Jews犹太人

General Information一般资料

The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism.犹太人是一个人从圣经谁跟踪他们的后裔,谁以色列人被称为犹太教的宗教团结。They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements.他们不是一个种族;犹太身份是种族,民族和宗教元素的混合体。An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his or her Jewish identity.个人可以通过转换成为犹太教的犹太人民的一部分,而是一个出生的犹太人谁反对犹太教或采用其他宗教并没有完全失去他或她的犹太身份。

The word Jew is derived from the kingdom of Judah, which included 2 of the 12 Israelite tribes.这个词是来自犹太人的犹太王国,其中包括12个以色列人部落2。The name Israel referred to the people as a whole and especially to the northern kingdom of 10 tribes.以色列称的名称作为一个整体的人,特别是北部的10部落王国。Today it is used as a collective name for all Jewry and since 1948 for the Jewish state.今天,它是用来作为集体所有的犹太人的名字,自1948年对这个犹太国家。(Citizens of the state of Israel are called Israelis; not all of them are Jews.) In the Bible, Hebrew is used by foreign peoples as a name for the Israelites; today it is applied only to the Hebrew Language. (以色列国的公民被称为以色列人;。并非全部是犹太人)在圣经,希伯来文是使用外国人民作为以色列人的名字,如今只适用于希伯来语。

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Biblical Period圣经时期

The origin of the Jews is recounted in the Hebrew Bible (called the "Old Testament" by Christians).犹太人的起源是叙述在希伯来文圣经(所谓的“旧约”的基督教徒)。Despite legendary and miraculous elements in its early narratives, most scholars believe that the biblical account is based on historic realities.尽管在其早期的叙述传说和神奇的元素,多数学者认为,圣经的帐户是在历史现实的基础。According to the Book of Genesis God ordered the patriarch Abraham to leave his home in Mesopotamia and travel to a new land, which he promised to Abraham's descendants as a perpetual inheritance.根据创世记上帝命令书族长亚伯拉罕在美索不达米亚离开他的家和旅行到一个新的土地,这是他作为一个永久的承诺继承亚伯拉罕的子孙。 Although the historicity of Abraham, his son Isaac, and his grandson Jacob is uncertain, the Israelite tribes certainly came to Canaan (later Palestine) from Mesopotamia.虽然历史性的亚伯拉罕,他的儿子以撒,雅各和他的孙子是不确定的,部落的以色列人当然来到迦南(后来巴勒斯坦)从美索不达米亚。

Later they, or some of them, settled in Egypt, where they were reduced to slavery; they finally fled to freedom under the leadership of an extraordinary man named Moses, probably about 1200 BC.后来他们或其中一些,在埃及,他们在那里定居沦为奴隶,他们终于逃到自由下一个非凡的人叫摩西的领导下,公元前1200年左右可能。 After a period of desert wandering, the tribes invaded Canaan at different points, and over a lengthy period of time they gained control over parts of the country.经过沙漠流浪期间,部落入侵迦南的不同点,并在一段时间漫长时期,他们获得了超过该国部分地区的控制权。(It is uncertain if there is any connection between the Hebrews and the Habiru mentioned in 14th century BC Egyptian documents found at Tell el - Amarna.) (这是不确定的,如果有任何关系在14世纪的希伯来和发现告诉埃及公元前埃及文件中提到的Habiru连接 - 。阿玛纳)

Formation of a National Kingdom成立民族王国

For a century or more the tribes, loosely united and sometimes feuding among themselves, were hard pressed by Canaanite forces based in fortified strongholds and by marauders from outside.对于一个世纪或更多的部落,松散联合,有时它们之间的争斗,是很难在迦南强化据点的部队和外来掠夺者的压力。At critical moments tribal chieftains (traditionally called judges) rose to lead the people in battle.在关键时刻(传统上被称为法官)部落首领上升导致在战斗中的人。But when the Philistines threatened the very existence of the Israelites, the tribes formed a kingdom under the rule (1020 - 1000 BC) of Saul, of the tribe of Benjamin.但是,当非利士人威胁到了以色列人的存在,各部族的统治下形成的王国(1020至1000年BC)的扫罗,便雅悯支派。 Saul died fighting the Philistines, and was succeeded by David of the tribe of Judah.扫罗战死的非利士人,是由大卫成功的犹太部落。

David crushed the Philistine power and established a modest empire.大卫粉碎了庸俗的权力,建立一个适度的帝国。He conquered the fortress city of Jerusalem, which up to that time had been controlled by a Canaanite tribe, and made it his capital.他征服了耶路撒冷,其中最多的时间已经由一个迦南部落控制的要塞城市,并以此作为自己的资本。 His son Solomon assumed the trappings of a potentate and erected the Temple in Jerusalem, which became the central sanctuary of the distinctive monotheistic Israelite religion and ultimately the spiritual center of world Jewry.他的儿子所罗门承担了一个当权者的服饰和竖立在耶路撒冷,这成为了独特的宗教一神教以色列人中央圣殿,并最终对世界犹太人的精神中心圣殿。

Division, Conquest, and Exile司,征服,和流亡

The national union effected by David was shaky.全国联盟是由大卫影响摇摇欲坠。The economically and culturally advanced tribes of the north resented the rule of kings from pastoral Judah, and after Solomon's death the kingdom was divided.在经济上和文化上先进的北方部落憎恨犹大诸王的统治从牧区,经过所罗门死后,王国被划分。The larger and richer northern kingdom was known as Israel; Judah, with Benjamin, remained loyal to the family of David.较大和更丰富的北方王国被称为以色列,犹大与便雅悯,仍然忠于家庭的大卫。Israel experienced many dynastic changes and palace revolutions.以色列经历了许多朝代的变化和宫廷革命。Both Israel and Judah, located between the empires of Egypt and Assyria, were caught in the struggle between the two great powers.以色列和犹大,埃及和亚述之间的帝国位于,被夹在两个大国之间的斗争。Assyria was the dominant empire during the period of the divided kingdom.亚述是分裂的过程中王国时期占主导地位的帝国。When Israel, with Egyptian encouragement, tried to throw off Assyrian rule, it was destroyed and a large number of its inhabitants were deported (722 BC).当以色列与埃及的鼓励下,试图摆脱亚述人的规则,它被摧毁,其居民大批驱逐(722年)。

Judah managed to outlive the Assyrian Empire (destroyed c. 610), but the Chaldean (Neo Babylonian) Empire that replaced it also insisted on control of Judah.犹大成功地经受住了亚述帝国(销毁角610),但迦勒(新巴比伦)帝国,取代它也坚持对犹大控制。When a new revolt broke out under Egyptian influence, the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple (587 or 586 BC); the royalty, nobility, and skilled craftsmen were deported to Babylonia.当一个新的起义爆发出埃及的影响下,根据尼布甲尼撒二世摧毁耶路撒冷和迦勒底人焚烧寺(587或586年);的皇室成员,贵族和熟练技工被驱逐到巴比伦。

Loss of state and Temple, however, did not lead to the disappearance of the Judeans, as it did in the northern kingdom.国家和寺损失,然而,并没有导致对犹大的消失,因为它没有在英国北部。The peasantry that remained on the land, the refugees in Egypt, and the exiles in Babylonia retained a strong faith in their God and the hope of ultimate restoration.农民的土地上仍然存在,在埃及的难民,并在巴比伦流亡者在他们的神保留了强大的信仰和最终恢复的希望。This was largely due to the influence of the great Prophets.这主要是由于伟大的先知的影响。Their warnings of doom had been fulfilled; therefore, the hopeful message they began to preach was believed.末日的警告已得到满足,因此,有希望的讯息,他们开始鼓吹相信。The universal prophetic teaching assured Jews that they could still worship their God on alien soil and without a temple.通用预言教学保证犹太人,他们仍然可以崇拜他们的神,没有外来的土壤和寺庙。Henceforth the Jewish people and religion could take root in the dispersion (Diaspora) as well as in the homeland.此后,犹太人和宗教可以采取分散根(侨民),以及在国内。

Return to Palestine回到巴勒斯坦

Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia in 536 BC.波斯的居鲁士大帝在公元前536年征服巴比伦。Subsequently he permitted the exiles to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple.随后,他允许流亡者返回犹大和重建圣殿。(Many chose, however, to remain in Mesopotamia, where the Jewish community existed without interruption for more than 2,500 years until the virtual elimination of Jewish presence in Iraq after World War II.) Leadership of the reviving Judean center was provided largely by returning exiles - notably Nehemiah, an important official of the Persian court, and Ezra, a learned priest. (许多选择,但是,留在美索不达米亚,那里的犹太社区存在超过2500年不中断,直到犹太人彻底消灭在伊拉克的存在第二次世界大战后。)的振兴提供了犹太中心的领导主要由流亡者回国 - 特别是尼希米记,一个是波斯法院的重要官员,以斯拉,有学问的牧师。They rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem and consolidated spiritual life by a public ceremony of allegiance to the Torah (Law of Moses) and by stringent rules against mixed marriage.他们重建了一个公开仪式效忠的律法(摩西律法)和严格的规则对异族通婚的耶路撒冷和巩固精神生活的墙壁。In the following centuries leadership was provided mainly by priests, who claimed descent from Moses' brother Aaron; the high priest usually represented the people in dealings with the foreign powers that successively ruled the land.在随后的几个世纪的领导提供了主要由牧师,谁声称从摩西的兄弟亚伦后裔;大祭司通常代表先后与该外国列强统治的土地交易的人。

Hellenistic and Roman Periods古希腊和罗马时期

The available information about the Persian period is meager.关于波斯时期的资料是少之又少。Alexander the Great conquered Palestine in 322; his successors, the Macedonian rulers of Egypt (the Ptolemies) and Syria (the Seleucids) vied for control of this strategically important area; eventually the Syrians won.亚历山大大帝征服了巴勒斯坦在322,他的继任者,埃及(即托勒密)和叙利亚(在塞留西士)对本战略的重要地区的控制权争夺马其顿的统治者,最终叙利亚人韩元。 Hellenistic influences penetrated Jewish life deeply, but when the Seleucid king Antiochus IV tried to impose the worship of Greek gods upon the Jews, a rebellion ensued (168 BC).古希腊的犹太人的生活深深地渗透影响,但是当塞琉西国王安条克四世曾经强加于犹太人的希腊诸神的崇拜,随之而来的叛乱(公元前168年)。

The Maccabees马加比

The popular revolt was led by the Maccabees, a provincial priestly family (also called Hasmoneans).流行的起义领导的马加比,一个省级牧师家庭(也称为哈斯摩年王朝)。By 165 they recaptured the Temple, which had been converted into a pagan shrine, and rededicated it to the God of Israel.165他们夺回庙,这已成为一个异教神殿转换,重新致力于给以色列的神。Hostilities with Syria continued; but Simon, the last of the Maccabean brothers, consolidated his power and was formally recognized in 131 BC as ruler and high priest.与叙利亚的敌对行动继续,但西蒙,最后的Maccabean兄弟,巩固自己的权力,正式在131作为统治者和大祭司公元前确认。 His successors took the title of king and for about a century ruled an independent commonwealth.他的继任者宣读国王的标题和大约一个世纪统治的独立联邦。Dynastic quarrels, however, gave the Roman general Pompey the Great an excuse to intervene and make himself master of the country in 63 BC.王朝争吵,但是,给罗马将军庞培大借口进行干预,使自己在63年代的国家的主人。

The Herodians在希律党

In subsequent decades a family of Idumaean adventurers ingratiated themselves with the successive Roman dictators; with Roman help, Herod the Great made himself ruler of Judea, eventually (37 BC) with the title of king.在随后的几十年来在Idumaean冒险家与家庭献媚连续罗马的独裁者,与罗马的帮助下,大希律王的朱迪亚使自己的统治者,最终与王的称号(37年)。 Able but ruthless, he was hated by the people, although he rebuilt the Temple with great magnificence.能力但无情的,他恨的人,虽然他非常隆重重建圣殿。The Romans allowed Herod's sons less authority and in 6 BC put the country formally under the control of their own officials, known as procurators.罗马人允许希律王的儿子少的权威和在公元前6年置于自己的检察官员称,该国的正式控制。

New spiritual forces emerged during the Maccabean and Herodian periods.新的精神力量出现在Maccabean和希律时期。The leadership of hereditary priests was contested by laymen distinguished for their learning and piety, who won the respect and support of the people.遗传性的领导提出异议祭司为他们的学习和虔诚,谁赢得了尊重和人民的支持杰出的门外汉。The priestly conservatives came to be known as Sadducees, the more progressive lay party as the Pharisees.保守派的祭司撒都该人后来被称为更进步奠定了作为党的法利赛人。The latter came to dominate the Sanhedrin, which was the highest religious and legal authority of the nation.后者来主宰公会,这是最高的宗教和国家法律的权威。

Burdened by excessive taxation and outraged by acts of brutality, the Judeans became more and more restive under Roman rule, all the more because they were confident that God would ultimately vindicate them.背负着过多的税收和残暴行为的愤怒,在罗马统治下的犹大成为越来越多的动荡,更因为他们相信,上帝会最终佐证了他们。Revolutionary groups such as the Zealots emerged calling for armed revolt.如出现狂热革命武装叛乱团体呼吁。The Sadducees were inclined to collaborate with the Romans; the Pharisees advocated passive resistance but sought to avoid open war.撒都该人倾向于合作与罗马人;主张消极抵抗,但试图避免公开的战争法利。

The Era of Revolts and the Mishnah and Talmud时代的起义和米示拿和塔木德

The Great Revolts大暴动

In 66 AD the moderates could no longer control the desperate populace, and rebellion against Roman tyranny broke out.在公元66温和派再也无法​​控制绝望的民众,对罗马暴政和叛乱爆发。After bitter fighting the Romans captured Jerusalem and burned the Temple in 70; at Masada the Zealots held out until 73, when most of the 1,000 surviving defenders killed themselves to defy capture by the Romans.经过激烈战斗,罗马人占领耶路撒冷和圣殿烧毁70;在马萨达举行,直至73时,幸存的1000维护者最痴迷者自杀了违抗捕获由罗马人。 As a result of the revolt thousands of Jews were sold into slavery and thus were scattered widely in the Roman world.由于成千上万的犹太人起义结果被卖作奴隶,从而分散在罗马世界广泛。The last vestiges of national autonomy were obliterated.对民族区域自治的最后残余被抹杀。

The Pharisaic leaders, shortly thereafter given the title of Rabbi (Hebrew, "my teacher"), rallied the people for a new undertaking - the reconstruction of religious and social life.的Pharisaic领导人,此后不久,鉴于拉比(希伯来文,“我的老师”),标题凝聚了一个新的事业的人 - 宗教和社会生活的重建。Using the institution of the Synagogue as a center of worship and education, they adapted religious practice to new conditions.利用作为一个犹太教堂崇拜和教育中心的机构,他们的宗教活动适应新的情况。Their assembly, the Sanhedrin, was reconvened at Jabneh, and its head was recognized by the Romans and given the title of patriarch; the Diaspora Jews accepted his authority and that of the Sanhedrin in matters of Jewish law.他们的集会,公会,是重新召开Jabneh,其头部被罗马人承认并考虑到老人家称号;散居犹太人接受了他的权威,而公会的犹太法律事务。 The leaders of the Jabneh period included Johanan Ben Zakkai, Gamaliel of Jabneh, and Akiba Ben Joseph.该Jabneh时期的领导人包括约哈本Zakkai,对Jabneh加马,和秋叶本约瑟夫。

Many Diaspora Jewish communities rebelled against Rome early in the 2d century; however, their rebellions were crushed, with much bloodshed.许多散居犹太人社区反抗罗马早在2世纪,但是,他们的叛乱被粉碎,用得多流血。Still more bitter was the revolt of Palestinian Jewry led by Bar Kochba in 132; it was put down after three years of savage fighting.但更痛苦的是由132个律师Kochba领导的巴勒斯坦犹太人起义,这是把经过三年的野蛮多年战斗下来。 For a time thereafter observance of basic Jewish practices was made a capital crime, and Jews were banned from Jerusalem.此后有一段时间遵守的基本做法作了犹太资本罪,犹太人从耶路撒冷禁止。Under the Antonine emperors (138 - 92), however, milder policies were restored, and the work of the scholars was resumed, particularly in Galilee, which became the seat of the patriarchate until its abolition (c. 429) by the Romans.根据安东尼皇帝(138 - 92),但是,温和的政策得到恢复,以及恢复工作的学者,特别是在加利利,成为直到其废除了东正教会的座位,(约429)由罗马人。There the sages called tannaim completed the redaction of the Mishnah (oral law) under the direction of Judah Ha - Nasi.还有所谓的圣贤下完成tannaim犹大哈方向的米示拿(口服法)节录 - 纳西。

Babylonian Community巴比伦社区

In the 3d and 4th centuries scholarly activity in Palestine declined as a result of bad economic conditions and oppression by Christian Rome.在3D和第四世纪在巴勒斯坦学术活动婉拒了恶劣的经济条件和基督教的罗马压迫的结果。Meanwhile, two Babylonian pupils of Judah ha - Nasi had returned home, bringing the Mishnah with them, and established new centers of learning at Sura and Nehardea.与此同时,两个巴比伦犹太学生公顷 - 纳西已经返回家园,带着他们的mishnah,并建立了在苏拉和Nehardea学习新的中心。A period of great scholarly accomplishment followed, and leadership of world Jewry passed to the Babylonian schools.一个伟大的学术素养期次之,世界领导传递到巴比伦的犹太人学校。The Babylonian Talmud became the standard legal work for Jews everywhere.巴比伦塔木德犹太人成为标准的法律工作无处不在。 Babylonian Jewry enjoyed peace and prosperity under the Parthian and Sassanian rulers, with only occasional episodes of persecution.巴比伦的犹太人享有的帕提亚和波斯萨珊统治者的和平与繁荣,与迫害只是偶尔发作。 In addition to the heads of the academies, the Jews had a secular ruler, the exilarch.除元首的院校,犹太人有一个世俗的统治者,exilarch。

This situation was not significantly changed by the Muslim conquest of the Persian empire.这种状况没有明显改变的波斯帝国征服穆斯林。At the end of the 6th century, the heads of the academies had adopted the title of gaon (Hebrew, "excellency"), and the next four centuries are known as the gaonic period; communities throughout the world turned to the Babylonian leaders for help in understanding the Talmud and applying it to new problems.在6世纪结束时,元首的院校已通过了gaon的标题(希伯来文,“大人”),接下来是四个世纪的gaonic时期的所知;世界各地的社区求助于巴比伦的领袖在理解并应用到塔木德新问题。 About 770 the sect of Karaites, biblical literalists who rejected the Talmud, appeared in Babylonia.约770节的卡拉派信徒,圣经literalists谁拒绝了塔木德,出现在巴比伦。Despite the vigorous opposition of the great Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon and other leaders, the Karaites continued to flourish for centuries in various lands; today the sect has only a few small remnants.尽管伟大Saadia本约瑟夫gaon的和其他领导人强烈反对,继续蓬勃发展的卡拉在不同土地世纪,今天该教派只有一些小残余。

The Middle Ages中世纪

The Sephardim该Sephardim

The last influential gaon died in 1038, but as the eastern center was declining, creative forces emerged in North Africa and especially in Muslim Spain.最后一个有影响力的gaon的死于1038年,但由于东部的中心却在不断下降,创造性力量出现在北非,特别是在穆斯林西班牙。 The Christian Visigoths had all but exterminated the Spanish Jewish communities dating from Roman times, but the tolerant Arab rulers who conquered southern Spain were generally reasonable in their treatment of the Jews.基督教西哥特人几乎灭绝了从罗马时代的西班牙犹太社区交友,但宽容谁征服了西班牙南部的阿拉伯统治者普遍的犹太人在他们的治疗是合理的。 (The Jews of Spain, Portugal, and the Middle Eastern countries and their descendants are known as Sephardim. They differ somewhat in their rituals, customs, and life style and in their pronunciation of Hebrew from the Ashkenazim, Jews of other European countries and their descendants.) (西班牙,葡萄牙犹太人和中东国家和他们的后代被称为Sephardim。有所不同,他们在他们的礼仪,习俗和生活方式,并在其希伯来文发音从德系犹太人,其他欧洲国家的犹太人和他们的后裔。)

Jews participated in the Arab cultural renaissance.犹太人参加了阿拉伯文化的复兴。They wrote in Arabic on science, philosophy, grammar, and rhetoric; they also produced notable biblical commentaries, legal works, and outstanding Hebrew poetry.他们写的阿拉伯文科学,哲学,语法,修辞,他们也产生了显着的圣经评论,法律著作和优秀希伯来诗歌。(Among the scholars of this period were Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Judah Ha - Levi, Levi Ben Gershon, and the great Maimonides.) But this golden age was not entirely without problems. (均在这一时期的学者所罗门伊本盖比鲁勒,犹大公顷 - 利维,列维本革顺,伟大的迈蒙尼德。)但是这个黄金年龄并不是完全没有问题。Muslim religious leaders and many of the common people resented the authority entrusted by their monarchs to Jewish statesmen and bankers.穆斯林宗教领袖和许多普通百姓不满的权力赋予他们的君主犹太政治家和银行家。In the 12th century the Almohads, a fanatical sect from North Africa, took control of Muslim Spain, and the Jews had to choose between Islam, martyrdom, and flight.在12世纪的阿尔摩哈德王朝,一个来自北非狂热教派,控制了穆斯林西班牙,和犹太人之间作出选择伊斯兰教,烈士和飞行。 Many found a precarious refuge in northern Spain, where Christian rulers found Jews useful to them in their effort to reconquer the peninsula.在西班牙北部的许多发现,在基督教的统治者发现在他们的努力夺回半岛的犹太人对他们有用岌岌可危的避难所。

Fanaticism continually stirred the Spanish mobs.不断激起狂热的西班牙暴徒。In 1391 thousands of Jews were massacred and thousands more were converted by force or accepted baptism to save their lives.在1391年成千上万的犹太人被杀害,数千人被强迫接受洗礼,转换或以挽救他们的生命。These "new Christians" (also known as Marranos, Spanish for "swine") were suspected of practicing Judaism in secret; it was largely to ferret out these Marranos that the Inquisition was introduced.这些“新基督徒”(也称为Marranos知名度,“猪”西班牙)被怀疑从事秘密犹太教,它主要是要找出这些Marranos,宗教裁判所进行了介绍。 Many Marranos rose to high posts in the court and in the church, but they were constantly spied on, and many perished in the autos - da - fe, festive celebrations in which heretics were burned at the stake.许多Marranos上升到法庭和教会高级职位,但他们在不断地刺探,许多汽车在灭亡 - 达 - 铁,其中异端被处以火刑节日庆祝活动。Such tragic events stimulated the spread among Spanish Jews of the mystical doctrines of Kabbalah.这种悲惨事件刺激了在西班牙的犹太人的卡巴拉神秘教义的传播。

Once the last Muslim rulers were driven out and Spain was united under Ferdinand II and Isabella I, all professing Jews had to choose between baptism and expulsion.一旦最后的穆斯林统治者被赶出和西班牙正在费迪南二世和伊莎贝拉一世统一,所有自称犹太人之间作出选择的洗礼和驱逐。 In August 1492 most of them left Spain in search of new homes.在1492年8月,大部分留在西班牙寻找新的家园。Under Spanish pressure, Portugal expelled its Jews in 1498.根据西班牙的压力,葡萄牙在1498年被驱逐的犹太人。The exiles found refuge in North Africa, Italy, and especially in the Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans.流亡者发现在北非,意大利庇护所,特别是在奥斯曼帝国,包括巴尔干问题。

The Ashkenazim在德系犹太人

Jews had lived in Italy, Germany, France, and the Low Countries since Roman times and in England since the Norman Conquest (1066).犹太人一直住在意大利,德国,法国和低地国家自罗马时代以来,在英格兰诺曼征服(1066年)。 They were generally secure during the early Middle Ages, and because they had ties with other Jews in distant lands, they played a considerable role in international trade.他们普遍安全,在中世纪早期,因为他们已经与其他犹太人在遥远的土地关系,他们在国际贸易中起到了相当大的作用。Conditions changed drastically, however, during the Crusades (beginning 1096), when whole communities in France and Germany were massacred.急剧变化的条件,但是,在十字军东征(1096年初),当法国和德国在整个社区被打死。During the Black Death (1347 - 51 - Bubonic Plague), Jews were accused of poisoning wells; further violence was roused by accusations of ritual murder and of desecrating the Eucharist.在黑死病(1347 - 51 - 腺鼠疫),犹太人被指控中毒水井,进一步的暴力行为被惊醒了仪式谋杀指控和侮辱圣体。

Nevertheless, Jews were needed in the very countries that persecuted them.然而,犹太人就需要在他们的迫害非常的国家。Medieval Christian doctrine forbade Christians to take interest on loans; as a result, Jews were required to engage in money lending.中世纪的基督教教义禁止基督徒以贷款利息,这样一来,犹太人被要求从事金钱借贷。The royal treasuries took a large part of the profits, and the Jews bore the popular resentment against usurers.皇家国债采取了很大一部分的利润,并承担了对犹太人高利贷者民怨。In general, they were excluded from ownership of land and from the guilds that controlled the skilled trades.一般来说,他们被排除在土地所有权和行会的控制技术行业。

When Christian money lenders learned to collect interest under other names, Jews were no longer needed.当基督教放债人学会了在其他收集金石,犹太人不再需要。They were expelled from England in 1290, and, after several earlier bans, finally from the kingdom of France in 1394.他们被驱逐出英国在1290年,并经过多次较早禁令,终于从法国在1394王国。In the German states, life for Jews was difficult and uncertain.在德国各州,对犹太人的生活困难和不确定的。Many moved eastward into Poland, which lacked a middle class with the financial and commercial skills Jews could provide.许多东移进入波兰,缺乏与金融和商业技能可以提供一个犹太人中产阶级。

The Ashkenazim were not exposed to a broad secular culture such as the Jews of Spain (and Provence) had enjoyed.在德系犹太人没有接触到广泛的世俗文化,如西班牙(和普罗旺斯)已享有犹太人。Theirs was a simple intense piety that repeatedly found expression in martyrdom.他们是一个简单的反复激烈虔诚发现殉难的表达。 Their scholars produced important commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, and works on Kabbalah.他们的学者制作圣经和犹太法典的重要评论文章,并在卡巴拉的作品。

Early Modern Period近代早期

The Ghetto贫民区

Jews had long been accustomed to living in neighborhoods of their own, for security and for ready access to a synagogue.犹太人早已习惯于生活在他们自己的,社区的安全和随时获得一座犹太教堂。From the 16th century, however, they were systematically compelled to live in walled enclosures, to be locked in at night and on Christian holidays, and to wear a distinguishing badge when outside the walls.从16世纪,然而,他们进行了系统被迫生活在围墙的外壳,将在夜间和节假日锁定基督教,并佩戴胸卡,当区分城外。 The Jewish quarter of Venice (established 1516) was called the Ghetto, and this local name became a general term for such segregated areas.威尼斯的犹太区(建立1516)被称为犹太人区,并成为这个地方的名字为这种隔离地区的总称。Cut off from normal relations with non Jews, few Jews had any idea of the cultural revival of the Renaissance (except in Italy) or of the scientific advances in the 16th and 17th centuries.切断正常关系与非犹太人关闭,一些犹太人(除意大利)或在16和17世纪的科学进步任何文艺复兴时期的文化复兴思想。 Even in the field of Jewish law they tended to a rigid conservatism.即使在犹太法律领域,他们往往僵化保守。

In Poland and Lithuania, social conditions also had a segregatory effect.在波兰和立陶宛,社会状况也有segregatory效果。The Jews continued to speak a German dialect, mixed with many Hebrew words and with borrowings from Slavic languages - now known as Yiddish.犹太人继续讲德语方言,许多希伯来文与斯拉夫文字和语言的混合贷款 - 现在已知的意第绪语。Intellectual life was focused on study of the Talmud, in which they achieved extraordinary mastery.知识分子的生命集中在塔木德,他们在取得了非凡的掌握学习。They enjoyed a large measure of self government, centralized in the Council of the Four Lands.他们享有很大程度的自治,在四会土地集中。

Persecutions became more frequent, however, inspired by competition from the growing Christian merchant class and by overly zealous churchmen.迫害变得更加频繁,然而,从不断增长的基督教商人阶级竞争和过分热心的牧师的启发。In 1648 a rebellion of Cossacks and Tatars in the Ukraine - then under Polish rule - led to an invasion of Poland, in which hundreds of thousands of Jews were massacred. 1648年的哥萨克和鞑靼人在乌克兰叛乱 - 然后根据波兰规则 - 导致了入侵波兰,其中数以十万计的犹太人被屠杀。Polish Jewry never recovered from this blow.波兰犹太人再也没有恢复过来,从这个打击。A little over a century later, Poland was partitioned (1772, 1793, 1795) among Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and most of Polish Jewry found itself under the heartless rule of the Russian tsars.一个小了一个多世纪后,波兰被分割(1772年,1793年,1795年)在普鲁士,奥地利,俄罗斯和波兰的犹太人最下找到了俄罗斯沙皇无情的规则本身。

Sectarian Responses to Persecution教派的迫害响应

In 1665 a Turkish Jew named Sabbatai Zevi proclaimed himself Messiah.在1665年土耳其犹太人名为萨瓦塔伊赛维自称弥赛亚。Throughout the years there had been a number of such messianic claimants, but none had received more than local support.纵观这几年里一直是这样的救世主的索赔数字,但都没有得到比本地支持更多。Sabbatai's announcement, however, evoked an unheard - of response; thousands of Jews from all over Europe and the Middle East sold their belongings and went to join Sabbatai in Palestine.萨瓦塔伊的公布,但是,诱发了闻所未闻的 - 响应,从欧洲和中东的所有出售他们的财物,前往参加在巴勒斯坦萨瓦塔伊成千上万的犹太人。Under threat of death Sabbatai adopted Islam, and the movement collapsed.在死亡的威胁萨瓦塔伊通过伊斯兰教,以及运动倒塌。

An outgrowth of the Sabbatean movement was the sect founded in 18th century Poland by Jacob Frank.作者Sabbatean运动的产物,是由雅各布弗兰克教派在18世纪波兰成立。The latter ultimately converted to Roman Catholicism, and his sect died out early in the 19th century.后者最终转化为罗马天主教和他的教派消失在19世纪初。

Poland was also the birthplace of Hasidism, the mystical sect founded by Baal Shem Tov.波兰也是的Ḥasidism,神秘的教派成立由巴尔闪Tov发源地。Although condemned by the rabbinic leadership, most notably by Elijah Ben Solomon, it established deep roots and became a significant social factor in the life of East European Jewry.虽然谴责拉比领导下,以利亚本所罗门群岛最值得注意的是,它建立了深厚根基,成为一个重大的东欧犹太人生活的社会因素。

Toward Emancipation走向解放

The successful revolt of the Netherlands against Spain during the 16th century encouraged a number of Marranos to flee Spain and Portugal and to settle in Amsterdam, where they formally returned to Judaism.作者:荷兰对西班牙在16世纪成功的起义鼓励了Marranos数逃离西班牙和葡萄牙,并定居在阿姆斯特丹,在那里他们正式回到犹太教。 Members of this Sephardic group later founded the Jewish communities in England, even before they were formally readmitted in 1656, and the New World; they were soon followed by larger numbers of Ashkenazim.这个小组的成员后来创立塞法迪在英国的犹太社区,甚至在他们正式在1656年重新接纳,与新的世界,他们很快被随后的德系犹太人的数目越多。

Western Developments西部发展之路

Some 18th century liberals began to advocate an improvement of Jewish status; at the same time Moses Mendelssohn and a few other Jews were urging their coreligionists to acquire secular education and prepare themselves to participate in the national life of their countries.一些18世纪的自由主义者开始提倡一对犹太地位的提高,在同一时间摩西门德尔松和其他一些犹太人被敦促其教友获得自己世俗教育,并准备参加各自国家的国民生活。 Such trends were intensified by the French Revolution.这种趋势加剧了法国大革命。The French National Assembly granted (1791) Jews citizenship, and Napoleon I, although not free from prejudice, extended these rights to Jews in the countries he conquered, and the ghettos were abolished.法国国民议会批准(1791年)犹太人的公民权,拿破仑一世,虽然没有摆脱偏见,扩大在这些国家,他征服了犹太人的权利,以及贫民区被废除。 After Napoleon's fall (1814 - 15), the German states revoked the rights he had granted the Jews, but the struggle for emancipation continued.在拿破仑的秋天(1814 - 15),德国国家给予撤销他的犹太人的权利,但争取解放的斗争仍在继续。

Equal rights were achieved in the Netherlands, and more slowly in Great Britain.平等权利是取得了荷兰,在英国更慢。Germany and Austria, even after 1870, discriminated against Jews in military and academic appointments; in these countries much popular hostility continued, now called Anti Semitism and supposedly justified on racial rather than religious grounds.德国和奥地利,即使1870年以后,受歧视在军事和学术任命犹太人在这些国家中许多受欢迎的敌意不断,现在所谓的反主义者,也应该基于种族理由而不是宗教的理由。 In the American colonies the Jews had suffered relatively minor disabilities; with the founding of the United States, Jews became full citizens - although in a few states discriminatory laws had to be fought.在美国殖民地,犹太人遭受了较为轻微的残疾,随着美国成立以来,犹太人成为正式公民 - 尽管在少数几个州的歧视性法律,必须战斗。

Jews entered the life of the Western world with keen enthusiasm; they contributed significantly to commercial, scientific, cultural, and social progress.犹太人进入了西方世界与渴望的热情生活,他们作出了重大贡献商业,科学,文化和社会进步。But the old structure of Jewish life was severely damaged: community controls became less effective, and neglect of religious observance, mixed marriage, and conversion to Christianity occurred.但是,犹太人的生活旧体制遭到严重破坏:社会控制变得不那么有效,和宗教仪式,异族通婚,忽视了基督教和转换发生。 In response to such challenges, new modernist versions of Judaism were formulated; these movements originated in Germany and had their greatest development in North America.在应对这些挑战,新现代主义的犹太教版本的制定;这些运动起源于德国,并在北美他们最大的发展。

Persecution in Russia在俄罗斯的迫害

In Russia hopes of improvement were soon abandoned; the government engaged in open war against Jews.在俄罗斯的改善的希望很快就放弃的,政府在对犹太人的公开战争。Under Nicholas I (r. 1825 - 55), 12 year old Jewish boys were drafted into the army for terms of more than 30 years (whereas other Russians were drafted at 18 for 25 years); and Jewish conscripts were treated with the utmost brutality to make them convert to Christianity.在尼古拉一世(在位1825年至1855年),12岁的犹太男孩被征入伍,为30年以上的条款(而其他俄罗斯人在18起草了25年);和犹太应征人以最大的残酷对待使他们皈依基督教。

After 1804, Jews were allowed to reside only in Poland, Lithuania, and the Ukraine; Russia proper was closed to them.1804年后,犹太人被允许居住仅在波兰,立陶宛和乌克兰,俄罗斯,适当的向他们关闭。 This Pale of settlement was later made smaller.这种解决帕莱后来变得更小。From 1881 on, anti Jewish riots (Pogroms), tolerated and sometimes instigated by the government, sent thousands fleeing to Western Europe and the Americas.从1881年起,反(大屠杀)犹太暴动,容忍,有时甚至由政府煽动,派出数千名逃往西欧和美洲。Because Russia refused to honor the passports of American Jews, the United States abrogated a trade treaty in 1913.由于俄罗斯拒绝履行的美国犹太人的护照,美国废除1913年的贸易条约。

In response to these policies, new trends appeared in Russian Jewry.为了响应这些政策,新趋势出现在俄罗斯的犹太人。A movement of Jewish nationalism expressed itself in a revival of Hebrew as a secular language and in a few attempts at colonization in Palestine.一个犹太人的民族主义运动中的表现作为一个世俗的语言希伯来语的复兴和在巴勒斯坦的殖民化本身的一些尝试。A Jewish socialist movement, the Bund, appeared in urban centers, stressing the Yiddish language and folk culture.一个犹太社会主义运动,外滩,出现在城市中心,强调了意第绪语的语言与民俗文化。

The 20th Century20世纪

The Jewish population of Western Europe and the United States grew rapidly through immigration from Eastern Europe.在西欧和美国犹太人人口增长迅速通过来自东欧移民。Jews shared in the prosperity of these expanding nations, the older settlers helping newcomers make a fresh start.在这些国家的繁荣共享扩大犹太人,帮助新移民定居的老改弦更张。Various forms of economic and social discrimination persisted, however, and racial anti Semitism became well organized and highly vocal.经济和社会的各种形式的歧视依然存在,然而,反犹太主义成为组织严密和高度声乐反种族歧视。

Zionism and Palestine犹太复国主义和巴勒斯坦

The violent outburst of hatred that accompanied the Dreyfus Affair in France inspired Theodor Herzl to launch the movement of Zionism, which sought to establish a Jewish state.仇恨的暴力的爆发,伴随着法国的德雷福斯事件中启发西奥多赫茨尔发起犹太复国主义运动,寻求建立一个犹太国家。Its chief support came from East European Jews; elsewhere Herzl's proposals were considered impractical and a threat to newly won civil status.它的主要支持来自东欧的犹太人在其他地方赫茨尔的建议被认为不切实际,威胁到新近获得公民身份。

During World War I, East European Jews suffered heavily from troops on both sides.第一次世界大战期间,东欧犹太人遭受严重从双方部队。American Jewry now found itself for the first time the leading element in the world Jewish community, bearing the major responsibility for relief and reconstruction of the ravaged centers.美国犹太人现在发现自己是第一次在世界上领先的犹太社区元素,承载着救济和蹂躏中心的重建工作的主要责任。The peace treaties guaranteed equal rights to minorities in the newly constituted or reconstituted countries, but these agreements were not consistently upheld with regard to Jewish minorities, and colonization in Palestine expanded considerably.和平条约保证在新组建或改组的国家少数民族的平等权利,但这些协议并没有始终如一地与有关犹太少数民族,和在巴勒斯坦的殖民扩张相当坚持。

In the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Great Britain announced its support for a Jewish national home; this purpose, approved by the Allied governments, was embodied in the mandate for Palestine that Britain assumed after the war.在1917年贝尔福宣言,英国宣布对一个犹太国家的家庭支持,为此,由盟国政府批准,是在巴勒斯坦的任务体现了英国在战后承担。 British agents had secretly made contradictory promises to Arab leaders, however, and growing Arab nationalism expressed itself in anti Jewish riots in Palestine in 1920 - 21 and 1929.英国特工曾秘密制造矛盾阿拉伯领导人承诺,然而,越来越多的巴勒斯坦阿拉伯民族主义的表达自己在1920年反犹太人暴动 - 21和1929年。In the latter year leading non Zionist Jews, convinced that Palestine alone offered hope for impoverished and oppressed millions (since Western nations had rigidly restricted immigration), joined with the Zionists to form the Jewish Agency to assist and direct Jewish settlement and development in Palestine.在后一种主要的非犹太复国主义犹太人一年,坚信巴勒斯坦提供单独为贫困和受压迫的千百万希望(因为西方国家已严格限制移民),与犹太复国主义的形式加入到犹太机构协助和指导犹太人定居点和巴勒斯坦的发展。

Soviet and Nazi Anti Semitism苏联和纳粹的反犹太人主义

The Communist Revolution of 1917 did not end the sufferings of the Jewish population in Russia. 1917年共产主义革命并没有结束在俄罗斯的犹太人民的苦难。Much of the fighting in the Civil War of 1918 - 20 took place in the Ukraine, where the White Russian armies conducted savage pogroms in which thousands of Jews were massacred.对在1918年南北战争战事的 - 20发生在乌克兰,那里的白俄军队进行野蛮的屠杀中,成千上万的犹太人被屠杀的地方。Although discriminatory decrees were abolished and anti Semitism was banned as counterrevolutionary under the Soviet system, Judaism suffered the same disabilities as other religious groups.虽然取消了歧视性的法令和反犹太人被禁止作为反革命的苏维埃制度下,犹太教和其他宗教组织遭受同样的残疾。After the fall of Leon Trotsky, the old anti Semitism was revived as a government policy.后列昂托洛茨基秋天,是恢复老的反犹太人主义作为政府的政策。

In Germany the Weimar Republic for the first time abolished all official discrimination against Jews.在德国的魏玛共和国,第一次取消一切针对犹太人的官方歧视。The republic was unpopular, however, and anti Semitism was popular.该共和国是不得人心的,然而,反犹太人主义的流行。Calculated use of anti Semitism as an instrument was a major factor in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933, whereupon the German Jews were immediately disfranchised, robbed of possessions, deprived of employment, barred from the schools, and subjected to physical violence and constant humiliation.计算使用杀伤作为一种工具,反犹太主义是在阿道夫希特勒的崛起,在1933年执政的主要因素,于是,德国犹太人,立即被剥夺公民权,对财物被抢,就业剥夺,从学校禁止,并遭受身体暴力和不断的羞辱。 Once World War II occupied the attention of the democracies, Hitler and his supporters attempted "the final solution," the complete extermination of the Jews (Holocaust).第二次世界大战后占领了民主国家的关注,希特勒和他的支持者试图“最后解决方案”的犹太人(大屠杀)完全灭绝。 About 6 million Jews - almost a third of their total number - were massacred, starved, or systematically gassed in Concentration Camps.约600万犹太人 - 几乎是他们的总人数的三分之一 - 被屠杀,饿死,或系统在集中营毒气。 In addition to destroying so many individual lives, the Holocaust eradicated the communities of Central and Eastern Europe, which had been the chief centers of learning and piety for nearly a thousand years.除了摧毁这么多的个人生活,大屠杀消灭了中欧和东欧,已被学习的行政中心和近千年的虔诚的社区。

Establishment of Israel以色列的建立

The Western democracies all but closed their doors to refugees.西方民主国家所有,但关闭了大门难民。Britain meanwhile had gradually abandoned the Balfour Declaration, reducing the number of Jews admitted to Palestine while making concessions to Arab leaders who had supported the Nazis in World War II.与此同时,英国已逐渐放弃了贝尔福宣言,减少对犹太人的数量,同时承认巴勒斯坦作出让步,谁曾在二战期间支持纳粹的阿拉伯领导人。 After repeated outbreaks of violence, investigations, and abortive British plans, Britain announced that it was giving up the mandate, and the United Nations adopted a resolution calling for the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab areas.暴力事件后,调查,和英国的计划流产不断爆发,英国宣布,它将放弃的任务,并在联合国通过一项决议,对巴勒斯坦分为犹太和阿拉伯区的划分要求。

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was proclaimed.5月14日,1948年,以色列国宣告成立。Since then Israel has fought five wars against Arab coalitions to establish and preserve its independence (Arab - Israeli Wars).自那时以来以色列对阿拉伯联盟打了五次战争,建立和维护其独立性(阿拉伯 - 以色列战争)。A peace treaty (Mar. 26, 1979) between Israel and Egypt was not accepted by the other Arab states.一个和平条约,以色列和埃及(1979年3月26日)是不接受其他阿拉伯国家。

The Diaspora since World War II第二次世界大战以来散居

Although the USSR voted for the UN partition resolution in 1947, it later became markedly anti Israel in its policies.虽然苏联为联合国分治决议投了1947年,后来成为其显着的反以色列政策。A resurgence of Jewish self consciousness, however, occurred within Soviet Jewry despite deprivation of religious education and other discriminations.一个犹太人的自我意识的复苏,然而,尽管发生在苏联犹太人的宗教教育以及其他歧视剥夺。Over the years a number of Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel and the United States, although official restrictions caused a decline in emigration in the 1980s until 1987, when new legislation provided a liberal emigration policy.多年来的苏联犹太人移居以色列人数和美国,虽然官方限制,造成直到1987年,当新的立法提供了一个宽松的移民政策,移民在20世纪80年代下降。

Since World War II the Jews of the United States have achieved a degree of acceptance without parallel in Jewish history, and Jews play a significant role in intellectual and cultural life.自第二次世界大战以来的美国犹太人都取得了不接受平行度在犹太人的历史,犹太人发挥知识和文化生活的重要作用。 The elimination of social barriers has led to a high rate of mixed marriage.社会消除障碍,导致了混合婚姻率很高。During the same period there has been a growth in synagogue affiliation and support for Israel.在同一时期出现了增长,在以色列的犹太教堂的联系和支持。

Recent estimates put the total number of Jews at about 14 million, of whom over 5 million reside in the United States, more than 2 million in the USSR, and over 3 million in Israel.最近的估计,在大约14万犹太人的总数,其中500多万居住在美国,有200多万苏联,在以色列和超过300万美元。 France, Great Britain, and Argentina also have significant Jewish populations.法国,英国,阿根廷也有显着的犹太居民。The once - substantial communities in North Africa and the Middle East have been reduced to small fragments.曾经 - 在北非和中东地区主要社区已减少到小片段。Most of these Oriental Jews have settled in Israel.这些东方犹太人大多定居在以色列。Thousands of Ethiopian Jews (Falashas), for example, were airlifted to Israel in 1984 and 1985.埃塞俄比亚犹太人(法拉沙)数千名,例如,被空运到以色列在1984年和1985年。Israel's Jewish population increased significantly in the early 1990s, when it received hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Soviet Union.以色列的犹太人人口显着增加在90年代初,当它收到了来自苏联的移民数以十万计。

Bernard J Bamberger伯纳德Ĵ班贝格

Bibliography: 参考书目:
J Alper, ed., Encyclopedia of Jewish History (1986); J Bacon, The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization, (1991); SW Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews (1952 - 73); HH Ben - Sasson, ed., A History of the Jewish People (1976); P Borchsenius, The History of the Jews (1965); BL Cohen, Jews Among the Nations (1978); SM Cohen, American Assimilation or Jewish Revival (1988) and Jews among the Nations (1978); A Eban, My People (1968); L Fein, Where Are We?Ĵ阿尔珀,海关,犹太人的历史(1986年)百科全书; Ĵ培根,犹太文明画报阿特拉斯(1991年);西南男爵,一个是犹太人的社会和宗教史(1952 - 73)。HH本 - Sasson,教育署,阿的犹太人民的历史(1976年);。磷,犹太人的(1965年)历史Borchsenius;基本法科恩,其中的国家(1978年)犹太人;钐科恩,美国同化或犹太人的复兴(1988)和犹太人之间的国家(1978年);阿埃班,我的人(1968年)的L芬党,我们在哪里? The Inner Life of America's Jews (1988); L Finkelstein, The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion (1970 - 71); R Gay, Jews in America (1965); D Goldberg and J Rayner, The Jewish People (1987); A Hertzberg, The Jews in America: Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter (1989); P Johnson, A History of the Jews (1987); A Kahan, Essays in Jewish Social and Economic History (1986);在美国的犹太人的内心生活(1988年),L芬克尔斯坦,犹太人:他们的历史,文化和宗教(1970 - 71)与r盖伊,在美国的犹太人(1965年); ð戈德堡和J雷纳,(1987)犹太人民一个赫兹伯格,在美国的犹太人:四世纪的一个不稳定的遭遇(1989年); P约翰逊的犹太人(1987年)的历史;阿Kahan,在犹太人的社会和经济史论文(1986年);

R Patai, The Jewish Mind (1977); J Prawer, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1988); C Raddock, Portrait of a People (1967); C Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization (1956), and A Short History of the Jewish People (1969); AL Sachar, A History of the Jews (1967); CA Silberman, A Certain People: American Jews and Their Lives Today (1985); NA Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times (1991).ř Patai,犹太人的心灵(1977年);,在耶路撒冷的拉丁王国(1988年)的犹太人历史Ĵ Prawer; ç Raddock,一个民族的肖像(1967年); ç罗斯,犹太文明的贡献(1956) ,以及对犹太人民(1969年)的简短历史,美联查尔,一个是犹太人的历史(1967年);的CA西尔伯曼,某人民:美国犹太人及其今天的生活(1985年);不适用斯蒂尔曼,对阿拉伯土地的犹太人在(1991年)近代。


Additional Information附加信息

A Semite is someone descended from Shem , the eldest son of Noah.诺亚一个闪米特人的后裔是从的儿子,最年长的。

A HEBREW is someone descended from Heber (or, "Eber"), one of the great-grandsons of Shem.希伯来人是希伯的后代(或“希伯”),闪一个伟大的曾孙。So all Hebrews are Semites, but not all Semites are Hebrews.因此,所有希伯来人是闪米特人,但不是所有的闪米特人,是希伯来人。(Sunnite Arabs are therefore also Semites.)(逊尼派阿拉伯人,因此也闪米特人。)

Six generations after Heber, Abraham was born to his line, so Abraham was both a Hebrew and a Semite , born of the line of Heber and Shem.六代后,希伯,亚伯拉罕是他出生的路线,所以亚伯拉罕既是一个希伯来文和闪米特人 ,闪诞生和希伯的线。

Ishmael was born of Abraham, and (Sunnite) Arabs (and specifically Muslims) consider themselves to be descendants of him, so they are both Semites and Hebrews. Isaac was born of Abraham, then Jacob of Isaac. 伊斯梅尔是)出生亚伯拉罕和(逊尼派)阿拉伯人(特别是穆斯林认为自己是他的后裔,所以他们都是闪米特和希伯来人。 以撒是亚伯拉罕以撒出生,当时 ​​雅各。Jacob's name was changed to "Israel," and he fathered 12 sons.雅各的名字改为“以色列”,他生了12个儿子。His sons and their descendants are called Israelites, and they would therefore be both Semitic and Hebrew.他的儿子和他们的后代被称为以色列人,他 ​​们因此将两个犹太人和希伯来文。However, this would not make either Abraham or Isaac "Israelites."不过,这不会使任何亚伯拉罕或以撒“以色列人。”Those who interchange the words "Jew" and Israelite, call Abraham a Jew, even though Abraham was not even an Israelite, and where the word "Jew" is not used in the Bible until 1,000 years AFTER Abraham.这些话谁交汇处的“犹太人”和以色列人,要求亚伯拉罕是犹太人,尽管亚伯拉罕甚至没有一个以色列人,并在单词“犹太人”没有在圣经中,直到1000年后,亚伯拉罕。

One of Jacob-Israel's children was Judah (Hebrew - Yehudah).一个孩子雅各和以色列的是犹大 (希伯来语- Yehudah)。His descendants were called Yehudim ("Judahites").他的后代被称为Yehudim(“Judahites”)。In Greek this reads Ioudaioi ("Judeans").在希腊这个读取Ioudaioi(“犹大”)。The confusing thing here is that almost all Bible translations employ the word "Jew," which is a modern, shortened form of the word "Judahite."在混乱的事情是,几乎所有的圣经翻译聘用改为“犹太人”,这是一个现代化,缩短这个词的形式“Judahite。” Every time you come to the word "Jew" in the Old Scriptures, you should read "Judahite;" and every time you come to the word "Jew" in the New Scriptures, you should read it as "Judean."每当你来到旧圣经的单词“犹太人”,你应该改为“Judahite,”每一次你来到新经文改为“犹太人”,你应该读为“朱迪亚。” (two distinctly different peoples.)(两个截然不同的民族。)

In the late 1960s, Ashkenazi Jews numbered some 11 million, about 84 percent of the world Jewish population.在20世纪60年代末,德系犹太人的人数约为1100万美元,世界犹太人人口约百分之84。

R Novosel ř诺沃塞尔



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Judaism 犹太教


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