pantheistic attitude, there is no form of religion, high or low, that cannot be tolerated and incorporated into its capacious system.在凭借其pantheistic态度,没有任何形式的宗教,高或低,这是不能容忍的,并纳入其广阔的系统中。The indifference of Brahminism to the gross buses of Hinduism is, after all, but a reflex of the indifference of its supreme god.冷漠的婆罗门教,印度教总巴士毕竟,而是一种至高无上的神,其反射的冷漠。Sin loses most of its hideousness when it can be traced ultimately to the great impersonal Brahmâ.仙失去其丑最何时可以追溯到最终向梵天伟大的人格。There is but one form of religion that has any prospect of reforming the religious life of India, and that is the Roman Catholic.只有一个宗教的形式,将其所有的改革,印度的宗教生活的前景,这是罗马天主教。For the shadow, pantheistic deity it can set form the One, Eternal, Personal Spirit and creator; for the crude Tri-murti, the sublime Trinity; and for the coarse and degrading avatars of Vishnu, the incarnation of the Son of God.对于影子,泛神论的神能集的形式一,永恒的,个人精神和创造者;为原油三摩提,崇高的三位一体,以及向毗湿奴的化身,上帝的儿子,粗和有辱人格的化身。 It can replace the idolatrous and immoral Hindu rites with its own imposing liturgy, and substitute the Cross for the abominable linga.它可以取代自己的盲目崇拜强加礼仪和不道德的印度教仪式,代替可恶林加十字架。

Brahminism, being a natural religion and a privilege of Hindu birth, has never made any concerted attempt at proselytizing in foreign lands.婆罗门教,是一个自然的宗教和印度教特权出生,从来没有在外国的土地传教协调一致的尝试。But some years ago steps were taken by a few individuals of England to foist upon English-speaking people a new religious system embodying the pantheistic belief and magical superstition of the Vedanta school of Brahminism.但是,前几年采取了一些步骤由英国一些个人对英语为母语的人强加给一个新的宗教制度体现了泛神论的信仰和对婆罗门韦丹塔学校神奇的迷信。 This new system, known as Theosophy, was to embrace within its fold members of every form of religion, reconciling all differences of creed in the pantheistic view that all deities, high and low, are but transitory emanations of the supreme, incomprehensible Reality, devotion to which was the highest religion.这个新系统,称为神智学,是为了拥抱内各种形式的宗教其折叠members,调和在pantheistic认为一切分歧的信条,所有神,高有低,不过是至高无上的,难以理解的现实,奉献短暂emanations到这是最高的宗教。 This quasi-cult, which also made pretensions to the exercise of magical powers, soon met the ridicule and obloquy it deserved.这准邪教,这也让自诩行使权力的神奇,很快又遇到了它的嘲笑和漫骂当之无愧。It is practically obsolete at the present day.它实际上是在现今已经过时。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by M. Donahue.转录由M.多纳休。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全书,第二卷。Published 1907.1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, 1907.Nihil Obstat,1907年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


Texts.-- Muir, Original Sanskrit Texts, 5 vols.文本.--缪尔,梵文文本原件,5卷。(London, 1868-70); Mueller, Vedic Hymns in Sacred Books of the East, XXXII; Oldenberg, Vedic Hymns, op. (伦敦,1868至1870年);奥尔登贝格,吠陀赞美诗,运,穆勒,在东,三十二圣书吠陀赞美诗。cit.前。XLVI; Bloomfield, The Atharva Veda, op.四十六,布卢姆菲尔德时,阿塔发吠陀,同前。cit., XLII; Eggeling, The Satapatha Brahmana.同前,四十二。Eggeling的Satapatha梵书。op.运算。cit., XII, XXVI, XLI; Mueller, The Upanishads, op.同上,十二,二十六,四十一。米勒,而奥义书,同前。cit., XV; Oldenberg and Mueller, The Grihya-Sutras, op.前引书,第XV部;。奥尔登贝格和Mueller的Grihya -佛经,同前。cit., XXIX, XXX; Buehler, The Sacred Laws of the Aryas, op.同前,第29届了XXX。比埃勒,在Aryas的神圣法律,同前。cit., II, XIV; idem, The Laws of Manu, op.同上,二,第十四条。同上,法律的马努,同前。cit., XXV; Thibaut, The Vedanta-Sutra, op.同前,二十五。Thibaut的韦丹塔,经,同前。cit.前。XXXIV, XXXVIII; Telang, The Bhagavad-Gita, op.三十四,三十八; Telang的博伽梵歌,作品。cit VIII; Bournouf-Roussel, Le Bhagavata Purana, 5 vols.见第八; Bournouf -鲁塞尔,乐薄伽梵往世书,5卷。(Paris, 1898). (巴黎,1898年)。

General Treatises.--Barth, The religions of India (London, 1882); Monier-Williams, Brahminism and Hinduism, or Religious Thought and Life in India (London, 1891); Idem, Hinduism (London, 1897); Idem, Indian Wisdom (London, 1876); Hopkins, The Religions of India (Boston, 1895); Dubois, Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies (Oxford, 1897); Gough, The Philosophy of the Upanishads and Ancient Indian Metaphysics (London, 1882); Deussen, Das System des Vedanta (Leipzig, 1883); Idem, Der Philosophie der Upanishads (Leipzig, 1899); Kaegi, The Rig-Veda (Boston, 1886); Oldenberg, Die religion des Veda (Berlin, 1894); Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, 2 vols.一般论着.--巴特,印度(伦敦,1882年)的宗教;莫尼尔威廉-威廉姆斯,婆罗门教和印度教,或宗教思想和生活在印度(伦敦,1891年);同上,印度教(伦敦,1897年);同上,印度智慧(伦敦,1876年);霍普金斯,印度(波士顿,1895年)宗教;杜波依斯,印度教礼仪,习俗和仪式(牛津,1897年);歌赋,对奥义书哲学与古印度形而上学(伦敦,1882年) ;德森,DAS系统德韦丹塔(莱比锡,1883年),同上,明镜明镜哲学的奥义书(莱比锡,1899年); Kaegi,钻机,吠陀(波士顿,1886年);奥尔登贝格,模具宗教德吠陀(柏林,1894年);科尔布鲁克,杂文集,第2卷。(London, 1873); Weber, The History of Indian Literature (London, 1892); Dahlman, das Mahabharata (Berlin, 1895); Shoebel, Las Ramayana in Annales du musee Guimet (Paris, 1888), XIII; de la Saussaye, Lehb.(伦敦,1873年),韦伯,印度文学(伦敦,1892年)的历史;达尔尔曼,达斯摩诃婆罗多(柏林,1895年); Shoebel,在拉斯维加斯罗摩衍那吉美美术馆杜年鉴(巴黎,1888年),十三;德拉Saussaye, Lehb。der Religionsgesch.明镜Religionsgesch。(Freiburg, 1905), II. (弗赖堡,1905年),二。

The Laws of Manu该法律的马努

Catholic Information天主教新闻

"The Laws of Manu" is the English designation commonly applied to the "Manava Dharma-sastra", a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism. “该法律的马努”是英文名称通常适用于“摩纳婆达摩- sastra”,一个古老神圣的法律和最高崇敬举行由婆罗门教的正统信徒海关韵律梵文汇编。 The Brahmins themselves credit the work with a divine origin and a remote antiquity.婆罗门自己的信用与神圣的起源和远古的工作。 Its reputed author is Manu, the mythical survivor of the Flood and father of the human race, the primitive teacher of sacred rites and laws now enjoying in heaven the dignity of an omniscient deity.传闻的作者是马努,洪水神话中的幸存者和人类的父亲,神圣的仪式,现在在天堂享受着法律的尊严,一个无所不知的神原始的老师。 The opening verses of the work tell how Manu was reverently approached in ancient times by the ten great sages and asked to declare to them the sacred laws of the castes and how he graciously acceded to their request by having the learned sage Bhrigu, whom he had carefully taught the metrical institutes of the sacred law, deliver to them this precious instruction.开幕经文告诉具备了学习圣人Bhrigu,就是他马努是如何恭敬地走近远古时代的10个伟大的先贤,并要求宣布他们的种姓的神圣法律,以及如何他欣然加入了他们的工作要求仔细教的神圣法律的格律机构,提供给他们这个宝贵的指示。 The work thus pretends to be the dictation of Manu through the agency of Bhrigu; and as Manu learned it himself from the self-existent Brahma, its authorship purport to be divine.因此,这项工作是假装的马努通过Bhrigu机构听写,和马努记者从自我存在梵天它自己,它的作者自称是神。This pious Brahmin belief regarding the divine origin of the "Laws of Manu" is naturally not shared by the Oriental scholars of the western world.这个虔诚的婆罗门信仰有关的“法律的马努”神圣的起源是自然不同意西方世界的东方学者。Even the rather remote date assigned to the work by Sir William Jones, 1200-500 BC, has been very generally abandoned.即使是非常遥远的日期分配给威廉爵士琼斯,公元前1200-500工作,已经非常普遍放弃了。The weight of authority today is in favour of the view that the work in its present metrical form dates probably from the first or second century of the Christian era, though it may possibly be a century or two older.该委员会今日重量是认为在目前的格律形式工作的日期可能从公元第一或第二世纪的青睐,尽管它可能是一个世纪或两个以上。 Most of its contents, however, may be safely given a much greater antiquity.它的大部分内容,但是,可以安全地获得更大的古物。 Scholars are now pretty well agreed that the work is an amplified recast in verse of a "Dharma-sutra", no longer extant, that may have been in existence as early as 500 BC学者们一致认为,现在很好的工作是在诗的扩增重铸一个“达摩-经”,不再现存的,可能已经存在,早在公元前500年

The sutras were manuals composed by the teachers of the Vedic schools for the guidance of their pupils.佛经是由为他们的学生的指导教师组成吠陀学校的手册。They summed up in aphorisms, more or less methodically arranged, the enormously complicated mass of rules, laws customs, rites, that the Brahmin student had to know by heart.他们总结了警句,或多或少有条不紊地安排,规则,法律风俗,礼仪,即婆罗门学生必须熟记于心,非常复杂的质量。Every Vedic school of importance had its appropriate sutras, among which were the "Grihya-sutras", dealing with domestic ceremonies, and the "Dharma-sutras", treating of the sacred customs and laws.每一个学校的重要性有其适当的吠陀经典,其中有在“Grihya -佛经”,处理家庭仪式,以及“佛法,佛经”,神圣的习俗和法律处理。A fair number of these have been preserved, and form part of the sacred Brahmin literature.对这些已保存相当数量,形成了神圣的婆罗门文学的一部分。In course of time, some of the more ancient and popular "Dharma-sutras" were enlarged in their scope and thrown into metrical form constituting the so-called "Dharma-sastras".在时间,在更古老和流行的一些课程“的佛法,佛经”是在其范围扩大到格律形式和构成抛出所谓的“达摩- sastras”。Of these the most ancient and most famous is the "Laws of Manu", the "Manava Dharma-sastra", so called as scholars think, because based on a "Dharma-sutra" of the ancient Manava school.其中最古老和最有名的是“法律的马努”,“摩纳婆达摩- sastra”,所谓的学者认为,因为在一个“达摩,经”古摩纳婆校本。The association of the original sutra with the name Manava seems to have suggested the myth that Manu was its author, and this myth, incorporated in the metrical "Dharma-sastra", probably availed to secure the new work universal acceptance as a divinely revealed book.此次与原来的名称摩纳婆似乎经协会建议的神话,马努是它的作者,这神话,纳入格律“达摩- sastra”,大概利用,以确保新的工作作为神圣发现普遍接受书。

The "Laws of Manu" consists of 2684 verses, divided into twelve chapters.在“法奴”由2684年到12分章节的经文。In the first chapter is related the creation of the world by a series of emanations from the self-existent deity, the mythical origin of the book itself, and the great spiritual advantage to be gained by the devout study of its contents.在第一章是有关一个由自我存在的神的emanations系列创造了世界,书的神话origin本身,和伟大的精神优势可以得到的,其内容由虔诚的研究。 Chapters two to six inclusive set forth the manner of life and regulation of conduct proper to the members of the three upper castes, who have been initiated into the Brahmin religion by the sin-removing ceremony known as the investiture with the sacred cord.章五点五十八包容阐述了生活和进行适当的三个上等种姓,谁已开始进入由婆罗门宗教的神圣线investiture与已知的赎罪仪式的成员消除监管方式。 First is described the period of studentship, a time of ascetic discipline devoted to the study of the Vedas under a Brahmin teacher.首先是描述了奖学金,一个专门的吠陀下婆罗门苦行纪律拜师学艺一段时间。Then the chief duties of the householder are rehearsed, his choice of a wife, marriage, maintenance of the sacred hearth-fire, sacrifices to the gods, feasts to his departed relatives exercise of hospitality.当时户主的主要职责是排练,他的妻子,婚姻,神圣的壁炉火维修的选择,祭祀神灵,节日到他离开亲人好客运动。 The numerous restrictions also, regulating his daily conduct, are discussed in detail especially in regard to his dress, food, conjugal relations, and ceremonial cleanness.众多的限制也,他的日常行为规范,进行了详细讨论,尤其是在关于他的衣服,食品,夫妻关系,和礼仪的清洁。After this comes the description of the kind of life exacted of those who choose to spend their declining years as hermits and ascetics.在此之后随之而来的对生命的那些谁选择花费隐士和苦行者晚年付出的一种描述。The seventh chapter sets forth the divine dignity and the manifold duties and responsibilities of kings, offering on the whole a high ideal of the kingly office.第七章阐述了神圣的尊严和多方面的职责和责任的国王,对整个办公室的王道一个崇高理想产品。The eighth chapter treats of procedure in civil and criminal lawsuits and of the proper punishments to be meted out to different classes of criminals.第八章处理民事和刑事起诉和适当的惩罚是入狱的罪犯不同类别的程序。 The next two chapters make known the customs and laws governing divorce, inheritance, the rights of property, the occupations lawful for each caste.接下来的两章使已知的习俗和法律的管辖离婚,继承,财产的权利,每个种姓的职业是合法的。Chapter eleven is chiefly occupied with the various kinds of penance to be undergone by those who would rid themselves of the evil consequences of their misdeeds.第十一章主要是忙于忏悔那些将要经历各种谁将会摆脱其本身的不当行为所造成的恶果。The last chapter expounds the doctrine of karma, involving rebirths in the ascending or descending scale, according to the merits or demerits of the present life.最后一章阐述了因果报应学说,涉及递增或递减规模重生,根据案情或目前的生活缺点。The closing verses are devoted to the pantheistic scheme of salvation leading to absorption into the all-embracing, impersonal deity.闭幕诗句是专门pantheistic拯救计划的领导到包罗万象,客观神来吸收。

The "Laws of Manu" thus offers an interesting ideal picture of dornestic, social, and religious life in India under ancient Brahmin influence.在“法律的马努”,从而提供了一个dornestic,社会和宗教生活在印度古代婆罗门的影响下有趣的理想图景。 The picture has its shadows.图片有阴影。The dignity of the Brahmin caste was greatly exaggerated, while the Sudra caste was so far despised as to be excluded under pain of death from participation in the Brahmin religion.种姓的婆罗门的尊严被大大夸大了,而首陀罗种姓是到目前为止,以死亡的痛苦下排除在婆罗门教的参与不齿。Punishments for crimes and misdemeanours were lightest when applied to offenders of the Brahmin caste, and increased in severity for the guilty members of the warrior, farmer, and serf caste respectively.犯罪和轻罪的处罚最轻时,适用于罪犯的婆罗门种姓,并增加对严重的战士,农民有罪的成员,分别农奴阶级。 Most forms of industry and practice of medicine were held in contempt, and were forbidden to both Brahmins and warriors.工业和行医大多数形式举行了蔑视,并禁止这两个婆罗门和战士。The mind of woman was held to br fickle, sensual, and incapable of proper self-direction.心的女人举行了为BR变幻无常,感官,和适当的自我导向能力。Hence it was laid down that women were to be held in strict subjection to the end of their lives.因此,这是规定,妇女必须严格服从举行他们的生命结束。They were not allowed to learn any of the Vedic texts, and their participation in religious rites was limited to a few insignificant acts.不允许他们学习任何的吠陀文本,以及他们在宗教仪式的参与仅限于少数几个微不足道的行为。 Guilt involving penances was attributed to unintentional transgressions of law, and there was a hopeless confusion of duties of conscience with traditional customs and restrictions in large part superstitious and absurd.内疚涉及penances是由于意外的越轨行为的法律,而且在很大程度上是一种与传统习俗和限制,良心职责无望的混乱迷信和荒谬。 Yet, with all this, the ethical teachings of the "Laws of Manu" is very high, embracing almost every form of moral obligation recognized in the Christian religion.然而,所有这一切,在“法律的马努”的道德教诲非常高,几乎每一个拥抱,在基督教公认的道德义务的形式。

The "Laws of Manu" is accessible to modern readers in a number of good translations.在“法奴”,是在一接触到一些翻译的好现代读者。It was published in English dress finder the title, "The Institutes of Manu", by Sir William Jones in 1794, being the first Sanskrit work to be translated into a European tongue.这是发表在英国穿着发现者在1794年的称号,由威廉爵士琼斯“的马努研究所”,成为第一个梵文的工作是翻译成欧洲的舌头。 This version is still recognized as a work of great merit.这个版本仍然是公认的一大优点工作。In 1884 a very excellent translation, begun by AC Burnell and completed by Professor EW Hopkins, was published in London with the title, "The Ordinances of Manu". 1884年一个非常优秀的翻译,开始由AC伯内尔和电子战霍普金斯大学教授完成的,是在伦敦出版的称号,“条例的马努”。Two years later appeared Professor George Buhler's able version with a lengthy introduction, constituting volume xxv of the "Sacred Books of the East".两年后,出现了一个冗长的导言教授乔治布勒的干练版本,构成卷二“东方圣书”二十五。In 1893 Professor G. Strehly published in Paris a very elegant French translation, "Les Lois de Manou" forming one of the volumes of the "Annales du Musée Guimet".克教授在1893年在巴黎出版Strehly一个非常优雅的法文译本,“法国洛伊丝德Manou”形成的“吉美博物馆杜年鉴”卷之一。

Publication information Written by Charles F. Aiken.出版信息撰稿:查尔斯F艾肯。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。Dedicated to the memory of Mr. PR Kutty The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.专门为PR先生记忆库蒂的天主教百科全书,体积九。 Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, Censor.人头马lafort,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰米farley,大主教纽约


MACDONELL, Sanskrit Literature (New York, 1900); FRAZER, A Literary History of India (New York, (1898); MONIER WILLIAMS, Indian Wisdom (4th ed. London, 1803); JOHANTGEN, Ueber das Gesetzbuch des Manu (Leipzig, 1863).麦克唐内尔,梵语文学(纽约,1900年);弗雷泽,文学史的印度(纽约,(1898年);莫尼尔威廉姆斯,印度智慧(第四版伦敦,1803年);。JOHANTGEN,Ueber格Gesetzbuch德马努(莱比锡, 1863年)。

This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语

Send an e-mail question or comment to us:发送电子邮件的问题或意见给我们:E-mail电子邮件

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源