Indian Theology印度神学

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The attempt to reformulate biblical theology in Indian categories of thought, in a manner relevant to the Indian context.企图改写在思想印度类别圣经神学,相关的方式向印度方面。Until recently Western theology has dominated the Indian theological scene, and Christianity has come under criticism from Hindu thinkers in this regard.直到最近,西方神学统治了印度神学现场,基督教受到印度教思想家在这方面的批评来。The pioneers of Indian theology were not Christians but enlightened Hindus who came under the strong influence of Western thought and Christianity.印度神学先驱有开明的印度教徒不是基督徒,但谁下的西方思想和基督教的强大影响力来了。These enlightened nationalists wanted to reform Hinduism and Indian society, thereby counterbalancing Christian missionary activities.这些开明的印度教民族主义者希望和印度的社会改革,从而制约基督教传教活动。For Indian Christian leaders, Indian theology is an attempt to meet the criticism that Christianity is a foreign and dangerous denationalizing force.对于印度的基督教领袖,印度神学,是企图以满足批评基督教是外国和危险denationalizing力量。It represents a search for and an expression of self identity in India and in the field of Christian theology.它代表了搜索和自我身份在印度和在基督教神学方面的表现。It is an attempt to conceptualize the urge for being Christian and Indian simultaneously.这是一个概念化的企图和印度同时被基督教的冲动。It faces the challenge of renascent Hinduism in its relegation of Christianity to a subordinate status.它面临着保级的基督教在印度教的挑战,一个新生的从属地位。Moreover it stands for the concern of Indian theologians to communicate the gospel in thought patterns familiar to the Indian mind.此外,它代表着印度神学家关注的思维模式中的沟通所熟悉的印度心灵福音。It is to present "the water of life in an Indian cup."它是目前“在印度杯生命之水。”

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Trends in Indian Theology.印度神学的趋势。No uniform pattern or common trends can be traced in Indian theology.没有统一的模式或共同的趋势可以追溯到印度神学。Corresponding to the diversified historical context and socioreligious needs, there are varied theological expressions of response to the gospel.对应于多样化的历史背景和socioreligious需要,有不同的响应福音神学的表达。

(1) There are attempts to harmonize Christianity, rather than Christ, with Hinduism. (1)有企图统一基督教,而不是基督,与印度教。Raam Mohan Roy (1772 - 1833), the father of modern India, and his successor Keshab Chandra Sen (1838 - 1884) interpreted Jesus in Indian traditions. Raam磨憨罗伊(1772年至1833年),现代印度之父,他的继任Keshab钱德拉森(1838年至1884年)在印度的传统解释耶稣。Jesus is portrayed as an Asiatic.耶稣被描绘成一个亚洲。His ethical precepts, independent of his person, provide the way to happiness and peace.他的道德戒律,他的人独立,提供了幸福与和平的方式。His "Divine Humanity" is explained within the framework of Hindu mystic traditions.他的“神人性”的解释在传统的印度教神秘的框架。Jesus Christ and the "best elements" of Christianity are conveniently accommodated under the wide umbrella of Hinduism.耶稣基督和“最佳要素”基督教是方便照顾下,印度教大伞。Because of the universalistic and absorptive features of Hinduism, no tension is experienced in this.由于印度教的普遍性和吸收功能,没有此经历的紧张。

(2) There is concern for dialogue.(2)有对话的关注。Christian theology in India finds itself in the midst of spirited and influential non Christian religious systems, especially Hinduism, which claims the allegiance of eighty four percent of Indians.印度认为,在基督教神学的精神和有影响的非基督教的宗教系统,尤其是印度教,也宣称的百分之八十四的印度人中间效忠自己。 Hindu religiocultural factors have, therefore, played a decisive role in the emergence of several significant issues of Indian theology, for instance, the uniqueness and finality of Christ and the nature and scope of Christian mission.印度教religiocultural因素,因此,在队中的印度神学若干重大问题的出现了决定性的作用,例如,独特性和终局基督和基督教的性质和任务范围。 A viable base has been found in the NT synthesis of Hebrew and Greek culture for synthesizing Christian and Hindu culture in India.一个可行的基地已被发现在希伯来新台币合成和合成的印度基督教和印度教文化的希腊文化。Hinduism and its scriptures are treated as counterparts to Judaism and the OT in relation to the gospel.它的经文是印度教和犹太教视为同行及有关的福音催产素。God speaks equally through other religions also.上帝说同样也通过其他宗教。PD Devanandan and Raymond Panikkar's theologies emerge in this context of religiocultural pluralism.帕金森Devanandan和雷蒙德潘尼卡的神学出现这种religiocultural多元化背景。They advocate letting Christ reform Hinduism from within and so unveil the Christ who is already present there, though hidden and unacknowledged.他们主张让基督从内部改革,印度教和基督教等揭开谁是已经目前,虽然隐藏和承认。

(3) There is frequently a polemic emphasis.(3)往往是一个争论的重点。God's special revelation is essential for knowing the truth, and Jesus is this divine special revelation.上帝的特殊启示是知道真理的本质,耶稣是这个神圣特殊启示。Without him intuition and inspiration fall short of "the rock of Christ" in knowing the truth.没有他的直觉和灵感低于“基督摇滚”短在知道真相。

(4) There is an apologetic emphasis.(4)有一个道歉的重点。Renascent Hinduism stripped Christ and Christianity of everything that they claim and possess.新生印度教剥夺一切,他们声称,拥有基督和基督教。Christ is made one among those who experienced the advaitic (monistic) experience.基督是谁做在那些经历了advaitic(一元)的经验之一。Christianity is treated as one of the earlier stages in the evolution of religion.基督教被视为在宗教进化的早期阶段之一。 The church has been accused of denationalism.该教堂被指控denationalism。The crucial issues reflected in Brahmabandab Upadhyaya's theology are to be judged in this context.关键的问题反映在Brahmabandab Upadhyaya的神学是在这一背景下判断。He reformulated the doctrine of Trinity in which he portrayed Christ as "nothing but the highest."他改写了三位一体的教义中,他描绘成基督“不过是最高的。”He was a Hindu Catholic, ie, at heart a Christian, yet culturally a Hindu.他是一个印度教天主教,即在一个基督徒的心,但印度教文化。

(5) There is concern for evangelism.(五)有传福音的关注。Jesus Christ is not a monopoly of the West.耶稣基督是不是西方的垄断。He is equally for India too.他也同样是印度。There he is to be presented not in Western robes and image, but in terms and thought - forms intelligible to the Indian mind.在那里,他将提交长袍和形象在西方,而是在条件与思想 - 可理解形式向印度的态度。Sadhu Sunder Singh's Christocentric theology is a conscious attempt toward this.苦行僧破甲辛格的Christocentric神学是朝着这一意识的尝试。

(6) One finds emphasis on relevancy.(6)上找到相关的重点之一。Indian theologians want to erase the ghetto mentality of the minority Christians.印度神学家要清除少数基督教徒聚居区的心态。 Their task is to help Christians see themselves as an integral part of the larger community in India and participate in the common life and experience.他们的任务是帮助基督徒看作是印度不可分割的一部分较大的​​社区本身和参与共同生活和经验。The struggles for socioeconomic development and humanization are seen as "Christ at work today."社会经济发展的斗争和人性化被视为“基督今天在工作。”MM Thomas and others contend that Christian theology has to be relevant in this context, and therefore the context and social dimension of the gospel are primary. MM的托马斯和另一些人认为基督教神学必须在这方面有关,因此,福音的背景和社会层面是主要的。

Summary and Evaluation总结和评价

These attempts to explain, interpret, and formulate the essentials of Christianity in Indian thought - patterns have enabled Indian thinkers to contribute something to Christian theology.这些企图解释,解释,并制定在印度的基督教思想的基本要素 - 模式,使印度的思想家,贡献一些基督教神学。While contributing to the field of apologetics, these attempts to wed faith with reason, revealed theology with natural theology, have had only partial success.同时促进了护领域,这些要结婚的人有理性信仰的企图,暴露了自然神学神学,都只有部分成功。It has, to an extent, made the gospel relevant in the context of Indian nationalism, religiocultural pluralism, and socioeconomic development.它已在一定程度上,使福音在印度民族主义,religiocultural多元化,与社会经济发展有关的方面。 It marks the beginning of Indian biblical scholarship and creative theological formulations.它标志着印度圣经神学配方奖学金和创造性的开始。Yet none has managed to be faithful to Christian theology in its entirety, nor to the context and content simultaneously.然而,没有设法忠实于基督教神学的全部,也不符合上下文和内容同时进行。Quite often "context" has become more decisive than the "text," and this is critical.很多时候“背景”,已成为比决定性的“文字”,这是至关重要的。

The final authority seems to rest upon context and not the Bible.最终的决定权似乎休息于环境,而不是圣经。More than the special revelation in Scripture, various social sciences influence and determine the content and scope of Indian theology.较特殊的启示在圣经,各种影响社会科学和决定的内容和印度神学的范围。Instead of being theocentric, God in relation to man, it becomes more anthropocentric, man in relation to man or structures.而不是被theocentric,关于上帝的人,它变得更加人类为中心,涉及到人或建筑物的人。However, no one philosophy or sociology can provide an adequate framework for Christian theology that is faithful to revealed content of Scripture.然而,没有一种哲学或社会学可以提供一个适当的框架,基督教神学是忠实于圣经的内容透露。The quest for relevance in theology, whether European, American, African, or Indian, should not be at the expense of commitment to the finality of the written and living Word寻求在神学的相关性,无论是欧洲,美洲,非洲或印度,不应当在承诺的书面和生活费用的Word终局

CV Mathew马修简历
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
K Baago, Pioneer in Indigenous Christianity; RHS Boyd, An Introduction to Indian Christian Theology; H Burkle and WMW Roth, eds., Indian Voices in Today's Theological Debate; MM Thomas, The Acknowledged Christ of the Indian Renaissance.K表Baago,在土著基督教的先驱; RHS的博伊德,印度基督教神学的介绍,高h伯克尔和WMW罗斯合编,在今天的神学辩论印度的声音;。MM的托马斯,在文艺复兴时期公认的印度基督。



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