Jewish Genesis - (Bereshit)犹太人的成因 - (Bereshit)

(Editor's Note: There are a number of subtle differences from Christian versions. This seems interesting, since they are both based on the exact same original source texts. The variations are therefore because of the differing perspectives of the scholars in the two religions who translated the texts. A reader might also want to look at a Literal Translation of the Christian Genesis, to see the original word sequences, as understood from the Christian perspective.) (编者注:有一个从基督教版本的细微差异数目这似乎有趣,因为它们都在完全相同的原始源文本为基础的变化,因此由于学者们的不同的两个宗教的观点谁翻译。。的案文。一位读者可能还需要看一个直译的基督教起源,看到原来的那个字序列,从基督教的角度理解。)

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Bereshit (Genesis) 1Bereshit(创)1

1.1。When God began to create the heaven and the earth -当神开始创造天地 -

2. 2。the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from God sweeping over the water -地球正在未成形的和无效的,超过的深面和从神风席卷过水的黑暗 -

3. 3。God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light.上帝说:“要有光”,就有了光。

4. 4。God saw that the light was good, and God separated the light from the darkness.神看光是好的,上帝分开了明暗。

5. 5。God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night.神称光为昼,黑暗中他称暗为夜。And there was evening and there was morning, a first day.有晚上,有早晨,是第一天。

6. 6。God said, "Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, that it may separate water from water."上帝说,“让我们有一个在水中间,它可能从水中分离水一片。”

7. 7。God made the expanse, and it separated the water which was below the expanse from the water which was above the expanse.神就造出空气,水和它分开,空气以下的水,空气以上的是广阔的。And it was so.事就这样成了。

8. 8。God called the expanse Sky.神称空气为天。And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.有晚上,有早晨,是第二日。

9. 9。God said, "Let the water below the sky be gathered into one area, that the dry land may appear."上帝说:“让水下面的天空聚集成一个区,即旱地可能会出现。”And it was so.事就这样成了。

10. 10。God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering of waters He called Seas.神称旱地为地,收集他的水域称为海。And God saw that this was good.神看,这是好的。

11. 11。And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation; seed - bearing plants, fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it."神说,“让地球植被发芽,种子 - 轴承厂,地球上的每一种水果树结出果实的资讯科​​技的种子。”And it was so.事就这样成了。

12. 12。The earth brought forth vegetation: seed - bearing plants of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it.地球带来了植被:种子 - 轴承厂的每一种,和每一个在它与种子类,果子树。And God saw that this was good.神看,这是好的。

13. 13。And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.有晚上,有早晨,是第三日。

14. 14。God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times - the days and the years;上帝说,“让我们有在区分昼夜,从天上要有光,他们将作为标志所设定的时代 - 的日子和岁月;

15. 15。and they shall serve as light in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth." And it was so.他们应作为光里,在天空,普照在地上闪耀。“和它是如此。

16. 16。God made the two great lights, the greater light to dominate the day and the lesser to dominate the night, and the stars.神造了两个大光,大光,称霸昼,小主宰的夜晚,和星星。

17. 17。And God set them in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth,于是神造了天空照耀大地广袤他们,

18. 18。to dominate the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness.主宰白天和黑夜,并分别明暗。And God saw that this was good.神看,这是好的。

19. 19。And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.有晚上,有早晨,是第四日。

20. 20。God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and birds that fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky."上帝说:“让水域带来的生物群,和鸟类以上横跨天空之中飞翔。”

21. 21。God created the great sea monsters, and all the living creatures of every kind that creep, which the waters brought forth in swarms; and all the winged birds of every kind.上帝创造了伟大的海上怪物,和所有的每一种生物,蠕变,其中水域带来了蜂拥而至,而所有的每一种翅的鸟。And God saw that this was good.神看,这是好的。

22. 22。God blessed them saying, "Be fertile and increase, fill the waters in the seas, and let the birds increase on the earth.上帝祝福他们说:“有繁殖能力和提高,填补了海中的水,让地球上的鸟类增加。

23. 23。And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.有晚上,有早晨,是第五日。

24. 24。God said, "Let the earth bring forth every kind of living creature: cattle, creeping things, and wild beasts of every kind."上帝说,“让大地带来了生活的每一个生物种类:。牲畜,昆虫,以及各种野兽”And it was so.事就这样成了。

25. 25。God made wild beasts of every kind and cattle of every kind, and all kinds of creeping things of the earth.上帝创造的任何种类和各种牲畜,和匍匐在地上的东西各种野兽。And God saw that this was good.神看,这是好的。

26. 26。And God said, "Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. They shall rule the fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the cattle, the whole earth, and all the creeping things.神说:“让我们使我们的形像经过我们的相似。他们将统治大海的鱼,天空,牲畜,整个地球,所有的昆虫的鸟类。

Footnotes:注脚:

1.1。Rashi said that that the text would have been written slightly differently if its primary purpose had been to teach the order in which creation took place.赖希说,该文本将被写入略有不同,如果其主要目的是为了教的顺序,创造了地方。Later authors used the translation "In the beginning" as proof that God created out of nothing (ex nihilo), but it is not likely that the biblical author was concerned with this problem.后来,作者用“一开始”翻译作为证明,上帝创造出什么(无中生有),但它是不太可能,圣经的作者是与这个问题。

2. 2。(The deep) echoes the Mesopotamian creation story where it is told that heaven and earth were formed from the carcass of the sea dragon, Tiamat. (深)呼应了美索不达米亚创造故事的地方都听到这样的天地人从海上蛟龙,魔龙胴体组成。(wind from God) (ruach) can mean both wind and spirit.(风从神)(ruach)可以指的是风和精神。Wind provides a closer parallel to Babylonian texts than the traditional "spirit of God."风提供了一个更接近平行的巴比伦文比传统的“上帝的精神。”

More Footnotes更多脚注

6.(an expanse) (rakia) suggests a firm vault or dome over the earth.6。(一大片)(rakia)提出了公司库超过地球或圆顶。

21. 21。(the great sea monsters) As elsewhere in the Bible, enemy forces against God in the sea.对神(大鱼)圣经中其他地方一样,敌军在海中。Variously named Nahar, Yam, Leviathan, Rahab.各种不同命名今日报,山药,利维坦,拉哈伯。

26. 26。(Let us make man) Either a majestic plural or spoken to an angelic court. (让我们的人),要么是雄伟的复数形式或口头向天使般的法庭。(Christian theology takes this to indicate the triune nature of God.)(基督教神学借此来表示对神三位一体的性质。)


Book of Genesis or Bereshit预订的成因或Bereshit

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

§ 1.§ 1。-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

The first book of the Torah, and therefore of the whole Bible, is called by the Jews "Bereshit," after the initial word; by the Septuagint and by Philo it is called Γύνεσις (κόσμου) = "origin" (of the world), after the contents, and hence "Genesis" has become the usual non-Hebrew designation for it.的圣经的第一本书,因此在整本圣经,是由所谓的犹太人“Bereshit,”在最初的单词;其次是七十和斐罗它被称为Γύνεσις(κόσμου)=“起源”(世界)之后的内容,因此,“创世纪”已成为通常的非希伯来为它命名。 According to the Masorah, it is divided into ninety-one sections ("parashiyyot"), forty-three of which have open or broken lines ("petuḥot"), and forty-eight closed lines ("setumot"); or into forty-three chapters ("sedarim") and twenty-nine sections ("pisḳot"); for reading on the Sabbath, into twelve lessons; according to the division adopted from the Vulgate, into fifty chapters with 1,543 verses.据的Masorah,它分为九十一节(“parashiyyot”),第四其中三个已打开或虚线(“petuḥot”),并四八封闭线(“setumot”),或到第四三个章节(“sedarim”)及二九节(“pisḳot”);阅读的安息日,到12教训,根据通过从武加大为五十章,与该司1543诗句。

§ 2.§ 2。Nature and Plan.自然和计划。

Genesis is a historical work.Genesis是一个历史的工作。Beginning with the creation of the world, it recounts the primal history of humanity and the early history of the people of Israel as exemplified in the lives of its patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and their families.与世界创立之初,它讲述了人类原始的历史和以色列视为其始祖亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各体现人的生命的早期历史和他们的家人。 It contains the historical presupposition and basis of the national religious ideas and institutions of Israel, and serves as an introduction to its history and legislation.它包含的历史前提的民族宗教思想和体制的以色列和依据,并作为它的历史和法律服务的介绍。It is a well-planned and well-executed composition of a single writer, who has recounted the traditions of his people with masterly skill, combining them into a uniform work, without contradictions or useless repetitions, but preserving the textual and formal peculiarities incident to their difference in origin and mode of transmission.它是一个单一的作家,谁与精湛的技巧讲述他的人民的传统,结合成一个统一的工作他们没有矛盾或无用的重复,精心策划和执行的成分,但保存和正式文本的特殊性事件它们的区别的起源和传播方式。

§ 3.§ 3。The author has treated the story as a series of ten "generations" ("toledot"); namely, (1) of heaven and earth, ch.笔者当作一个十“代”系列故事(的“toledot”),即,(1)天地,甲烷。ii.二。4-iv.; (2) of Adam, v.-vi.四四;。(2)亚当,v.-vi.8; (3) of Noah, vi. 8,(3)诺亚,六。9-ix.; (4) of Noah's sons, x.-xi.9九。(4)挪亚的儿子,x.-xi.9; (5) of Shem, xi. 9,(5)闪,十一。10-26; (6) of Terah, xi.10-26;(6)他拉,十一。27-xxv.27二十五。11; (7) of Ishmael, xxv. 11,(7)以实玛利,二十五。12-18; (8) of Isaac, xxv.12-18;(8)以撒,二十五。19-xxxv.; (9) of Esau, xxxvi.; (10) of Jacob, xxxvii.-1.19三十五。(9)以扫,三十六。(10)雅各xxxvii. - 1。

§ 4.§ 4。Contents.内容。

In the beginning God created heaven and earth (i. 1), and set them in order in six days.起初,神创造天地(一1),并设置为它们在六天。He spoke, and on the first day there appeared the light; on the second, the firmament of heaven; on the third, the separation between water and land, with vegetation upon the latter; on the fourth, sun, moon, and stars; on the fifth, the marine animals and birds; on the sixth, the land animals; and, finally, God created man in His image, man and woman together, blessing them and giving them dominion over all beings.他谈到,并在第一天,出现了光;在第二,天上的苍穹;在第三,水和土地之间的分离后,后者的植被;在第四,太阳,月亮和星星;在第五,海洋动物和鸟类;在第六,陆地动物,以及最后,上帝创造了他的形象,男人和女人在一起,祝福他们,让他们在男子统治一切众生。 On the seventh day God rested, and blessed and sanctified the day (i. 2-ii. 3).到第七日,神造物休息,并祝福和神圣的一天(一,二,二。3)。As regards the creation and subsequent story of man (Adam), God forms him out of earth ("adama"), and breathes into him the breath of life.至于人的创造和随后的故事(亚当),上帝形式他出地球(“阿达玛”),并呼吸到他的生命的气息。 Then He sets him in a pleasure-garden (Eden), to cultivate and watch over it.然后,他套在一个享乐花园(伊甸园),他培养和观看了它。 Adam is allowed to eat of all the fruit therein except that of the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil."亚当是不准吃的水果,除了所有的,都属“的善恶的树。”God then brings all the animals to Adam, to serve as company for and to receive names from him.上帝,然后把所有的动物,以亚当,担任公司负责,并得到他的名字。When Adam can find no being like himself among all these creatures, God puts him into a deep sleep, takes a rib from his side, and forms a woman (called later "Eve"), to be a companion to him.当亚当找不到像自己在所有这些动物存在,上帝让他陷入深度睡眠,需要从他身边的肋骨,形成了一个女人(后来称为“夏娃”),是一个对他的同伴。 The woman is seduced by the artful serpent to eat of the forbidden fruit, and the man also partakes of the same.该女子巧妙蛇的诱惑吃了禁果,而该男子也同样参与大。As punishment they are driven out of Eden (ii. 4-iii.).作为惩罚他们赶出伊甸园(白介素4三。)。Adam and Eve have two sons, Cain and Abel.亚当和夏娃有两个儿子,该隐和亚伯。Cain grows envious of the favor found by his brother before God, and slays him; he then wanders over the earth as a fugitive, and finally settles in the land of Nod.该隐增长由他的弟弟发现在上帝面前的青睐羡慕,然后杀死他,他再以地球作为一个逃犯流浪,终于在挪得之地落户。Enoch, one of his sons, builds the first city, and Lamech takes two wives, whose sons are the first dwellers in tents and owners of herds and the earliest inventors of musical instruments and workers in brass and iron.伊诺克,他的一个儿子,建立了第一座城市,并拉麦有两个妻子,他们的儿子是第一次在帐篷居民和业主群和乐器和工人的最早的铜和铁发明家。 Cain's descendants know nothing about God (iv.).该隐的后人知道上帝(iv.)什么。Another son, Seth, has in the meantime been born to Adam and Eve in place of the slain Abel.另一个儿子,塞思,在已经诞生的地方被杀亚伯亚当和夏娃在其间。Seth's descendants never lose thought of God.Seth的子孙永远不会失去思想的神。The tenth in regular descent is the pious Noah (v.).在第十次定期后裔是虔诚的诺亚(诉)。

§ 5.§ 5。As mankind has become wicked, indulging in cruelties and excesses, God determines to destroy it entirely.人类已经成为邪恶的,在残酷和过分沉迷,上帝决定毁灭它完全。Noah only, on account of his piety, will escape the general ruin; and God commands him to build a large ark, since the work of destruction is to be accomplished by means of a great flood.诺亚只,他的虔诚的帐户,将逃跑的一般绝路,和上帝命令他建造一个大型的方舟,因为工作的破坏是由大洪水的方式完成。 Noah obeys the command, entering the ark together with his wife, his three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, their wives, and, by God's instructions, with one couple of each kind of animal on the earth.诺亚服从命令,进入方舟与他的妻子在一起,他的三个儿子,就是闪,含,雅弗,他们的妻子,而且,通过神的指示后,3个在地球上动物种类的情侣。 Then the flood comes, destroying all living beings save those in the ark.然后,洪水来了,摧毁一切众生拯救那些在方舟。When it has subsided, the latter leave the ark, and God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants.当它已经消退,后者离开方舟,上帝与诺亚成和他的后裔立约换下。Noah begins to cultivate the field that has been cursed during Adam's lifetime (iii. 17-19; v. 29), and plants a vineyard (ix. 20).诺亚开始培养,已在亚当的诅咒领域的一生(iii. 17-19;诉29),栽种葡萄园(ix. 20)。When, in a fit of intoxication, Noah is shamelessly treated by his son Ham, he curses the latter in the person of Ham's son Canaan, while the reverential Shem and Japheth are blessed (ix. 21-27).当在一个合适的中毒,诺亚是无耻地对待他的儿子火腿,他咒骂,在含的儿子迦南人后者,而恭敬闪和雅弗的祝福(ix. 21-27)。Ch.甲烷。x.contains a review of the peoples that are descended fromJapheth, Ham, and Shem (down to the chief branch of the last-named), and are living dispersed over the whole earth.包含了对人民来说是下降fromJapheth,火腿审查,闪(下到最后命名行政科),并居住超过整个地球散去。The dispersion was due to the "confusion of tongues," which God brought about when men attempted to build a tower that should reach up to heaven (xi. 1-9).色散是由于“混乱的舌头,”上帝带来的,当男人试图建立一个塔,应可达天堂(xi. 1-9)。A genealogy is given of Shem's descendants in regular line, the tenth generation of whom is represented by Terah (xi. 10-25).家谱是一个给定的闪的后裔定期线,其中由他拉(xi. 10-25)代表第十代。

§ 6.§ 6。Terah, who lives at Ur of the Chaldees, has three sons, Abram, Nahor, and Haran.他拉,谁在生活中的迦勒底的吾珥,有三个儿子,亚伯兰,拿鹤,哈兰。Haran's son is Lot.哈兰的儿子是地段。Nahor is married to Milcah, and Abram to Sarai, who has no children (xi. 26-32).拿鹤的妻子是密迦,亚伯兰撒莱,谁没有子女(xi. 26-32)。God directs Abram to leave his home and kindred because He intends to bless him.上帝指示亚伯兰离开他的家和亲人,因为他打算为他祝福。Abram obeys, emigrating with his entire household and Lot, his brother's son, to the land of Canaan.艾布拉姆服从,与他的整个家庭和地段,他的弟弟的儿子,到了迦南地移民。Here God appears to him and promises that the land shall become the property of his descendants.在这里,上帝似乎给他和承诺,即土地应成为他的子孙的财产。Abram is forced by a famine to leave the country and go to Egypt.亚伯兰是一个饥荒被迫离开这个国家,前往埃及。The King of Egypt takes possession of the beautiful Sarai (whom Abram has represented as his sister), but, smitten by God, is compelled to restore her (xii.).埃及国王需要拥有美丽的萨莱(其中艾布拉姆已经派他的妹妹),但被上帝击打,是迫使她恢复(xii.)。Abram returns to Canaan, and separates from Lot in order to put an end to disputes about pasturage, leaving to Lot the beautiful country in the valley of the Jordan near Sodom.艾布拉姆返回迦南,从地段分离,以杜绝有关牧草纠纷,留给地段在所多玛佐敦谷附近的美丽的国家。God thereupon again appears to Abram, and again promises him the whole country (xiii.).于是上帝又似乎艾布拉姆,并再次承诺,他的整个国家(xiii.)。Lot is taken prisoner during a war between Amraphel, King of Shinar, and Bera, King of Sodom, with their respective allies, whereupon Abram pursues the victors with his armed servants, liberates Lot, and seizes the booty, refusing his share of the same (xiv.).地段是在一间采取暗拉非,示拿王,贝拉,所多玛王,按照各自的盟国战俘,于是亚伯兰寻求与他的武装人员的胜利者,解放地段,并夺取战利品,拒绝他的同一股份(xiv.)。 After this exploit God again appears to Abram and promises him protection, a rich reward, and, in spite of the fact that Abram still has no children, a numerous progeny.在此之后再次利用上帝似乎艾布拉姆,并承诺他的保护,具有丰富的奖励,并在亚伯兰的事实,仍没有孩子,无数后代,尽管。 These descendants must pass four hundred years in servitude in a strange land; but after God has judged their oppressors they, in the possession of great wealth, shall leave the land of their affliction, and the fourth generation shall return to the same land (xv.).这些后代必须经过四百年,在一个陌生的土地奴役年,但在神审判他们的压迫者,他们在拥有巨大财富,应离开他们受苦的地,第四代应返回相同的土地(十五。)。

Sarai being still childless, Abram gets a son, Ishmael, by her Egyptian handmaid, Hagar (xvi.).赖正仍然没有孩子,亚伯兰得到她的埃及侍女,黑格(xvi.)一个儿子以实玛利。God again appears to Abram, and enters into a personal covenant with him securing Abram's future: God promises him a numerous progeny, changes his name to "Abraham" and that of Sarai to "Sarah," and institutes the circumcision of all males as an eternal sign of the covenant.神又似乎艾布拉姆,并进入了一个他的个人安全亚伯兰的未来公约进入:上帝应许他无数后代,改变他的名字为“亚伯拉罕”,而撒莱为“莎拉”和研究所作为所有男性割礼永恒签署该公约。 Abraham, together with his whole house, immediately fulfils the rite (xvii.).亚伯拉罕,连同他的整个房子,立即满足了成年礼(xvii.)。God once more appears to Abraham in the person of three messengers, whom Abraham receives hospitably, and who announce to him that he will have a son within a year, although he and his wife are already very old.神对亚伯拉罕再次出现在三个使者,就是亚伯拉罕接受款待,谁向他宣布,他将在一年之内有一个儿子,尽管他和他的妻子已经很老的人。 Abraham also hears that God's messengers intend to execute judgment upon the wicked inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah, whereupon he intercedes for the sinners, and endeavors to have their fate set aside (xviii.).亚伯拉罕还听到上帝的使者打算执行后,所多玛和蛾摩拉的邪恶居民的判断,于是他祈求的罪人,并力图让他们的命运搁置(xviii.)。 Two of the messengers go to Sodom, where they are hospitably received by Lot.的使者两手去所多玛,他们在那里款待抽签好评。 The men of the city wish to lay shameless hands upon them, and, having thus shown that they have deserved their fate, Sodom and Gomorrah are destroyed by fire and brimstone, only Lot and his two daughters being saved.在城里的人想向他们要无耻的手,并因由此表明,他们有值得他们的命运,所多玛和蛾摩拉的火和硫磺,只有地段和他的两个女儿销毁被保存。 The circumstances of the birth of Ammon and Moab are set forth (xix.).对亚扪人和摩押人情况下诞生规定(xix.)。Abraham journeys to Gerar, the country of Abimelech.亚伯拉罕行程,基拉,使亚比米勒国家。Here also he represents Sarah as his sister, and Abimelech plans to gain possession of her, but desists on being warned by God (xx.).在这里,他也表示为他的姐姐莎拉和亚比米勒计划收益被神(xx.)警告占有她,但desists。 At last the long-expected son is born, and receives the name of "Isaac."最后,期待已久的儿子出生,并接收名“艾萨克。”At the instance of Sarah, the boy Ishmael, together with his mother, Hagar, is driven out of the house, but they also have a great future promised to them.在萨拉,男孩伊斯梅尔,例如与他的母亲,黑格,一起赶出了房子,但他们也有伟大的未来许诺给他们。Abraham, during the banquet that he gives in honor of Isaac's birth, enters into a covenant with Abimelech, who confirms his right to the well Beer-sheba (xxi.).亚伯拉罕在晚宴,他在以撒的出生给荣誉,与亚比米勒订立契约,谁证实了他的权利,井别是巴(xxi.)。Now that Abraham seems to have all his desires fulfilled, having even provided for the future of his son, God subjects him to the greatest trial of his faith by demanding Isaac as a sacrifice.现在,亚伯拉罕似乎都满足他的欲望,甚至还为他的儿子将来提供,上帝科目他自己的信仰,要求最大的审判艾萨克作为牺牲。 Abraham obeys; but, as he is about to lay the knife upon his son, God restrains him, promising him numberless descendants.亚伯拉罕服从,但是,因为他是奠定了刀后,他的儿子,上帝约束他,答应他无数的后裔。On the death of Sarah Abraham acquires Machpelah for a family tomb (xxiii.).在死亡的莎拉亚伯拉罕获得一个家庭墓(xxiii.)麦比拉。 Then he sends his servant to Mesopotamia, Nahor's home, to find among his relations a wife for Isaac; and Rebekah, Nahor's granddaughter, is chosen (xxiv.).然后,他派他的仆人到美索不达米亚,拿鹤的家,在他的关系找到了以撒的妻子利百加,拿鹤的孙女,是选择(xxiv.)。 Other children are born to Abraham by another wife, Keturah, among whose descendants are the Midianites; and he dies in a prosperous old age (xxv. 1-18).其他儿童出生亚伯拉罕另一个妻子,凯图雷,在其后代是米甸人和他在一个繁荣年老(xxv. 1-18)死亡。

§ 7.§ 7。After being married for twenty years Rebekah has twins by Isaac: Esau, who becomes a hunter, and Jacob, who becomes a herdsman.二十年后结婚丽贝卡已经由艾萨克双胞胎:以扫,谁成为一个猎人,和Jacob,谁当选牧民。Jacob persuades Esau to sell him his birthright, for which the latter does not care (xxv. 19-34); notwithstanding this bargain, God appears to Isaac and repeats the promises given to Abraham.雅各以扫卖给他说服他的与生俱来的权利,而后者并不关心(xxv. 19-34);尽管如此讨价还价,上帝似乎伊萨克和重复的承诺给亚伯拉罕。His wife, whom he represents as his sister, is endangered in the country of the Philistines, but King Abimelech himself averts disaster.他的妻子,他代表他的妹妹,是濒危的非利士的国家,但国王亚比米勒自己可避免出现灾难。 In spite of the hostility of Abimelech's people, Isaac is fortunate in all his undertakings in that country, especially in digging wells.在亚比米勒的人的敌意,尽管艾萨克是在他的所有承诺在该国,尤其是在挖水井,幸运的。God appears to him at Beer-sheba, encourages him, and promises him blessings and numerous descendants; and Abimelech enters into a covenant with him at the same place.上帝似乎他在别是巴,鼓励他,并许诺他的祝福和众多的后裔,以及亚比米勒到与他在同一地点的约换下。Esau marries Canaanite women, to the regret of his parents (xxvi.).以扫娶迦南妇女,他的父母后悔(xxvi.)。Rebekah persuades Jacob to dress himself as Esau, and thus obtain from his senile father the blessing intended for Esau (xxvii.).丽贝卡说服雅各布打扮自己以扫,从而获得他的老年父亲打算以扫祝福(xxvii.)。To escape his brother's vengeance, Jacob is sent to relations in Haran, being charged by Isaac to find a wife there.为了逃避他哥哥的复仇,雅各布发送到哈兰关系,被艾萨克收取找到一个妻子那里。On the way God appears to him at night, promising protection and aid for himself and the land for his numerous descendants (xxviii.).在路上,上帝似乎他在夜间,有前途的保护和援助,为自己和他的众多子孙的土地(xxviii.)。Arrived at Haran, Jacob hires himself to Laban, his mother's brother, on condition that, after having served for seven years as herdsman, he shall have for wife the younger daughter, Rachel, with whom he is in love.在哈兰抵达雅各布雇用自己拉班,他的母亲的哥哥,但条件是,七年后的牧民年担任,他应为年轻的妻子女儿,雷切尔与他在恋爱。 At the end of this period Laban gives him the elder daughter, Leah; Jacob therefore serves another seven years for Rachel, and after that six years more for cattle.在这一时期拉班给他的大女儿,莉娅结束,因此提供另外七个雅各就为拉结多年,之后六年多的牛。In the meantime Leah bears him Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; by Rachel's maid Bilhah he has Dan and Naphtali; by Zilpah, Leah's maid, Gad and Asher; then, by Leah again, Issachar, Zebulun, and Dinah; and finally, by Rachel, Joseph.在此期间利亚熊他流便,西缅,利未,犹大雷切尔的女仆辟拉他丹拿弗他利,由悉帕利亚的侍女,迦得,亚设,然后,由利亚再次,以萨迦,西布伦,黛娜,最后由瑞秋,约瑟夫。 He also acquires much wealth in flocks (xxix.-xxx.).他还获得了多少财富在鸡群(xxix. - XXX的。)。

In fear of Laban, Jacob flees with his family and all his possessions, but becomes reconciled with Laban, who overtakes him (xxxi.).在拉班的恐惧,雅各逃离与他的家人和他的所有财产,而是成为拉班,谁超越他(xxxi.)调和。On approaching his home he is in fear of Esau, to whom he sends presents; and with the worst apprehensions he turns at night to God in prayer.在接近他的家,他是在恐惧中的以扫,向他发出的礼物,并与最差的忧虑,他在夜间轮流在向上帝祈祷。An angel of God appears to Jacob, is vanquished in wrestling, and announces to him that he shall bear the name "Israel," ie, "the combatant of God" (xxxii.).神的使者出现雅各,是战败国在摔跤,并宣布对他说,他应承担的名字“以色列”,即“上帝的战斗员”(xxxii.)。 The meeting with Esau proves a friendly one, and the brothers separate reconciled.与以扫的会议证明了一个友好的,和兄弟单独和解。 Jacob settles at Shalem (xxxiii.).雅各布落户在Shalem(xxxiii.)。His sons Simeon and Levi take bloody vengeance on the city of Shechem, whose prince has dishonored their sister Dinah (xxxiv.).他的儿子西蒙和Levi采取的示剑城,他们的王子拒付其妹妹黛娜(xxxiv.)血腥复仇。Jacob moves to Beth-el, where God bestows upon him the promised name of "Israel," and repeats His other promises.雅各移动贝丝- el的,如果上帝赋予他所许诺的名字“以色列”,并重申他的其他承诺。On the road from Beth-el Rachel gives birth to a son, Benjamin, and dies (xxxv.).在贝丝- el的拉奇尔路生下一个儿子,本杰明,以及模具(xxxv.)。A genealogy of Esau and the inhabitants and rulers of his country, Edom, is given in ch.阿以扫和居民和他的国家,以东,统治者家谱是由于在通道。xxxvi.三十六。

§ 8.§ 8。Joseph, Jacob's favorite, is hated by his brothers on account of his dreams prognosticating his future dominion, and on the advice of Judah is secretly sold to a caravan of Ishmaelitic merchants going to Egypt.约瑟夫,雅各的喜爱,是恨他的兄弟们对他的统治prognosticating他未来的梦想帐户,并在犹大的建议是秘密出售给商人前往埃及Ishmaelitic大篷车。 His brothers tell their father that a wild animal has devoured Joseph (xxxvii.).他的兄弟告诉他们的父亲,一个野生动物吞噬约瑟夫(xxxvii.)。Joseph, carried to Egypt, is there sold as a slave to Potiphar, one of Pharaoh's officials.约瑟带到埃及,是有出售作为波提乏,法老的官员之一的奴隶。He gains his master's confidence; but when the latter's wife, unable to seduce him, accuses him falsely, he is cast into prison (xxxix.).他获得主人的信任,但是当后者的妻子,无法勾引他,指责他说谎,他是演员关进监狱(xxxix.)。Here he correctly interprets the dreams of two of his fellow prisoners, the king's butler and baker (xl.).在这里,他正确地解释了他的同胞囚犯,国王的管家和贝克(xl.)两个梦想。When Pharaoh is troubled by dreams that no one is able to interpret, the butler draws attention to Joseph.当法老是梦想不安的是没有人能够解释,管家约瑟夫提请注意。The latter is thereupon brought before Pharaoh, whose dreams he interprets to mean that seven years of abundance will be followed by seven years of famine.后者是在法老面前,他的梦想,他解释的意思,7年将是丰富七个荒年之后随之带来的。He advises the king to make provision accordingly, and is empowered to take the necessary steps, being appointed second in the kingdom.他建议国王作出相应规定,并有权采取必要的步骤,被任命为王国第二。Joseph marries Asenath, the daughter of the priest Poti-pherah, by whom he has two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim (xli.).约瑟夫结婚阿塞纳丝,牧师的波季,波提的女儿,是谁,他有两个儿子,玛拿西和以法莲(xli.)。

When the famine comes it is felt even in Canaan; and Jacob sends his sons to Egypt to buy corn.当饥荒来临都感到,即使在迦南,雅各派他的儿子到埃及购买玉米。The brothers appear before Joseph, who recognizes them, but does not discover himself.这对兄弟出现之前,约瑟夫,谁认识他们,但没有发现自己。After having proved them on this and on a second journey, and they having shown themselves so fearful and penitent that Judah even offers himself as slave, Joseph reveals his identity, forgives his brothers the wrong they did him, and promises to settle in Egypt both them and his father (xlii.-xlv.).后证明这一点,就在第二个旅程他们,他们表现出自己如此恐惧和忏悔犹大甚至提供自己的奴隶,约瑟夫发现自己的身份,原谅他的兄弟出事,没有他,并承诺双方在埃及定居他们和他的父亲(xlii. -第四十五。)。Jacob brings his whole family, numbering 66 persons, to Egypt, this making, inclusive of Joseph and his sons and himself, 70 persons.雅各布把​​他的整个家庭,人数66人,埃及,这一决策,约瑟夫和他的儿子和他本人,70人。Pharaoh receives them amicably and assigns to them the land of Goshen (xlvi.-xlvii.).法老接收这些友好和分配给他们的歌珊(xlvi. -四十七。)土地。When Jacob feels the approach of death he sends for Joseph and his sons, and receives Ephraim and Manasseh among his own sons (xlviii.).当雅各布认为,死刑的做法,他和他的儿子约瑟夫发送,并接收他自己的两个儿子以法莲和玛拿西(xlviii.)。 Then he calls his sons to his bedside and reveals their future to them (xlix.).然后,他呼吁他的儿子向他的床边,揭示其未来向他们(xlix.)。Jacob dies, and is solemnly interred in the family tomb at Machpelah.雅各布去世,并郑重在麦比拉家庭墓安葬。Joseph lives to see his great-grandchildren, and on his death-bed he exhorts his brethren, if God should remember them and lead them out of the country, to take his bones with them (1.).约瑟夫生命看到他的曾孙,以及对他的逝世,床,他劝告他的弟兄们,如果上帝应该记住他们,并带领他们离开该国,可随身携带他的骨头(1。)。

§ 9.§ 9。Aim of Work.目的工作。

In the choice, connection, and presentation of his material the narrator has followed certain principles incident to the purpose and scope of his work.在选择,连接和介绍他的材料事件的叙述者遵循某些原则的宗旨和他的工作范围。Although he adopts the universal view-point of history, beginning with the Creation and giving a review of the entire human race, he yet intends to deal particularly with Israel, the people subsequently chosen by God, and to give an account of its origin and of its election, which is based on its religious and moral character.虽然他采用的普遍观点,历史的角度,开始与创作,并给予了整个人类的审查,他还打算处理,特别是以色列,后来被神选择的人,并给予其来源帐户它的选举,这是它的宗教和道德品质的基础。 His chief point of view, therefore, is that of narrator of tribal and religious history; and only the details that bear on this history are reported.他的主要点,因此,是叙述者的部落和宗教历史的细节,只承担对这段历史的报告。

§ 10.§ 10。It is his primary intention to show that the people of Israel are descended in a direct line from Adam, the first man created by God, through legitimate marriages in conformity with Israelitish moral ideals, ie, monandric marriages.这是他的主要意图表明,以色列人民都降临在从亚当,其中一人由上帝创造的直接路线,通过与Israelitish道德理想,即合法婚姻符合monandric婚姻。 Offshoots branch from this main line at central points represented by Adam, Noah, Shem, Eber, Abraham, and Isaac, though their subsequent legitimacy can not be guaranteed.从这个分支在中央点主线分支代表亚当,诺亚,闪,韦伯,亚伯拉罕和以撒,但随后将其合法性无法得到保证。Linguistically the descent from the main line is always indicated by the word , vouching for the paternity; while descent in a branch line is indicated by .语言的后裔从主线始终是所显示的文字,为父亲vouching,而在一个分支线后裔表示。This is the explanation of the interchange of these two words, a phenomenon which has never yet been correctly interpreted.这是这两个词交汇处,它从来没有被正确地解释现象的解释。The line branching off at any one central point is always fully treated before the next member of the main line is mentioned.该生产线分支在任何一个中心点是始终充分治疗前的主线下一个成员被提到。Only such matters are related in regard to the branch lines as are important for the history of humanity or that of Israel.只有这样的问题是相关方面的分支线,由于是人类历史或以色列重要。No fact is ever introduced merely on account of its historical or antiquarian value.没有事实仅仅是以往任何时候都介绍了它的历史或文物价值的帐户。In the main line the interest is concentrated upon the promised, long-expected generations of Isaac-Jacob, his sons and grandsons-who safely pass through all dangers and tribulations, emphasis being laid on their religious and moral character.在主线的利益是建立在承诺,期待已久的以撒,雅各,他的儿子和孙子,谁安全地通过所有的危险和磨难几代人,重点放在他们的宗教和道德品质。

§ 11.§ 11。The events are related in definite chronological order, the chief dates being as follows:这些事件是在一定的时间顺序有关,被行政日期如下:

see table见表

The year of the Creation is the year 3949 before the common era.必须创造今年是3949年之前,共同的时代。The ten generations before the Flood attain to ages varying between 777 years (Lamech) and 969 years (Methuselah), with the exception of Enoch (365 years).当洪水以前的十代达到年龄之间七百七十七年(拉麦)和969年(玛土撒拉)不同,在以诺(365年)例外。Those of the ten generations after the Flood vary between 600 years (Shem) and 148 (Nahor).洪水后的十个世代​​的600年间变化(闪)和148(拿鹤)。All the reasons for the details of this chronology have not yet been discovered.所有对本年表的细节原因尚未被发现。Oppert has declared (in "REJ" 1895, and in Chronology) that the figures are connected with ancient Babylonian chronological systems.奥佩特已宣布(在“相互执行判决”1895年,在年表)表示,该数字与古巴比伦的时间顺序系统连接。The variations found in the Septuagint and in the Samaritan Pentateuch were introduced for certain purposes (see Jacob in "JQR" xii. 434 et seq.).在七十和撒玛利亚五介绍了为某些目的而发现的变化(见在“JQR”十二雅各。434起。)。The correctness of the Masoretic figures, however, is evident from the context.作者:马所拉的数字的正确性,但是,很明显从上下文。

§ 12.§ 12。Anachronisms such as various critics allege are found in Genesis do not in reality exist; and their assumption is based on a misunderstanding of the historiographic principles of the book.如各种批评过时声称是在发现成因并不在现实中存在,和他们的假设是基于对书的史学原则误解为基础。Thus the history of a generation no longer of importance is closed and the death of its last member noted, although it may not be contemporaneous with the next succeeding generation, to which the attention is then exclusively directed.因此,历史上没有的一代不再是封闭的重要性和它的最后一个成员的死亡表示,虽然它可能不是同时代的未来一代人,对此关注的是然后专门指示。 This view explains the apparent contradictions between xi.这种观点解释了十一大的明显的矛盾。32 and xi.32十一。26, xii.26,十二。4; also between xxv. 4;之间也二十五。7 and xxv. 7和二十五。26; xxi. 26;二十一。5 and xxv. 5,二十五。20; xxxv. 20;三十五。28 (Jacob was at that time 120 years old) and xlvii.28(雅各布当时120岁了)和四十七。9; xxxvii.9;三十七。2, xli.2,四十一。46; etc. In ch. 46,等等,在CH。xxxiv.三十四。Dinah is not six to seven years old, nor Simeon and Levi eleven and ten respectively, but (xxxv. 27, xxxvii. 1 et seq., xxxiii. 17) each is ten years older.黛娜不是六至七岁,也没有西蒙和列维十一和十分别,但(xxxv. 27日,三十七。1起。,三十三17。)均十年以上。The events in ch.在CH的事件。 xxxviii.三十八。do not cover twenty-three years-from the sale of Joseph in his seventeenth year to the arrival of Judah's grandsons in Egypt (xlvi. 12) in Joseph's fortieth year-but thirty-three years, as the words (elsewhere only in xxi. 22 and I Kings xi. 29) refer back in this case to xxxiii.不包括二三年从约瑟夫在他的第十七年出售给在抵达埃及,犹大的孙子在约瑟夫的第四十个年头,但三十三年(xlvi. 12),其他地方一样,只有在二十一的话(。 22日我和国王十一。29)是指回来了,这对三十三例。17.17。The story is introduced at this point to provide a pause after ch.故事介绍在这一点上暂停后提供通道。xxxvii.三十七。

§ 13.§ 13。Nor are there any repetitions or unnecessary doublets.也没有任何重复或不必要的双峰。If ch.如果ch。ii.二。were an account of the Creation differing from that found in ch.是一本不同于创造,在CH发现帐户。i., nearly all the events would have been omitted; it is, however, the story in detail of the creation of man, introduced by a summary of what preceded.一,几乎所有的事件会被省略,它是,但是,在对人类创造的一个简要介绍了什么之前,详细的故事。Neither are there two accounts of the Flood in ch.也不是有两个帐户的洪水在CH。vi.-ix., in which no detail is superfluous.vi.-ix.,其中没有任何细节是多余的。The three accounts of the danger of Sarah and Rebekah, ch.对莎拉和丽贝卡,总危险的三个帐户。xii., xx., and xxvi., are not repetitions, as the circumstances are different in each case; and ch.十二,二十,二十六和,不重复,因为情况不同,每一种情况下。。。和CH。xxvi.二十六。refers expressly to ch.明确提到通道。xx.二十。The account in xix.在十九帐户。 29 of the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah and the rescue of Lot, is but a summary introducing the story that follows, which would not be comprehensible without xix.该所多玛和蛾摩拉的毁灭和地段抢救,29只是一个故事概要介绍如下,其中不会没有十九理解。14, 23, 28.14,23,28。 Repeated references to the same place (Beth-el, xxviii. 19, xxxv. 15), or renewed attempts to explain the same name (Beer-sheba, xxi. 31, xxvi. 33; comp. xxx. 20 et seq.), or several names for the same person (xxvi. 34, xxvii. 46-xxxvi. 2 for Esau's wives) are not contradictions.多次提到了同一个地方(。。贝丝,萨尔瓦多,二十八19,三十五15),或再次试图解释相同的名称(别是巴,二十一31,26 33;。。。比赛xxx 20起。。) ,为同一个或几个人的名字(xxvi. 34,二十七。46三十六。以扫的妻子2)不矛盾。The change of Jacob's name into that of "Israel" is not narrated twice; for xxxii.雅各的加入“以色列”这个名字的变化是不是讲述两次,为三十二。29 contains only the announcement by the messenger of God.29只包含了上帝的使者的公告。

Apparently no exegete has noted that is a parenthesis often found in prophetic speeches ("Not Jacob-thus it will be said [ie, in xxxv. 10]-shall be thy name"); is an impossible construction in Hebrew; xxxii.显然没有exegete已经注意到这是经常发现在先知发言括号(“不雅各布,因此,它会说[即在三十五,10。],应你的名字”);是一个希伯来不可能建设;三十二。 4 et seq.4起。and xxxiii.和三十三。1 et seq.1起。do not prove, contrary to xxxvi.没有证明,违反三十六。6-7, that Esau was living at Seir before Jacob's return.6-7,在西珥的以扫住在雅各布的回报。The account of the sale of Joseph as found in xxxvii.对销售的约瑟夫发现帐户三十七。1-25, 28, 29-36; xl. 1-25,28,29-36;加大码。1 et seq.1起。does not contradict xxxvii.并不矛盾,三十七。25-27, 28; xxxix. 25-27,28;三十九。; forthe Midianites were the middlemen between the brothers and the Ishmaelites, on the one hand, and between the latter and Potiphar, on the other. ;欢喜米甸人之间的兄弟和以实玛利的中间人,一方面,与后者和波提乏,另一方面。Potiphar is a different person from the overseer of the prison; and Joseph could very well say that he had been stolen, ie, that he had been put out of the way (xl. 15).波提乏是从监狱监督员不同的人,和约瑟夫很可能会说,他曾被盗,也就是说,他已经被扑灭的方式(xl. 15)。

§ 14.§ 14。It is the purpose of the book, on its religious as well as its historic side, to portray the relation of God to humanity and the behavior of the latter toward Him; His gracious guidance of the history of the Patriarchs, and the promises given to them; their faith in Him in spite of all dangers, tribulations, and temptations; and, finally, the religious and moral contrasts with Hamitic (Egyptian and Canaanite) behavior.这是本书的目的,在其宗教以及其历史的一面,描绘了人类与上帝的关系的,后者对他的行为,他对历史的始祖亲切指导,并承诺给他们,他们的信仰在他的一切危险,磨难,尽管诱惑,以及最后,宗教和道德的对比与含米特(埃及和迦南人)的行为。

§ 15.§ 15。Religion of Genesis.宗教的起源。

Being a historical narrative, no formal explanations of its religious views are found in Genesis; but the stories it contains are founded on such views, and the author furthermore looks upon history as a means of teaching religion.作为一个历史叙事,其宗教的意见,没有正式的解释中找到成因,但它所包含的故事是建基于这样的观点,笔者还对历史看来,宗教的教学手段。 He is a historian only in virtue of being a theologian.他是一个历史学家只能在作为一个神学家的美德。He inculcates religious doctrines in the form of stories.他灌输的故事形式的宗教教义。Instead of propounding a system he describes the religious life.一个系统而不是建议将向他介绍了宗教生活。The book therefore contains an inexhaustible fund of ideas.因此,这本书包含了取之不尽,用之不竭的想法基金。The most important among these, regarding God, the Creation, humanity, and Israel's Patriarchs, may be mentioned here.其中最重要的,关于上帝,创造,人性,和以色列的始祖,可能会提到这里。

§ 16.§ 16。There is only one God, who has created heaven and earth (that is, the world), and has called all objects and living beings into existence by His word.只有一个上帝,谁创造了天地(即世界),并呼吁所有的对象和被他的话存在众生。The most important point of the theology of Genesis, after this fundamental fact, is the intentional variation in the name of God.作者:创世纪神学最重要的一点,经过这一基本事实,是上帝的名义故意变化。It is the most striking point of the book that the same God is now called "Elohim" and now "Yhwh."这是本书最突出的一点,同样的神是现在所谓的“莹”,现在“耶和华。”In this variation is found the key to the whole book and even to the whole Pentateuch.在这种变化是发现的关键,整本书,甚至整个五。It is not accidental; nor are the names used indifferently by the author, though the principle he follows can not be reduced to a simple formula, nor the special intention in each case be made evident.这并不是偶然的,也不是笔者所用漠然的名字,虽然他原则如下不能沦为一个简单的公式,也没有在每种情况下作出的特殊意图明显。

§ 17.§ 17。"Yhwh" is the proper name of God (= "the Almighty"; see Ex. iii. 12 et seq., vi. 2), used wherever the personality of God is to be emphasized. “耶和华”是上帝的适当的名称(=“万能”。看到惠三12起,六二。。。),用于任何神的个性加以强调。Hence only such expressions are used in connection with "Yhwh" as convey the impression of personality, ie, anthropomorphisms.因此,只有这样的表达式是用于与“耶和华”连接作为传达的个性,即anthropomorphisms印象。 Eyes, ears, nose, mouth, face, hand, heart are ascribed only to "Yhwh," never to "Elohim."眼睛,耳朵,鼻子,嘴,脸,手,心是认定只有“耶和华”,决不“莹”。These anthropomorphisms are used merely to suggest the personal life and activity of God, and are not literal personifications, as is conclusively proved by the fact that phrases which would be actual anthropomorphisms-eg, "God sees with His eyes"; "He hears with His ears"; "one sees God's face" ("head," "body," etc.)-never occur.这些anthropomorphisms只是建议使用个人生活和活动的上帝,而不是字面拟人,因为是确凿的事实证明,这将是实际的短语anthropomorphisms,例如,“上帝与他的眼睛看到”,“他听到它他的耳朵“,”一看到上帝的脸“(”头“,”身体“,等等),永远不会发生。 The expression "Yhwh's eyes" indicates divine knowledge of what may be seen through personal apperception; "Yhwh's ears," what may be heard; = "God's anger" indicates the reaction of God's moral nature against evil; "Yhwh's mouth" indicates the utterances of the God who speaks personally; "Yhwh's face" indicates immediate personal intercourse with the God who is felt to be present; "Yhwh's hand" indicates His sensible manifestations of power; "Yhwh's heart" indicates His thoughts and designs.表达“耶和华的眼睛”表示什么可能是通过个人领悟看到神圣的知识,“耶和华的耳朵,”什么可以听到; =“上帝的愤怒”,表明了上帝的反对邪恶的道德性质的反应,“耶和华的嘴”代表言论谁说话的神人;“耶和华的脸”表示立即与谁是上帝认为是目前的个人交往,“耶和华的手”的权力,他表示明智的表现,“耶和华的心”,表明他的想法和设计。 The phrase "Yhwh, a personal God," characterizes fully the use of this name.短语“耶和华,个人上帝”的特点充分使用这一名称。 A person or a nation can have personal relations with the personal Yhwh only; and only He can plan and guide the fate of either with a personal interest.一个人或一个国家可以有个人耶和华只有个人关系,只有他可以计划和指导与个人利益的任何一方的命运。Yhwh is the God of history and of the education of the human race.耶和华是历史和人类教育的神。Only Yhwh can exact a positive attitude toward Himself, and make demands upon man that are adequate, ie, moral: Yhwh is the God of positive morality.只有耶和华可以确切的自己积极的态度,并在人的需求是足​​够的,即道德:耶和华是积极的道德神。A personal, inner life longing for expression can be organized into definite form and find response only if Yhwh be a personal, living God.个人,为表达内心生活的向往,可以组织成一定的形式,并找到应对只有耶和华是一个个人,活着的上帝。Yhwh is the God of ritual, worship, aspiration, and love.耶和华是礼仪,信仰,理想,和爱上帝。

§ 18.§ 18。"Elohim" is an appellative, and the general name for the divinity, the superhuman, extramundane being, whose existence is felt by all men-a being that possesses intelligence and will, exists in the world and beyond human power, and is the final cause of all that exists and happens. “莹”是一个通称,而为神,超人,超越之存在,其存在是由所有的人,一个被认为拥有智慧和意志,在世界和人类的权力存在超越感觉的总称,是最终导致所有存在和发生。 "Yhwh" is concrete; "Elohim" is abstract.“耶和华”是具体的,“莹”是抽象的。"Yhwh" is the special," Elohim" the general, God.“耶和华”是特殊的,“莹”一般,上帝。"Yhwh" is personal; "Elohim." “耶和华”是个人,“莹”。impersonal.人情味。Yet there is no other Elohim but Yhwh, who is "ha-Elohim" (the Elohim).然而,没有任何其他罗欣但耶和华,谁是“公顷莹”(耶洛因)。

The following points may be observed in particular:以下几点可以看出,特别是:

(a) "Elohim," as genitive of a person, indicates that the latter has superhuman relations (xxiii. 6; similarly of an object, xxviii. 17, 22). (一)“莹”作为一个人所有格,表明后者具有超人的关系(xxiii. 6;同样的对象,二十八17,22。)。

(b) It also indicates ideal humanity (xxxiii. 10; comp. xxxii. 29). (二)它也表明人类的理想(xxxiii. 10;。赛三十二29。)。

(c) "Elohim" expresses the fate imposed by a higher power. (三)“莹”表示由一个更高的力量所施加的命运。The statement "A person is prosperous" is paraphrased by "Elohim is with him," which is distinctly different from "Yhwh is with him."声明:“一个人是繁荣”被意译为“耶洛因与他同在”,这是明显不同于“耶和华与他同在。”While the former indicates objectively a person's prosperity with regard to a single event, the latter expresses the higher intentions and consecutive plans of the personal God in regard to the person in question.虽然前者表示客观,对于一个单一的事件一个人的繁荣,后者体现了较高的意图和连续计划的个人上帝关于人的问题。 Abimelech says to Abraham, "Elohim is with thee in all that thou doest" (xxi. 22), while he says to Isaac, "Yhwh is with thee," and "thou art now the blessed of Yhwh" (xxvi. 28, 29).亚比米勒对亚伯拉罕说,“莹是与你所做的一切你”(xxi. 22),而他说,以艾萨克,“耶和华与你同在”,和“你现在的艺术耶和华祝福”(xxvi. 28 29)。For Abimelech had at first tried in vain to injure Isaac; but later he convinced himself () that evidently () it was the Yhwh worshiped by Isaac that designedly protected and blessed the latter.对于亚比米勒当初妄图伤害艾萨克,但后来他自己确信()的明显(),这是由艾萨克崇拜耶和华的特意保护和祝福后者。 Again, in xxi.同样,在二十一。 20: "And Elohim was with the lad"; for Ishmael did not belong to the chosen line, concerning which God had special plans.20:“和莹是与孩子”,因为伊斯梅尔不属于所选择的路线,关于上帝有特殊计划。Yhwh, however, is always with Israel and its heroes (xxvi. 3, 28; xxviii. 15 [xxxii. 10, 13]; xlvi. 4; Ex. iii. 12; Num. xxiii. 21; Deut. ii. 7; xx. 1; xxxi. 8, 23; Josh. i. 5, 9, 17; iii. 7; Judges ii. 18; vi. 12, 16; I Sam. iii. 19; xvi. 18; xviii. 12, 14; xx. 13; II Sam. vii. 3, v. 10; I Kings i. 37; II Kings xviii. 7).耶和华,然而,始终是与以色列和它的英雄(xxvi. 3,28;二十八15 [三十二10,13。]。四十六4;。惠三12。。数量二十三21;。。申二7。。 ;二十一。三十一八,23岁;。乔希一5,9,17;。三7;。法官二18;。六,12,16。。我心三19。十六18;。十八12。 ,14;二十13;。二萨姆七三,五,10。。我的国王岛37;二世国王十八7)。。Particularly instructive is Jacob's vow, xxviii.特别是启发是雅各布的誓言,二十八。20 et seq., "If Elohim will be with me . . . then shall Yhwh be my Elohim."20起。“如果罗欣将与我。。。然后将耶和华是我的莹。” Adverse fate especially is, out of fear, euphemistically ascribed to the general Elohim, the impersonal God, rather than to Yhwh xlii.尤其是不良的命运,出于恐惧,委婉地归因于耶和华四十二,而不是为广大莹,客观的神。28).28)。

(d) As "Elohim" designates the universal ruler of the world, that term is used in ch. (四)由于“莹”指定的世界,这个词是普遍使用的统治者,在CH。i.in the story of the Creation; but in order to designate this Elohim as the true God the word "Yhwh" is always addedin the following chapters (ii., iii.).在故事的创作,而是为了指定为真正的上帝,耶洛单词“耶和华”始终是addedin的(白介素,三。)以下的章节。(e) In so far as man feels himself dependent upon Elohim, whom he needs, the latter becomes his Elohim. (五)在迄今为止的人感到依赖莹,就是他的需求,后者成为他的耶洛自己。As the term "Elohim" includes the idea of beneficent power, this relation becomes, on the part of God, that of the omnipotent patron, and, on the part of man, that of the protégé, the one who needs protection and offers respect and obedience (xvii. 7, xxviii. 22).由于“莹”包括慈善执政理念,这种关系成为对上帝的一部分,是万能的赞助,并在部分人,即对门徒,谁需要保护,并提供有关服从(xvii.七,二十八。22)。 The same interpretation applies to "Elohim" followed by the genitive of a person.同样的解释适用于“莹”,接着一个人的格。 (f) Elohim is the religious meeting-ground between the believer in Yhwh and persons of a different faith (xiv. 22; xx. 13; xxi. 23; xxxix. 9; xli. 16, 25, 28, 32, 38). (六)以罗欣是宗教会议上地面之间在耶和华信徒和不同信仰的人(xiv. 22;。二十13;二十一,23;。三十九9;。四十一16,25,28,32,38。) 。(g) "Elohim" is the appellation of God used in connection with the person who is inclined toward Yhwh, but whose faith is not yet fully developed; for the one who is on the way to religion, as Melchizedek (ch. xiv.) and Abraham's servant (ch. xxiv.; comp. Jethro in Exodus and Balaam in Numbers; see §§ 28, 31). (七)“莹”是上帝的称谓与谁是倾向于耶和华,但他们的信仰是尚未充分发展的人连接使用;为一个谁在对宗教的方式,因为麦基洗德(章十四。 )和亚伯拉罕的仆人(章二十四。可比在流亡和巴兰数杰思罗。见§ § 28,31)。

(h) "Elohim" represents God for those whose moral perception has been blunted by sin (iii. 3, 5); from the mouths of the serpent and the woman instead of "Jahweh" is heard "Elohim"; they desire to change the idea of a living God, who says, "Thou shalt," into a blurred concept of an impersonal and indefinite God. (八)“莹”代表的那些人的道德观念已被罪恶减弱(iii. 3,5)神从蛇和不是“亚威”女人的口中听到“莹”,他们渴望改变一个活着的上帝,谁说:“你应该,”成为一个模糊的想法是客观的和不确定的神的概念。 But the God who pronounces judgment is Yhwh (ch. ii., iii.; on Cain, ch. iv.; in connection with the Flood, vi. 3-8; the tower of Babel, xi. 5 et seq.; Sodom and Gomorrah, xviii. 19; Er and Onan, xxxviii. 7, 10).但上帝谁判决的判断是耶和华(章二,三;。。。该隐,第四章。在这股洪流,六3-8连接;。。巴别塔,十一五起。所多玛和蛾摩拉,十八19;。珥和俄南,三十八7,10)。。 (i) Although the personality of Elohim is indistinct, he yet is felt to be a moral power making moral demands. (一)虽然莹个性是模糊的,他还感到是一种道德力量,使道德要求。The moral obligation toward him is the negative virtue of the "fear of God," the fear of murder (xx. 11), unchastity (xxxix. 9), injustice (xlii. 18), and renunciation (xxii. 12).对他的道德义务是“上帝的恐惧”恐惧的谋杀(xx. 11),不贞洁(xxxix. 9),不公正(xlii. 18)消极的美德,放弃(xxii. 12)。(k) "Elohim" also means the appearance of the Deity, and hence may be synonymous with "mal'ak." (十一)“莹”也意味着出现了神,因此可能被等同于“mal'ak。”It may also designate an object of the ritual representing or symbolizing the Deity (xxxv. 2).它也可能指定一个仪式的代表或象征着神(xxxv. 2)对象。

§ 19.§ 19。"Elohim" is more explicitly defined by the article; "ha-Elohim," ie, "the Elohim" or "of the Elohim," is sometimes used to identify an "Elohim" previously mentioned (xvii. 18; comp. verse 17; xx. 6, 17; comp. verse 3). “莹”是更明确地界定的文章,“公顷莹”,即“莹”或“耶洛因,”有时被用来确定一个“莹”前面提到的(xvii. 18;。比赛17节;二十6日,17。比赛第三节)。。The single, definite, previously mentioned appearance of an Elohim is called "ha-Elohim," being as such synonymous with "Mal'ak Yhwh" (xxii. 1, 3, 9, 11, 15), both speaking for Yhwh (verse 16; comp. xlviii. 15).单一,明确的,前面提到的一罗欣出现被称为“公顷莹”等的代名词,被视为“Mal'ak耶和华”(xxii. 1,3,9,11,15),无论是耶和华说(诗16;赛四十八15)。。。"Ha-Elohim," when derived from "Elohim," is a preparation for "Yhwh"; when derived from "Yhwh" it is a weakening of the idea of God (see §§ 31 et seq.). “夏莹,”当来自“莹”是编写“耶和华”,当从“耶和华”派生出来的是神的观念弱化(见§ § 31起。)。Although these examples do not exhaust the different uses of these two names, they are sufficient to show the author's intentions.虽然这些例子并不排气这两个名字的不同用途,它们足以显示作者的意图。

§ 20.§ 20。A rare term for "God" is "El Shaddai" (xvii. 1, xxviii. 3, xxxv. 11, xliii. 13, xlviii. 13; "Shaddai" in xlix. 25).为“上帝”难得的词语是“萨尔瓦多代”(xvii.一,二十八三,三十五11,四十三13,48 13。。。。“代”在第四十九届25。)。The usual translation and interpretation, "Almighty," is entirely unsupported.通常的翻译和解释,“全能”,是完全不支持。The term, when closely examined, means "the God of faith," ie, the God who faithfully fulfils His promises.一词时,仔细审查,是指“的信念,上帝”,即上帝谁忠实履行他的诺言。Perhaps it also means a God of love who is inclined to show abundant love.也许这也意味着神爱谁是倾向于显示丰富的爱。

§ 21.§ 21。God as a personal being is not only referred to in anthropomorphistic and anthropopathic terms, but He also appears to man and speaks with him.上帝作为个人被不仅是指在anthropomorphistic和拟人的条件,但他似乎也和他说话的人。Thus He speaks with Adam and Eve, Cain, Noah, Abraham, Hagar, Abimelech, Isaac, Jacob, and Laban.因此,他说,与亚当和夏娃,该隐,诺亚,亚伯拉罕,黑格,亚比米勒,以撒,雅各,和拉班。But He appears only from the time of Abraham, and in different ways.但他似乎只从亚伯拉罕时间,并以不同的方式。An Elohim "appears" to Abimelech and Laban in a dream at night (xx. 3, xxxi. 24); a mal'ak Yhwh appears to Hagar (xvi. 7 et seq.), being called in verse 13 simply "Yhwh."安莹“似乎”亚比米勒和拉班在夜间梦(xx. 3,三十24。);一mal'ak耶和华似乎黑格(xvi. 7起。),是在13节只是“耶和华调用。 “Yhwh appears to Abram (xii. 7, xv. 1); in a vision (xii. 1, 7) apparently accompanied by darkness, a pillar of smoke, and fire; in xvii.耶和华似乎艾布拉姆(xii. 7,十五1。),在一个远景(xii. 1,7)显然是黑暗,一个支柱烟雾,火灾的陪同下,在十七。Yhwh, who is subsequently called "Elohim" (verses 9, 15, 19), appears, and then ascends (verse 22); in xviii.耶和华,谁是后来所谓的“莹”(诗9,15,19),出现,然后登(22节),在十八。Yhwh appears in the form of three men who visit Abraham, but these speak as one Yhwh in verses 13, 17, 20, 26, and 33, who then leaves, while the two messengers go to Sodom.耶和华出现在亚伯拉罕三名男子谁访问的形式,但这些发言,因为一耶和华的诗句13,17,20,26和33,然后离开谁,而这两个使者去所多玛。 Yhwh appears to Isaac on a certain day (xxvi. 2), and again that night (verse 24).耶和华似乎伊萨克某一天(xxvi. 2),并再次昨晚(24节)。Jacob is addressed in a dream by Yhwh (xxviii. 12 et seq.).雅各布是一个由yhwh处理的梦(xxviii. 12起。)。In xxxi.在三十一。3 Yhwh speaks to Jacob; Jacob says (verse 11) that a mal'ak of Elohim appeared to him in a dream. 3耶和华说雅各雅各布说,(诗11),一个罗欣mal'ak出现在梦中向他。In xxxv.在三十五。9 Elohim again appears to him, in reference to the nocturnal encounter with a "man" (xxxii. 14 et seq.), and ascends (xxxv. 13).9莹再次显示了他,在参考了夜间遇到一个“人”(xxxii. 14起。)和登(xxxv. 13)。In xlvi.在四十六。2 Elohim speaks to him in a vision of the night.2莹说他在夜间的视力。

Hence, the appearance of God means either a dream-vision, or the appearance of a messenger sent by God, who speaks in His name, and may therefore himself be called "Elohim of Yhwh."因此,上帝的外观是指一个梦想,远见,或者是上帝,谁在他的名说话派人外观,并可能因此他被称为“耶和华莹。”

§ 22.§ 22。"Mal'ak of God" signifies, in the first place, the fortunate disposition of circumstances (xxiv. 7, 40; comp. xlviii. 16), in which case it is parallel to "ha-Elohim," the divine guidance of human life; more often, however, it denotes the "angels" ("mal'akim"), messengers of God in human shape who carry His behests to men and who seem to enter and leave heaven through a gate (xxviii. 11); eg, "Yhwh's messenger" (xvi. 7, 11; xxii. 11, 15); "Elohim's messenger" (xxi. 17; in the plural, xix. 1, 15; xxviii. 12; xxxii. 2); or "ha-Elohim's messenger" (xxxi. 11).“神Mal'ak”标志,摆在首位,幸运的情况下处置(xxiv. 7,40。。赛四十八16),在这种情况下,它是平行的“公顷莹”的神圣的指导人的生命;更多的时候,但是,它指的“天使”(“mal'akim”),上帝的使者在人类的形状谁进行他的遗志男子,谁似乎进入和离开通过一个门(xxviii. 11)天,例如,“耶和华的使者”(xvi. 7,11;二十二11,15。)“莹的使者”(xxi. 17;在复数,十九1,15。二十八12;。三十二2。);或“公顷莹的使者”(xxxi. 11)。The "man" who wrestled with Jacob likewise seems to have been a mal'ak (xxxii. 25, 29, 31), and the men whom Abraham entertained and who saved Lot were also mal'akim (xviii., xix.). “人”谁按倒与雅各布也似乎一直是mal'ak(xxxii. 25,29,31),男人谁受理,谁救了亚伯拉罕的地段也mal'akim(xviii.,19。)。According to the popular belief, it is disastrous to meet them (xvi. 13, xxxii. 31).据普遍认为,这是灾难性的,以满足他们(xvi. 13日,三十二。31)。On this point, more than on any other, the author seems to have followed popular ideas.在这一点上,比其他任何,作者似乎都跟随的普遍看法。

§ 23.§ 23。It appears from the foregoing that the conception of God found in Genesis is throughout a practical, religious one.从上述情况看来,上帝在创世纪的概念遍布实际,宗教之一。God is treated exclusively with reference to His dealings with the world and with man, and to the interest that He takes in man's fate and behavior.上帝是治疗完全参照与世界和人,来了兴趣,他在人的命运和行为把他的交易。He guides, educates, and punishes.他指导,教育和惩罚。He assigns to the first of mankind a habitation in Eden, sets them a task, and commands them not to do a certain thing.他指派到人类的一个居住在伊甸园第一,集他们的任务,并命令他们不要做某些事情。When they break this command He punishes them; but even after that He cares for them.当他们打破这个命令他惩罚他们,但即使在这之后,他关心他们。Although punishing the murderer Cain, He affords him protection; the cruelties and unnatural sins of the generation of the Flood arouse His sorrow and anger; He humiliates the pride of the men who are planning to build a tower that shall reach to heaven; He utterly destroys with fire and brimstone the sinful generation of Sodom and Gomorrah.虽然惩治凶手该隐,他让他的保护;的残酷和不自然的洪水代罪引起他的悲痛和愤怒,他侮辱的男人谁正计划建立一个塔,应达到上天堂的骄傲;他全然破坏与火和硫磺的所多玛和蛾摩拉罪恶的世代。 The punishments are either the natural consequences of sin-the first of mankind haverobbed the earth, which had willingly offered the fruit of its trees, hence it is cursed and paralyzed, and can no longer give its fruit freely, so long as Adam is living; Eve has succumbed to desire, hence she has become the slave of desire; Cain has defiled the earth by murder, hence he has deprived it of its strength-or they correspond exactly to the sins; eg, men build a tower in order to remain united, hence they are dispersed; Jacob wishes to rule his brother, therefore he must humiliate himself before that brother; he deceives, and is deceived in return; he dresses up in a goatskin in order to obtain a blessing fraudulently, therefore he is terribly deceived and plunged in sorrow through a goatskin; Judah advises the sale of Joseph as a slave, therefore he himself is forced to offer himself as a slave.的惩罚则任赎罪的haverobbed地球,它愿意提供其树上的果子人类第一的自然后果,因此它是诅咒和瘫痪,不能再给予其果实自由,只要是生活的亚当;前夕已屈服于欲望,因此她已成为奴隶的欲望;该隐玷污了地球的谋杀,因此他已失去了它的力量它或它们完全一致的罪,例如,男人为了建立一个塔保持团结,因此他们是分散;雅各要统治他的弟弟,所以他必须在此之前,羞辱自己的弟弟,他欺骗,是欺骗的回报,他在一个羊皮服装,以获得一个祝福欺诈性的,所以他是可怕的欺骗和通过一个羊皮陷入悲伤,犹大建议约瑟夫作为一个奴隶买卖,因此,他本人被迫提供本人作为一个奴隶。

God, on the other hand, is pleased with the pious, with Enoch and Noah, and especially with Abraham's unshakable faith (xv. 6); his righteousness and justice, which he recommends to his children and household (xviii. 19); his implicit obedience, which is ready to make the supreme sacrifice (xxii. 12, 16).神,另一方面,很高兴与虔诚,与诺和诺亚,特别是与亚伯拉罕的不可动摇的信仰(xv. 6),他的公义和正义,他建议他的孩子和家庭(xviii. 19);他隐式的服从,这是准备作出最大牺牲(xxii. 12,16)。For Abraham's sake God saves Lot (xix. 19); blesses Abraham's son Isaac (xxvi. 5), his children, and his children's children; protects them through all dangers; prevents others from doing evil to them (xii. 17, xiv., xv., xx. 3, xxvi., xxxi. 24); and leads them in a marvelous manner.对于亚伯拉罕的上帝为了拯救地段(xix. 19);祝福亚伯拉罕的儿子以撒(xxvi. 5),他的孩子,他的孩子的孩子,保护他们通过各种危险;阻止作恶他们(xii. 17日,十四人。 ,十五,二十三,二十六,三十一24);。。。。,并导致他们在一个奇妙的方式。He gives commands to men, and binds them to Himself by covenants and promises.他给命令的男子,并结合公约,并承诺由他们自己。 They are the objects of His designs, as they are His work.他们是他的设计对象,因为他们是他的工作。

§ 24.§ 24。The Creation.创建。

The entire universe is the work of God; this proposition is the necessary consequence of the idea of God as found in Genesis and the Pentateuch and in the whole Bible generally.整个宇宙是上帝的工作,这个命题是神的理念的必然后果是发现在成因和五和整个圣经一般。From this arises doubtless the author's belief that God created the world out of nothing.从出现这种情况无疑是作者的信念,上帝创造出什么世界。He does not say how this primal act of creation was accomplished.他没有透露这种原始的行为是完成创作。In the beginning the earth was a desolate watery chaos ("tohu wa bohu"), over which the spirit of God brooded, and which God divided into heaven and earth and arranged and peopled in six days.在其开始,地球是一个荒凉的水样的混乱(“tohu华博湖”),对其中神的精神brooded,其中神分为天地,并安排在六天人居住。 The living beings are created in an orderly sequence, proceeding from the inorganic to the organic, from the incomplete to the complete, man being the crown.众生是建立在一个有序的序列,从无机到有机,从不完整的,以完整的,男子被冠。In the beginning God creates light together with time and the day.起初,神创造了光加上时间和日子。The outer firmament separates the waters above and below it; then when the lower waters recede the land appears; the earth produces grass and trees; and plants and animals are created, each "after its kind," and endowed with the faculty of propagating within their kind in their respective elements.外部苍穹分离上面和下面的水,然后在较低水退去的土地出现,地球产生的草地和树木以及植物和动物的创建,每个“从其类”,并与传播学院内赋予他们那种在各自的要素。 Every organic being, therefore, is endowed with a nature of its own, which the Creator intends it to keep by pairing only with its own kind.每一个有机的生命,因此,赋予了它自己的性质,而造物主它打算保持其自身的配对绝无仅有。The lights that God has fixed in the firmament serve to separate the day from the night; they shall be for "signs, periods, seasons, and years," and shall give light to the earth.认为神在苍穹固定灯有助于分开昼夜,他们应为“标志,时间,季节,年,”并应照亮大地。The sun is the greater light, that rules the day; the moon is the lesser light, that rules the night.太阳是更大的光,也掌管着天;月亮是较小的轻,也掌管着夜晚。

§ 25.§ 25。The Creation is, in the judgment of God, good in particular, and very good in general, ie, fit for life, commensurate to its purpose, salutary, harmonic, and pleasing.创新是,在神的审判,特别是良好的,在一般情况下,即适合生活,其目的相称的,有益的,谐波,并愉快非常好。The book expresses an optimistic satisfaction and pleasure in the world, a lively veneration for God's arrangements and the peculiar dignity of each being as determined by God.这本书表达了一种乐观的满意和高兴在世界上,一个为上帝的安排,活泼的崇拜,以及每个被视为取决于上帝特殊的尊严。The simplicity, sublimity, depth, and moral grandeur of this story of the Creation and its superiority to every other story dealing with the subject are universally recognized.的简单性,崇高,深度,而本故事的创作,其优势,其他的故事都处理的主题是公认的道德宏伟。

§ 26.§ 26。Humanity.人文精神。

Man, the crown of Creation, as a pair including man and woman, has been made in God's image.男子,那是万物之灵作为对包括男人和女人,已经取得了神的形象。God forms the first man, Adam, out of earth ("adamah").上帝形式的第一人,亚当,地球出(“adamah”)。This indicates his relation to it in a manner that is fundamental for many later laws.这表明他与它的方式,为许多后来的法律基础。Man is a child of the earth, from which he has been taken, and to which he shall return.人是一个地球的孩子,而他已经作出,并应他的回报。It possesses for him a certain moral grandeur: he serves it; it does not serve him.它具有一定的道德为他一个宏伟:他服务,而是它没有为他服务。He must include God's creatures in the respect that it demands in general, by not exploiting them for his own selfish uses.他必须包括不为自己的自私利用他们在使用方面,它在总体要求,上帝的造物。Unlawful robbery of its gifts (as in paradise), murder, and unchastity anger it, paralyze its power and delight in producing, and defile it.非法抢劫的礼物(在天堂),谋杀,和不贞洁愤怒了,瘫痪在生产它的力量和喜悦,玷污它。 God breathed the breath of life into the nostrils of man, whom He formed out of earth.神注入了人,他所形成的地球走出鼻孔呼吸的生命。Therefore that part of him that is contrasted with his corporeal nature or supplements it-his life, soul, spirit, and reason-is not, as with the animals, of earthly origin, existing in consequence of the body, but is of divine, heavenly origin.因此,这对他的一部分,这是对比他肉体的性质或补充它,他的生命,灵魂,精神和原因,并非如与动物身体的后果存在,尘世来源,但神圣的,天上的起源。 Man is "toledot" (ii. 4) of heaven and earth.人是的“toledot”天与地(白介素4)。The creation of man also is good, in the judgment of God; the book, therefore, is cognizant of nothing that is naturally evil, within man or outside of him.创造男子也是好的,在神的审判,这本书,因此,这是没有什么自然是邪恶之内的人,或认识到在外面了。After God has created man, He says: "It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him" (ii. 18).之后,上帝创造了人,他说:“这是不好的人独居,我必使他成为帮助满足他”(白介素18)。In order that man may convince himself that there is no being similar to him among all the creatures that have been made, God brings all the animals unto Adam, that he may name them, ie, make clear to himself their different characteristics.为了那个男人可以说服自己,有没有受到类似的所有的生物,取得了他,上帝把所有的动物对亚当说,他可能他们的名字,即明确自己的不同特点。 Hence man, looking for a being like unto himself among the animals, finds language.因此男人,对于一个像你们自己之间的动物正在寻找,找到的语言。God thereupon creates woman out of the rib of man, who gladly recognizes her as bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh.于是上帝创造女人的肋骨的人,谁乐意她作为他的骨头和肉中之肉骨头,他承认了。"Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh"; meaning that the mature man may and shall leave the paternal house, where he has been merely a dependent member of the family, and, urged by the longing for a sympathetic being that will supplement him, shall live with the woman of his choice, and found with her a family of his own, where the two shall be combined in an actual and a spiritual unity. “因此,人要离开他的父亲和他的母亲,并应cleave所不欲,他的妻子:他们将成为一体”,也就是说,成熟的男人可能,并应离开父亲的房子,在那里他一直依赖的只是一个成员家庭,并要求由同情的渴望,将他补充,将生活与他所选择的女人,与她自己,其中有两个人在一个统一的实际和精神相结合的家庭中找到。 In this passage the relation between man and woman is expressed, and also the nature of marriage, which is a life partnership in which one helps and supplements the other.在这段话的男人和女人之间的关系表达,也是婚姻的性质,这是一个生活的伙伴关系,其中一个帮助和补充其他。Procreation is not its purpose, but its consequence.生育是不是它的目的,但其后果。God has given to man, as to all living beings, the faculty of multiplying.上帝给了人,向所有众生的成倍能力。

§ 27.§ 27。God gives to man dominion over the earth and over all living beings.上帝给了人类对地球和所有生物的统治权。The food of the first man consists solely of the fruits of the field, that of the animals being grass (i. 29).第一个男人食物只包括该领域的成果,认为动物被草(一29)。His occupation is to cultivate and watch over the Garden of Eden (ii. 15), the only restriction placed upon its enjoymentbeing that he shall not eat of the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.他的职业是培养和观赏超过伊甸园(白介素15),唯一的限制后,其enjoymentbeing,他不得吃了对善恶树上的果子上。 In the Garden of Eden men go naked and know no shame; this feeling is aroused only after they have broken God's command, and then He makes them garments of skins to cover their nakedness.在伊甸园男人们赤裸裸的,知道没有羞耻,这种感觉是引起后,才打破上帝的命令,然后他使他们的皮肤服装,遮掩下体。

§ 28.§ 28。All men on earth are descended from the first pair, Adam and Eve, and are therefore also of the image of God.地球上所有的人的后裔,从第一次配对,亚当和夏娃,因此,神的形象也。This statement expresses the unity of the whole human race.这份声明表达​​了整个人类团结。Man is a created being, made in the image of God, and all men are related: these doctrines are among the most fundamental and weighty of the whole Bible.人是一个被造,在神的形象造的,所有的人都有关:这些理论中最根本,最重的是整个圣经。

The branch descended from Cain, the fratricide, the eldest son of the first pair, is the founder of civic and nomadic culture.该分行该隐后裔的自相残杀中,第一对长子,是公民和游牧文化的创始人。The branch descended from Seth develops along religious lines: from Elohim (Seth, in iv. 25) through ha-Elohim (Enoch, in v. 22) to Yhwh (Noah, in vi. 8).从塞特的后裔分支的发展以及宗教界线:从罗欣(。塞思,在四25),通过公顷莹(伊诺克,在五,22)耶和华(诺亚,在六8)。。 But punishment has been made necessary on account of Adam's sin; the human race must be destroyed on account of its cruelties and excesses.但是,惩罚已经取得了亚当的罪必要的帐户​​;人类必须建立在它的残酷行为和过激帐户销毁。 A new race begins with Noah and his sons, and God promises that He will neither curse the earth again, nor destroy all living beings, but that, on the contrary, "seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease" (viii. 22).一个新的比赛开始,诺亚和他的儿子,上帝的承诺,他不会再诅咒大地,也摧毁一切众生,但与此相反,“种子和收获时间,冷和热,夏季和冬天,昼夜不得停止“(viii. 22)。He blesses Noah and his family, that they may multiply and fill the earth and be spiritually above the animals.他祝福诺亚和他的家人,他们可能会繁殖,并填写地球和精神上以上的动物。He permits men to eat meat, but forbids them to eat blood, or meat with the blood thereof.他允许人吃肉,但禁止他们吃的血血,肉。God will demand the blood (life) of every man or animal that spills it.神将要求每个人或动物的血液溢出它(生活)。"Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed" (ix. 6).“幼时sheddeth人的血的人,应他的血也流”(ix. 6)。 God enters into a covenant with Noah and his descendants, promising them that He will not again send a general flood upon the earth, and instituting the rainbow as a token thereof (ch. ix.).上帝订立与诺亚和他的后裔,答应他们,他将不会再发送后,地球的一般洪水,提起作为标记及其彩虹(章九。)。The God whom all the Noachidæ worship is Elohim (ix. 1, 7, 8, 12, 16, 17), Yhwh being worshiped by Shem and his descendants.上帝就是一切Noachidæ崇拜是莹(ix. 1,7,8,12,16,17),被崇拜耶和华闪和他的后裔。 All the peoples dispersed over the earth are grouped as descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.全体人民分散在地球为闪,含,雅弗的后代进行分组。The genealogy of these peoples which the author draws up in ch.这些民族是笔者拟在总的家谱。x.according to the ethnographic knowledge of his time, finds no parallel in its universality, which includes all men in one bond of brotherhood.根据人种学知识的时间,发现在其普遍性,其中包括一对兄弟债券所有人不平行。In this way have originated the peoples that shall be blessed in Abraham.在这种方式起源认为应在亚伯拉罕祝福人民。

§ 29.§ 29。Israel's Patriarchs.以色列的始祖。

Terah, the descendant of Shem and Eber, has three sons, one of whom, Abraham, is destined by God for momentous events.他拉,在闪和希伯的后代,有三个儿子,其中一人,亚伯拉罕,是上帝注定的重大事件。He shall leave his home; and God says to him: "I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee and make thy name great; and thou shalt be a blessing: And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse him that curseth thee; and in thee shall all families of the earth be blessed" (xii. 2-3).他将离开他的家,神对他说:“我将让你成为伟大的国家,我会保佑你,使你的名为大,你也要叫别人得福:我会保佑他们,保佑你,诅咒他,咒诅你,你应在所有家庭的地球得福“(xii. 2-3)。God often repeats the promise that Abraham's descendants shall be as numerous as the stars in heaven and as the sand on the seashore (xv. 5, xxii. 17); that He will make him a father of many nations, and cause him to be exceedingly fruitful; that kings and nations shall be descendants of him and Sarah (xvii. 5, 6, 16); that he shall become a great people; that all nations of the earth shall be blessed in him (xviii. 18, xxii. 18); and that his descendants shall receive the entire land of Canaan as a hereditary possession (xiii. 14 et seq., xv. 7, xvii. 18).上帝常常重复的承诺,亚伯拉罕的后裔,应像天上的星星,如海边的沙一样多(xv.五,二十二17。),那他将成为他父亲的许多国家,并导致他被极其富有成果,这国王和国家应为他和莎拉(xvii. 5,6,16)的后裔,那他将成为一个伟大的人,这对所有国家的地球应祝福他(xviii. 18,22。 18)和他的后裔,应领取作为世袭藏(xiii. 14起,十五,七,十七18)迦南全地。。。。But before all this comes to pass Israel shall be sorely oppressed for four hundred years as servants in a strange land, after which they shall go out with rich possessions, and God shall judge their oppressors (xv. 13 et seq.).但在所有这些都通过以色列应受到严峻四百年压迫在一个陌生的土地,之后他们一起去了丰富的财富的仆人,上帝应判断其压迫者(xv. 13起。)。In confirmation of these promises God enters twice into a covenant with Abraham: the first time (xv. 18 et seq.) as an assurance that his descendants shall possess Canaan; and the second time, before Isaac's birth, as a sign that He will be their God.在确认了这些承诺两次进入到一个神与亚伯拉罕立约:第一次(。xv. 18起)作为保证,他的后代应具备迦南,第二次,在艾萨克的诞生,作为一个标志,他将他们的神。In token thereof God changes Abram's and Sarai's names into "Abraham" and "Sarah" (), combining His own name with theirs, and institutes the circumcision of all the men of Abraham's household and their male descendants as an eternal sign of the covenant between Himself and Abraham.在令牌其中神变化亚伯兰和撒莱的变成“Abraham”和“莎拉”(),结合他与他们自己的名字,名称和研究机构的所有亚伯拉罕的家庭,并作为该公约之间永恒的签上自己的男性后裔男性割礼自己和亚伯拉罕。 Abraham acknowledges Yhwh (xiv. 22), builds altars to Him (xii. 7, 8; xiii. 18); calls upon His name (xii. 8, xiii. 4, xxi. 33); shows an invincible faith in His promises, whatever present circumstances may be; is ready for the greatest sacrifice; and proves himself, by his human virtues-his helpfulness, unselfishness, hospitality, humanity, uprightness, dignity, and love of peace-worthy of divine guidance.亚伯拉罕承认耶和华(xiv. 22),建立以他的祭坛(xii. 7日,8;十三18。);后,他的名字叫(xii.八,十三四,二十一33。。),显示了不可战胜的信念在他的承诺,不管目前的情况而定;是最大的牺牲准备;和证明自己,他的人类美德,他乐于助人,无私奉献,热情服务,人性,正直,尊严和和平的神圣指引值得爱。

§ 30.§ 30。Of Abraham's two sons Ishmael shall be blessed, and become the father of twelve princes and the progenitor of a great people (xvi. 10, xvii. 20, xxi. 18).亚伯拉罕的两个儿子以实玛利必得福,并成为十二个王子的父亲和一个伟大的人祖(xvi. 10日,十七。20,21。18)。 Ishmael himself becomes an archer, lives in the wilderness, and marries an Egyptian woman (xxi. 20 et seq.).伊斯梅尔自己成为一个射手,在旷野生活,结婚的埃及妇女(xxi. 20起。)。But the one to inherit the promises and the land is Isaac (xvii. 21, xxi. 12), Sarah's son.但是,一个继承的承诺和土地是艾萨克(xvii. 21,21。12),莎拉的儿子。Therefore his father chooses for him a wife from among his own relations (ch. xxiv.).因此,他的父亲为他选择从他自己的关系妻子(章二十四。)。God renews to him the promises given to Abraham (xxvi. 3, 24).神再次向他许诺给亚伯拉罕(xxvi. 3,24)。Isaac is truly the son of his great father, though he has a somewhat passive nature.艾萨克是真正伟大的父亲,他的儿子,但他有一个有点被动的性质。He also builds an altar to Yhwh, and calls upon His name (xxvi. 2).他还建立了一个祭坛耶和华,并呼吁他的名字(xxvi. 2)调用。

§ 31.§ 31。Isaac's sons are twins; Esau, the elder, scorns the rights of the first-born, leaving them to Jacob (xxv. 34).以撒的儿子是双胞胎,以扫,老,藐视的第一个出生的权利,使他们对雅各(xxv. 34)。Esau is a hunter, whose fate it is to live by the sword and be subject to his brother, though in time he will throw off his yoke (xxvii. 40).以扫是一个猎人,他们的命运是生活用剑,并接受他的弟弟,虽然在时间,他会甩开他的枷锁(xxvii. 40)。He is also called "Edom," and subsequently lives in the land of that name in the mountainous region of Seir.他也被称为“以东”,并随后在该在西珥山区名下土地的生活。He is loved by his father, but Rebekah loves Jacob; and when Esau marries a Canaanite woman, Isaac, deceived by a trick, blesses Jacob, who, before he sets out for Haran, receives from his father Abraham's blessing also (xxviii. 4).他是爱他的父亲,但利百加爱雅各,以扫时迦南女子结婚,艾萨克,欺骗的伎俩,祝福雅各布,谁之前,他出发去哈兰,从他的父亲亚伯拉罕的祝福也收到(xxviii. 4 )。Jacobattains to right relations with God only after mistakes, trials, and struggles.与神和好关系的唯一错误后,审判Jacobattains,和斗争。He knows Yhwh, whose hand he has seen in his father's life (xxvii. 20); he recognizes Him in the divine appearance (xxviii. 16); but he has not experienced God in his own life.他知道耶和华,他的手,他在他父亲的生命中看到(xxvii. 20),他承认,在神圣的外观(xxviii. 16)他,但他没有在自己的生活经历神。God has not yet become his God; hence he avoids the name of Yhwh so long as he is in a strange country (xxx. 2; xxxi. 7, 9, 42, 53; xxxii. 3); but the narrator does not hesitate to say "Yhwh" (xxix. 31; xxxi. 3; xxxviii. 7, 10), that name being also known to Laban (xxx. 27, 30) and his daughters (xxix. 32 et seq., xxx. 24).上帝还没有成为他的上帝,因此他避免了耶和华的名字,只要他在一个陌生的国家(xxx. 2;。第三十一条7,9,42,53;三十二3。);但叙述者不犹豫说“耶和华”(xxix. 31;三十一3;。。三十八,7,10),这个名字也被称为拉班(xxx. 27,30)和他的女儿(xxix. 32起,三十24。。) 。Not until a time of dire distress does Jacob find Yhwh, who becomes for him Elohim when the vow turns to a prayer.直到一个可怕的危难之时不雅各布找到耶和华,谁给他时的誓言变成罗欣轮流祈祷。He has overcome Elohim, and himself receives another name after he hasamended his ways (ie, has gained another God), namely, "Israel," ie, "warrior of God."他克服了莹,和他自己的名字后,他又收到hasamended他的方式(即获得了另一个上帝),即“以色列”,即“上帝的战士。” God now gives him the same promises that were given to Abraham and Isaac (xxxv. 11 et seq.), and Jacob builds an altar to God ("El"), on which he pours a drink-offering.现在上帝给他的那些给亚伯拉罕和以撒(xxxv. 11起。)同样的承诺,雅各建立了一个神的祭坛(“厄尔尼诺”),对他倒一杯饮料祭。Similarly he brings offerings to the God of his father when he leaves Canaan to go with his family to Egypt, God promising to accompany him and to lead his descendants back in due time.同样,他带来了他父亲的神,当他离开迦南的产品与他的家人到埃及,上帝答应陪他,带领他的子孙在适当的时候回来。Jacob finds the name of Yhwh again only on his death-bed (xlix. 18).雅各布认定的名字耶和华又对他的逝世不仅床(xlix. 18)。

§ 32.§ 32。With Jacob and his twelve sons the history of the Patriarchs is closed; for the seventy persons with whom Jacob enters Egypt are the origin of the future people of Israel.随着雅各布和他的十二个儿子的始祖历史是封闭;对其中70人与雅各进入埃及是以色列的未来和民族探源。God does not appear to Jacob's sons, nor does he address them.上帝似乎并不雅各布的儿子,他也没有解决这些问题。Joseph designedly avoids the appellation "Yhwh"; he uses "Elohim" (xxxix. 9; xl. 8; xli. 16, 51, 53; xlv. 5, 9; xlviii. 9; 1. 25; "ha-Elohim," xli. 25, 28, 32; xlii. 18 [xliv. 16]; xlv. 9; and the Elohim of his father," xliii. 23). The narrator, on the other hand, has no reason for avoiding the word "Yhwh," which he uses intentionally (xxxix. 2, 3, 5). Yhwh takes a secondary place in the consciousness of Israel while in Egypt, but becomes all-important again in the theophany of the burning bush. The book prescribes no regulations for the religious life. The Patriarchs are represented in their family relations. Their history is a family history. The relations between husband and wife, parents and children, brother and sister, are displayed in pictures of typical truthfulness, psychologic delicacy, inimitable grace and loveliness, with an inexhaustible wealth of edifying and instructive scenes.约瑟夫特意避免了称谓“耶和华”,他用“莹”(xxxix. 9;加大码8。。四十一16,51,53;第四十五5,9;。四十八9;。1 25。“公顷莹, “四十一25,28,32;。。四十二18 [四十四16。]第四十五9;。和他的父亲莹”。。四十三23)叙述者另一方面,没有使用这个词的原因,以避免“耶和华”,他故意用(xxxix. 2,3,5)。耶和华需要在以色列,而中学发生在埃及的意识,而是成为所有重要又在燃烧的灌木丛的显现。书中没有规定的宗教生活法规。始祖的代表在他们的家庭关系。他们的历史是一个家庭的历史。夫妻之间,父母与子女,兄弟姐妹之间的关系,是典型的真实性,心理独特的宽限期图片显示和可爱的启发和指导性的场景取之不尽的财富。

§ 33.§ 33。Scientific Criticism.科学批判。

Since the time of Astruc (1753) modern criticism has held that Genesis is not a uniform work by one author, but was combined by successive editors from several sources that are themselves partly composite, and has received its present form only in the course of centuries; its composition from various sources being proved by its repetitions, contradictions, and differences in conception, representation, and language.由于阿斯特吕克时间(1753)现代批评认为,Genesis是一个作者不是一个统一的工作,但被连续编辑组合本身就是从几个来源的部分复合材料,并已收到仅在其目前的形式世纪课程,它从各种来源的组成,则其重复,矛盾,在观念,代表性,和语言的差异证明。 According to this view, three chief sources must be distinguished, namely, J, E, and P. (1) J, the Jahvist, is so called because he speaks of God as "Yhwh" In his work (chiefly in the primal history, ch. i.-xi., as has been asserted since Budde) several strata must be distinguished, J1, J2, J3, etc. (2) E, the Elohist, is so named because down to Ex.根据这种观点,三个主要来源必须加以区分,即,J,电子,和P.(1)J以来,Jahvist,是所谓的,因为他讲的上帝是“耶和华”在他的工作主要是在原始历史( ,甲烷。i.-xi.,因为一直以来布德断言)几个阶层必须加以区分,J1的,J2台,J3的等(2)E的Elohist,如此命名是因为向下前。 iii.三。he calls God "Elohim."他呼吁上帝“莹”。A redactor (RJE) at an early date combined and fused J and E, so that these two sources can not always be definitely separated; and the critics therefore differ greatly in regard to the details of this question.在合并和融合J和E早日redactor的(巾),所以,这两个来源不能总是绝对分开,和评论家,因此有很大的不同方面对这个问题的细节。 (3) P, or the Priestly Codex, is so called on account of the priestly manner and tendencies of the author, who also calls God "Elohim."(3)P或祭司法典,是所谓对司铎的方式和作者,谁也呼吁上帝倾向帐户“莹”。Here again several strata must be distinguished, P1, P2, P3, etc., though only P2 is found in Genesis.在这里再次几个阶层必须加以区分,P1,P2和P3的,等等,虽然只有P2在发现成因。After another redactor, D, had combined Deuteronomy with JE, the work so composed was united with P by a final redactor, who then enlarged the whole (the sequence J, E, D, P is, however, not generally accepted).再过redactor的,丁,已结合乙脑申命记,工作等组成的团结一致,最后redactor与P,谁再扩大了整个(即J,电子,研发,P是,但并不普遍接受的顺序)。 Hence the present Book of Genesis is the work of this last redactor, and was compiled more than one hundred years after Ezra.因此,本书的成因是这最后redactor的工作,并编译后以斯拉超过百年。The works of J, E, and P furnished material for the entire Pentateuch (and later books), on whose origin, scope, time, and place of composition see Pentateuch.作者:J,电子,家具和P物质对整个五(后来的书籍),在其原产地,范围,时间工程,以及构成发生见五。

As it would take too much space to give an account of all the attempts made to separate the sources, the analysis of only the last commentator, namely, of Holzinger, who has made a special study of this question, will be noted.因为它会耗费太多的空间,给人一种所作的全部独立的来源,在只有最后评论员的分析,即Holzinger,谁作出了专门研究这一问题,尝试,帐户会注意到。 In his "Einleitung zum Hexateuch" he has given a full account of the labors of his predecessors, presenting in the "Tabellen" to his work the separation into sources laid down by Dillmann, Wellhausen, Kuenen, Budde, and Cornill.他在“导论zum六书”,他给予了他的前任劳动者充分考虑,提出在“Tabellen”,以他工作到所规定Dillmann,豪森,Kuenen,布德和Cornill下来源分离。 The commentary by Gunkel (1901) is not original as regards the sources.由贡克尔评论(1901)至于是不是原来的来源。

§ 34.§ 34。see Analysis of the Sources.看到来源分析。"a" and "b" denote respectively the first and second half of the verse; α, β, γ, etc., the smaller parts; * ="worked over"; "s" added to a letter means that the matter contains elements belonging to R or J or E or to the latter two ; "f" = " and the following verse " or "verses."“一”和“B”分别代表的诗句上半年和下半年,α,β,γ等,更小的部分; * =“在工作”;“的”添加到信手段,此事包含元素属于R或J或E或后两个;的“F”=“和下面的诗句”或“的诗句。”

§ 35.§ 35。Objections.反对。

Serious objection may be brought to this analysis of sources on the following grounds: (1) It is unsupported by any external proof whatever; there is no authentic information showing that the Pentateuch, or Genesis in particular, was compiled from various sources, much less have any such sources been preserved in their original form.强烈反对这一可能带来基于以下理由分析来源:(1)这是不受支持的任何外来证明什么,没有真实的信息显示,五,或特定创世纪,是从各种来源汇编,更不用说有,在其原来的形式保存这些信息源。 (2) Hence the critics must rely solely upon so-called internal evidence.(2)因此,批评必须完全依赖所谓的内部证据。But the subjective state of mind with which the final decision rests is unstable and deceptive.但主观的心理状态与它的最终决定权是不稳定的和欺骗性。It is hazardous to apply modern criteria and rules of composition and style to such anancient and peculiar work, whose origin is entirely unknown.这是有害运用现代的标准和规则的组成和作风等anancient和特殊的工作,其原产地是完全未知的。(3) Even if it be demonstrated that Genesis has been compiled from various sources, yet the attempt to trace the origin of each verse and of each part of a verse will never meet with success; the critics themselves confess that the process of combination was a most complicated one. (3)即使被证明,成因已编制各种来源,但试图追查每首诗和诗的每一个永不满足的起源与成功的一部分;批评自己承认的过程中组合最复杂的。(4) If the contradictions and repetitions said to be found in the book really existed, this would not necessarily prove that there had been more than one author; for the literatures of the world furnish numerous similar examples. (4)如果矛盾和重复说,在书中发现确实存在,这并不一定会证明,曾有一个以上的作者,为世界的文献提供了许多类似的例子。The existence of such repetitions and contradictions, however, has never been demonstrated.这种重复和矛盾的存在,但是,从来没有得到证明。

(5) The theory of sources is at best a hypothesis that is not even necessary; for it is based on a total misconception of the dominant ideas, tendencies, and plan of the book.(5)理论的来源是最好的一个假设,甚至没有必要,因为它是基于一个的主导思想,倾向和计划书总有误解所致。Its upholders have totally misconceived the theology of Genesis; transforming the interchange of the name of God, which is the soul of the book, into an external criterion for distinguishing the different authors.其upholders已完全错误的创世纪的神学;转化为外部标准区分不同作者的上帝,这是书的灵魂,名字交汇处。 They have not understood the reason for the variation in the use of and , which in itself is a proof of uniform composition; and they have, therefore, missed a second fundamental idea, namely, that implied in the genealogies and their intimate relation to the Israelitic concept of the family.他们无法理解为在使用变化的原因和,这本身就是一个统一的成分证明,他们有,因此,错过了第二个基本思想,即隐含在族谱和他们的亲密关系到Israelitic概念的家庭。 In criticizing the unequal treatment of the various portions of the material, the theory misconceives the different degrees of their importance for the author.在批评了对材料的各个部分不平等的待遇,他们的理论misconceives对于作者的不同程度的重要性。Difference in treatment is proof, not of different authors, but of different subjects and of the different points of view in one author.差别待遇是证明,而不是不同的作者,但不同的主题和观点,在一个作家的不同点。(6) This would also explain the variations in the language of different passages. (6)这也解释了不同的通道语言的变化。But criticism on this point runs in a circle, diversity of sources being proved by differences of language, and vice versa.但是,在这一点上批评运行在一个圆圈,来源多样性正通过语言,反之亦然分歧证明。(7) The separation into sources in particular is based on numberless exegetic errors, often of the most obvious kind, showing not only a misconception of the scope and spirit of the book, and of its mode of narration, but even of the laws of language; and this separation is in itself the greatest barrier to a correct insight into the book, in that it encourages the student to analyze difficult passages into their sources instead of endeavoring to discover their meaning. (7)将在特定来源的分离是基于无数exegetic错误,往往是最明显的一种,不仅表现的范围和精神的书的误解,其叙事模式,但即使法例第语言,而​​这分离是最大的障碍,一个书,因为它鼓励学生分析,而不是努力去发现它们的意义难的片段纳入其来源正确的了解自己。

§ 36.§ 36。Notwithstanding all these objections, however, it can not be denied that various portions of Genesis palpably convey the impression of difference in origin and a corresponding difference in conception; but as the impression that the work gives of having been uniformly planned in every detail is still stronger, the explanation given in § 2 is here repeated; namely, Genesis has not been compiled from several sources by one redactor or by several redactors, but is the work of one author, who has recorded the traditions of his people with due reverence but independently and according to a uniform plan.尽管所有这些反对意见,但是,不能否认,各部分的成因吴俊勇显然传达出不同来源和相应的差异,在概念的印象,但由于工作的印象,即有被均匀分布在每一个细节仍在计划提供做强,在§ 2给出的解释是在这里重复,这就是,成因尚未编制从几个来源之一redactor或者是由几个编纂,而且是一位作者,谁记录了应有的崇敬他的人的传统,但工作根据一项独立和统一的计划。 Genesis was not compiled from various books.创世记没有编制各种书籍。

§ 37.§ 37。Historical Criticism.历史批评。

The historicity of the Book of Genesis is more or less denied, except by the representatives of a strict inspiration theory.在历史性的创世记或多或少否认,但通过一个严格的激励理论的代表。Genesis recounts myths and legends.成因讲述神话和传说。It is generally admitted that the primal story is not historical (ch. i.-xi.); but critics vary in ascribing to the stories of the Patriarchs more or less of a historical foundation.人们普遍承认,原始的故事并非历史(章i.-xi.),但批评者指称,以故事的始祖变化较多或较少的历史基础。 For details see the articles under their respective names; here only a summary can be given:详情见根据各自的名称的文章,这里只是一个简要可以考虑:

(a) The story of the Creation can not be historically true, for the reasons (一)故事的创作不能被历史真实,理由

(1) that there can be no human traditions of these events;(1)可以有没有人对这些事件的传统;

(2) its assumption of a creation in six days, with the sequence of events as recounted, contradicts the theories of modern science regarding the formation of the heavenly bodies during vast periods of time, especially that of the earth, its organisms, and its position in the universe. (2)它假设在六天的创造与作为叙述事件的顺序,违背了现代科学的理论关于天体的时间内形成庞大的时期,尤其是地球,它的生物,以及其在宇宙中的位置。 The popular view of Genesis can not be reconciled with modern science.创世纪的流行观点无法调和与现代科学。The story is a religio-scientific speculation on the origin of the world, analogous to the creation-myths found among many peoples.这个故事是一个关于世界起源的宗教科学的猜测,类似的创造,发现许多国家的人民之间的神话。 The similarities to the Babylonian creation-myth are most numerous and most striking.到巴比伦的创作,神话的相似性是最众多,最引人注目的。The extent of its dependence on other myths, the mode of transmission, and the age and history of the tradition and its adaptation are still matters of dispute.其在其他神话,传播方式的依赖程度,以及年龄和历史传统和适应仍然争议事项。

(b) The story of the Garden of Eden (ch. ii., iii.) is a myth, invented in order to answer certain questions of religion, philosophy, and cultural history. (二)中的伊甸园的故事(章二。,三。)是一个神话,为了发明回答宗教,哲学,历史和文化的某些问题。Its origin can not be ascertained, as no parallel to it has so far been found.它的起源已无从稽考,因为没有平行的,它至今已被发现。

(c) The stories of Cain and Abel and the genealogies of the Cainites and Sethites are reminiscences of legends, the historical basis for which can no longer be ascertained.(三)该隐和亚伯的故事和的Cainites和Sethites族谱是回忆的传说,历史基础,它再也不能确定。 Their historical truth is excluded by the great age assigned to the Sethites, which contradicts all human experience.其历史真相是排除分配给Sethites,这违背了所有人类的经验伟大时代。A parallel is found in the ten antediluvian primal kings of Babylonian chronology, where the figures are considerably greater.一个并行的是发现了十老古董巴比伦年表,那里的数字是相当大的原始国王。

(d) The story of the Flood is a legend that is found among many peoples. (四)故事的防洪是一个发现是许多国家的人民之间的传说。It is traced back to a Babylonian prototype, still extant.这是追溯到巴比伦的原型,还尚存。It is perhaps founded on reminiscences of a great seismic-cyclonic event that actually occurred, but could have been only partial, as a general flood of the whole earth, covering even the highest mountains, is not conceivable.这也许是建立在一个伟大的抗震气旋实际发生的事件的回忆,但本来只是部分,作为整个地球一般洪水,甚至包括最高的山,是不可以想象的。

(e) The genealogy of peoples is a learned attempt to determine genealogically the relation of peoples known to the author, but by no means including the entire human race; this point of view was current in antiquity, although it does not correspond to the actual facts. (五)人民家谱是一个教训试图确定genealogically笔者所知的人民的关系,但绝不是包括整个人类;这种观点是目前在古代,虽然它不符合实际事实。

(f) The stories of the Patriarchs are national legends.(六)的始祖是国家的故事传说。Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob and his sons are idealized personifications of the people, its tribes, and families; and it can not now be ascertained whether or not these are based on more or less obscure reminiscences of real personages.亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各和他的儿子的人,其部落和家庭理想的人格化,以及它现在不能确定是否这些都是真实的人物或多或少的模糊回忆。 In any case, these legends furnish no historically definite or even valuable information regarding the primal history of the people of Israel.在任何情况下,这些传说没有提供明确的,甚至宝贵的历史资料关于以色列人民原始的历史。 The whole conception of the descent of one people from one family and one ancestor is unhistorical; for a people originates through the combination of different families.对一个人从一个家庭和一个祖先血统的整个概念是文保,为人民通过不同家庭的组合起源。It has also been maintained that the stories of the Patriarchs are pale reflections of mythology or nature-myths.也有人坚持认为,始祖的故事是神话或自然的神话苍白的思考。

Bibliography:参考书目:

Commentaries: Calvin, In Librum Geneseos Commentarius, ed.评论:卡尔文,在Librum Geneseos Commentarius,编辑。Hengstenberg, Berlin, 1838; J. Gerhard, Commentarius Super Genesin, Jena, 1637; Von Bohlen, Die Genesis Historisch-Kritisch Erläutert, Königsberg, 1832; Friedrich Tuch, Halle, 1838; 2d ed.亨斯,柏林,1838年的J.总理,Commentarius超级Genesin,耶拿,1637;冯波伦,模具成因Historisch - Kritisch Erläutert,康尼斯堡,1832年,弗里德里希生产型,哈雷,1838年; 2版。(Arnold and Merx), 1871; CF Keil, Leipsic, 1878; Franz Delitzsch, Neuer Commentar zur Genesis, 1887; M. Kalisch, 1858; A. Knobel, revised by Dillmann 1892; JP Lange, 2d ed., 1877; E. Reuss, La Bible, pt.(阿诺德和Merx),1871年; CF卡Keil公司,普西克,1878年,弗兰茨德里,诺伊尔注的楚成因,1887年;米Kalisch,1858年的A.克诺贝尔,由Dillmann 1892年修订;太平绅士兰格,第2版,1877年;。é 。罗伊斯,香格里拉圣经角。iii., 1897; EH Brown, 1871 (Speaker's Commentary); R. Payne Smith (Ellicot's Commentary, 1882); GI Spurrell, Notes on the Hebrew Text of the Book of Genesis, 1887; M. Dods, The Book of Genesis, 4th ed., 1890; A. Tappehorn, Erklärung der Genesis (Roman Catholic), 1888; Strack, in Kurzgefasster Commentar (Strack-Zöckler), 1894; Holzinger, in Kurzer Handcommentar, ed.三,1897年。高血压布朗,1871年(议长的评注);河佩恩史密斯(埃利科特的评注,1882年);胃肠斯珀雷尔,对创世纪,1887年债券在希伯来文图书的M. Dods,这本书的成因,第4版,1890年;。答Tappehorn,Erklärung明镜成因(罗马天主教),1888年;施特拉克在Kurzgefasster注的(施特拉克- Zöckler),1894; Holzinger在Kurzer Handcommentar,教育署。Marti, 1898; H. Gunkel, in Handkommentar zum AT ed.马蒂,1898年阁下;贡克尔在Handkommentar zum,在教育署。 Nowack, 1901. Nowack的,1901年。Criticism: Astruc, Conjectures surles Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses' Est Servi pour Composer le Livre de la Gènèse, Brussels, 1753; Karl David Ilgen, Die Urkunden des Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs, etc.: I. Urkunden des Ersten Buches von Moses, Halle, 1798; F. Bleek, De Libri Geneseos Origine Atque Indole Historica, Bonn, 1836;批评:阿斯特吕克,猜想萨尔斯Mémoires Originaux Dontil Paroitque Moyses'村Servi倒​​作曲家乐利夫雷德拉杰尼斯,布鲁塞尔,1753年,卡尔大卫伊尔根,模具Urkunden德Jerusalemischen Tempelarchivs等:一,Urkunden德Ersten Buches冯摩西,哈雷, 1798年,楼布勒克,德利布里Geneseos Origine Atque吲哚文物,波恩,1836年;

I. Stähelin, Kritische Untersuchungen über die Genesis, Basel, 1830; H. Hupfeld, Die Quellen der Genesis und die Art Ihrer Zusammensetzung, Berlin, 1853 (this work laid the foundation for the modern theory of sources, ie, the compilation of Genesis from three independent works);一,斯林,Kritische Untersuchungen黚死成因,巴塞尔,1830年阁下;霍普菲,模具Quellen明镜成因und模具艺术Ihrer Zusammensetzung,柏林,1853年(这项工作奠定了来源,即现代理论,创世纪的编制基础由三个独立的工程);

E. Böhmer, Liber Geneseos Pentateuchicus, Halle, 1860 (first graphical distinction of the sources by means of different type); idem, Das Erste Buch der Thora, Uebersetzung Seiner Drei Quellenschriften und Redactionszusätze mit Kritischen, Exegetischen, und Historischen Erörterungen, ib.五博默,莱博Geneseos Pentateuchicus,哈雷,1860年(第一次图形的来源区分由不同类型的含义);同上,明镜索拉达斯奥地利第一储蓄布赫,Uebersetzung高阶Steine​​r德雷伊Quellenschriften有限公司Redactionszusätze麻省理工Kritischen,Exegetischen,Historischen Erörterungen有限公司,兴业。1862; T. Nöldeke, Untersuchungen zur Kritik des AT Kiel, 1809; J. Wellhausen, Die Composition des Hexateuchs, in Jahrbücher für Deutsche Theologie, xxi., xxii., reprinted 1885, 1889, 1893; Karl Budde, Die Biblische Urgeschichte, Giessen 1883; Kautzsch and Socin, Die Genesis mit Aeusserer Unterscheidung der Quellen, Freiburg-in-Breisgau, 1888, 1891; DW Bacon, Pentateuchical Analysis, in Hebraica, iv. 1862年,吨Nöldeke,Untersuchungen楚Kritik德的AT基尔,1809年的J.豪森,模具Jahrbücher献给德意志神学,二十一德Hexateuchs组成,二十二,1885年再版,1889年,1893年。。卡尔布德,模具Biblische Urgeschichte,吉森1883年;和Socin的Kautzsch,模具成因麻省理工Aeusserer Unterscheidung明镜Quellen,弗赖堡中,布赖斯高,1888年,1891年,德国之声培根,Pentateuchical分析Hebraica,四。 216- 243, v. 7-17: The Genesis of Genesis, Hartford, 1892; EC Bissell, Genesis Printed in Colors (transl. from Kautzsch-Socm), Hartford, 1892; EI Fripp, The Composition of the Book of Genesis, 1892; CI Ball, Genesis, 1896 (critical text in colors in SBOT ed. Haupt).216 - 243,诉7-17:创世纪,哈特福德,1892年发生;欧共体比斯尔,成因的颜色印刷(译作从的Kautzsch - Socm),哈特福德,1892年荣弗里普,这本书的成因组成, 1892年CI为球,成因,1896年(。批评文本的颜色在SBOT版豪普特)。

Compare also the introductions to the Old Testament by Kuenen, Cornill, Strack, Driver, and König, and to the Hexateuch by Holzinger, 1893, and Steuernagel, 1901; A. Westphal, Les Sources du Pentateuque, Paris, 1888, 1892; WE Addis, The Documents of the, Hexateuch Translated and Arranged in Chronological Order, 1893, 1898; IE Carpenter and G. Hartford Battersby, The Hexateuch, 1900.比较还介绍了由Kuenen,Cornill,施特拉克,驱动程序和柯尼希,旧约,并通过Holzinger,1893年六书,并Steuernagel,1901年的A.韦斯特法尔,莱斯来源杜Pentateuque,巴黎,1888年,1892年,我们亚的斯亚贝巴,文件,六书翻译和时间顺序排列,1893年,1898年,也就是说卡彭特和G.哈特福德巴特斯,的Hexateuch,1900。 Anti-Criticism: CH Sack, De Usu Nominum, Dei et in Libro Geneseos, Bonn, 1821; H. Ewald, Die Composition der Genesis Kritisch Untersucht, Brunswick, 1823 (subsequently retracted for the greater part by the author);反批评:甲烷袋,德乌苏Nominum公司,在Libro Geneseos棣,波恩,1821年等;阁下埃瓦尔德,模具组成明镜成因Kritisch Untersucht,不伦瑞克,1823(其后由作者大部分缩回);

EW Hengstenberg, Die Authentie des Pentateuchs, Berlin, 1836, 1839 (i. 181-414 contains an epoch-making proof of the meaning and intentional use of the names of God); M. Drechsler, Die Einheit und Echtheit der Genesis, 1838 (including Nachweis der Einheit und Planmässigkeit der Genesis); FH Ranke, Untersuchungen über den Pentateuch, Erlangen, 1834-40; IH Kurtz, Die Einheit der Genesis, 1846; C. Keil, Ueber die Gottesnamen im Pentateuch, in Zeitschrift für Lutherische Theologie und Kirche, 1851, pp. 215-280; J. Halévy, Recherches Bibliques, i.东西亨斯,模具Authentie德Pentateuchs,柏林,1836年,1839年(一181-414包含一个划时代的意义和证明的神的名字故意使用);米德雷克斯勒,模具Einheit有限公司Echtheit明镜成因,1838 (包括Nachweis明镜Einheit有限公司Planmässigkeit明镜成因);跳频兰克,Untersuchungen黚书斋五,埃尔兰根,1834年至1840年,希库尔茨,模具Einheit明镜成因,1846年,三Keil公司,Ueber五死Gottesnamen即时在Zeitschrift毛皮Lutherische神学与教会,1851年,第215-280的J.哈莱维,秘密武器Bibliques岛 1895; WH Green, criticism of Harper, in Hebraica, v., vi., vii.; idem, The Unity of Genesis; EC Bissell, The Pentateuch, Its Origin and Structure, pp. 410-475, New York, 1885 (includes a voluminous bibliography on the Pentateuch). 1895年,瓦绿色,哈珀批评,在Hebraica,五,六,七。。同上,创世纪的团结;欧共体比斯尔,摩西五,其来源和结构,第410-475,纽约,1885年(包括一个长篇书目的​​五)。 BJ北京

-Critical View:临界查看:

Genesis forms part of the Hexateuch.创世记形式的Hexateuch的一部分。As such it is regarded by the critical schools as a composite work, containing data from P and JE, the latter a history which, itself a combination of two distinct compilations-one, northern or Israelitish, E; the other, southern or Judean, J-tells in detail and in popular style the story of Israel from the beginning of things to the completed conquest of Canaan.因此,它被视为是一个综合的工作作为学校的关键,包含从P和流行性乙型脑炎,后者的历史数据,本身是两个不同的汇编一,北部或Israelitish,电子商务相结合,另一方面,南部或朱迪亚,日本告诉了详细的流行风格的以色列从到完成征服迦南的东西开始的故事。 In addition to these elements, some independent material is distinguished from that ascribed to the sources named; and editorial comments (R) and changes have been separated in the critical analysis.除了这些因素,一些独立的材料是区别于归功于来源命名的;和(R)的编辑评论和修改意见已在关键的分析分开。There is practical unanimity among critics with regard to the character of P and what must be assigned to him.有实际一致方面的P字之间的批评,什么必须指派给他。Elements.元素。

The P elements in Genesis consist of a series of interconnected genealogies, uniform in plan, and always prefaced by the introductory phrase "These are the generations of."在创世纪的p元素包括一系列相互关联的族谱系列,在统一规划,并总是开头一句开头“这是几代人。”Connected with them is a scheme of Chronology around which a few historical glosses are grouped.与他们有联系,是一个计划的年表围绕一些历史美化进行分组。In fuller detail the stories of Abraham's covenant and his purchase of a burialplace at Hebron are elaborated.在全面详细亚伯拉罕的约和他的一个在希伯伦burialplace购买的故事阐述。The accounts of Creation (see Cosmogony) and of the Flood are also given fuller treatment.创作(见宇宙起源)和洪水的帐目也给予充分的治疗。It would thus seem that P presupposes acquaintance with and the existence of a history or histories of the Patriarchs and of the times preceding theirs.因此,这将似乎磷前提熟人和历史或始祖和时代的前面他们的历史的存在。P is thus a work of a student aiming to present certain ideas and emphasizing certain conclusions.因此,P是一个以目前的某些思想,并强调某些结论,学生的工作。He traces the origin of Israel and his descendants as the one family chosen from among all the children of Adam.他回顾了从起源和以色列之间的所有儿童的亚当选择了一个家庭的后代。He lays particular stress on the religious institutions; eg, the Sabbath ordained by God Himself at the completion of the week of Creation; the command to abstain from partaking of blood; the covenant of circumcision; and the purity of the Israelitish stock (contrast Esau's marriages with Jacob's).他侧重于宗教机构特别强调,例如,由上帝命定于一周的创作完成的安息日,而命令放弃血戒;割礼的盟约和的israelitish股票(对比以扫的纯度与Jacob的婚姻)。

The theory has been advanced that P is based on J, his story of Creation presupposing the use of historical and traditional material collected in J. On the whole, this may be admitted; but it is also plain that for the P account of the Creation and the Flood Babylonian sources and information were drawn upon.该理论已被先进的P是基于J,他的预先假定了在J.收集的整个历史和传统材料的利用创新的故事,这可能是承认,但它也清楚,对于P帐户的创造和巴比伦洪水来源和信息后,得出。 The theology of P is of a high order.神学的P是一个高的顺序。God is One; He is supramundane.神既是一位,他是supramundane。Creation is a transcendental, free act of the Absolute Creator (hence ).创新是一个先验的,绝对的造物主(因此)自由的行为。In history are revealed a divine plan and purpose.在历史上是揭示了神的计划和目的。God communicates His decrees directly without the intervention of angels or dreams, and without recourse to theophanies.上帝传达他的法令而直接或梦的天使干预,不诉诸theophanies。He is Elohim for Noah, El Shaddai for Abraham, and Yhwh for Israel.他是诺亚,萨尔瓦多代的亚伯拉罕,耶和华以色列莹。Anthropomorphisms are few and inoffensive.Anthropomorphisms很少,无害的。This theology reveals the convictions and reflections of a late epoch in Israel's religious and historical development.这揭示了神学信念和在以色列的宗教和历史发展的时代后期的思考。JE, after the elimination of P, presents an almost unbroken narrative.流行性乙型脑炎,消除后的P,提出了一个几乎完整的叙述。 In the earlier chapters J alone has been incorporated; E begins abruptly in Gen. xx.在前面几章Ĵ单已被纳入é突然开始在将军二十。It is a moot point whether E contained originally a primeval history parallel to that now preserved in Genesis from J. That of the latter, as incorporated in the pre-Abrahamic chapters, is not consistent throughout; especially do the account of the Flood, the fragments of a genealogy of Seth, and other portions suggest the use of traditions, probably Babylonian, which did not originally form part of J.这是一个有争议的问题是否E所载原本是原始的历史平行的,现在保留下来的j.在后者的成因,如前亚伯拉罕的章节成立的,是不是一致的,尤其是做那场洪水的帐户,一塞特家谱,并建议其他部分片段的传统,大概巴比伦,使用没有原来的部分形成了J.

Legends.传说。

JE, as far as Genesis is concerned, must be regarded as compilations of stories which long before their reduction to written form had been current orally among the people.流行性乙型脑炎,据创世纪来说,必须被视为是很久以前他们减少书面形式已经口头人民之间的最新报道汇编。These stories in part were not of Canaanitish-Hebrew origin.这些故事中的一部分,不属于迦南-希伯来文的起源。They represent Semitic and perhaps other cycles of popular and religious tales ("Sagen") which antedate the differentiation of the Semitic family into Hebrews, Arabs, etc., or, migrating from one to the other of the Semitic groups after their separation, came to the Hebrews from non- Semitic peoples; hence the traces of Babylonian, Egyptian, Phenician, Aramaic, and Ishmaelitish influence.他们代表犹太人,也许其他周期的流行和宗教故事(“Sagen”),其中antedate的犹太人家庭为希伯来人,阿拉伯人等,或从一个迁移后分离到其他的犹太人群体,分化,来到对非犹太人的希伯来人,因此巴比伦,埃及,Phenician,阿拉姆语和Ishmaelitish影响的痕迹。 Some of the narratives preserve ancient local traditions, centered in an ancient religious sanctuary; others reflect the temper and exhibit thecoloring of folk-tales, stories in which the rise and development of civilization and the transition from pastoral to agricultural life are represented as the growth and development of individuals.保留的叙述一些古老的地方传统,在一个古老的宗教圣殿为中心,其他人反映的脾气和展示的民间故事,故事中的崛起thecoloring的和文明的发展和过渡从牧区向农业生活的人的成长,占和发展个人。 Others, again, personify and typify the great migratory movements of clans and tribes, while still others are the precipitate of great religious changes (eg, human sacrifices are supplanted by animal ones).其他人,再次,人格化和脸谱的氏族和部落大迁徙运动,而还有一些是大(例如,人类的牺牲是由动物的取代)的宗教变化沉淀。 The relations and interrelations of the tribes, septs, and families, based upon racial kinship or geographical position, and sometimes expressive of racial and tribal animosities and antipathies, are also concreted in individual events.的关系和部落,septs,并呼吁亲属关系或地理位置种族家庭,基于相互关系,有时种族和部落的仇恨和厌恶的表现,也混凝土在个别事件。 In all this there is not the slightest trace of artificiality.在所有这一切丝毫没有人工的痕迹。This process is the spontaneous assertion of the folk-soul ("Volksseele").这个过程是民俗的灵魂(“Volksseele”)自发的断言。These traditions are the spontaneous creation of popular interpretation of natural and historical sentiments and recollections of remote happenings.这些传统,是对自然和历史的感情和远程精彩回忆自发创造流行的解释。The historical and theological interpretations of life, law, custom, and religion in its institutions have among all men at one time taken this form.生活,法律,风俗的历史和神学的解释,并在其宗教彼此间机构在同一时间采取这种形式的所有男性。The mythopeic tendency and faculty are universal.该mythopeic趋势和教员都具有普遍性。The explanations of names which exhibit signs of being the result of intentional reflection, are, perhaps, alone artificial.它的名字被反射的故意造成迹象的,解释是,或许,仅人为的。

Compilation.编纂。

Naturally, in the course of oral transmission these traditions were modified in keeping with the altered conditions and religious convictions of the narrators.当然,在这些过程中的口头传播与传统进行了修改,改变条件和讲解员宗教信念一致。Compiled at a time when literary skill had only begun to assert itself, many cycles of patriarchal histories must have been current in written form prior to the collections now distinguished by critics as E and J. Criticism has to a great extent overlooked the character of both of these sources as compilations.一次编译当文学技巧才开始断言本身,许多周期的重男轻女的历史必须是当前以书面形式之前,现在已经被批评的批评和J. é尊敬的藏品曾在很大程度上忽略了这两个字符作为汇编这些来源。It has been too free in looking upon them as works of a discriminating litterateur and historian.它一直在寻找对他们太自由作为文学家和历史学家的作品歧视。P may be of this nature, but not J and E. Hence any theory on the literary method and character of either is forced to admit so many exceptions as to vitiate the fundamental assumption. P可能是这种性质的,但不是J和E因此,任何对文学的方法和理论,也可以是字符被迫承认,以损及基本假设这么多例外。In E are found traits (elaborations, personal sentiment) ascribed exclusively to J; while J, in turn, is not free from the idiosyncrasies of E.在E发现性状(阐述,个人情绪)归因于专门为焦耳;而J,反过来,是不是从E的特质自由

Nor did R (the editor, editors, or diaskeuasts) proceed mechanically, though the purely literary dissection on anatomical lines affected by the higher criticism would lead one to believe he did.也没有住宅(编辑器,编辑,或diaskeuasts)进行机械,虽然对上级的批评纯粹的文学影响解剖解剖线会导致一至认为他做到了。 He, too, had a soul.他也有一个灵魂。He recast his material in the molds of his own religious convictions.他改写了自己在宗教信念的模具他的材料。The Midrashic method antedates the rabbinical age.该Midrashic方法antedates犹太教的年龄。This injection of life into old traditional material unified the compilation.这样的生活到老传统材料注入统一汇编。 P's method, rightly regarded as under theological intention ("Tendenz"), was also that of R. Hence Genesis, notwithstanding the compilatory character of its sources, the many repetitions and divergent versions of one and the same event, the duplications and digressions, makes on the whole the impression of a coherent work, aiming at the presentation of a well-defined view of history, viz., the selection of the sons of Israel as the representative exponents of Yhwh's relations to the sons of Adam, a selection gradually brought about by the elimination of side lines descended, like Israel, from the common progenitor Adam, the line running from Adam to Noah-to Abraham-to Jacob = Israel. P的方法,正确地根据神学意图(“Tendenz”),也即R的成因,因此,尽管编纂的性质及其来源,许多重复和不同版本的同一事件,重复和离题,使得整体上了一个连贯的工作印象,在一个历史的明确看法,即表现为目标。,对作为耶和华的关系对亚当,一个选择逐步的儿子代表指数的以色列人选择所带来的边线消除的后裔,如以色列,从共同的祖先亚当,上线运行从亚当到诺亚,亚伯拉罕,雅各=以色列。

Later Additions.稍后补充。

Chapter xiv.第十四章。has been held to be a later addition, unhistorical and belonging to none of the sources.已被认为是一个后来此外,文保和归属感的来源没有。Yet the story contains old historical material.然而,这个故事包含了古老的历史材料。The information must be based on Babylonian accounts (Hommel, "Alt-Israelitische Ueberlieferung," p. 153, speaks of an old Jerusalem tradition, and Dillmann, in his commentary, of a Canaanitish tradition; see Eliezer); the literary style is exact, giving accurate chronological data, as would a professional historian.这些信息必须立足于巴比伦帐户(霍梅尔,“按Alt - Israelitische Ueberlieferung,”第153页,讲一个老耶路撒冷的传统,并dillmann,在他的评论,一个迦南传统,见埃利泽)的文学风格是准确,给予准确的时间数据,作为一位专业的历史学家。 The purpose of the account is to glorify Abraham.该帐户的目的是为了荣耀亚伯拉罕。Hence it has been argued that this chapter betrays the spirit of the later Judaism.因此有人认为,这一章后来背叛了犹太教的精神。Chapter xlix., the blessing by Jacob, is also an addition; but it dates from the latter half of the period of the Judges (K. Kohler, "Der Segen Jacob's"). 。第三章第四十九届,由雅各福,也是除,但它从时间的法官(K.科勒,“明镜Segen雅各布的”)下半年的日期。The theory that the Patriarchs especially, and the other personages of Genesis, represent old, astral deities, though again advanced in a very learned exposition by Stucken ("Astral Mythen"), has now been generally abandoned.EGH该理论认为,始祖特别是和其他人士的成因,代表老,星体神,但再先进的一个Stucken非常博学博览会(“星光Mythen”),目前已被普遍abandoned.EGH

Benno Jacob, Emil G. Hirsch本诺雅各布,埃米尔g.赫希

Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。



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The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at:的, 主要相信网页(和索引科目),是在:
BELIEVE Religious Information Source相信宗教信息来源
http://mb-soft.com/believe/beliecha.html