Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪

General Information一般资料

The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic doctrine asserting that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved from the effects of Original Sin from the first moment of her conception. The doctrine was defined as a dogma binding on Catholics by Pope Pius IX in the papal bull Ineffabilis Deus (1854). The doctrine as defined was debated by theologians during the Middle Ages and was rejected by Saint Thomas Aquinas. It is based on the biblical idea of Mary's holiness (Luke 1:28), early church teachings on Mary as the "new Eve," and the belief that Mary is the mother of God (Theotokos, or "God-bearer"), articulated at the Council of Ephesus (431). 圣母无原罪是一个罗马天主教的教义主张,玛丽,耶稣的母亲,她是构思保留了第一时刻从仙从原始的影响。该学说被界定对天主教徒的教宗庇护九作为教条约束力的教皇公牛Ineffabilis迪乌斯(1854)。 学说作为中东定义进行了辩论,在中世纪神学家和圣托马斯阿奎那被否决。玛丽它是基于圣经的教导上的想法,玛丽的圣洁(),早期教会路加1:28 “新夏娃”,并相信玛丽是上帝(圣母,或“上帝旗手”),母亲在安理会的以弗所(431)阐述。The feast of the Immaculate Conception is observed on Dec. 8.在圣母无原罪的盛宴,是观察12月8日。

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Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪

General Information一般资料

The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic dogma holding that from the first instant of its creation, the soul of the Virgin Mary was free from original sin; this doctrine is not to be confused with that of the Virgin Birth, which holds that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin mother.圣母无原罪是一个罗马天主教的教义认为其创作的第一瞬间,玛丽的灵魂是罪恶的圣母无原件; 这一学说是不能糊涂了基督与该维尔京诞生,它认为,耶稣处女母亲所生。Despite divergent scholarly opinions, the Roman Catholic church has consistently favored belief in the Immaculate Conception; a festival of that name, the significance of which is now indefinite, was celebrated in the Eastern church as early as the 5th century and in the Western church from the 7th century.尽管有不同的学术观点,罗马天主教会一贯主张在无原罪信仰该名称的节日,其意义也就是现在不定,曾在东方教会庆祝早在5世纪初,在西方教会从公元7世纪。 Opposition to the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was conducted in the 12th century by the French monastic St. Bernard of Clairvaux and in the 13th century by the famous Italian philosopher St. Thomas Aquinas.反对无原罪学说进行了12世纪的法国修道院圣伯纳德的克莱尔沃和由意大利著名哲学家圣托马斯阿奎那13世纪。Among those who supported the doctrine was the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus.在那些谁支持该学说是13世纪的苏格兰神学家约翰邓司各脱。The theological controversy over the Immaculate Conception gained momentum in the 19th century.在圣母无染原罪的神学争论在19世纪取得的势头。Finally in 1854, Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree declaring the Immaculate Conception to be a dogma essential for the belief of the universal church.终于在1854年,教宗比约九发表了严正声明法令圣母无原罪是一个教条为普世教会的信仰至关重要。Under the title Immaculate Conception, the Virgin Mary is invoked as the patron of the United States, Brazil, Portugal, and Corsica.圣母无染原罪的标题下,圣母玛利亚被调用作为靠山美国,巴西,葡萄牙和科西嘉岛。The feast of the Immaculate Conception is December 8.在圣母无原罪的盛宴,是12月8日。


Doctrine of Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪学说

General Information一般资料

The principal theological development concerning Mary in the Middle Ages was the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.发展有关的主要神学在中世纪玛丽是无原罪的教义。This doctrine, defended and preached by the Franciscan friars under the inspiration of the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus, maintains that Mary was conceived without original sin.这一学说,捍卫和下的13世纪的苏格兰神学家约翰邓司各脱灵感济修士鼓吹,主张玛丽没有原罪怀孕。Dominican teachers and preachers vigorously opposed the doctrine, maintaining that it detracted from Christ's role as universal savior.多米尼加教师和传教士大力反对学说,认为它来自基督作为救世主的角色普遍减损。 Pope Sixtus IV, a Franciscan, defended it, establishing in 1477 a feast of the Immaculate Conception with a proper mass and office to be celebrated on December 8.西斯四,一个方济,维护它,在1477年建立的圣母无原罪以适当的质量和办公室盛宴将于12月8日庆祝。This feast was extended to the whole Western church by Pope Clement XI in 1708.这节日是扩大到整个西方的教皇克莱门特十一教堂于1708年。In 1854 Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree defining the Immaculate Conception for all Roman Catholics, but the doctrine has not been accepted by Protestants or by the Orthodox churches.1854年,教皇庇护九发表严正法令界定为所有罗马天主教徒圣母无原罪,但该学说并没有受到新教徒或由东正教教堂接受。 In 1950 Pope Pius XII solemnly defined as an article of faith for all Roman Catholics the doctrine of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven.在1950年教宗碧岳十二庄严地界定为对所有罗马天主教徒的圣母升天身体假设主义信仰的文章。


Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪

Advanced Information先进的信息

Immaculate Conception is the idea that the Mother of God did not have original sin at her conception nor did she acquire elements of original sin in the development of her life, whereas all other human beings have original sin from their conception due to the fall of Adam.圣母无原罪的观点,即是神的母亲并没有在她怀孕原罪她也没有取得在她的生命发展的原罪元素,而所有其他人从他们的概念原罪由于亚当的堕落。 The immaculate conception is an article of faith for Roman Catholics.完美无暇的概念是为罗马天主教信条。The Mother of God, the Virgin Mary, did not have original sin because of the direct intervention of God.上帝,圣母玛利亚,母亲没有因为神的直接干预原罪。Mary was immaculate as a divine privilege.玛丽是完美作为一个神圣的特权。The Roman Catholic Church considers the doctrine of the immaculate conception of the Virgin Mary to be part of apostolic teaching related to both the Bible and tradition.罗马天主教会认为,在圣母玛利亚是两个相关的圣经和使徒的传统教学的一部分无原罪教义。

The doctrine is referred to, at least implicitly, in the Bible in Gen. 3:15, which indicates a woman who will battle Satan.该学说是指,至少含蓄的圣经,创3:15,这表明一个女人谁将争夺撒旦。 The woman ultimately wins the battle.该女子最终赢得这场战斗。Pope Pius IX said that this section of the Bible foretells the immaculate conception.教宗比约九说,这一段的圣经预言了完美的构想。He described his view in "Ineffabilis Deus."他描述了他认为“Ineffabilis杀出。”

In the early church Mary was often referred to as "all holy."在早期教会玛丽是通常被称为“所有神圣的。”Luke 1:28 which relates Gabriel's greeting to Mary "Hail, full of grace" is said to be a reference to her immaculate conception.路加福音1:28关乎Gabriel的问候玛丽“万福,充满恩宠”,是说她是一个完美的构想参考。In the eighth century the church in England began to celebrate a feast of Mary's conception.在第八世纪的英格兰教会开始庆祝圣母玛利亚的构想盛宴。Thomas Aquinas and Bernard of Clairvaux opposed the introduction of the feast into France.托马斯阿奎那和伯纳德的克莱尔沃反对的盛宴进入法国引进。Duns Scotus favored the feast and explained that Mary was more indebted to the redemptive power of Jesus Christ than any other human being because Christ prevented her from contracting original sin because of the foreseen merits of Christ.邓司各脱青睐的节日,并解释说,玛丽更感谢耶稣基督的人比任何其他被基督救赎的力量,因为无法从承包,因为基督的设想值得原罪她。 By 1685 most Catholics accepted the notion of the immaculate conception.到1685年大多数天主教徒接受了圣母无染原罪的概念。 Clement XIII strongly favored the doctrine in the eighteenth century.克莱门特第十三强烈主张在十八世纪的学说。In the nineteenth century devotion to the feast grew swiftly.在十九世纪奉献给迅速增长的盛宴。Pope Pius IX, after consulting with all bishops of the church, stated the dogma holding that "the most blessed Virgin Mary was preserved from all stain of original sin in the first instant of her conception."教宗比约九,经与教会的主教咨询,所述的教条认为“最幸福的圣母玛利亚是从所有染原罪保存在她的第一瞬间的概念。” This took place in 1854.这发生在1854年举行。The immaculate conception is a special feast for the Catholics of the United States.完美无暇的概念是一个天主教徒的美国特殊盛宴。

TJ German TJ德国
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
JB Carol, Fundamentals of Mariology; E. O'Connor, ed., the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception; M. Jugie, l'Immaculee Conception dans l'Ecriture Sainte et dans la tradition orientale.巴顿卡罗尔的Mariology基础;大肠杆菌奥康纳,海关,圣母无原罪教条。米Jugie,欧莱雅Immaculee圣观丹斯欧莱雅Ecriture丹斯香格里拉等传统东方。


Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪

Advanced Catholic Information先进天主教信息

THE DOCTRINE教义

In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the "Blessed Virgin Mary" in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and "grace" granted by "God", in view of the "merits" of "Jesus Christ", the Saviour of the "human race", was preserved exempt from all stain of "original sin".在宪法Ineffabilis杀出的1854年12月8日,比约九明显和明确了“圣母玛利亚”,在她怀孕的第一个实例,由一个奇异的特权和“恩典的神”授予“的”观点,在“ “的”耶稣基督“,对救世主”人类价值“,是保存免除一切污点”原罪“。

"The Blessed Virgin Mary . . ." The subject of this immunity from "original sin" is the person of Mary at the moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into her body.“圣母玛利亚。。。”“主体罪这种豁免,由”原来是人的身体在她的玛丽现在到了她的创作注入灵魂和启示。

". . .in the first instance of her conception . . ." The term conception does not mean the active or generative conception by her parents. “。。。在她怀孕的第一个实例。。。”一词的概念并不意味着她的父母的概念主动生成 Her body was formed in the womb of the "mother", and the "father" had the usual share in its formation.她的身体是形成于“妈妈”的子宫,和“父亲”在其形成的一贯的份额。The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents.这个问题不涉及对她的父母生成活性纯洁性。Neither does it concern the passive conception absolutely and simply ( conceptio seminis carnis, inchoata ), which, according to the order of nature, precedes the infusion of the rational soul.它也不关心的,只是完全被动的概念(conceptio圣尼斯carnis,inchoata),其中,按照自然规律的,前面的灵魂注入了理性。 The person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body.该人是真正的构思时,灵魂,是创造和进入体内注入。 Mary was preserved exempt from all stain of "original sin" at the first moment of her animation, and sanctifying grace was given to her before sin could have taken effect in her soul.玛丽是保存所有的“原罪”,在第一时刻,她的动画染色豁免,并sanctifying恩典,是送给她的面前单可能已经在她的灵魂作用。

". . .was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin. . ." The formal active essence of "original sin" was not removed from her soul, as it is removed from others by baptism; it was excluded , it never was simultaneously with the exclusion of sin. “。。。所有。染色。原罪。被保留豁免”的正式罪“活性精华的”原件没有从她的灵魂,因为它是从别人除去洗礼,它被排除在外 ,它永远也同时与罪恶的排斥。The state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice, as opposed to "original sin", was conferred upon her, by which gift every stain and fault, all depraved emotions, passions, and debilities, essentially pertaining in her soul to "original sin", were excluded.原有的圣洁,纯真,公正的状态,而不是“原罪”,被赋予了她,这一切礼物染色和故障,所有的颓废情绪,激情和debilities,她的灵魂在本质上有关“原罪“被排除在外。 But she was not made exempt from the temporal penalties of Adam -- from sorrow, bodily infirmities, and death.但她没有作出免除刑罚的时间亚当 - 从悲伤,身体衰弱,甚至死亡。

". . .by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race." The immunity from original sin was given to Mary by a singular exemption from a universal law through the same merits of "Christ", by which other men are cleansed from sin by baptism. “。。。。由一个奇异的由授予的特权和恩典的神人的种族,在鉴于案情耶稣基督救世主”的罪恶豁免原来是给玛丽的普遍规律,通过从一个单一的豁免“基督”,其中从其他男人一样的洗礼洗涤罪恶的优点。 Mary needed the redeeming Saviour to obtain this exemption, and to be delivered from the universal necessity and debt ( debitum ) of being subject to original sin.玛丽需要救赎的救主,以获得这项豁免,并可以脱离罪的普遍必然性和债务(debitum)被受原。The person of Mary, in consequence of her origin from Adam, should have been subject to sin, but, being the new Eve who was to be the mother of the new Adam, she was, by the eternal counsel of God and by the merits of "Christ", withdrawn from the general law of original sin.人的玛丽在她从亚当出身的后果,应该受到罪恶,但是,作为新的前夕,是谁成为新的亚当的母亲,她是由上帝的永恒律师和优点“基督”,从一般规律的原罪撤回。 Her redemption was the very masterpiece of "Christ's" redeeming wisdom.她的赎回是“基督的”救赎智慧非常的杰作。He is a greater redeemer who pays the debt that it may not be incurred than he who pays after it has fallen on the debtor.他是一个更大的救世主,谁出钱的,它可能不会比他发生的债务谁出钱后,对债务人下降。

Such is the meaning of the term "Immaculate Conception."这就是这个词,意思是“圣母玛利亚。”

PROOF FROM SCRIPTURE从圣经的证明

Genesis 3:15创世记3:15

No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture.没有直接或明确的教条和严格的证明可提前从经文。But the first scriptural passage which contains the promise of the redemption, mentions also the Mother of the Redeemer.但第一圣经通道,其中包含了赎回的承诺,也提到了救主之母。The sentence against the first parents was accompanied by the Earliest Gospel ( Proto-evangelium ), which put enmity between the serpent and the woman: "and I will put enmity between thee and the woman and her seed; she (he) shall crush thy head and thou shalt lie in wait for her (his) heel" (Genesis 3:15).父母一句对第一,伴随着最早的福音( 原始evangelium),这使女人之间的敌意和蛇:“我将把你之间的仇恨的种子,女人和她的,她(他)应粉碎你头和你必在于为她(他)脚跟等待“(创世记3:15)。 The translation "she" of the Vulgate is interpretative; it originated after the fourth century, and cannot be defended critically.翻译“她”是解释性的武加大,这之后的第四世纪起源,并不能得到捍卫伤势严重。The conqueror from the seed of the woman, who should crush the serpent's head, is "Christ"; the woman at enmity with the serpent is Mary.从该女子,谁应该粉碎蛇的头种子征服者,是“基督”;在敌意与女人蛇是玛丽。 God puts enmity between her and Satan in the same manner and measure, as there is enmity between "Christ" and the seed of the serpent.上帝把她和撒旦之间的敌意,在同样的方式和措施,因为之间有“基督”与蛇种子敌意。Mary was ever to be in that exalted state of soul which the serpent had destroyed in man, ie in sanctifying grace.玛丽是有史以来在该状态下,这崇高的灵魂的毒蛇已在人,即摧毁了圣洁的宽限期。Only the continual union of Mary with grace explains sufficiently the enmity between her and Satan.只有不断有风度的玛丽和她之间的联盟解释撒旦足够的敌意。The Proto-evangelium, therefore, in the original text contains a direct promise of the Redeemer.在原始evangelium,因此,包含在原文字的救赎直接承诺。and in conjunction therewith the manifestation of the masterpiece of His Redemption, the perfect preservation of His virginal Mother from original sin.与此相关的,他的救赎,他的处女母亲从原罪保存完美结合的杰作表现。

Luke 1:28路加福音1:28

The salutation of the "angel Gabriel" -- chaire kecharitomene , Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace, a supernatural, godlike state of soul, which finds its explanation only in the Immaculate Conception of Mary.在“称呼的”天使加布里埃尔- chaire kecharitomene,冰雹,宽限期满(路加福音1:28)表示独特丰富的恩典,超自然的,神圣的灵魂状态,而认定其解释构想玛丽的完美只在。 But the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma.但这个词kecharitomene(宽限期满)只是作为一个例子,而不是一个教条的证明。

Other texts其他文书

From the texts Proverbs 8 and Ecclesiasticus 24 (which exalt the Wisdom of God and which in the liturgy are applied to Mary, the most beautiful work of God's Wisdom), or from the Canticle of Canticles (4:7, "Thou art all fair, O my love, and there is not a spot in thee"), no theological conclusion can be drawn.从文本谚语8和ecclesiasticus 24条(其中高举神的智慧并在礼仪中是适用于玛丽,上帝的智慧最美丽的工作),或从颂歌的颂歌(4:7,“你是所有公平啊,我的爱,也没有在你点“),没有神学可以得出结论。 These passages, applied to the Mother of God, may be readily understood by those who know the privilege of Mary, but do not avail to prove the doctrine dogmatically, and are therefore omitted from the Constitution "Ineffabilis Deus".这些通道,适用于天主之母,可容易理解那些谁知道玛丽的特权,但并不证明利用教条学说,并因此从宪法“Ineffabilis天主”omitted。 For the theologian it is a matter of conscience not to take an extreme position by applying to a creature texts which might imply the prerogatives of God.对于神学家这是一个良知未采取通过应用到生物文本,其中可能意味着神的特权极端的立场问题。

PROOF FROM TRADITION从传统的证明

In regard to the sinlessness of Mary the older "Fathers" are very cautious: some of them even seem to have been in error on this matter.关于清白的玛丽旧的“父亲”是非常谨慎:他们有的甚至似乎已经被错误此事。

But these stray private opinions merely serve to show that theology is a progressive science.但是,这些流浪的个人观点只是足以说明,神学是一个循序渐进的科学。If we were to attempt to set forth the full doctrine of the "Fathers" on the sanctity of the Blessed Virgin, which includes particularly the implicit belief in the immaculateness of her conception, we should be forced to transcribe a multitude of passages.如果我们试图提出对圣母,其中包括特别是在她的概念纯洁性隐含的神圣信仰的“父亲”完全主义,我们应该被迫抄写了许多段落。 In the testimony of the "Fathers" two points are insisted upon: her absolute purity and her position as the second "Eve" (cf. I Cor. 15:22).在“父亲”有两点是坚持的见证:她绝对的纯洁性和她的第二个“夏娃”的位置(参见林前15点22。)。

Mary as the second Eve玛丽作为第二个除夕

This celebrated comparison between "Eve", while yet immaculate and incorrupt -- that is to say, not subject to original sin -- and the Blessed Virgin is developed by:这与“夏娃”庆祝比较,同时还完美,廉洁 - 这就是说,不受原罪 - 圣母和开发方式:

The absolute purity of Mary绝对纯洁的玛丽

Patristic writings on Mary's purity abound.在玛丽的纯洁教父的著作中比比皆是。

St. John Damascene (Or. i Nativ. Deip., n. 2) esteems the supernatural influence of God at the generation of Mary to be so comprehensive that he extends it also to her parents.圣约翰大马士革(Or.我Nativ。向合资格。,注2)推崇在玛丽代神超自然的影响是如此全面,他还延伸到她的父母。 He says of them that, during the generation, they were filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence.他说,在一代,他们充满圣灵和纯化,并从性concupiscence释放他们。Consequently according to the Damascene, even the human element of her origin, the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy.因此根据大马士革,就连她的起源,她成立了物质,人的因素是纯洁和神圣。This opinion of an immaculate active generation and the sanctity of the "conceptio carnis" was taken up by some Western authors; it was put forward by Petrus Comestor in his treatise against St. Bernard and by others.这一代的完美无暇的意见和积极的“conceptio carnis”神圣采取了由一些西方作家,这是提出佩特鲁斯Comestor着他对圣伯纳在由他人论文。Some writers even taught that Mary was born of a virgin and that she was conceived in a miraculous manner when Joachim and Anne met at the golden gate of the temple (Trombelli, "Mari SS. Vita", Sect. V, ii, 8; Summa aurea, II, 948. Cf. also the "Revelations" of Catherine Emmerich which contain the entire apocryphal legend of the miraculous conception of Mary.一些作家还教玛丽出生在日本一个处女,她是在一个神奇的方式构思时约阿希姆和安妮在庙黄金门(特龙贝利见面,“马里党卫军简历。”第五节,二,八。总结忽地笑,二,948。比照。也是“启示”凯瑟琳艾默里奇其中包含整个概念的玛丽杜撰的传说神奇。

From this summary it appears that the belief in Mary's immunity from sin in her conception was prevalent amongst the Fathers, especially those of the Greek Church.从这个总结看来,在玛丽的免疫力从她的信仰是受孕罪之间的父亲,尤其是希腊教会的普遍。The rhetorical character, however, of many of these and similar passages prevents us from laying too much stress on them, and interpreting them in a strictly literal sense.修辞的性格,不过,阻止这些和许多类似的段落铺设从他们太多的压力,并在严格的字面解释使他们体会到我们。The Greek Fathers never formally or explicitly discussed the question of the Immaculate Conception.希腊的父亲从来没有正式或明确讨论了圣母无染原罪的问题。

The Conception of St. John the Baptist圣施洗约翰的构想

A comparison with the conception of "Christ" and that of St. John may serve to light both on the dogma and on the reasons which led the Greeks to celebrate at an early date the Feast of the Conception of Mary.与“基督”的概念,而圣约翰可能有助于对教条和光的原因而导致希腊人早日庆祝节日的玛丽都比较观。

Of these three conceptions the Church celebrates feasts.在这三个概念教会庆祝节日。The Orientals have a Feast of the Conception of St. John the Baptist (23 September), which dates back to the fifth century, is thus older than the Feast of the Conception of Mary, and, during the Middle Ages, was kept also by many Western dioceses on 24 September.东方人有一个观念的圣施洗约翰(23月),其历史可以追溯到五世纪盛宴,因此比年长的玛丽观盛宴,并在中世纪,也被关9月24日很多西方教区。 The Conception of Mary is celebrated by the Latins on 8 December; by the Orientals on 9 December; the Conception of Christ has its feast in the universal calendar on 25 March.玛丽的构想是由拉丁人12月8日举行; 12月9日通过的东方人;基督的观念已经在3月25日普遍日历它的盛宴。In celebrating the feast of Mary's Conception the Greeks of old did not consider the theological distinction of the active and the passive conceptions, which was indeed unknown to them.在庆祝玛丽的旧观盛宴希腊人没有考虑主动和被动的区别神学观念,这的确是他们并不知晓。

They did not think it absurd to celebrate a conception which was not immaculate, as we see from the Feast of the Conception of St. John.他们不认为这荒谬的庆祝一个概念这是不完美的,因为我们从观念的圣约翰节看到的。They solemnized the Conception of Mary, perhaps because, according to the "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, it was preceded by miraculous events (the apparition of an angel to Joachim, etc.), similar to those which preceded the conception of St. John, and that of our Lord Himself.他们举行婚礼的玛丽概念,也许是因为,根据“原始evangelium”圣雅各福群,在此之前,不可思议的事件(天使的幽灵来约阿希姆等),类似于那些之前的构想圣约翰,而我们的主自己。 Their object was less the purity of the conception than the holiness and heavenly mission of the person conceived.其目的是少了的人比天上的使命神圣和纯洁的概念设想。In the Office of 9 December, however, Mary, from the time of her conception, is called beautiful, pure, holy, just, etc., terms never used in the Office of 23 September (sc. of St. John the Baptist). 12月9日在办公室,但是,玛丽,从她怀孕的时候,被称为美丽,纯洁,神圣,公正,等等,条款从来没有在办公室9月23日(圣若翰sc.)使用。 The analogy of St. John s sanctification may have given rise to the Feast of the Conception of Mary.圣约恩S圣比喻可能已引起了节日的玛丽构想。If it was necessary that the precursor of the Lord should be so pure and "filled with the Holy Ghost" even from his mother's womb, such a purity was assuredly not less befitting His Mother.如果它是必要的,主的易制毒化学应该是如此纯净,“充满圣灵”,甚至从他母亲的子宫里,这样的纯度不低于稳妥相称他的母亲。 The moment of St. John's sanctification is by later writers thought to be the Visitation ("the infant leaped in her womb"), but the angel's words (Luke, i, 15) seem to indicate a sanctification at the conception.的圣约翰的神圣时刻,是由后来的作家认为是探望(下称“婴儿在她的子宫里跳”),但天使的话(卢克,我,15岁)似乎表明,在构思成圣。 This would render the origin of Mary more similar to that of John.这会导致更多类似的玛丽出身的约翰。And if the Conception of John had its feast, why not that of Mary?如果约翰的构想有其盛宴,为何不就是玛丽吗?

PROOF FROM REASON从理性的证明

There is an incongruity in the supposition that the flesh, from which the flesh of the Son of God was to be formed, should ever have belonged to one who was the slave of that arch-enemy, whose power He came on earth to destroy.有一个在这样的假设不一致,肉中刺,从这些神的儿子的肉,是形成,应该永远都属于一个谁是这个头号敌人,他们的权力,他来到地球上消灭奴隶。 Hence the axiom of Pseudo-Anselmus (Eadmer) developed by Duns Scotus, Decuit, potuit, ergo fecit , it was becoming that the Mother of the Redeemer should have been free from the power of sin and from the first moment of her existence; God could give her this privilege, therefore He gave it to her.因此,公理伪Anselmus(Eadmer)potuit开发的邓司各脱,Decuit,测功fecit,它正在成为该救主之母的存在,应该已经摆脱罪恶的力量,从她的第一刻,神可以给她这样的特权,所以他给了她。 Again it is remarked that a peculiar privilege was granted to the prophet Jeremiah and to St. John the Baptist.这又是一种特殊的表示,被授予特权的先知耶利米和圣施洗约翰。They were sanctified in their mother's womb, because by their preaching they had a special share in the work of preparing the way for "Christ".他们是神圣的母亲的子宫里,因为他们的说教,他们已经在准备为“基督”的方式工作的特别股。Consequently some much higher prerogative is due to Mary.因此一些更高的特权,是因为玛丽。(A treatise of P. Marchant, claiming for St. Joseph also the privilege of St. John, was placed on the Index in 1833.) Scotus says that "the perfect Mediator must, in some one case, have done the work of mediation most perfectly, which would not be unless there was some one person at least, in whose regard the wrath of God was anticipated and not merely appeased." (一体育马尔尚的论文,也为圣若瑟特权的圣约翰声称,被安排在1833年的指标。)司各脱说,“完美的调解员必须在有人的情况下,做了调解工作最完美的,不会的,除非有至少有一个人,在其关于上帝的愤怒预期,而不是​​仅仅姑息。“

THE FEAST OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION作者:圣母无原罪筵席

The older feast of the Conception of Mary (Conc. of St. Anne), which originated in the monasteries of Palestine at least as early as the seventh century, and the modern feast of the Immaculate Conception are not identical in their object.该构想的玛丽(Conc.圣安妮),这至少在巴勒斯坦的寺院起源早在公元七世纪老年人节日,和现代的圣母无染原罪节日在他们的对象不一样。 Originally the Church celebrated only the Feast of the Conception of Mary, as she kept the Feast of St. John's conception, not discussing the sinlessness.最初,教会庆祝唯一的玛丽观的盛宴,因为她保持了圣约翰的观念过节,不是讨论清白。This feast in the course of centuries became the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as dogmatical argumentation brought about precise and correct ideas, and as the thesis of the theological schools regarding the preservation of Mary from all stain of original sin gained strength.这在几个世纪的过程盛宴成为无原罪节,作为独断涿鹿准确,正确的观念带来的,作为关于玛丽的一切原罪的污点保存的神学论文获得了学校的实力。 Even after the dogma had been universally accepted in the Latin Church, and had gained authoritative support through diocesan decrees and papal decisions, the old term remained, and before 1854 the term "Immaculata Conceptio" is nowhere found in the liturgical books, except in the invitatorium of the Votive Office of the Conception.即使在已被普遍接受的教条,在拉丁美洲教会,并已获得通过教区教皇的法令和决定权威的支持下,旧的称呼仍然存在,1854年之前长期“伊曼卡拉塔Conceptio”是行不通礼仪的书籍中发现,除了在, invitatorium的votive办公室的概念。The Greeks, Syrians, etc. call it the Conception of St. Anne ( Eullepsis tes hagias kai theoprometoros Annas , "the Conception of St. Anne, the ancestress of God").希腊人,叙利亚人,等等称之为)构想圣安妮(Eullepsis工商业污水附加费hagias启theoprometoros安纳斯 ,“的构想圣安妮祖的神”。"Passaglia" in his "De Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu," basing his opinion upon the "Typicon" of St. Sabas: which was substantially composed in the fifth century, believes that the reference to the feast forms part of the authentic original, and that consequently it was celebrated in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the fifth century (III, n. 1604).“帕萨利亚”在他的“德Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu,”立足后,“Typicon”圣Sabas他认为:这是在第五世纪大幅组成,认为的节日形式的真实原件,而参考因此它是在耶路撒冷东正教庆祝第五世纪(三,北1604)。 But the Typicon was interpolated by the Damascene, Sophronius, and others, and, from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, many new feasts and offices were added.但Typicon是插在大马士革,Sophronius,和其他人,从第九到十二世纪,许多新的节日和办事处增加了。 To determine the origin of this feast we must take into account the genuine documents we possess, the oldest of which is the canon of the feast, composed by St. Andrew of Crete, who wrote his liturgical hymns in the second half of the seventh century, when a monk at the monastery of St. Sabas near Jerusalem (d. Archbishop of Crete about 720).要确定这个节日的起源,我们必须考虑到真正的文件,我们拥有的最古老的是克里特岛的圣安德鲁,谁写在下半场七世纪的礼仪赞美诗组成的盛宴,佳能,当在耶路撒冷附近的圣Sabas(四大主教的克里特岛约720)寺院僧人。 But the Solemnity cannot then have been generally accepted throughout the Orient, for John, first monk and later bishop in the Isle of Euboea, about 750 in a sermon, speaking in favour of the propagation of this feast, says that it was not yet known to all the faithful ( ei kai me para tois pasi gnorizetai ; PG, XCVI, 1499).但悲壮不能再已普遍各地为约翰东方,第一个和尚并在埃维亚岛后来主教接受,有关在讲道750,在这个节日传播的青睐发言说,这是还不知道所有信徒( 荣启我第tois PASI评分gnorizetai;前列腺素,XCVI,1499年)。But a century later George of Nicomedia, made metropolitan by Photius in 860, could say that the solemnity was not of recent origin (PG, C, 1335).但是一个世纪后的尼科美底亚乔治,使大都会由photius在860,可以说是最近的严肃性原产地公司(PG,丙,1335)没有。 It is therefore, safe to affirm that the feast of the Conception of St. Anne appears in the Orient not earlier than the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century.因此,这是安全的,肯定的是,圣安妮观盛宴出现在东方比第七年底或八世纪开始不早。

As in other cases of the same kind the feast originated in the monastic communities.如同在其他同类案件的节日起源于寺院的社区。The monks, who arranged the psalmody and composed the various poetical pieces for the office, also selected the date, 9 December, which was always retained in the Oriental calendars.僧侣们,谁安排psalmody的和诗意的各个组成部分的办公室,还选定的日期,12月9日,这是在东方日历始终保留。 Gradually the solemnity emerged from the cloister, entered into the cathedrals, was glorified by preachers and poets, and eventually became a fixed feast of the calendar, approved by Church and State.渐渐地走出庄严的大教堂进入到修道院,由牧师和诗人赞美,并最终成为一个由教会和国家批准的日历,固定节日。It is registered in the calendar of Basil II (976-1025) and by the Constitution of Emperor Manuel I Comnenus on the days of the year which are half or entire holidays, promulgated in 1166, it is numbered among the days which have full sabbath rest.这是在巴西尔二世(976-1025)日历和由皇帝曼努埃尔宪法我在今年的日子是一半或整个假期Comnenus,注册于1166年颁布的,它的编号之间的天,这有充分的安息日休息。 Up to the time of Basil II, Lower Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia still belonged to the Byzantine Empire; the city of Naples was not lost to the Greeks until 1127, when Roger II conquered the city.截至巴西尔二世,下意大利,西西里,撒丁和时间仍属于拜占庭帝国;的那不勒斯城并没有失去,直到1127年,当罗杰二世征服了城市的希腊人。 The influence of Constantinople was consequently strong in the Neapolitan Church, and, as early as the ninth century, the Feast of the Conception was doubtlessly kept there, as elsewhere in Lower Italy on 9 December, as indeed appears from the marble calendar found in 1742 in the Church of S. Giorgio Maggiore at Naples.君士坦丁堡的影响因此在那不勒斯教会强烈,而且,早在第九世纪,无疑是盛宴的概念不断出现,如意大利的其他地方低12月9日,事实上,从发现的大理石出现在1742年日历在S.乔治在那不勒斯Maggiore大教堂。 Today the Conception of St. Anne is in the Greek Church one of the minor feasts of the year.今天,圣安妮构想是在希腊教会今年未成年人节日之一。The lesson in Matins contains allusions to the apocryphal "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, which dates from the second half of the second century (see SAINT ANNE).在晨祷课包含典故,以猜测“原始evangelium”圣雅各福群,这是从第二世纪(见圣安妮)下半年的日期。To the Greek Orthodox of our days, however, the feast means very little; they continue to call it "Conception of St. Anne", indicating unintentionally, perhaps, the active conception which was certainly not immaculate.我们的日子到了希腊东正教徒,但是,​​节日是很少,他们继续把它称作“构想圣安妮”,表明无意,或许,这是积极的概念肯定不是完美无暇的。 In the Menaea of 9 December this feast holds only the second place, the first canon being sung in commemoration of the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection at Constantinople.在12月9日Menaea这个盛宴,也不过第二位,第一佳能在被传唱的复活在君士坦丁堡教会奉献的纪念活动。 The Russian hagiographer Muraview and several other Orthodox authors even loudly declaimed against the dogma after its promulgation, although their own preachers formerly taught the Immaculate Conception in their writings long before the definition of 1854.俄罗斯hagiographer Muraview和其他几个东正教作者甚至大声反对教条凛然颁布后,虽然自己曾任教的传教士早在1854年在其著作中定义的圣母无原罪。

In the "Western Church" the feast appeared (8 December), when in the "Orient" its development had come to a standstill.在“西方教会”的盛宴出现了(12月8日)时,在“东方”的发展,已经到了一个停顿。 The timid beginnings of the new feast in some Anglo-Saxon monasteries in the eleventh century, partly smothered by the Norman conquest, were followed by its reception in some chapters and dioceses by the Anglo-Norman clergy.对在十一世纪的一些盎格鲁撒克逊寺庙胆小新盛宴的开始,部分由诺曼征服窒息,其次是在某些章节和盎格鲁诺曼教区神职人员接待。 But the attempts to introduce it officially provoked contradiction and theoretical discussion, bearing upon its legitimacy and its meaning, which were continued for centuries and were not definitively settled before 1854.但它正式推出的企图挑起矛盾和理论探讨,在它的合法性和它的意义,这是持续了几个世纪,并没有最终解决之前,1854年轴承。 The "Martyrology of Tallaght" compiled about 790 and the "Feilire" of St. Aengus (800) register the Conception of Mary on 3 May.关于790和“Feilire”圣Aengus(800)编译的“塔拉特Martyrology”注册的玛丽5月3日的构想。 It is doubtful, however, if an actual feast corresponded to this rubric of the learned monk St. Aengus.这是令人怀疑,但是,如果实际盛宴相当于这个教训和尚圣Aengus专栏。This Irish feast certainly stands alone and outside the line of liturgicaI development.这当然是独立的爱尔兰盛宴内外的liturgicaI发展路线。It is a mere isolated appearance, not a living germ.这仅仅是一种孤立的外观,而不是一个活生生的萌芽。The Scholiast adds, in the lower margin of the "Feilire", that the conception (Inceptio) took place in February, since Mary was born after seven months -- a singular notion found also in some Greek authors.The注释者补充说,在“Feilire”下缘,即概念(Inceptio)于二月举行,因为玛丽是出生后七个月 - 一类奇异的概念中发现一些希腊作家也。The first definite and reliable knowledge of the feast in the West comes from England; it is found in a calendar of Old Minster, Winchester (Conceptio S'ce Dei Genetricis Mari), dating from about 1030, and in another calendar of New Minster, Winchester, written between 1035 and 1056; a pontifical of Exeter of the eleventh century (assigned to 1046-1072) contains a "benedictio in Conceptione S. Mariae "; a similar benediction is found in a Canterbury pontifical written probably in the first half of the eleventh century, certainly before the Conquest.第一个明确和可靠的西方节日知识来自英国,它是发现在旧大教堂,温彻斯特(Conceptio S'ce棣Genetricis马里)历,从大约1030年代,并在另一个新部长日历,温切斯特,1035和1056年之间写,一个世纪的第十一届(分配给1046至1072年),埃克塞特宗座载有“在Conceptione学Mariae benedictio”,一个类似的祝福被发现在一坎特伯雷宗座书面可能是在上半年十一世纪,当然前征服。These episcopal benedictions show that the feast not only commended itself to the devotion of individuals, but that it was recognized by authority and was observed hy the Saxon monks with considerable solemnity.这些主教表明,节日祝福,不仅赞扬自己的个人奉献,但它是公认的权威和严肃性,观察相当兴业萨克森僧侣。The existing evidence goes to show that thc establishment of the feast in England was due to the monks of Winchester before the Conquest (1066).现有证据表明一点,在英格兰建立盛宴四氢大麻酚,是因为之前的征服(1066)温彻斯特僧侣。

The Normans on their arrival in England were disposed to treat in a contemptuous fashion English liturgical observances; to them this feast must have appeared specifically English, a product of insular simplicity and ignorance.他们在抵达英国的诺曼人倾向于轻蔑地对待英语礼仪纪念活动;给他们这个节日必须有明确出现英文,简单的狭隘和无知的产物。 Doubtless its public celebration was abolished at Winchester and Canterbury, but it did not die out of the hearts of individuals, and on the first favourable opportunity the feast was restored in the monasteries.毫无疑问,它的公共庆祝活动被取消在温彻斯特和坎特伯雷,但它并没有死,对个人的心出来,第一个有利的机会,节日是在寺院里恢复。 At Canterbury however, it was not re-established before 1328.在坎特伯雷但是,它不会重新在1328年成立。Several documents state that in Norman times it began at Ramsey, pursuant to a vision vouchsafed to Helsin or AEthelsige, Abbot of Ramsey on his journey back from Denmark, whither he had been sent by William I about 1070.几个文件指出,在诺曼拉姆齐有时在开始,根据远见赐予以Helsin或AEthelsige,住持的拉姆齐在旅途回来丹麦,何处,他已被威廉一世派出约1070。 An angel appeared to him during a severe gale and saved the ship after the abbot had promised to establish the Feast of the Conception in his monastery.一个天使出现在他面前发生了一场严重的大风并保存了船后的住持曾承诺建立在他的寺院观盛宴。However we may consider the supernatural feature of the legend, it must be admitted that the sending of Helsin to Denmark is an historical fact.不过,我们可以考虑的传说超自然功能,它必须承认,派出Helsin到丹麦是一个历史事实。The account of the vision has found its way into many breviaries, even into the Roman Breviary of 1473.该设想的帐户已发现到许多breviaries了方向,甚至到1473罗马祈祷。The Council of Canterbury (1325) attributes the re-establishment of the feast in England to "St. Anselm", Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109).在坎特伯雷市政局(1325)属性在英格兰盛宴“圣安瑟伦”,坎特伯雷大主教(草1109)重新建立。But although this great doctor wrote a special treatise "De Conceptu virginali et originali peccato", by which he laid down the principles of the Immaculate Conception, it is certain that he did not introduce the feast anywhere.但是,虽然这个伟大的医生写了一张特别的论文“德Conceptu virginali等originali peccato”,由他奠定了圣母无染原罪的原则,可以肯定的是,他没有提出任何地方的盛宴。The letter ascribed to him, which contains the Helsin narrative, is spurious.归因于他的信,其中包含Helsin叙述,是虚假的。The principal propagator of the feast after the Conquest was Anselm, the nephew of St. Anselm.对征服后的盛宴主要传播者是安瑟伦,圣安瑟伦的侄子。He was educated at Canterbury where he may have known some Saxon monks who remembered the solemnity in former days; after 1109 he was for a time Abbot of St. Sabas at Rome, where the Divine Offices were celebrated according to the Greek calendar.他曾就读于坎特伯雷他可能已经知道一些撒克逊僧侣谁想起了昔日的严肃性; 1109年后,他为圣Sabas时间在罗马,在那里神圣的住持处是根据希腊著名的日历。When in 1121 he was appointed Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's he established the feast there; partly at least through his efforts other monasteries also adopted it, like Reading, St. Albans, Worcester, Cloucester, and Winchcombe.当1121年他被任命住持埋葬圣埃德蒙他成立了宴会上有,至少部分是通过他的努力,其他寺庙也通过它喜欢读书,圣奥尔本斯,伍斯特,Cloucester,和温什科姆。

But a number of others decried its observance as hitherto unheard of and absurd, the old Oriental feast being unknown to them.但是,其他一些闻所未闻的谴责迄今为止的和荒谬的,旧的东方盛宴被他们并不知晓其遵守。Two bishops, Roger of Salisbury and Bernard of St. Davids, declared that the festival was forbidden by a council, and that the observance must be stopped.两位主教,圣的索尔兹伯里和罗杰戴维斯伯纳德宣布,这个节日被禁止的一局,而且遵守必须停止。And when, during the vacancy of the See of London, Osbert de Clare, Prior of Westminster, undertook to introduce the feast at Westminster (8 December, 1127), a number of monks arose against him in the choir and said that the feast must not be kept, for its establishment had not the authority of Rome (cf. Osbert's letter to Anselm in Bishop, p. 24).当期间,伦敦见,奥斯伯特德克莱尔,之前的威斯敏斯特空缺,承诺在威斯敏斯特介绍盛宴(1127年12月8日),有僧侣人数出现了对他在合唱团,并表示必须盛宴不保存,其成立的罗马没有权力(参见奥斯伯特的信安瑟伦在主教,第24页)。 Whereupon the matter was brought before the Council of London in 1129.于是这个问题被送交安理会在1129年的伦敦。The synod decided in favour of the feast, and Bishop Gilbert of London adopted it for his diocese.主教决定的盛宴青睐,伦敦主教吉尔伯特通过了他的教区了。Thereafter the feast spread in England, but for a time retained its private character, the Synod of Oxford (1222) having refused to raise it to the rank of a holiday of obligation.此后在英国盛宴蔓延,但在一段时间内保持其私人性质,牛津主教(1222)因不肯提高到了一个义务假日军衔。 In Normandy at the time of Bishop Rotric (1165-83) the Conception of Mary, in the Archdiocese of Rouen and its six suffragan dioceses, was a feast of precept equal in dignity to the Annunciation.国际货币基金组织在主教Rotric时间(1165年至1183年)的玛丽观在鲁昂大主教教区和六个suffragan,诺曼底,是一个信条平等尊严的报喜盛宴。 At the same time the Norman students at the University of Paris chose it as their patronal feast.同时在巴黎大学的诺曼学生选择它作为自己patronal盛宴。Owing to the close connection of Normandy with England, it may have been imported from the latter country into Normandy, or the Norman barons and clergy may have brought it home from their wars in Lower Italy, it was universally solemnised by the Greek inhabitants.由于诺曼底与英格兰密切的联系,它可能已被后者的国家进口到诺曼底,还是诺曼贵族和神职人员可能已经把它从他们的战争在较低意大利家庭,它是由希腊普遍隆重居民。

During the Middle Ages the Feast of the Conception of Mary was commonly called the "Feast of the Norman nation", which shows that it was celebrated in Normandy with great splendour and that it spread from there over Western Europe.在中世纪的盛宴,玛丽的构想是俗称,它表明这是在庆祝诺曼底伟大的辉煌,它有来自西欧扩展“的诺曼民族的盛宴”。"Passaglia" contends (III, 1755) that the feast was celebrated in Spain in the seventh century. “帕萨利亚”争辩(三,1755)这个节日是庆祝西班牙在第七世纪。Bishop Ullathorne also (p. 161) finds this opinion acceptable.主教拉索恩也(第161页)认为这个意见可以接受的。If this be true, it is difficult to understand why it should have entirely disappeared from Spain later on, for neither does the genuine Mozarabic Liturgy contain it, nor the tenth century calendar of Toledo edited by Morin.如果这是真的,这是很难理解为什么它应该完全由西班牙消失以后,也没有真正为莫扎拉布素歌礼仪中包含它,也不是由莫兰编辑托莱多十世纪的日历。 The two proofs given by "Passaglia" are futile: the life of St. Isidore, falsely attributed to St. Ildephonsus, which mentions the feast, is interpolated, while, in the Visigoth lawbook, the expression "Conceptio S. Mariae" is to be understood of the Annunciation.这两个以“帕萨利亚”给予证明是徒劳的:圣伊西多尔生活,错误地归因于圣Ildephonsus,其中提到的盛宴,是插,而在西哥特人法律书籍,表达“Conceptio学Mariae”,就是要被理解的报喜。

THE CONTROVERSY论战

No controversy arose over the Immaculate Conception on the European continent before the twelfth century.毫无争议出现在欧洲大陆上的十二世纪前的圣母玛利亚的构想。The Norman clergy abolished the feast in some monasteries of England where it had been established by the Anglo-Saxon monks.诺曼废除神职人员在英格兰一些地方已被盎格鲁撒克逊僧侣建立寺院的盛宴。But towards the end of the eleventh century, through the efforts of "Anselm the Younger", it was taken up again in several Anglo-Norman establishments.但在接近11世纪末通过“安瑟伦雅戈尔”的努力,它被带到了又在几个盎格鲁诺曼机构。That "St. Anselm the Elder" re-established the feast in England is highly improbable, although it was not new to him.这“圣安瑟伦长老”重新确立了在英格兰的盛宴,是极不可能的,虽然它不是新的给他。He had been made familiar with it as well by the Saxon monks of Canterbury, as by the Greeks with whom he came in contact during exile in Campania and Apulin (1098-9).他已经取得了熟悉它,以及由坎特伯雷撒克逊僧侣,由希腊人在与他接触的过程中坎帕尼亚和Apulin(1098-9)流亡。 The treatise "De Conceptu virginali" usually ascribed to him, was composed by his friend and disciple, the Saxon monk "Eadmer of Canterbury".论文“德Conceptu virginali”通常归因于他,被他的朋友和弟子,撒克逊和尚“坎特伯雷Eadmer”组成。When the canons of the cathedral of Lyons, who no doubt knew Anselm the Younger Abbot of Burg St. Edmund's, personally introduced the feast into their choir after the death of their bishop in 1240, St. Bernard deemed it his duty to publish a protest against this new way of honouring Mary.当的里昂大教堂,毫无疑问,谁知道安瑟伦的伯格圣埃德蒙的年轻住持,大炮亲自介绍后,他们的主教死亡的盛宴到他们的合唱团在1240年,圣伯纳认为他有责任发表一份抗议玛丽对这种新的方式履行。 He addressed to the canons a vehement letter (Epist. 174), in which he reproved them for taking the step upon their own authority and before they had consulted the Holy See.他给大炮一激烈信(Epist. 174),他在责备自己的权威时采取前他们曾咨询罗马教廷的一步。

Not knowing that the feast had been celebrated with the rich tradition of the Greek and Syrian Churches regarding the sinlessness of Mary, he asserted that the feast was foreign to the old tradition of the Church.不知道这个节日已与希腊和叙利亚关于清白的玛丽教堂丰富的传统庆祝,他断言,这个节日是外国的古老传统的教会。Yet it is evident from the tenor of his language that he had in mind only the active conception or the formation of the flesh, and that the distinction between the active conception, the formation of the body, and its animation by the soul had not yet been drawn.然而,它是从他的语言,他的想法只有积极构思或肉体的形成,男高音和概念之间的区别明显活跃,对体的形成,其动画的灵魂尚未已制订。 No doubt, when the feast was introduced in England and Normandy, the axiom "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit", the childlike piety and enthusiasm of the simplices building upon revelations and apocryphal legends, had the upper hand.毫无疑问,当这个节日是在英格兰和诺曼底的公理“decuit,potuit,测功fecit”时,孩子般的虔诚和热情的传说和猜测后, 单形的建筑透露,占了上风。The object of the feast was not clearly determined, no positive theological reasons had been placed in evidence.的盛宴对象没有明确确定,没有任何积极的神学理由已在证据上。

St. Bernard was perfectly justified when he demanded a careful inquiry into the reasons for observing the feast.圣伯纳是完全合理的要求时,他宴一,观察仔细打听到的原因。Not adverting to the possibility of sanctification at the time of the infusion of the soul, he writes that there can be question only of sanctification after conception, which would render holy the nativity not the conception itself (Scheeben, "Dogmatik", III, p. 550).不adverting到成圣在灵魂的输注时间的可能性,他写道,只能有受孕后的成圣的问题,这将令神圣的耶稣诞生而不是概念本身(Scheeben,“Dogmatik”,三,磷。550)。 Hence Albert the Great observes: "We say that the Blessed Virgin was not sanctified before animation, and the affirmative contrary to this is the heresy condemned by St. Bernard in his epistle to the canons of Lyons" (III Sent., dist. iii, p. I, ad 1, Q. i).因此阿尔贝大指出:“我们说,圣母圣之前,没有动画,并肯定与此相悖的是圣伯纳谴责他的书信向里昂大炮异端”(三送,三区。。 ,第一,公元1,问:我)。St. Bernard was at once answered in a treatise written by either Richard of St. Victor or Peter Comestor.圣伯纳是在一次由任圣彼得Comestor理查德维克托或撰写的论文回答。In this treatise appeal is made to a feast which had been established to commemorate an insupportable tradition.在这篇论文提出上诉对一个已经成立,以纪念一个无法承受的传统节日。It maintained that the flesh of Mary needed no purification; that it was sanctified before the conception.它坚持认为玛丽的肉不需要净化,这是之前的概念圣洁。Some writers of those times entertained the fantastic idea that before Adam fell, a portion of his flesh had been reserved by God and transmitted from generation to generation, and that out of this flesh the body of Mary was formed (Scheeben, op. cit., III, 551), and this formation they commemorated by a feast.那个时代的一些作家宴请了奇妙的想法,在亚当之前下跌,他的肉体部分已预留的上帝,并转交了一代又一代,而这就是马利亚体成立肉(Scheeben,运出。前。 ,三,551),这形成了一个节日纪念他们。The letter of St. Bernard did not prevent the extension of the feast, for in 1154 it was observed all over France, until in 1275, through the efforts of the Paris University, it was abolished in Paris and other dioceses.圣伯纳德的信件没有防止在1154年的盛宴的延伸,有人指出,直到1275年法国各地,通过对巴黎大学,它是在巴黎和其他教区取消努力。

After the saint's death the controversy arose anew between Nicholas of St. Albans, an English monk who defended the festival as established in England, and Peter Cellensis, the celebrated Bishop of Chartres.圣后死亡的争论重新出现的圣奥尔本斯之间,英语和尚谁捍卫的节日,在英国成立,彼得Cellensis,著名的沙特尔主教尼古拉。 Nicholas remarks that the soul of Mary was pierced twice by the sword, ie at the foot of the cross and when St. Bernard wrote his letter against her feast (Scheeben, III, 551).尼古拉的言论,玛丽的灵魂被剑刺穿两次,即在脚下过,当圣伯纳说他对她的盛宴(Scheeben,三,551)信。The point continued to be debated throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and illustrious names appeared on each side.这一点仍然是整个第十三和第十四世纪辩论,并在每边显赫的名字出现。St. Peter Damian, Peter the Lombard, Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Albert the Great are quoted as opposing it.达米安圣彼得,彼得伦巴第,黑尔斯,圣文德亚历山大和艾伯特大都是引述的反对态度。St. Thomas at first pronounced in favour of the doctrine in his treatise on the "Sentences" (in I. Sent. c. 44, q. I ad 3), yet in his "Summa Theologica" he concluded against it.圣托马斯首先突出的学说在他的论文赞成对“句”(在一发送。角44,问:我的广告3),但在他的“神学大全”,他反对结​​束。 Much discussion has arisen as to whether St. Thomas did or did not deny that the Blessed Virgin was immaculate at the instant of her animation, and learned books have been written to vindicate him from having actually drawn the negative conclusion.出现了许多讨论,是否圣托马斯没有或没有否认圣母一尘不染,在她的动画即时,学到书本写平反其实不必他得出的否定结论。

Yet it is hard to say that St. Thomas did not require an instant at least, after the animation of Mary, before her sanctification.然而,这是很难说,圣托马斯并不需要至少一个瞬间,在她面前的玛丽动画成圣。His great difficulty appears to have arisen from the doubt as to how she could have been redeemed if she had not sinned.他的伟大的难度似乎已经从出现的疑问,以她怎么可能被赎回,如果她没有犯过罪。This difficulty he raised in no fewer than ten passages in his writings (see, eg, Summa III:27:2, ad 2).他在这个困难并不比他的著作中提出的十个通道较少(见,例如,总结三:27:2,广告2)。

But while St. Thomas thus held back from the essential point of the doctrine, he himself laid down the principles which, after they had been drawn together and worked out, enabled other minds to furnish the true solution of this difficulty from his own premises.不过,虽然圣托马斯举行,因此从信仰的基本点回来,他自己定下的原则后,他们已制定了一起制定出来,使其他的头脑,提供了从自己的楼宇这个困难的解决办法。

In the thirteenth century the opposition was largely due to a want of clear insight into the subject in dispute.在十三世纪的反对,主要是由于进入争议标的豁然开朗想要的。The word "conception" was used in different senses, which had not been separated by careful definition.这个“概念”是用在不同的感官,它们并没有得到通过认真定义分隔。If St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and other theologians had known the doctrine in the sense of the definition of 1854, they would have been its strongest defenders instead of being its opponents.如果圣托马斯,圣文德,和其他神学家已经知道在1854年定义中,这项原则,他们将被其对手而不是被它强大的捍卫者。 We may formulate the question discussed by them in two propositions, both of which are against the sense of the dogma of 1854:我们可以制定两个命题,它们都违背了1854年教条的感觉是他们讨论的问题:

  1. the sanctification of Mary took place before the infusion of the soul into the fiesh, so that the immunity of the soul was a consequence of the sanctification of the flesh and there was no liability on the part of the soul to contract original sin.圣洁的玛丽以前发生的灵魂进入fiesh输液的地方,使灵魂豁免是一对肉体成圣的后果,也没有对合同原罪灵魂的一部分责任。 This would approach the opinion of the Damascene concerning the hoiiness of the active conception.这将接近的大马士革认为有关活动的概念hoiiness。
  2. The sanctification took place after the infusion of the soul by redemption from the servitude of sin, into which the soul had been drawn by its union with the unsanctified flesh.成圣发生后,灵魂从罪恶的奴役,成为其中的灵魂是由它的工会绘制的unsanctified肉赎回输液的地方。This form of the thesis excluded an immaculate conception.本论文的形式排除一个完美的构想。

The theologians forgot that between sanctification before infusion, and sanctification after infusion, there was a medium: sanctification of the soul at the moment of its infusion.神学家之间忘了输液成圣,成圣和输液 ,有一个中等:灵魂圣洁,在输注的时刻To them the idea seemed strange that what was subsequent in the order of nature could be simultaneous in point of time.对他们的想法似乎很奇怪,什么是自然规律可以在随后的时间点同步。Speculatively taken, the soul must be created before it can be infused and sanctified but in reality, the soul is created snd sanctified at the very moment of its infusion into the body.推测性在内,必须创造灵魂才能注入和神圣,但在现实中,苏州高新区创建的灵魂在其进入人体输液非常神圣的时刻。Their principal difficulty was the declaration of St. Paul (Romans 5:12) that all men have sinned in Adam.他们的主要困难是圣保罗(罗马书5:12),所有的人都在亚当犯罪声明。The purpose of this Pauline declaration, however, is to insist on the need which all men have of redemption by "Christ".这个宝莲声明的目的,然而,就是坚持,需要所有的人都赎回了“基督”。Our Lady was no exception to this rule.圣母是没有例外。A second difficulty was the silence of the earlier Fathers.第二个困难是较早的父亲沉默。But the divines of those times were distinguished not so much for their knowledge of the Fathers or of history, as for their exercise of the power of reasoning.但这些时代的神学也很出色不是因为他们的父亲或历史知识这么多,因为他们对权力行使的推理。They read the Western Fathers more than those of the Eastern Church, who exhibit in far greater completeness the tradition of the Immaculate Conception.他们阅读西方神父以上的东部教会,谁在更大完整性无原罪传统的展览。And many works of the Fathers which had then been lost sight of have since been brought to light.和当时已失去了它的,至今已败露视线父亲的许多作品。The famous Duns Scotus (d. 1308) at last (in III Sent., dist. iii, in both commentaries) laid the foundations of the true doctrine so solidly and dispelled the objections in a manner so satisfactory, that from that time onward the doctrine prevailed.著名的邓司各脱(草1308)于昨(在III发送。,区。三,在这两个评论)奠定了真正的教义如此扎实的基础,消除的方式反对理想,从该年起,时间学说占了上风。 He showed that the sanctification after animation -- sanctificatio post animationem -- demanded that it should follow in the order of nature ( naturae ) not of time ( temporis ); he removed the great difficulty of St. Thomas showing that, so far from being excluded from redemption, the Blessed Virgin obtained of her Divine Son the greatest of redemptions through the mystery of her preservation from all sin.他表示,在动画后成圣- sanctificatio后animationem -本质要求,它应该遵循的顺序(naturae)没有时间( 时间上 ),他取消了极大的困难圣托马斯被显示,到目前为止,从从赎回排除,圣母神的儿子,她获得了最大的赎回通过她的一切的罪保存之谜。He also brought forward, by way of illustration, the somewhat dangerous and doubtful argument of Eadmer (S. Anselm) "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit."他还提出通过举例的方式,对Eadmer(南安瑟伦)有点危险和可疑参数“decuit,potuit,测功fecit。”

From the time of Scotus not only did the doctrine become the common opinion at the universities, but the feast spread widely to those countries where it had not been previously adopted.从司各脱时间的学说不仅成为在各大学共同意见,但盛宴广泛传播到那些它没有采用以往的国家。With the exception of the Dominicans, all or nearly all, of the religious orders took it up: The Franciscans at the general chapter at Pisa in 1263 adopted the Feast of the Conception of Mary for the entire order; this, however, does not mean that they professed at that time the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.随着多米尼加,所有或几乎所有的宗教命令,异常就把它拿起来:在比萨一般在1263章方济会通过了整个秩序的构想,玛丽盛宴,然而,这并不意味着他们在那个时候,圣母无染原罪教义宣称。 Following in the footsteps of their own Duns Scotus, the learned Petrus Aureolus and Franciscus de Mayronis became the most fervent champions of the doctrine, although their older teachers (St. Bonaventure included) had been opposed to it.在他们自己的邓司各脱的后尘,教训佩特鲁斯Aureolus和济德Mayronis成为学说中最热切的冠军,虽然他们的老教师(包括圣文德)已反对。 The controversy continued, but the defenders of the opposing opinion were almost entirely confined to the members of the Dominican Order.这场争论继续进行,但反对的意见的捍卫者几乎完全局限于多米尼加秩序的成员。In 1439 the dispute was brought before the Council of Basle where the University of Paris, formerly opposed to the doctrine, proved to be its most ardent advocate, asking for a dogmatical definition.在1439年的纠纷被带到了巴塞尔委员会在巴黎大学的前身反对学说,被证明是最热心的倡导者,一个专横的定义要求。 The two referees at the council were John of Segovia and John Turrecremata (Torquemada).在理事会的两名裁判分别塞戈维亚和约翰Turrecremata(Torquemada)约翰。After it had been discussed for the space of two years before that assemblage, the bishops declared the Immaculate Conception to be a doctrine which was pious, consonant with Catholic worship, Catholic faith, right reason, and Holy Scripture; nor, said they, was it henceforth allowable to preach or declare to the contrary (Mansi, XXXIX, 182).后,它已在两年之前的组合空间讨论,圣母无原罪主教宣布将是一个虔诚的教义,与天主教的崇拜,信仰天主教,正确的理性辅音和神圣的经文,也不说,他们是它今后允许鼓吹或宣布相反(曼西,第39届,182)。 The Fathers of the Council say that the Church of Rome was celebrating the feast.理事会的父亲说,罗马教会是庆祝的节日。

This is true only in a certain sense.这是事实,只有在一定意义上。It was kept in a number of churches of Rome, especially in those of the religious orders, but it was not received in the official calendar.它被保存在一个罗马教堂,尤其是在宗教命令的人,但它并没有在正式日历好评。As the council at the time was not ecumenical, it could not pronounce with authority.由于当时没有基督教会,但不能发音权威。The memorandum of the Dominican Torquemada formed the armoury for all attacks upon the doctrine made by St. Antoninus of Florence (d. 1459), and by the Dominicans Bandelli and Spina.多米尼加Torquemada备忘录,形成了经佛罗伦萨圣安东尼(草1459)所作的一切袭击军械库学说,以及多米尼加Bandelli及脊柱。

By a Decree of 28 February, 1476, "Sixtus IV" at last adopted the feast for the entire Latin Church and granted an indulgence to all who would assist at the Divine Offices of the solemnity (Denzinger, 734).以28号令二月,1476,“西斯四”通过最后的盛宴和整个拉丁美洲教会授予放纵所有谁在协助的严肃性(登青格,734)神圣的办公室。 The Office adopted by "Sixtus IV" was composed by Leonard de Nogarolis, whilst the Franciscans, since 1480, used a very beautiful Office from the pen of Bernardine dei Busti ( Sicut Lilium ), which was granted also to others (eg to Spain, 1761), and was chanted by the Franciscans up to the second half of the nineteenth century.办公室“通过”西斯四是组成由Leonard德Nogarolis,而济,自1480年,采用了如西班牙非常美丽(办公室从笔的伯纳迪恩棣巴斯蒂(Sicut百合 ),这是理所当然 ​​的也是别人, 1761),并高喊,由济直至十九世纪下半叶。As the public acknowledgment of the feast of "Sixtus IV" did not prove sufficient to appease the conflict, he published in 1483 a constitution in which he punished with excommunication all those of either opinion who charged the opposite opinion with heresy (Grave nimis, 4 Sept., 1483; Denzinger, 735).作为对“西斯四”大餐公开承认没有证明不足以平息冲突,他在1483年出版了他与禁教那些任谁负责异端意见相反的意见(重尼米斯,4惩罚宪法九月,1483;登青格,735)。 In 1546 the Council of Trent, when the question was touched upon, declared that "it was not the intention of this Holy Synod to include in the decree which concerns original sin the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin Mary Mother of God" (Sess. V, De peccato originali, v, in Denzinger, 792).在1546年的遄达,当问题被触及会,宣布“这是不是本圣主教的意图,包括在该法令的关注和原罪圣母无玷圣母玛利亚之母神”(sess.五,德peccato originali,五,在登青格,792)。Since, however, this decree did not define the doctrine, the theological opponents of the mystery, though more and more reduced in numbers, did not yield.但是,由于这项法令没有定义的学说,神学的神秘的对手,虽然越来越多的数量减少,也不会屈服。"St. Pius V" not only condemned proposition 73 of Baius that "no one but "Christ" was without original sin, and that therefore the Blessed Virgin had died because of the sin contracted in Adam, and had endured afilictions in this life, like the rest of the just, as punishment of actual and original sin" (Denzinger, 1073) but he also issued a constitution in which he forbade all public discussion of the subject. “圣比约五”不仅谴责命题Baius 73,“任何人,而是”基督“是没有原罪,因此,圣母死了,因为在亚当的罪合同,并已在此生活afilictions忍受,喜欢的就是休息,作为实际和原罪的惩罚“(登青格,1073),但他也发布了宪法中,他禁止一切公开讨论的主题。 Finally he inserted a new and simplified Office of the Conception in the liturgical books ("Super speculam", Dec., 1570; "Superni omnipotentis", March, 1571; "Bullarium Marianum", pp. 72, 75).最后,他插入,在礼仪书籍,新的概念,简化办公室(“超级speculam”,12月,1570年,“Superni omnipotentis”,3月,1571年,“Bullarium蓟”,第72,75)。

Whilst these disputes went on, the great universities and almost all the great orders had become so many bulwarks for the defense of the dogma.虽然这些纠纷的推移,伟大的大学,几乎所有的大订单已经成为了这么多的教条防御壁垒。In 1497 the University of Paris decreed that henceforward no one should be admitted a member of the university, who did not swear that he would do the utmost to defend and assert the Immaculate Conception of Mary.在1497年巴黎大学颁布法令,从今以后,任何人都不应被接纳为该大学的成员,谁也不敢保证,他将竭尽所能,以捍卫和坚守的圣母玛利亚的构想。 Toulouse followed the example; in Italy, Bologna and Naples; in the German Empire, Cologne, Maine, and Vienna; in Belgium, Louvain; in England before the Reformation.随后图卢兹的例子,在意大利,博洛尼亚和那不勒斯,在德意志帝国,科隆,缅因州和维也纳,在比利时,鲁汶,在英格兰前改造。 Oxford and Cambridge; in Spain Salamanca, Tolerio, Seville, and Valencia; in Portugd, Coimbra and Evora; in America, Mexico and Lima.牛津大学和剑桥大学,在西班牙萨拉曼卡,Tolerio,塞维利亚,和瓦伦西亚,在Portugd,科英布拉和埃武拉,在美国,墨西哥和利马。

The Friars Minor confirmed in 1621 the election of the Immaculate Mother as patron of the order, and bound themselves by oath to teach the mystery in public and in private.天主教方济会确定的在1621年的圣母玛利亚的母亲为了保护人的选举,约束自己的誓言,教授在公共和私人的奥秘。 The Dominicans, however, were under special obligation to follow the doctrines of St. Thomas, and the common conclusion was that St. Thomas was opposed to the Immaculate Conception.多米尼加,但是,在特殊的义务,遵守圣托马斯的学说,和共同的结论是,圣托马斯反对圣母无原罪。Therefore the Dominicans asserted that the doctrine was an error against faith (John of Montesono, 1373); although they adopted the feast, they termed it persistently "Sanctificatio BMV" not "Conceptio", until in 1622 Gregory V abolished the term "sanctificatio".因此,多米尼加人断言,对信仰的教义是一个错误(约翰Montesono,1373),虽然他们采取的盛宴,他们称之为是坚持“Sanctificatio墨西哥证券交易所”,不是“Conceptio”,直到在1622年格里高利奥五世取消了术语“sanctificatio” 。Paul V (1617) decreed that no one should dare to teach publicly that Mary was conceived in original sin, and Gregory V (1622) imposed absolute silence ( in scriptis et sermonibus etiam privatis ) upon the adversaries of the doctrine until the Holy See should define the question.保罗V(1617)颁布法令,任何人都不应敢于公开表示,玛丽教罪孕育于原始,格里高利奥五世(1622) 对手施加scriptis的学说,直到教廷sermonibusetiam privatis)绝对的沉默( 应定义问题。To put an end to all further cavilling, "Alexander VII" promulgated on 8 December 1661, the famous constitution "Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum", defining the true sense of the word conceptio , and forbidding all further discussion against the common and pious sentiment of the Church.要杜绝一切进一步cavilling,“亚历山大七”12月8日颁布的1661年,著名的宪法“Sollicitudo Omnium公司Ecclesiarum”,确定了字conceptio真正意义上的,禁止了所有的情绪进一步讨论共同反对和虔诚教会。 He declared that the immunity of Mary from original sin in the first moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into the body was the object of the feast (Densinger, 1100).他宣称,从原罪豁免玛丽在她的灵魂,它进入人体输液的时刻是第一次创作的盛宴(Densinger,1100)的对象。

EXPLICIT UNIVERSAL ACCEPTANCE普遍接受的显式

Since the time of "Alexander VII", long before the final definition, there was no doubt on the part of theologians that the privilege was amongst the truths revealed by God.自从“亚历山大七”的时候,远在最后定义,有没有对神学家之间的那部分权限的真理是由神启示怀疑。Wherefore "Pius IX", surrounded by a splendid throng of cardinals and bishops, 8 December 1854, promulgated the dogma.为什么“比约九”,由枢机主教和主教,1854年12月8日灿烂的人群包围着,颁布了教条。A new Office was prescribed for the entire "Latin Church" by "Pius IX" (25 December, 1863), by which decree all the other Offices in use were abolished, including the old Office Sicut lilium of the Franciscans, and the Office composed by "Passaglia" (approved 2 Feb., 1849).一个新的办事处的规定为整个“拉丁美洲教会”的“比约九”(1863年12月25日),其中所使用的法令,所有其他办事处被取消,其中包括旧的Office Sicut济的百合 ,办事处组成由“帕萨利亚”(批准1849年2月2日)。In 1904 the golden jubilee of the definition of the dogma was celebrated with great splendour ("Pius X", Enc., 2 Feb., 1904).在1904年的定义的教条金禧怀着极大的辉煌(“​​比约十”,敬礼。,1904年2月2日)庆祝。Clement IX added to the feast an octave for the dioceses within the temporal possessions of the pope (1667).克莱门特九盛宴添加到一个范围内的教宗(1667年)的时间财产教区八度。"Innocent XII" (1693) raised it to a double of the second class with an octave for the universal Church, which rank had been already given to it in 1664 for Spain, in 1665 for Tuscany and Savoy, in 1667 for the "Society of Jesus", the Hermits of St. Augustine, etc., Clement XI decreed on 6 Dec., 1708, that the feast should be a holiday of obligation throughout the entire Church. “无辜的十二大”(1693)将其提升到一个第二类双与普世教会的一个八度,而排名已赋予它已经在1664年西班牙,1665年为1667年托斯卡纳和萨沃伊,为“社会耶稣的“圣奥古斯丁等的隐士,克莱门特十一下令在1708年12月6日,这个节日应该是整个教会的义务的假期。

At last Leo XIII, 30 Nov 1879, raised the feast to a double of the first class with a vigil, a dignity which had long before been granted to Sicily (1739), to Spain (1760) and to the "United States" (1847).最后利奥十三世,1879年11月30号,提出了过节用的守夜一流,有尊严,所以早就被授予西西里岛(1739)双,西班牙(1760)和“美国”( 1847年)。A Votive Office of the Conception of Mary, which is now recited in almost the entire Latin Church on free Saturdays, was granted first to the Benedictine nuns of St. Anne at Rome in 1603, to the Franciscans in 1609, to the Conventuals in 1612, etc. The Syrian and Chaldean Churches celebrate this feast with the Greeks on 9 December; in Armenia it is one of the few immovable feasts of the year (9 December); the schismatic Abyssinians and Copts keep it on 7 August whilst they celebrate the Nativity of Mary on 1 May; the Catholic Copts, however, have transferred the feast to 10 December (Nativity, 10 September).作者:玛丽,这是现在几乎整个拉丁美洲教会自由星期六背诵观沃蒂沃处获得第一至圣安妮在罗马本笃会修女在1603年,方济在1609年,到1612年的conventuals等加尔丁教会庆祝叙利亚和12月9日这个节日的希腊人,在亚美尼亚它是在今年(12月9日)很少不动产节日之一,在分裂的阿比西尼亚和科普特人8月7日,而保持它他们庆祝5月1日玛丽的诞生;天主教科普特人,然而,转让盛宴12月10日(圣诞,9月10日)。 The Eastern Catholics have since 1854 changed the name of the feast in accordance with the dogma to the "Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary."东部天主教徒自1854年改变了教条的节日名称,按照以“圣母无染原罪的圣母玛利亚。”

The "Archdiocese of Palermo" solemnizes a Commemoration of the Immaculate Conception on 1 September to give thanks for the preservation of the city on occasion of the earthquake, 1 September, 1726.而“巴勒莫教区”solemnizes一无原罪纪念九月一日给予该城地震,1726年9月1日之际保存感谢。A similar commemoration is held on 14 January at "Catania" (earthquake, 11 Jan., 1693); and by the Oblate Fathers on 17 Feb., because their rule was approved 17 Feb., 1826.类似的纪念活动是1月14日举行“卡塔尼亚”(地震,1693年1月11日),以及由2月17日的献主,因为他们的规则是批准1826年2月17日。 Between 20 September 1839, and 7 May 1847, the privilege of adding to the "Litany of Loretto" the invocation, "Queen conceived without original sin", had been granted to 300 dioceses and religious communities.至1839年9月20日,5月7日1847年,增加了“洛雷托一连串”调用特权,“皇后构思没有原罪”,而被授予300个教区和宗教团体。 The Immaculate Conception was declared on 8 November, 1760, principal "patron" of all the possessions of the crown of Spain, including those in America.圣母无原罪被宣布1760年11月8日,主“靠山”在所有的财产在西班牙冠,包括在美国的。The decree of the first Council of Baltimore (1846) electing Mary in her Immaculate Conception principal "Patron" of the "United States", was confirmed on 7 February, 1847.该法令的巴尔的摩第一届理事会(1846年)选举在她的圣母无原罪主玛丽“靠山”的“美”,2月7日证实,1847年。

Frederick G. Holweck弗雷德里克湾Holweck

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII天主教百科全书,体积七


Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The doctrine In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary "in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin."在宪法Ineffabilis杀出的1854年12月8日学说,比约九明显和明确了圣母玛利亚“,在她怀孕的第一个实例,由一个奇异的特权和上帝赐予的恩典,在基督耶稣鉴于优点中,人类的救世主,是保存所有染原罪豁免“。

"The Blessed Virgin Mary"“有福了圣母玛利亚 ”

The subject of this immunity from original sin is the person of Mary at the moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into her body.这个豁免权的原罪的主题是玛丽在她的灵魂和其进入她的身体注入人创造的时刻。

" in the first instance of her conception"“ 在她怀孕的第一个实例 ”

The term conception does not mean the active or generative conception by her parents.这个词的概念并不意味着她的父母主动或生成的概念。Her body was formed in the womb of the mother, and the father had the usual share in its formation.她的身体形成于母亲的子宫里,父亲曾在其形成通常的份额。The question does not concern the immaculateness of the generative activity of her parents.这个问题不涉及对她的父母生成活性纯洁性。Neither does it concern the passive conception absolutely and simply (conceptio seminis carnis, inchoata), which, according to the order of nature, precedes the infusion of the rational soul.它也不关心的,只是完全被动的概念(conceptio圣尼斯carnis,inchoata),其中,按照自然规律,先于理性的灵魂输液。 The person is truly conceived when the soul is created and infused into the body.该人是真正的构思时,灵魂,是创造和进入体内注入。 Mary was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin at the first moment of her animation, and sanctifying grace was given to her before sin could have taken effect in her soul.玛丽是保存所有染原罪豁免在第一时刻,她的动画,并sanctifying恩典,是送给她的面前单可能已经在她的灵魂作用。

"was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin"“ 是保存所有染原罪豁免 ”

The formal active essence of original sin was not removed from her soul, as it is removed from others by baptism; it was excluded, it never was in her soul.正式原罪活跃的本质是不会从她的灵魂,因为它是由其他人删除的洗礼,它被排除在外,它从来没有在她的灵魂。Simultaneously with the exclusion of sin.同时,随着罪恶的排斥。The state of original sanctity, innocence, and justice, as opposed to original sin, was conferred upon her, by which gift every stain and fault, all depraved emotions, passions, and debilities, essentially pertaining to original sin, were excluded.原有的圣洁,纯真,公正的状态,而不是原罪,被赋予了她,这一切礼物染色和故障,所有的颓废情绪,激情和debilities,基本上关于原罪,被排除在外。 But she was not made exempt from the temporal penalties of Adam -- from sorrow, bodily infirmities, and death.但她没有作出免除刑罚的时间亚当 - 从悲伤,身体衰弱,甚至死亡。

"by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race." “ 由一个奇异的特权和上帝赐予的恩典在基督耶稣,人类的救世主的优点的看法。”

The immunity from original sin was given to Mary by a singular exemption from a universal law through the same merits of Christ, by which other men are cleansed from sin by baptism.从原罪豁免权给予了玛丽从一个普遍规律,通过基督的相同优点,其中其他男人从洗涤罪恶的洗礼,由一个奇异的豁免。 Mary needed the redeeming Saviour to obtain this exemption, and to be delivered from the universal necessity and debt (debitum) of being subject to original sin.玛丽需要救赎的救主,以获得这项豁免,并从普遍必然性和债务(debitum)被受原罪交付。The person of Mary, in consequence of her origin from Adam, should have been subject to sin, but, being the new Eve who was to be the mother of the new Adam, she was, by the eternal counsel of God and by the merits of Christ, withdrawn from the general law of original sin.人的玛丽在她从亚当出身的后果,应该受到罪恶,但是,作为新的前夕,是谁成为新的亚当的母亲,她是由上帝的永恒律师和优点基督,从一般规律原罪撤回。 Her redemption was the very masterpiece of Christ's redeeming wisdom.她赎回是基督的救赎智慧非常的杰作。He is a greater redeemer who pays the debt that it may not be incurred than he who pays after it has fallen on the debtor.他是一个更大的救世主,谁出钱的,它可能不会比他发生的债务谁出钱后,对债务人下降。

Such is the meaning of the term "Immaculate Conception."这就是这个词,意思是“圣母玛利亚。”

Proof from Scripture从圣经的证明

Genesis 3:15创世记3:15

No direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture.没有直接或明确的教条和严格的证明可提前从经文。But the first scriptural passage which contains the promise of the redemption, mentions also the Mother of the Redeemer.但第一圣经通道,其中包含了赎回的承诺,也提到了救主之母。The sentence against the first parents was accompanied by the Earliest Gospel (Proto-evangelium), which put enmity between the serpent and the woman: "and I will put enmity between thee and the woman and her seed; she (he) shall crush thy head and thou shalt lie in wait for her (his) heel" (Genesis 3:15).对第一句话是伴随着父母的最早的福音(原始evangelium),里面放蛇之间的敌意和女人:“我又要叫你和女人和她的种子敌意,她(他)应粉碎你头和你必在于为她(他)脚跟等待“(创世记3:15)。 The translation "she" of the Vulgate is interpretative; it originated after the fourth century, and cannot be defended critically.翻译“她”是解释性的武加大,这之后的第四世纪起源,并不能得到捍卫伤势严重。The conqueror from the seed of the woman, who should crush the serpent's head, is Christ; the woman at enmity with the serpent is Mary.从该女子,谁应该粉碎蛇的头,种子征服者是基督的敌意在与蛇女人玛丽。God puts enmity between her and Satan in the same manner and measure, as there is enmity between Christ and the seed of the serpent.上帝把她和撒旦之间的敌意,在同样的方式和措施,因为有仇恨之间的基督和蛇的种子。Mary was ever to be in that exalted state of soul which the serpent had destroyed in man, ie in sanctifying grace.玛丽是有史以来在该状态下,这崇高的灵魂的毒蛇已在人,即摧毁了圣洁的宽限期。Only the continual union of Mary with grace explains sufficiently the enmity between her and Satan.只有不断有风度的玛丽和她之间的联盟解释撒旦足够的敌意。The Proto-evangelium, therefore, in the original text contains a direct promise of the Redeemer, and in conjunction therewith the manifestation of the masterpiece of His Redemption, the perfect preservation of His virginal Mother from original sin.在原始evangelium,因此,包含在原文字的救赎直接的承诺,并在此相关的,他的救赎,他的处女母亲从原罪保存完美结合的杰作表现。

Luke 1:28路加福音1:28

The salutation of the angel Gabriel -- chaire kecharitomene, Hail, full of grace (Luke 1:28) indicates a unique abundance of grace, a supernatural, godlike state of soul, which finds its explanation only in the Immaculate Conception of Mary.的天使加布里埃尔称呼 - chaire kecharitomene,冰雹,充满恩典(路加福音1:28)表示的恩典,超自然的,神圣的国家的灵魂,发现只有在圣母玛利亚观其丰富独特的解释。 But the term kecharitomene (full of grace) serves only as an illustration, not as a proof of the dogma.但这个词kecharitomene(充满恩典)只是作为一个例子,而不是作为教条的证明。

Other texts其他文书

From the texts Proverbs 8 and Ecclesiasticus 24 (which exalt the Wisdom of God and which in the liturgy are applied to Mary, the most beautiful work of God's Wisdom), or from the Canticle of Canticles (4:7, "Thou art all fair, O my love, and there is not a spot in thee"), no theological conclusion can be drawn.从文本谚语8和ecclesiasticus 24条(其中高举神的智慧并在礼仪中是适用于玛丽,上帝的智慧最美丽的工作),或从颂歌的颂歌(4:7,“你是所有公平啊,我的爱,也没有在你点“),没有神学可以得出结论。 These passages, applied to the Mother of God, may be readily understood by those who know the privilege of Mary, but do not avail to prove the doctrine dogmatically, and are therefore omitted from the Constitution "Ineffabilis Deus".这些通道,适用于天主之母,可容易理解那些谁知道玛丽的特权,但并不证明利用教条学说,并因此从宪法“Ineffabilis天主”omitted。 For the theologian it is a matter of conscience not to take an extreme position by applying to a creature texts which might imply the prerogatives of God.对于神学家这是一个良知未采取通过应用到生物文本,其中可能意味着神的特权极端的立场问题。

Proof from Tradition从传统的证明

In regard to the sinlessness of Mary the older Fathers are very cautious: some of them even seem to have been in error on this matter.至于玛丽清白老父亲​​很谨慎:他们中一些人甚至似乎已经被错误此事。

Origen, although he ascribed to Mary high spiritual prerogatives, thought that, at the time of Christ's passion, the sword of disbelief pierced Mary's soul; that she was struck by the poniard of doubt; and that for her sins also Christ died (Origen, "In Luc. hom. xvii").奥利,虽然他归因于玛丽崇高的精神特权,想到,在基督的激情时间,怀疑剑刺穿玛丽的灵魂,她被怀疑匕首袭击,并为她的罪行,也基督死亡(渊源, “在吕克。坎。十七”)。

In the same manner St. Basil writes in the fourth century: he sees in the sword, of which Simeon speaks, the doubt which pierced Mary's soul (Epistle 259).以同样的方式圣罗勒写在第四世纪:他的剑,其中西蒙说话时,连刺疑问玛丽的灵魂(书信259)看到。

St. Chrysostom accuses her of ambition, and of putting herself forward unduly when she sought to speak to Jesus at Capharnaum (Matthew 12:46; Chrysostom, Hom. xliv; cf. also "In Matt.", hom. 4).圣金口指责她的野心,并把自己提出过分要求时,她说耶稣在葛法翁(马太12时46分,金口,坎四十四。。比照也“在马特。”,坎4。)。

But these stray private opinions merely serve to show that theology is a progressive science.但是,这些流浪的个人观点只是足以说明,神学是一个循序渐进的科学。If we were to attempt to set forth the full doctrine of the Fathers on the sanctity of the Blessed Virgin, which includes particularly the implicit belief in the immaculateness of her conception, we should be forced to transcribe a multitude of passages.如果我们试图阐述了对圣母,其中包括特别是她的信仰的神圣概念纯洁性隐满的父亲学说,我们应该被迫抄写了许多段落。 In the testimony of the Fathers two points are insisted upon: her absolute purity and her position as the second Eve (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:22).在这两个点是坚持的神父的见证:她绝对的纯洁性和她的第二个除夕(见哥林多前书15:22)的位置。

Mary as the second Eve玛丽作为第二个除夕

This celebrated comparison between Eve, while yet immaculate and incorrupt -- that is to say, not subject to original sin -- and the Blessed Virgin is developed by:除夕庆祝之间的这种比较,同时还完美,廉洁 - 这就是说,不受原罪 - 圣母和开发方式:

Justin (Dialog. cum Tryphone, 100), Irenaeus (Contra Haereses, III, xxii, 4), Tertullian (De carne Christi, xvii), Julius Firmicus Maternus (De errore profan. relig xxvi), Cyril of Jerusalem (Catecheses, xii, 29), Epiphanius (Hæres., lxxviii, 18), Theodotus of Ancyra (Or. in S. Deip n. 11), and Sedulius (Carmen paschale, II, 28).贾斯汀(Dialog.暨tryphone,100),爱任纽(魂斗罗Haereses,三,二十二,4),良(德卡尔基督,十七),朱利叶斯Firmicus Maternus(德errore profan。relig XXVI)号决议,西里尔耶路撒冷(要理,第十二章,29),埃皮法尼乌斯(Hæres.,第七十八号,18),奥多托斯的安该拉(在S向合资格注11)Or.和Sedulius(卡门paschale,二,28)。

The absolute purity of Mary绝对纯洁的玛丽

Patristic writings on Mary's purity abound.在玛丽的纯洁教父的著作中比比皆是。

The Fathers call Mary the tabernacle exempt from defilement and corruption (Hippolytus, "Ontt. in illud, Dominus pascit me"); Origen calls her worthy of God, immaculate of the immaculate, most complete sanctity, perfect justice, neither deceived by the persuasion of the serpent, nor infected with his poisonous breathings ("Hom. i in diversa"); Ambrose says she is incorrupt, a virgin immune through grace from every stain of sin ("Sermo xxii in Ps. cxviii);父亲叫玛丽的帐幕从污辱和腐败豁免(译注“Ontt在illud,Dominus pascit我。”);俄称她值得神,完美无暇的完美,最完整的神圣性,完美的正义,既不是说服欺骗蛇的,也不符合他的有毒气息的感染(“坎我在diversa。”);刘汉铨说,她是处女廉免疫透过恩典,从每一个罪恶的污点(“Sermo二十二,在PS cxviii。);

Maximus of Turin calls her a dwelling fit for Christ, not because of her habit of body, but because of original grace ("Nom. viii de Natali Domini"); Theodotus of Ancyra terms her a virgin innocent, without spot, void of culpability, holy in body and in soul, a lily springing among thorns, untaught the ills of Eve, nor was there any communion in her of light with darkness, and, when not yet born, she was consecrated to God ("Orat. in S. Dei Genitr.").都灵鲆称她为基督适合居住,不是因为她的身体习惯,但由于原有的宽限期(“喃八代纳塔利多米尼。”);奥多托斯方面的安该拉她的罪过处女无辜的,没有现货,无效在身体和灵魂圣洁,百合雨后春笋荆棘里的,受过教育的弊端的除夕夜,也没有任何的光与黑暗,而且,当她还没有出生,她奉献给神(“由于以下原因造成的共融。在S 。棣Genitr。“)。

In refuting Pelagius St. Augustine declares that all the just have truly known of sin "except the Holy Virgin Mary, of whom, for the honour of the Lord, I will have no question whatever where sin is concerned" (De naturâ et gratiâ 36).在驳斥伯拉纠圣奥古斯丁宣称,所有的只是有真正出名的罪恶“,除了圣母玛利亚,其中,对主的荣誉,我将没有任何罪在那里关注的问题”(德的Natura等特惠36 )。

Mary was pledged to Christ (Peter Chrysologus, "Sermo cxl de Annunt. BMV"); it is evident and notorious that she was pure from eternity, exempt from every defect (Typicon S. Sabae); she was formed without any stain (St. Proclus, "Laudatio in S. Dei Gen. ort.", I, 3);玛丽承诺基督(彼得Chrysologus,“Sermo德Annunt墨西哥证券交易所第一百四十。”),这是显而易见的臭名昭著的,她是从永恒的纯洁,从每一个缺陷(Typicon学鲭江)豁免,她成立了没有任何污点(圣。Proclus“。Laudatio口服补液疗法在S棣将军”,我,3);

she was created in a condition more sublime and glorious than all other natures (Theodorus of Jerusalem in Mansi, XII, 1140); when the Virgin Mother of God was to be born of Anne, nature did not dare to anticipate the germ of grace, but remained devoid of fruit (John Damascene, "Hom. i in BV Nativ.", ii).她创造了一个条件,更崇高和光荣的比所有其他性质(耶路撒冷Theodorus在曼西,第十二章,1140),在神的处女母亲是安妮出生,自然也不敢预料的宽限期胚芽,但仍缺乏水果(约翰大马士革,“坎。我在BV Nativ。”第一,二)。

The Syrian Fathers never tire of extolling the sinlessness of Mary.从未歌颂圣母的清白轮胎叙利亚父亲。St. Ephraem considers no terms of eulogy too high to describe the excellence of Mary's grace and sanctity: "Most holy Lady, Mother of God, alone most pure in soul and body, alone exceeding all perfection of purity alone made in thy entirety the home of all the graces of the Most Holy Spirit, and hence exceeding beyond all compare even the angelic virtues in purity and sanctity of soul and body . . . . my Lady most holy, all-pure, all-immaculate, all-stainless, all-undefiled, all-incorrupt, all-inviolate spotless robe of Him Who clothes Himself with light as with a garment flower unfading, purple woven by God, alone most immaculate" ("Precationes ad Deiparam" in Opp. Graec. Lat., III, 524-37).圣认为塞拉斯E过高的悼词来形容玛丽的恩典和神圣卓越没有项:“最神圣的夫人,上帝之母,独自一人最纯洁的灵魂和身体,独自纯度超过所有单独作出完美 在你整个的所有青睐的最神圣的精神,从而超越所有超过主页相比,即使在纯洁和神圣的灵魂和身体的天使般的美德。。。。我最神圣的夫人,全纯,全完美无暇,全不锈钢,全玷污,全廉,全不可侵犯一尘不染的长袍的他自己与谁的衣服,与衣服光。 花不凋谢,紫织上帝,独自一人最完美的“(”Precationes广告Deiparam“在奥普。Graec。土地增值税。,三,524-37)。

To St. Ephraem she was as innocent as Eve before her fall, a virgin most estranged from every stain of sin, more holy than the Seraphim, the sealed fountain of the Holy Ghost, the pure seed of God, ever in body and in mind intact and immaculate ("Carmina Nisibena").圣塞拉斯E她的秋季之前,她像夏娃无辜,还是处女最疏远的每一个罪恶的污点,更神圣比六翼天使的圣灵密封喷泉,纯净种子的神,曾在身体和心灵完整和完美无暇的(“布兰Nisibena”)。 Jacob of Sarug says that "the very fact that God has elected her proves that none was ever holier than Mary; if any stain had disfigured her soul, if any other virgin had been purer and holier, God would have selected her and rejected Mary".对Sarug雅各布说:“这一事实本身证明上帝已经选出了她,没有一个比以往玛丽圣洁,如果有任何污点了毁容,她的灵魂,如果任何其他处女了纯洁和圣洁,上帝选择了她,并拒绝了玛丽” 。It seems, however, that Jacob of Sarug, if he had any clear idea of the doctrine of sin, held that Mary was perfectly pure from original sin ("the sentence against Adam and Eve") at the Annunciation.看来,不过,雅各布的Sarug,如果他有任何罪的教义认为,玛丽的原罪完全纯净,清晰的概念在报喜(“禁止亚当和夏娃句”)。

St. John Damascene (Or. i Nativ. Deip., n. 2) esteems the supernatural influence of God at the generation of Mary to be so comprehensive that he extends it also to her parents.圣约翰大马士革(Or.我Nativ。向合资格。,注2)推崇在玛丽代神超自然的影响是如此全面,他还延伸到她的父母。 He says of them that, during the generation, they were filled and purified by the Holy Ghost, and freed from sexual concupiscence.他说,在一代,他们充满圣灵和纯化,并从性concupiscence释放他们。

Consequently according to the Damascene, even the human element of her origin, the material of which she was formed, was pure and holy.因此根据大马士革,就连她的起源,她成立了物质,人的因素是纯洁和神圣。This opinion of an immaculate active generation and the sanctity of the "conceptio carnis" was taken up by some Western authors; it was put forward by Petrus Comestor in his treatise against St. Bernard and by others.这一代的完美无暇的意见和积极的“conceptio carnis”神圣采取了由一些西方作家,这是提出佩特鲁斯Comestor着他对圣伯纳在由他人论文。Some writers even taught that Mary was born of a virgin and that she was conceived in a miraculous manner when Joachim and Anne met at the golden gate of the temple (Trombelli, "Mari SS. Vita", Sect. V, ii, 8; Summa aurea, II, 948. Cf. also the "Revelations" of Catherine Emmerich which contain the entire apocryphal legend of the miraculous conception of Mary.一些作家还教玛丽出生在日本一个处女,她是在一个神奇的方式构思时约阿希姆和安妮在庙黄金门(特龙贝利见面,“马里党卫军简历。”第五节,二,八。总结忽地笑,二,948。比照。也是“启示”凯瑟琳艾默里奇其中包含整个概念的玛丽杜撰的传说神奇。

From this summary it appears that the belief in Mary's immunity from sin in her conception was prevalent amongst the Fathers, especially those of the Greek Church.从这个总结看来,在玛丽的免疫力从她的信仰是受孕罪之间的父亲,尤其是希腊教会的普遍。The rhetorical character, however, of many of these and similar passages prevents us from laying too much stress on them, and interpreting them in a strictly literal sense.修辞的性格,不过,阻止这些和许多类似的段落铺设从他们太多的压力,并在严格的字面解释使他们体会到我们。The Greek Fathers never formally or explicitly discussed the question of the Immaculate Conception.希腊的父亲从来没有正式或明确讨论了圣母无染原罪的问题。

The Conception of St. John the Baptist圣施洗约翰的构想

A comparison with the conception of Christ and that of St. John may serve to light both on the dogma and on the reasons which led the Greeks to celebrate at an early date the Feast of the Conception of Mary.与基督的概念,而可能成为圣约翰比较轻的教条和的原因而导致希腊人早日庆祝节日的玛丽两个概念。

The conception of the Mother of God was beyond all comparison more noble than that of St. John the Baptist, whilst it was immeasurably beneath that of her Divine Son.对天主之母的概念是超越所有的比较多崇高的圣施洗约翰,而它不可估量的下方,她的神的儿子均是如此。

The soul of the precursor was not preserved immaculate at its union with the body, but was sanctified either shortly after conception from a previous state of sin, or through the presence of Jesus at the Visitation.该前驱体的灵魂,不保留,在其与欧盟完美无暇的身体,但不久后是神圣的罪恶以前的状态,或通过耶稣在探望存在任何概念。 Our Lord, being conceived by the Holy Ghost, was, by virtue of his miraculous conception, ipso facto free from the taint of original sin.我们的主,被圣灵所设想的是,凭借他的神奇的构想,依据事实从原罪无污点。

Of these three conceptions the Church celebrates feasts.在这三个概念教会庆祝节日。The Orientals have a Feast of the Conception of St. John the Baptist (23 September), which dates back to the fifth century; it is thus older than the Feast of the Conception of Mary, and, during the Middle Ages, was kept also by many Western dioceses on 24 September.东方人有一个观念的圣施洗约翰(23月),可追溯至第五世纪盛宴,它是这样比的玛丽观盛宴年龄大了,在中世纪,也被关9月24日由许多西方教区。 The Conception of Mary is celebrated by the Latins on 8 December; by the Orientals on 9 December; the Conception of Christ has its feast in the universal calendar on 25 March.玛丽的构想是由拉丁人12月8日举行; 12月9日通过的东方人;基督的观念已经在3月25日普遍日历它的盛宴。In celebrating the feast of Mary's Conception the Greeks of old did not consider the theological distinction of the active and the passive conceptions, which was indeed unknown to them.在庆祝玛丽的旧观盛宴希腊人没有考虑主动和被动的区别神学观念,这的确是他们并不知晓。They did not think it absurd to celebrate a conception which was not immaculate, as we see from the Feast of the Conception of St. John.他们不认为这荒谬的庆祝一个概念这是不完美的,因为我们从观念的圣约翰节看到的。 They solemnized the Conception of Mary, perhaps because, according to the "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, it was preceded by miraculous events (the apparition of an angel to Joachim, etc.), similar to those which preceded the conception of St. John, and that of our Lord Himself.他们举行婚礼的玛丽概念,也许是因为,根据“原始evangelium”圣雅各福群,在此之前,不可思议的事件(天使的幽灵来约阿希姆等),类似于那些之前的构想圣约翰,而我们的主自己。 Their object was less the purity of the conception than the holiness and heavenly mission of the person conceived.其目的是少了的人比天上的使命神圣和纯洁的概念设想。In the Office of 9 December, however, Mary, from the time of her conception, is called beautiful, pure, holy, just, etc., terms never used in the Office of 23 September (sc. of St. John the Baptist). 12月9日在办公室,但是,玛丽,从她怀孕的时候,被称为美丽,纯洁,神圣,公正,等等,条款从来没有在办公室9月23日(圣若翰sc.)使用。 The analogy of St. John's sanctification may have given rise to the Feast of the Conception of Mary.的圣约翰的圣洁比喻可能引起的观念的玛丽盛宴。If it was necessary that the precursor of the Lord should be so pure and "filled with the Holy Ghost" even from his mother's womb, such a purity was assuredly not less befitting His Mother.如果它是必要的,主的易制毒化学应该是如此纯净,“充满圣灵”,甚至从他母亲的子宫里,这样的纯度不低于稳妥相称他的母亲。 The moment of St. John's sanctification is by later writers thought to be the Visitation ("the infant leaped in her womb"), but the angel's words (Luke 1:15) seem to indicate a sanctification at the conception.的圣约翰的神圣时刻,是由后来的作家认为是探望(下称“婴儿在她的子宫里跳”),但天使的话(路加福音1:15)似乎表明,在构思成圣。 This would render the origin of Mary more similar to that of John.这会导致更多类似的玛丽出身的约翰。And if the Conception of John had its feast, why not that of Mary?如果约翰的构想有其盛宴,为何不就是玛丽吗?

Proof from Reason从理性的证明

There is an incongruity in the supposition that the flesh, from which the flesh of the Son of God was to be formed, should ever have belonged to one who was the slave of that arch-enemy, whose power He came on earth to destroy.有一个在这样的假设不一致,肉中刺,从这些神的儿子的肉,是形成,应该永远都属于一个谁是这个头号敌人,他们的权力,他来到地球上消灭奴隶。 Hence the axiom of Pseudo-Anselmus (Eadmer) developed by Duns Scotus, Decuit, potuit, ergo fecit, it was becoming that the Mother of the Redeemer should have been free from the power of sin and from the first moment of her existence; God could give her this privilege, therefore He gave it to her.因此,公理伪Anselmus(Eadmer)由邓司各脱,Decuit,potuit开发,测功fecit,它正在成为救世主的是,母亲应该已经从罪的权势,并从她的存在起免费;神可以给她这样的特权,所以他给了她。 Again it is remarked that a peculiar privilege was granted to the prophet Jeremiah and to St. John the Baptist.这又是一种特殊的表示,被授予特权的先知耶利米和圣施洗约翰。They were sanctified in their mother's womb, because by their preaching they had a special share in the work of preparing the way for Christ.他们是神圣的母亲的子宫里,因为他们的说教他们在基督的准备工作特别股的方式。

Consequently some much higher prerogative is due to Mary.因此一些更高的特权,是因为玛丽。(A treatise of P. Marchant, claiming for St. Joseph also the privilege of St. John, was placed on the Index in 1833.) Scotus says that "the perfect Mediator must, in some one case, have done the work of mediation most perfectly, which would not be unless there was some one person at least, in whose regard the wrath of God was anticipated and not merely appeased." (一体育马尔尚的论文,也为圣若瑟特权的圣约翰声称,被安排在1833年的指标。)司各脱说,“完美的调解员必须在有人的情况下,做了调解工作最完美的,不会的,除非有至少有一个人,在其关于上帝的愤怒预期,而不是​​仅仅姑息。“

The Feast of the Immaculate Conception在圣母无原罪盛宴

The older feast of the Conception of Mary (Conception of St. Anne), which originated in the monasteries of Palestine at least as early as the seventh century, and the modern feast of the Immaculate Conception are not identical in their object.该构想的玛丽(构想圣安妮),其中,至少在最初是作为巴勒斯坦的寺院早在公元前七世纪的老牌节日,和现代的圣母无染原罪节日在他们的对象不一样。

Originally the Church celebrated only the Feast of the Conception of Mary, as she kept the Feast of St. John's conception, not discussing the sinlessness.最初,教会庆祝唯一的玛丽观的盛宴,因为她保持了圣约翰的观念过节,不是讨论清白。This feast in the course of centuries became the Feast of the Immaculate Conception, as dogmatical argumentation brought about precise and correct ideas, and as the thesis of the theological schools regarding the preservation of Mary from all stain of original sin gained strength.这在几个世纪的过程盛宴成为无原罪节,作为独断涿鹿准确,正确的观念带来的,作为关于玛丽的一切原罪的污点保存的神学论文获得了学校的实力。 Even after the dogma had been universally accepted in the Latin Church, and had gained authoritative support through diocesan decrees and papal decisions, the old term remained, and before 1854 the term "Immaculata Conceptio" is nowhere found in the liturgical books, except in the invitatorium of the Votive Office of the Conception.即使在已被普遍接受的教条,在拉丁美洲教会,并已获得通过教区教皇的法令和决定权威的支持下,旧的称呼仍然存在,1854年之前长期“伊曼卡拉塔Conceptio”是行不通礼仪的书籍中发现,除了在, invitatorium的votive办公室的概念。The Greeks, Syrians, etc. call it the Conception of St. Anne (Eullepsis tes hagias kai theoprometoros Annas, "the Conception of St. Anne, the ancestress of God").希腊人,叙利亚人,等等称它为圣安妮(Eullepsis工商业污水附加费hagias启theoprometoros亚那“的圣安妮,神祖观”)的构想。 Passaglia in his "De Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu," basing his opinion upon the "Typicon" of St. Sabas: which was substantially composed in the fifth century, believes that the reference to the feast forms part of the authentic original, and that consequently it was celebrated in the Patriarchate of Jerusalem in the fifth century (III, n. 1604).在他的“德Immaculato Deiparae Conceptu”帕萨利亚频立足的“Typicon”圣Sabas他认为:这是在第五世纪大幅组成,认为的节日形式的真实原件参考的,因此它在著名的耶路撒冷主教在第五世纪(三,北1604)。 But the Typicon was interpolated by the Damascene, Sophronius, and others, and, from the ninth to the twelfth centuries, many new feasts and offices were added.但Typicon是插在大马士革,Sophronius,和其他人,从第九到十二世纪,许多新的节日和办事处增加了。

To determine the origin of this feast we must take into account the genuine documents we possess, the oldest of which is the canon of the feast, composed by St. Andrew of Crete, who wrote his liturgical hymns in the second half of the seventh century, when a monk at the monastery of St. Sabas near Jerusalem (d. Archbishop of Crete about 720).要确定这个节日的起源,我们必须考虑到真正的文件,我们拥有的最古老的是克里特岛的圣安德鲁,谁写在下半场七世纪的礼仪赞美诗组成的盛宴,佳能,当在耶路撒冷附近的圣Sabas(四大主教的克里特岛约720)寺院僧人。 But the solemnity cannot then have been generally accepted throughout the Orient, for John, first monk and later bishop in the Isle of Euboea, about 750 in a sermon, speaking in favour of the propagation of this feast, says that it was not yet known to all the faithful (ei kai me para tois pasi gnorizetai; PG, XCVI, 1499).但严肃不能再已普遍各地为约翰东方,第一个和尚并在埃维亚岛后来主教接受,有关在讲道750,在这个节日传播的青睐发言说,这是还不知道所有信徒(荣启我第tois PASI评分gnorizetai;前列腺素,XCVI,1499年)。But a century later George of Nicomedia, made metropolitan by Photius in 860, could say that the solemnity was not of recent origin (PG, C, 1335).但是一个世纪后的尼科美底亚乔治,使大都会由photius在860,可以说是最近的严肃性原产地公司(PG,丙,1335)没有。 It is therefore, safe to affirm that the feast of the Conception of St. Anne appears in the Orient not earlier than the end of the seventh or the beginning of the eighth century.因此,这是安全的,肯定的是,圣安妮观盛宴出现在东方比第七年底或八世纪开始不早。As in other cases of the same kind the feast originated in the monastic communities.如同在其他同类案件的节日起源于寺院的社区。 The monks, who arranged the psalmody and composed the various poetical pieces for the office, also selected the date, 9 December, which was always retained in the Oriental calendars.僧侣们,谁安排psalmody的和诗意的各个组成部分的办公室,还选定的日期,12月9日,这是在东方日历始终保留。 Gradually the solemnity emerged from the cloister, entered into the cathedrals, was glorified by preachers and poets, and eventually became a fixed feast of the calendar, approved by Church and State.渐渐地走出庄严的大教堂进入到修道院,由牧师和诗人赞美,并最终成为一个由教会和国家批准的日历,固定节日。

It is registered in the calendar of Basil II (976-1025) and by the Constitution of Emperor Manuel I Comnenus on the days of the year which are half or entire holidays, promulgated in 1166, it is numbered among the days which have full sabbath rest.这是在巴西尔二世(976-1025)日历和由皇帝曼努埃尔宪法我在今年的日子是一半或整个假期Comnenus,注册于1166年颁布的,它的编号之间的天,这有充分的安息日休息。 Up to the time of Basil II, Lower Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia still belonged to the Byzantine Empire; the city of Naples was not lost to the Greeks until 1127, when Roger II conquered the city.截至巴西尔二世,下意大利,西西里,撒丁和时间仍属于拜占庭帝国;的那不勒斯城并没有失去,直到1127年,当罗杰二世征服了城市的希腊人。 The influence of Constantinople was consequently strong in the Neapolitan Church, and, as early as the ninth century, the Feast of the Conception was doubtlessly kept there, as elsewhere in Lower Italy on 9 December, as indeed appears from the marble calendar found in 1742 in the Church of S. Giorgio Maggiore at Naples.君士坦丁堡的影响因此在那不勒斯教会强烈,而且,早在第九世纪,无疑是盛宴的概念不断出现,如意大利的其他地方低12月9日,事实上,从发现的大理石出现在1742年日历在S.乔治在那不勒斯Maggiore大教堂。 Today the Conception of St. Anne is in the Greek Church one of the minor feasts of the year.今天,圣安妮构想是在希腊教会今年未成年人节日之一。The lesson in Matins contains allusions to the apocryphal "Proto-evangelium" of St. James, which dates from the second half of the second century (see SAINT ANNE).在晨祷课包含典故,以猜测“原始evangelium”圣雅各福群,这是从第二世纪(见圣安妮)下半年的日期。To the Greek Orthodox of our days, however, the feast means very little; they continue to call it "Conception of St. Anne", indicating unintentionally, perhaps, the active conception which was certainly not immaculate.我们的日子到了希腊东正教徒,但是,​​节日是很少,他们继续把它称作“构想圣安妮”,表明无意,或许,这是积极的概念肯定不是完美无暇的。 In the Menaea of 9 December this feast holds only the second place, the first canon being sung in commemoration of the dedication of the Church of the Resurrection at Constantinople.在12月9日Menaea这个盛宴,也不过第二位,第一佳能在被传唱的复活在君士坦丁堡教会奉献的纪念活动。 The Russian hagiographer Muraview and several other Orthodox authors even loudly declaimed against the dogma after its promulgation, although their own preachers formerly taught the Immaculate Conception in their writings long before the definition of 1854.俄罗斯hagiographer Muraview和其他几个东正教作者甚至大声反对教条凛然颁布后,虽然自己曾任教的传教士早在1854年在其著作中定义的圣母无原罪。

In the Western Church the feast appeared (8 December), when in the Orient its development had come to a standstill.在西方教会的节日出现了(12月8日),当其在东方的发展已经到了一个停顿。The timid beginnings of the new feast in some Anglo-Saxon monasteries in the eleventh century, partly smothered by the Norman conquest, were followed by its reception in some chapters and dioceses by the Anglo-Norman clergy.对在十一世纪的一些盎格鲁撒克逊寺庙胆小新盛宴的开始,部分由诺曼征服窒息,其次是在某些章节和盎格鲁诺曼教区神职人员接待。 But the attempts to introduce it officially provoked contradiction and theoretical discussion, bearing upon its legitimacy and its meaning, which were continued for centuries and were not definitively settled before 1854.但它正式推出的企图挑起矛盾和理论探讨,在它的合法性和它的意义,这是持续了几个世纪,并没有最终解决之前,1854年轴承。 The "Martyrology of Tallaght" compiled about 790 and the "Feilire" of St. Aengus (800) register the Conception of Mary on 3 May.关于790和“Feilire”圣Aengus(800)编译的“塔拉特Martyrology”注册的玛丽5月3日的构想。 It is doubtful, however, if an actual feast corresponded to this rubric of the learned monk St. Aengus.这是令人怀疑,但是,如果实际盛宴相当于这个教训和尚圣Aengus专栏。This Irish feast certainly stands alone and outside the line of liturgical development.这当然是独立的爱尔兰节日和礼仪之外的发展路线。It is a mere isolated appearance, not a living germ.这仅仅是一种孤立的外观,而不是一个活生生的萌芽。The Scholiast adds, in the lower margin of the "Feilire", that the conception (Inceptio) took place in February, since Mary was born after seven months -- a singular notion found also in some Greek authors.The注释者补充说,在“Feilire”下缘,即概念(Inceptio)于二月举行,因为玛丽是出生后七个月 - 一类奇异的概念中发现一些希腊作家也。The first definite and reliable knowledge of the feast in the West comes from England; it is found in a calendar of Old Minster, Winchester (Conceptio S'ce Dei Genetricis Mari), dating from about 1030, and in another calendar of New Minster, Winchester, written between 1035 and 1056; a pontifical of Exeter of the eleventh century (assigned to 1046-1072) contains a "benedictio in Conceptione S. Mariae "; a similar benediction is found in a Canterbury pontifical written probably in the first half of the eleventh century, certainly before the Conquest.第一个明确和可靠的西方节日知识来自英国,它是发现在旧大教堂,温彻斯特(Conceptio S'ce棣Genetricis马里)历,从大约1030年代,并在另一个新部长日历,温切斯特,1035和1056年之间写,一个世纪的第十一届(分配给1046至1072年),埃克塞特宗座载有“在Conceptione学Mariae benedictio”,一个类似的祝福被发现在一坎特伯雷宗座书面可能是在上半年十一世纪,当然前征服。These episcopal benedictions show that the feast not only commended itself to the devotion of individuals, but that it was recognized by authority and was observed by the Saxon monks with considerable solemnity.这些主教表明,节日祝福,不仅赞扬自己的个人奉献,但它是公认的权威和严肃性受到相当的撒克逊僧侣观察。The existing evidence goes to show that the establishment of the feast in England was due to the monks of Winchester before the Conquest (1066).现有的证据,正好说明了在英国成立,是由于节日前征服温彻斯特和尚(1066年)。

The Normans on their arrival in England were disposed to treat in a contemptuous fashion English liturgical observances; to them this feast must have appeared specifically English, a product of insular simplicity and ignorance.他们在抵达英国的诺曼人倾向于轻蔑地对待英语礼仪纪念活动;给他们这个节日必须有明确出现英文,简单的狭隘和无知的产物。 Doubtless its public celebration was abolished at Winchester and Canterbury, but it did not die out of the hearts of individuals, and on the first favourable opportunity the feast was restored in the monasteries.毫无疑问,它的公共庆祝活动被取消在温彻斯特和坎特伯雷,但它并没有死,对个人的心出来,第一个有利的机会,节日是在寺院里恢复。 At Canterbury however, it was not re-established before 1328.在坎特伯雷但是,它不会重新在1328年成立。Several documents state that in Norman times it began at Ramsey, pursuant to a vision vouchsafed to Helsin or Æthelsige, Abbot of Ramsey on his journey back from Denmark, whither he had been sent by William I about 1070.几个文件指出,在诺曼拉姆齐有时在开始,根据远见赐予以Helsin或Æthelsige,住持的拉姆齐在旅途回来丹麦,何处,他已被威廉一世派出约1070。 An angel appeared to him during a severe gale and saved the ship after the abbot had promised to establish the Feast of the Conception in his monastery.一个天使出现在他面前发生了一场严重的大风并保存了船后的住持曾承诺建立在他的寺院观盛宴。However we may consider the supernatural feature of the legend, it must be admitted that the sending of Helsin to Denmark is an historical fact.不过,我们可以考虑的传说超自然功能,它必须承认,派出Helsin到丹麦是一个历史事实。The account of the vision has found its way into many breviaries, even into the Roman Breviary of 1473.该设想的帐户已发现到许多breviaries了方向,甚至到1473罗马祈祷。The Council of Canterbury (1325) attributes the re-establishment of the feast in England to St. Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1109).在坎特伯雷市政局(1325)属性在英格兰盛宴重新建立圣安瑟伦,坎特伯雷大主教(草1109)。But although this great doctor wrote a special treatise "De Conceptu virginali et originali peccato", by which he laid down the principles of the Immaculate Conception, it is certain that he did not introduce the feast anywhere.但是,虽然这个伟大的医生写了一张特别的论文“德Conceptu virginali等originali peccato”,由他奠定了圣母无染原罪的原则,可以肯定的是,他没有提出任何地方的盛宴。The letter ascribed to him, which contains the Helsin narrative, is spurious.归因于他的信,其中包含Helsin叙述,是虚假的。The principal propagator of the feast after the Conquest was Anselm, the nephew of St. Anselm.对征服后的盛宴主要传播者是安瑟伦,圣安瑟伦的侄子。He was educated at Canterbury where he may have known some Saxon monks who remembered the solemnity in former days; after 1109 he was for a time Abbot of St. Sabas at Rome, where the Divine Offices were celebrated according to the Greek calendar.他曾就读于坎特伯雷他可能已经知道一些撒克逊僧侣谁想起了昔日的严肃性; 1109年后,他为圣Sabas时间在罗马,在那里神圣的住持处是根据希腊著名的日历。When in 1121 he was appointed Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's he established the feast there; partly at least through his efforts other monasteries also adopted it, like Reading, St. Albans, Worcester, Gloucester, and Winchcombe.当1121年他被任命住持埋葬圣埃德蒙他成立了宴会上有,至少部分是通过他的努力,其他寺庙也通过它喜欢读书,圣奥尔本斯,伍斯特,格洛斯特,和温什科姆。

But a number of others decried its observance as hitherto unheard of and absurd, the old Oriental feast being unknown to them.但是,其他一些闻所未闻的谴责迄今为止的和荒谬的,旧的东方盛宴被他们并不知晓其遵守。Two bishops, Roger of Salisbury and Bernard of St. Davids, declared that the festival was forbidden by a council, and that the observance must be stopped.两位主教,圣的索尔兹伯里和罗杰戴维斯伯纳德宣布,这个节日被禁止的一局,而且遵守必须停止。And when, during the vacancy of the See of London, Osbert de Clare, Prior of Westminster, undertook to introduce the feast at Westminster (8 December, 1127), a number of monks arose against him in the choir and said that the feast must not be kept, for its establishment had not the authority of Rome (cf. Osbert's letter to Anselm in Bishop, p. 24).当期间,伦敦见,奥斯伯特德克莱尔,之前的威斯敏斯特空缺,承诺在威斯敏斯特介绍盛宴(1127年12月8日),有僧侣人数出现了对他在合唱团,并表示必须盛宴不保存,其成立的罗马没有权力(参见奥斯伯特的信安瑟伦在主教,第24页)。 Whereupon the matter was brought before the Council of London in 1129.于是这个问题被送交安理会在1129年的伦敦。The synod decided in favour of the feast, and Bishop Gilbert of London adopted it for his diocese.主教决定的盛宴青睐,伦敦主教吉尔伯特通过了他的教区了。Thereafter the feast spread in England, but for a time retained its private character, the Synod of Oxford (1222) having refused to raise it to the rank of a holiday of obligation.此后在英国盛宴蔓延,但在一段时间内保持其私人性质,牛津主教(1222)因不肯提高到了一个义务假日军衔。

In Normandy at the time of Bishop Rotric (1165-83) the Conception of Mary, in the Archdiocese of Rouen and its six suffragan dioceses, was a feast of precept equal in dignity to the Annunciation.国际货币基金组织在主教Rotric时间(1165年至1183年)的玛丽观在鲁昂大主教教区和六个suffragan,诺曼底,是一个信条平等尊严的报喜盛宴。 At the same time the Norman students at the University of Paris chose it as their patronal feast.同时在巴黎大学的诺曼学生选择它作为自己patronal盛宴。Owing to the close connection of Normandy with England, it may have been imported from the latter country into Normandy, or the Norman barons and clergy may have brought it home from their wars in Lower Italy, it was universally solemnised by the Greek inhabitants.由于诺曼底与英格兰密切的联系,它可能已被后者的国家进口到诺曼底,还是诺曼贵族和神职人员可能已经把它从他们的战争在较低意大利家庭,它是由希腊普遍隆重居民。 During the Middle Ages the Feast of the Conception of Mary was commonly called the "Feast of the Norman nation", which shows that it was celebrated in Normandy with great splendour and that it spread from there over Western Europe.在中世纪的盛宴,玛丽的构想是俗称,它表明这是在庆祝诺曼底伟大的辉煌,它有来自西欧扩展“的诺曼民族的盛宴”。Passaglia contends (III, 1755) that the feast was celebrated in Spain in the seventh century.帕萨利亚争辩(三,1755)这个节日是庆祝西班牙在第七世纪。Bishop Ullathorne also (p. 161) finds this opinion acceptable.主教拉索恩也(第161页)认为这个意见可以接受的。If this be true, it is difficult to understand why it should have entirely disappeared from Spain later on, for neither does the genuine Mozarabic Liturgy contain it, nor the tenth century calendar of Toledo edited by Morin.如果这是真的,这是很难理解为什么它应该完全由西班牙消失以后,也没有真正为莫扎拉布素歌礼仪中包含它,也不是由莫兰编辑托莱多十世纪的日历。 The two proofs given by Passaglia are futile: the life of St. Isidore, falsely attributed to St. Ildephonsus, which mentions the feast, is interpolated, while, in the Visigoth lawbook, the expression "Conceptio S. Mariae" is to be understood of the Annunciation.给出的两个帕萨利亚证明是徒劳的:圣伊西多尔生活,错误地归因于圣Ildephonsus,其中提到的盛宴,是插,而在西哥特人法律书籍,表达“Conceptio学Mariae”是可以理解圣母领报。

The controversy争议

No controversy arose over the Immaculate Conception on the European continent before the twelfth century.毫无争议出现在欧洲大陆上的十二世纪前的圣母玛利亚的构想。The Norman clergy abolished the feast in some monasteries of England where it had been established by the Anglo-Saxon monks.诺曼废除神职人员在英格兰一些地方已被盎格鲁撒克逊僧侣建立寺院的盛宴。But towards the end of the eleventh century, through the efforts of Anselm the Younger, it was taken up again in several Anglo-Norman establishments.但在接近十一世纪的年轻通过安瑟伦的努力,为此,它再次被带到了几个盎格鲁诺曼机构。That St. Anselm the Elder re-established the feast in England is highly improbable, although it was not new to him.安瑟伦,圣长老重新确立了在英格兰的盛宴,是极不可能的,虽然它不是新的给他。He had been made familiar with it as well by the Saxon monks of Canterbury, as by the Greeks with whom he came in contact during exile in Campania and Apulin (1098-9).他已经取得了熟悉它,以及由坎特伯雷撒克逊僧侣,由希腊人在与他接触的过程中坎帕尼亚和Apulin(1098-9)流亡。 The treatise "De Conceptu virginali" usually ascribed to him, was composed by his friend and disciple, the Saxon monk Eadmer of Canterbury.论文“德Conceptu virginali”通常归因于他,被他的朋友和弟子组成,撒克逊和尚坎特伯雷Eadmer。When the canons of the cathedral of Lyons, who no doubt knew Anselm the Younger Abbot of Bury St. Edmund's, personally introduced the feast into their choir after the death of their bishop in 1240, St. Bernard deemed it his duty to publish a protest against this new way of honouring Mary.当的里昂大教堂,毫无疑问,谁知道安瑟伦的埋葬圣埃德蒙的年轻住持,大炮亲自介绍后,他们的主教死亡的盛宴到他们的合唱团在1240年,圣伯纳认为他有责任发表一份抗议玛丽对这种新的方式履行。 He addressed to the canons a vehement letter (Epist. 174), in which he reproved them for taking the step upon their own authority and before they had consulted the Holy See.他给大炮一激烈信(Epist. 174),他在责备自己的权威时采取前他们曾咨询罗马教廷的一步。Not knowing that the feast had been celebrated with the rich tradition of the Greek and Syrian Churches regarding the sinlessness of Mary, he asserted that the feast was foreign to the old tradition of the Church.不知道这个节日已与希腊和叙利亚关于清白的玛丽教堂丰富的传统庆祝,他断言,这个节日是外国的古老传统的教会。Yet it is evident from the tenor of his language that he had in mind only the active conception or the formation of the flesh, and that the distinction between the active conception, the formation of the body, and its animation by the soul had not yet been drawn.然而,它是从他的语言,他的想法只有积极构思或肉体的形成,男高音和概念之间的区别明显活跃,对体的形成,其动画的灵魂尚未已制订。 No doubt, when the feast was introduced in England and Normandy, the axiom "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit", the childlike piety and enthusiasm of the simplices building upon revelations and apocryphal legends, had the upper hand.毫无疑问,当这个节日是在英格兰和诺曼底介绍,公理“decuit,potuit,测功fecit”时,孩子般的虔诚和对建设的启示和猜测传说单形的积极性,占了上风。 The object of the feast was not clearly determined, no positive theological reasons had been placed in evidence.的盛宴对象没有明确确定,没有任何积极的神学理由已在证据上。

St. Bernard was perfectly justified when he demanded a careful inquiry into the reasons for observing the feast.圣伯纳是完全合理的要求时,他宴一,观察仔细打听到的原因。Not adverting to the possibility of sanctification at the time of the infusion of the soul, he writes that there can be question only of sanctification after conception, which would render holy the nativity, not the conception itself (Scheeben, "Dogmatik", III, p. 550).不adverting到成圣在灵魂的输注时间的可能性,他写道,只能有受孕后的成圣的问题,这将令神圣的耶稣诞生,而不是概念本身(Scheeben,“Dogmatik”,三,第550)。 Hence Albert the Great observes: "We say that the Blessed Virgin was not sanctified before animation, and the affirmative contrary to this is the heresy condemned by St. Bernard in his epistle to the canons of Lyons" (III Sent., dist. iii, p. I, ad 1, Q. i).因此阿尔贝大指出:“我们说,圣母圣之前,没有动画,并肯定与此相悖的是圣伯纳谴责他的书信向里昂大炮异端”(三送,三区。。 ,第一,公元1,问:我)。

St. Bernard was at once answered in a treatise written by either Richard of St. Victor or Peter Comestor.圣伯纳是在一次由任圣彼得Comestor理查德维克托或撰写的论文回答。In this treatise appeal is made to a feast which had been established to commemorate an insupportable tradition.在这篇论文提出上诉对一个已经成立,以纪念一个无法承受的传统节日。It maintained that the flesh of Mary needed no purification; that it was sanctified before the conception.它坚持认为玛丽的肉不需要净化,这是之前的概念圣洁。Some writers of those times entertained the fantastic idea that before Adam fell, a portion of his flesh had been reserved by God and transmitted from generation to generation, and that out of this flesh the body of Mary was formed (Scheeben, op. cit., III, 551), and this formation they commemorated by a feast.那个时代的一些作家宴请了奇妙的想法,在亚当之前下跌,他的肉体部分已预留的上帝,并转交了一代又一代,而这就是马利亚体成立肉(Scheeben,运出。前。 ,三,551),这形成了一个节日纪念他们。The letter of St. Bernard did not prevent the extension of the feast, for in 1154 it was observed all over France, until in 1275, through the efforts of the Paris University, it was abolished in Paris and other dioceses.圣伯纳德的信件没有防止在1154年的盛宴的延伸,有人指出,直到1275年法国各地,通过对巴黎大学,它是在巴黎和其他教区取消努力。

After the saint's death the controversy arose anew between Nicholas of St. Albans, an English monk who defended the festival as established in England, and Peter Cellensis, the celebrated Bishop of Chartres.圣后死亡的争论重新出现的圣奥尔本斯之间,英语和尚谁捍卫的节日,在英国成立,彼得Cellensis,著名的沙特尔主教尼古拉。 Nicholas remarks that the soul of Mary was pierced twice by the sword, ie at the foot of the cross and when St. Bernard wrote his letter against her feast (Scheeben, III, 551).尼古拉的言论,玛丽的灵魂被剑刺穿两次,即在脚下过,当圣伯纳说他对她的盛宴(Scheeben,三,551)信。The point continued to be debated throughout the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and illustrious names appeared on each side.这一点仍然是整个第十三和第十四世纪辩论,并在每边显赫的名字出现。St. Peter Damian, Peter the Lombard, Alexander of Hales, St. Bonaventure, and Albert the Great are quoted as opposing it.达米安圣彼得,彼得伦巴第,黑尔斯,圣文德亚历山大和艾伯特大都是引述的反对态度。

St. Thomas at first pronounced in favour of the doctrine in his treatise on the "Sentences" (in I. Sent. c. 44, q. I ad 3), yet in his "Summa Theologica" he concluded against it.圣托马斯首先突出的学说在他的论文赞成对“句”(在一发送。角44,问:我的广告3),但在他的“神学大全”,他反对结​​束。 Much discussion has arisen as to whether St. Thomas did or did not deny that the Blessed Virgin was immaculate at the instant of her animation, and learned books have been written to vindicate him from having actually drawn the negative conclusion.出现了许多讨论,是否圣托马斯没有或没有否认圣母一尘不染,在她的动画即时,学到书本写平反其实不必他得出的否定结论。 Yet it is hard to say that St. Thomas did not require an instant at least, after the animation of Mary, before her sanctification.然而,这是很难说,圣托马斯并不需要至少一个瞬间,在她面前的玛丽动画成圣。His great difficulty appears to have arisen from the doubt as to how she could have been redeemed if she had not sinned.他的伟大的难度似乎已经从出现的疑问,以她怎么可能被赎回,如果她没有犯过罪。This difficulty he raised in no fewer than ten passages in his writings (see, eg, Summa III:27:2, ad 2).他在这个困难并不比他的著作中提出的十个通道较少(见,例如,总结三:27:2,广告2)。But while St. Thomas thus held back from the essential point of the doctrine, he himself laid down the principles which, after they had been drawn together and worked out, enabled other minds to furnish the true solution of this difficulty from his own premises.不过,虽然圣托马斯举行,因此从信仰的基本点回来,他自己定下的原则后,他们已制定了一起制定出来,使其他的头脑,提供了从自己的楼宇这个困难的解决办法。

In the thirteenth century the opposition was largely due to a want of clear insight into the subject in dispute.在十三世纪的反对,主要是由于进入争议标的豁然开朗想要的。The word "conception" was used in different senses, which had not been separated by careful definition.这个“概念”是用在不同的感官,它们并没有得到通过认真定义分隔。If St. Thomas, St. Bonaventure, and other theologians had known the doctrine in the sense of the definition of 1854, they would have been its strongest defenders instead of being its opponents.如果圣托马斯,圣文德,和其他神学家已经知道在1854年定义中,这项原则,他们将被其对手而不是被它强大的捍卫者。

We may formulate the question discussed by them in two propositions, both of which are against the sense of the dogma of 1854:我们可以制定两个命题,它们都违背了1854年教条的感觉是他们讨论的问题:

the sanctification of Mary took place before the infusion of the soul into the flesh, so that the immunity of the soul was a consequence of the sanctification of the flesh and there was no liability on the part of the soul to contract original sin.圣洁的玛丽以前发生的灵魂到肉体输液的地方,使免疫力是灵魂的肉体成圣的后果,也没有对合同原罪灵魂的一部分责任。This would approach the opinion of the Damascene concerning the holiness of the active conception.这将接近的大马士革认为有关活动的概念圣洁。

The sanctification took place after the infusion of the soul by redemption from the servitude of sin, into which the soul had been drawn by its union with the unsanctified flesh.成圣发生后,灵魂从罪恶的奴役,成为其中的灵魂是由它的工会绘制的unsanctified肉赎回输液的地方。This form of the thesis excluded an immaculate conception.本论文的形式排除一个完美的构想。

The theologians forgot that between sanctification before infusion, and sanctification after infusion, there was a medium: sanctification of the soul at the moment of its infusion.忘了之间的神学家圣输液前,输液后成圣,有一个媒介:圣洁的灵魂在其输液的时刻。To them the idea seemed strange that what was subsequent in the order of nature could be simultaneous in point of time.对他们的想法似乎很奇怪,什么是自然规律可以在随后的时间点同步。Speculatively taken, the soul must be created before it can be infused and sanctified but in reality, the soul is created snd sanctified at the very moment of its infusion into the body.推测性在内,必须创造灵魂才能注入和神圣,但在现实中,苏州高新区创建的灵魂在其进入人体输液非常神圣的时刻。Their principal difficulty was the declaration of St. Paul (Romans 5:12) that all men have sinned in Adam.他们的主要困难是圣保罗(罗马书5:12),所有的人都在亚当犯罪声明。The purpose of this Pauline declaration, however, is to insist on the need which all men have of redemption by Christ.这个宝莲声明的目的,然而,就是坚持,需要所有的人都被基督的赎回。Our Lady was no exception to this rule.圣母是没有例外。A second difficulty was the silence of the earlier Fathers.第二个困难是较早的父亲沉默。But the divines of those times were distinguished not so much for their knowledge of the Fathers or of history, as for their exercise of the power of reasoning.但这些时代的神学也很出色不是因为他们的父亲或历史知识这么多,因为他们对权力行使的推理。They read the Western Fathers more than those of the Eastern Church, who exhibit in far greater completeness the tradition of the Immaculate Conception.他们阅读西方神父以上的东部教会,谁在更大完整性无原罪传统的展览。And many works of the Fathers which had then been lost sight of have since been brought to light.和当时已失去了它的,至今已败露视线父亲的许多作品。The famous Duns Scotus (d. 1308) at last (in III Sent., dist. iii, in both commentaries) laid the foundations of the true doctrine so solidly and dispelled the objections in a manner so satisfactory, that from that time onward the doctrine prevailed.著名的邓司各脱(草1308)于昨(在III发送。,区。三,在这两个评论)奠定了真正的教义如此扎实的基础,消除的方式反对理想,从该年起,时间学说占了上风。 He showed that the sanctification after animation -- sanctificatio post animationem -- demanded that it should follow in the order of nature (naturae) not of time (temporis); he removed the great difficulty of St. Thomas showing that, so far from being excluded from redemption, the Blessed Virgin obtained of her Divine Son the greatest of redemptions through the mystery of her preservation from all sin.他指出成圣后动画 - sanctificatio后animationem - 要求它应在遵循自然规律(naturae)不时间(时间上),他取消了圣托马斯难度大,到目前为止被展示从赎回排除,圣母神的儿子,她获得了最大的赎回通过她的一切的罪保存之谜。 He also brought forward, by way of illustration, the somewhat dangerous and doubtful argument of Eadmer (S. Anselm) "decuit, potuit, ergo fecit."他还提出通过举例的方式,对Eadmer(南安瑟伦)有点危险和可疑参数“decuit,potuit,测功fecit。”

From the time of Scotus not only did the doctrine become the common opinion at the universities, but the feast spread widely to those countries where it had not been previously adopted.从司各脱时间的学说不仅成为在各大学共同意见,但盛宴广泛传播到那些它没有采用以往的国家。With the exception of the Dominicans, all or nearly all, of the religious orders took it up: The Franciscans at the general chapter at Pisa in 1263 adopted the Feast of the Conception of Mary for the entire order; this, however, does not mean that they professed at that time the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.随着多米尼加,所有或几乎所有的宗教命令,异常就把它拿起来:在比萨一般在1263章方济会通过了整个秩序的构想,玛丽盛宴,然而,这并不意味着他们在那个时候,圣母无染原罪教义宣称。 Following in the footsteps of their own Duns Scotus, the learned Petrus Aureolus and Franciscus de Mayronis became the most fervent champions of the doctrine, although their older teachers (St. Bonaventure included) had been opposed to it.在他们自己的邓司各脱的后尘,教训佩特鲁斯Aureolus和济德Mayronis成为学说中最热切的冠军,虽然他们的老教师(包括圣文德)已反对。 The controversy continued, but the defenders of the opposing opinion were almost entirely confined to the members of the Dominican Order.这场争论继续进行,但反对的意见的捍卫者几乎完全局限于多米尼加秩序的成员。In 1439 the dispute was brought before the Council of Basle where the University of Paris, formerly opposed to the doctrine, proved to be its most ardent advocate, asking for a dogmatical definition.在1439年的纠纷被带到了巴塞尔委员会在巴黎大学的前身反对学说,被证明是最热心的倡导者,一个专横的定义要求。 The two referees at the council were John of Segovia and John Turrecremata (Torquemada).在理事会的两名裁判分别塞戈维亚和约翰Turrecremata(Torquemada)约翰。After it had been discussed for the space of two years before that assemblage, the bishops declared the Immaculate Conception to be a doctrine which was pious, consonant with Catholic worship, Catholic faith, right reason, and Holy Scripture; nor, said they, was it henceforth allowable to preach or declare to the contrary (Mansi, XXXIX, 182).后,它已在两年之前的组合空间讨论,圣母无原罪主教宣布将是一个虔诚的教义,与天主教的崇拜,信仰天主教,正确的理性辅音和神圣的经文,也不说,他们是它今后允许鼓吹或宣布相反(曼西,第39届,182)。 The Fathers of the Council say that the Church of Rome was celebrating the feast.理事会的父亲说,罗马教会是庆祝的节日。This is true only in a certain sense.这是事实,只有在一定意义上。It was kept in a number of churches of Rome, especially in those of the religious orders, but it was not received in the official calendar.它被保存在一个罗马教堂,尤其是在宗教命令的人,但它并没有在正式日历好评。As the council at the time was not ecumenical, it could not pronounce with authority.由于当时没有基督教会,但不能发音权威。The memorandum of the Dominican Torquemada formed the armoury for all attacks upon the doctrine made by St. Antoninus of Florence (d. 1459), and by the Dominicans Bandelli and Spina.多米尼加Torquemada备忘录,形成了经佛罗伦萨圣安东尼(草1459)所作的一切袭击军械库学说,以及多米尼加Bandelli及脊柱。

By a Decree of 28 February, 1476, Sixtus IV at last adopted the feast for the entire Latin Church and granted an indulgence to all who would assist at the Divine Offices of the solemnity (Denzinger, 734).由1476年2月28日法令,西斯四最后通过对整个拉丁美洲教会盛宴和授予放纵所有谁在协助的严肃性(登青格,734)神圣的办公室。 The Office adopted by Sixtus IV was composed by Leonard de Nogarolis, whilst the Franciscans, since 1480, used a very beautiful Office from the pen of Bernardine dei Busti (Sicut Lilium), which was granted also to others (eg to Spain, 1761), and was chanted by the Franciscans up to the second half of the nineteenth century.该办公室通过西斯四是组成由Leonard德Nogarolis,而济,自1480使用了从伯纳迪恩棣巴斯蒂(Sicut百合),这是理所当然也给他人(例如西班牙,1761)钢笔很漂亮办公室,并高喊,由济直至十九世纪下半叶。 As the public acknowledgment of the feast of Sixtus IV did not prove sufficient to appease the conflict, he published in 1483 a constitution in which he punished with excommunication all those of either opinion who charged the opposite opinion with heresy (Grave nimis, 4 Sept., 1483; Denzinger, 735).作为节日的西斯四公开承认没有证明不足以平息冲突,他在1483年出版了他与禁教那些任谁负责异端意见相反的意见(重尼米斯,9月4日宪法处罚,1483;登青格,735)。 In 1546 the Council of Trent, when the question was touched upon, declared that "it was not the intention of this Holy Synod to include in the decree which concerns original sin the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin Mary Mother of God" (Sess. V, De peccato originali, v, in Denzinger, 792).在1546年的遄达,当问题被触及会,宣布“这是不是本圣主教的意图,包括在该法令的关注和原罪圣母无玷圣母玛利亚之母神”(sess.五,德peccato originali,五,在登青格,792)。Since, however, this decree did not define the doctrine, the theological opponents of the mystery, though more and more reduced in numbers, did not yield.但是,由于这项法令没有定义的学说,神学的神秘的对手,虽然越来越多的数量减少,也不会屈服。St. Pius V not only condemned proposition 73 of Baius that "no one but Christ was without original sin, and that therefore the Blessed Virgin had died because of the sin contracted in Adam, and had endured afilictions in this life, like the rest of the just, as punishment of actual and original sin" (Denzinger, 1073) but he also issued a constitution in which he forbade all public discussion of the subject.圣比约五不仅谴责命题Baius 73,“任何人,但基督是没有原罪,因此,圣母曾因为亚当的罪死在合同,并已在此生活经历afilictions像其余的,刚刚,作为实际和原罪的惩罚“(登青格,1073),但他也发布了宪法中,他禁止一切公开讨论的主题。 Finally he inserted a new and simplified Office of the Conception in the liturgical books ("Super speculam", Dec., 1570; "Superni omnipotentis", March, 1571; "Bullarium Marianum", pp. 72, 75).最后,他插入,在礼仪书籍,新的概念,简化办公室(“超级speculam”,12月,1570年,“Superni omnipotentis”,3月,1571年,“Bullarium蓟”,第72,75)。

Whilst these disputes went on, the great universities and almost all the great orders had become so many bulwarks for the defense of the dogma.虽然这些纠纷的推移,伟大的大学,几乎所有的大订单已经成为了这么多的教条防御壁垒。In 1497 the University of Paris decreed that henceforward no one should be admitted a member of the university, who did not swear that he would do the utmost to defend and assert the Immaculate Conception of Mary.在1497年巴黎大学颁布法令,从今以后,任何人都不应被接纳为该大学的成员,谁也不敢保证,他将竭尽所能,以捍卫和坚守的圣母玛利亚的构想。 Toulouse followed the example; in Italy, Bologna and Naples; in the German Empire, Cologne, Maine, and Vienna; in Belgium, Louvain; in England before the Reformation.随后图卢兹的例子,在意大利,博洛尼亚和那不勒斯,在德意志帝国,科隆,缅因州和维也纳,在比利时,鲁汶,在英格兰前改造。 Oxford and Cambridge; in Spain Salamanca, Toledo, Seville, and Valencia; in Portugal, Coimbra and Evora; in America, Mexico and Lima.牛津大学和剑桥大学,在西班牙萨拉曼卡,托莱多,塞维利亚,和瓦伦西亚,在葡萄牙科英布拉和埃武拉,在美国,墨西哥和利马。 The Friars Minor confirmed in 1621 the election of the Immaculate Mother as patron of the order, and bound themselves by oath to teach the mystery in public and in private.天主教方济会确定的在1621年的圣母玛利亚的母亲为了保护人的选举,约束自己的誓言,教授在公共和私人的奥秘。 The Dominicans, however, were under special obligation to follow the doctrines of St. Thomas, and the common conclusion was that St. Thomas was opposed to the Immaculate Conception.多米尼加,但是,在特殊的义务,遵守圣托马斯的学说,和共同的结论是,圣托马斯反对圣母无原罪。Therefore the Dominicans asserted that the doctrine was an error against faith (John of Montesono, 1373); although they adopted the feast, they termed it persistently "Sanctificatio BMV" not "Conceptio", until in 1622 Gregory XV abolished the term "sanctificatio".因此,多米尼加人断言,对信仰的教义是一个错误(约翰Montesono,1373),虽然他们采取的盛宴,他们称之为是坚持“Sanctificatio墨西哥证券交易所”,不是“Conceptio”,直到在1622年废除了长期格雷戈里十五“sanctificatio” 。Paul V (1617) decreed that no one should dare to teach publicly that Mary was conceived in original sin, and Gregory XV (1622) imposed absolute silence (in scriptis et sermonibus etiam privatis) upon the adversaries of the doctrine until the Holy See should define the question.保罗V(1617)颁布法令,任何人都不应敢于公开表示,玛丽教原罪怀孕,格雷戈里十五(1622年)实行,直至绝对的沉默后,罗马教廷的教义的对手(在scriptis等sermonibus etiam privati​​s)应定义问题。To put an end to all further cavilling, Alexander VII promulgated on 8 December 1661, the famous constitution "Sollicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum", defining the true sense of the word conceptio, and forbidding all further discussion against the common and pious sentiment of the Church.要杜绝一切进一步cavilling,亚历山大七世12月8日颁布的1661年,著名的宪法“Sollicitudo Omnium公司Ecclesiarum”,确定了真正意义上的字conceptio,并禁止所有反对教会共同的和虔诚的感情进一步讨论。He declared that the immunity of Mary from original sin in the first moment of the creation of her soul and its infusion into the body was the object of the feast (Densinger, 1100).他宣称,从原罪豁免玛丽在她的灵魂,它进入人体输液的时刻是第一次创作的盛宴(Densinger,1100)的对象。

Explicit universal acceptance明确普遍接受

Since the time of Alexander VII, long before the final definition, there was no doubt on the part of theologians that the privilege was amongst the truths revealed by God.自从亚历山大七,时间长之前的最后的定义,有没有对神学的一部分,其中包括真理的特权是由神启示怀疑。Wherefore Pius IX, surrounded by a splendid throng of cardinals and bishops, 8 December 1854, promulgated the dogma.为什么比约九,由枢机主教和主教,1854年12月8日,灿烂的人群包围颁布的教条。A new Office was prescribed for the entire Latin Church by Pius IX (25 December, 1863), by which decree all the other Offices in use were abolished, including the old Office Sicut lilium of the Franciscans, and the Office composed by Passaglia (approved 2 Feb., 1849).一个新的办事处的规定为整个拉丁美洲教会,由庇护九世(1863年12月25日),其中所使用的法令,所有其他办事处被取消,其中包括旧的Office Sicut的方济百合,和办公室,由帕萨利亚组成(批准1849年2月2日)。

In 1904 the golden jubilee of the definition of the dogma was celebrated with great splendour (Pius X, Enc., 2 Feb., 1904).在1904年的定义的教条金禧庆祝怀着极大的辉煌(比约十,敬礼。,1904年2月2日)。Clement IX added to the feast an octave for the dioceses within the temporal possessions of the pope (1667).克莱门特九盛宴添加到一个范围内的教宗(1667年)的时间财产教区八度。Innocent XII (1693) raised it to a double of the second class with an octave for the universal Church, which rank had been already given to it in 1664 for Spain, in 1665 for Tuscany and Savoy, in 1667 for the Society of Jesus, the Hermits of St. Augustine, etc., Clement XI decreed on 6 Dec., 1708, that the feast should be a holiday of obligation throughout the entire Church.诺森十二(1693)将其提升到一个第二类双与普世教会的一个八度,而排名已赋予它已经在1664年西班牙,1665年为托斯卡纳和萨沃伊在1667年的耶稣会,圣奥古斯丁等的隐士,克莱门特十一下令在1708年12月6日,这个节日应该是整个教会的义务的假期。 At last Leo XIII, 30 Nov 1879, raised the feast to a double of the first class with a vigil, a dignity which had long before been granted to Sicily (1739), to Spain (1760) and to the United States (1847).最后利奥十三世,1879年11月30号,提出了过节用的守夜一流,有尊严,所以早就被授予西西里岛(1739)双,西班牙(1760)和美国(1847) 。A Votive Office of the Conception of Mary, which is now recited in almost the entire Latin Church on free Saturdays, was granted first to the Benedictine nuns of St. Anne at Rome in 1603, to the Franciscans in 1609, to the Conventuals in 1612, etc. The Syrian and Chaldean Churches celebrate this feast with the Greeks on 9 December; in Armenia it is one of the few immovable feasts of the year (9 December); the schismatic Abyssinians and Copts keep it on 7 August whilst they celebrate the Nativity of Mary on 1 May; the Catholic Copts, however, have transferred the feast to 10 December (Nativity, 10 September).作者:玛丽,这是现在几乎整个拉丁美洲教会自由星期六背诵观沃蒂沃处获得第一至圣安妮在罗马本笃会修女在1603年,方济在1609年,到1612年的conventuals等加尔丁教会庆祝叙利亚和12月9日这个节日的希腊人,在亚美尼亚它是在今年(12月9日)很少不动产节日之一,在分裂的阿比西尼亚和科普特人8月7日,而保持它他们庆祝5月1日玛丽的诞生;天主教科普特人,然而,转让盛宴12月10日(圣诞,9月10日)。 The Eastern Catholics have since 1854 changed the name of the feast in accordance with the dogma to the "Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary."东部天主教徒自1854年改变了教条的节日名称,按照以“圣母无染原罪的圣母玛利亚。”

The Archdiocese of Palermo solemnizes a Commemoration of the Immaculate Conception on 1 September to give thanks for the preservation of the city on occasion of the earthquake, 1 September, 1726.对巴勒莫的大主教区solemnizes一圣母无原罪九月一日要为纪念该城地震,1726年9月1日之际保存感谢。A similar commemoration is held on 14 January at Catania (earthquake, 11 Jan., 1693); and by the Oblate Fathers on 17 Feb., because their rule was approved 17 Feb., 1826.类似的纪念活动是1月14日举行卡塔尼亚(地震,1693年1月11日),以及由2月17日的献主,因为他们的规则是批准1826年2月17日。 Between 20 September 1839, and 7 May 1847, the privilege of adding to the Litany of Loretto the invocation, "Queen conceived without original sin", had been granted to 300 dioceses and religious communities.至1839年9月20日,5月7日1847年,增加了一连串的洛雷托调用特权,“皇后构思没有原罪”,而被授予300个教区和宗教团体。 The Immaculate Conception was declared on 8 November, 1760, principal patron of all the possessions of the crown of Spain, including those in America.圣母无原罪被宣布1760年11月8日,所有的财产在西班牙冠,包括在美国的首席赞助。The decree of the First Council of Baltimore (1846) electing Mary in her Immaculate Conception principal Patron of the United States, was confirmed on 7 February, 1847.该法令的巴尔的摩第一届理事会(1846年)选举在她那一尘不染的构想美国首席赞助玛丽,2月7日证实,1847年。

Publication information Written by Frederick G. Holweck.出版信息撰稿冯克Holweck。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全书,体积七。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1号。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



Also, see:此外,见:
Mariology mariology
Virgin Mary圣母玛利亚
Assumption 假设
Virgin Birth维尔京诞生

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