John the Baptist施洗约翰

General Information一般资料

John the Baptist was the forerunner of Jesus.施洗约翰是耶稣的先驱。He was the son of Zacharias and Elizabeth, both of priestly descent (Luke 1:5-25, 56-58).他是撒迦利亚和伊丽莎白的儿子,这两个祭司后裔(路加福音1:5-25,56-58)。He lived as a Nazarite in the desert (Luke 1:15; Matt 11:12-14,18).他住在沙漠中的一个拿细耳(路加福音1:15;马特11:12-14,18)。He began his ministry beyond Jordan in the 15th year of Tiberius Caesar (Luke 3:1-3).他开始在提比略凯撒(路加福音3:1-3)第15年,他超越乔丹部。He preached baptism of repentance in preparation for the coming of the Messiah (Luke 3:4-14).他鼓吹在筹备的弥赛亚(路3:4-14)即将悔改的洗礼。He baptized Jesus (Matt 3:13-17; Mark 1:9,10; Luke 3:21; John 1:32).他受洗耶稣(太3:13-17,马可福音1:9,10路加福音3:21,约翰1:32)。He bore witness to Jesus as Messiah (John 1:24-42).他见证耶稣是弥赛亚(约1:24-42)。He was imprisoned and put to death by Herod Antipas (Matt 14:6-12; Mark 6:17-28).他被囚禁,把死亡的希律王安提帕(太14:6-12,马可福音6:17-28)。He was praised by Jesus (Matt 11:7-14; Luke 7:24-28).他称赞耶稣(马特11:7-14,路加福音7:24-28)。The Disciples were loyal to him long after his death (Acts 18:25).门徒忠实于他去世后不久(徒18:25)。

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John the Baptist施洗约翰

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John the Baptist was the son of Zechariah, the priest, and Elizabeth (also of priestly descent and a relative of Mary the mother of Jesus).施洗约翰是撒迦利亚,牧师,和伊丽莎白的儿子(也和祭司血统的耶稣的母亲马利亚相对)。Born in the hill country of Judah, his birth having been foretold by an angel (Luke 1:11ff.), he spent his early years in the wilderness of Judea (Luke 1:80).在犹大山地出生,他出生后一直由一个天使(路加福音1:11几段)。预言,他花了朱迪亚(路加福音1:80)旷野早年。 His public ministry began in the fifteenth year of the emperor Tiberius (ca. AD 27) when he suddenly appeared out of the wilderness.他的公共事务部开始在皇帝提庇留(约公元27),当他突然出现在旷野十五岁了。

The Gospels look upon John as the fulfillment of the Elijah redivivus expectation, for both the announcing angel (Luke 1:17) and Jesus (Mark 9:11-13) expressly taught this.约翰福音视作为利亚redivivus同时为实现预期宣布天使(路加福音1:17)和耶稣(马克9:11-13),明确学习的。 Furthermore, John's garb of a "garment of camel's hair, and a leather girdle around his waist" (Matt. 3:4) was similar to the dress of Elijah (II Kings 1:8).此外,约翰的外衣的“骆驼毛衣服,腰束革带”(太3:4)相似,以利亚的礼服(二国王1:8)。Although John himself denied this identification (John 1:21-25), admitting only to being Isaiah's "voice in the wilderness" (John 1:23), it may be that he was disclaiming the popular hope for the literal resurrection of Elijah, accepting only the fulfillment of his spirit and power.虽然约翰本人否认了这一说法识别(约翰1:21-25),只承认被以赛亚的“声音在旷野”(约1:23),这可能是因为他否认了以利亚的字面复活流行的希望,只接受他的精神和权力的实现。 Indeed this was the explicit promise of the angel.事实上,这是天使的明确承诺。

John's message had a twofold emphasis: (1) the imminent appearance of the messianic kingdom, and (2) the urgent need for repentance to prepare for this event (Matt. 3:2).约翰的信息有两方面的重点:(1)即将出现的弥赛亚王国,(2)迫切需要悔改来准备这次事件(太3:2)。In true prophetic fashion his concept of the nature of the kingdom was not that of the popular mind, and thus was a proper preparation for Christ.在真正的时尚预言他的王国的性质的概念是不是流行的头脑,便成了一个为基督适当的准备。The multitudes expected the "day of the Lord" to be happiness for all Israel, basing their hope on racial considerations.预期的“主日”在众多以色列将所有的幸福,立足于种族的考虑他们的希望。John proclaimed that the kingdom was to be a rule of righteousness, inherited only by those who exhibited righteousness by the way they lived.约翰宣称,王国将是一个正义的规则,只有那些谁展出了他们生活的方式继承义。Thus his message of repentance was directed particularly to the Jew, for God was going to purge Israel as well as the world (Matt. 3:7-12).因此,他的忏悔消息是针对特别是对犹太人的神,正想清除以色列以及世界(太3:7-12)。When Jesus appeared on the scene John's role as a forerunner was completed in his personal testimony to the fact of Jesus' messiahship (John 1:29).当耶稣出现在现场约翰的作用为先导,在他的个人见证了耶稣的弥赛亚的事实(约翰福音1:29)完成。

The baptism of John complemented his preparatory task.约翰的洗礼,补充他的筹备工作。In its basic sense it was a symbolic act for the cleansing away of sin, and was thus accompanied by repentance.在其基本意义上讲,它是一个罪恶的清洗客场象征性行动,并因此通过悔改陪同。So Matt.因此,马特。3:6 says, "and they were baptized by him in the river Jordan while confessing fully (exomologoumenoi) their sins."3:6说,“他们在河里洗他同时承认约旦充分(exomologoumenoi)他们的罪恶。”But in its fullest sense it was an eschatological act preparing one for admission into the messianic kingdom.但是,在其最广泛的意义上讲,它是一种末世论法准备接纳为救世主的王国之一。Thus when the Pharisees and Sadducees came for baptism, John said, "Who warned you to flee form the wrath to come?"因此,当法利赛人和撒都该来的洗礼,约翰说:“谁指示你们逃避将来的忿怒的形式?”(Matt. 3:7).(太3:7)。 Josephus's account of John's baptism (Antiquities xviii.5.2) is at variance with this, suggesting that its purpose was to provide a bodily purification to correspond with an already accomplished inward change.约瑟夫的约翰的洗礼(古物xviii.5.2)帐户的差异与此,这表明它的目的是提供一个身体净化对应一个已经完成的向内的变化。 The historical background to John's baptism is probably Jewish proselyte baptism, with John emphasizing by this that both Jew and Gentile were ceremonially unclean as far as the true people of God were concerned.历史背景,约翰的洗礼,可能是犹太人proselyte洗礼,约翰与此强调,无论是犹太人和外邦人不洁至于神真实的人关注。 The baptism of Jesus by John (Matt. 3:13-15) is to be explained not as a sign that Jesus needed repentance, but rather that by this act he was identifying himself with mankind in the proper approach to God's kingdom.由约翰耶稣(太3:13-15)的洗礼,是不是要一个解释耶稣需要忏悔,而是通过这种行为,他就是确定适当的方式与神的国度人类自己。

It has long been felt that John was at one time connected with the Essenes, because of his ascetic habits and his location near the chief settlement of the sect.它长期以来一直认为,约翰在与该爱色尼,因为他和他的苦行生活习惯接近,该教派的主要解决的位置,一时间。This has been given greater possibility by the recognized affinities between John and the Dead Sea Scroll (Qumran) sect, an Essenish group which dwelt on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea.这已得到之间约翰和死海古卷(昆兰)节,一Essenish小组,住在西北海岸的死海公认的亲和力更大的可能性。This connection is certainly possible, for both John and the Qumran sect resided in the wilderness of Judea, both were of a priestly character, both laid emphasis on baptism as a sign of inward clensing, both were ascetic, both thought in terms of imminent judgment, and both invoked Isa.这种连接肯定是可能的,无论约翰和库姆兰教派在犹太的旷野居住,两者都成为了司铎的性格,既作为一个外来clensing签署重点奠定了洗礼,无论是苦行僧,无论是在思想方面即将判决,都援引伊萨。 40:3 as the authority for their mission in life.40:3作为自己的人生使命的权威。But although John may have been influenced by the sect in the early stages of his life, his ministry was far greater.不过,尽管约翰可能已被在他生命​​的早期阶段教派的影响,他的部是大得多。John's role was essentially prophetic; the sect's was esoteric.约翰的角色基本上是预言,该教派的是深奥的。John issued a public call to repentance; the sect withdrew to the desert.约翰发出公开呼吁悔改;该教派撤回到沙漠。 John proclaimed an exhibition of repentance in the affairs of ordinary life; the sect required submission to the rigors of its ascetic life.约翰宣布,在普通生活中的事务悔改展览;该教派要求提交其苦行生活的严酷。 John introduced the Messiah; the sect still waited for his manifestation.约翰介绍了弥赛亚;该教派还为他的表现等。

John's denunciation of Herod Antipas for his marriage was the cause of his death by beheading (Matt. 14:1-12).约翰的希律安提帕谴责对他的婚姻是他斩首死亡(太14:1-12)的原因。 Josephus tells us that this took place at the fortress of Machaerus near the Dead Sea.约瑟夫告诉我们,这是发生在死海附近的Machaerus堡垒的地方。The Mandaeans were influenced by John, for he plays a large part in their writings.受影响的曼德安是约翰,因为他发挥了他们的著作中的很大一部分。This connection may have come through John's disciples, who existed for at least twenty-five years after John's death (Acts 18:25; 19:3).这方面可能来通过约翰的门徒,谁至少有二十五年存在后,约翰的死亡(使徒18:25; 19:3)。

RB Laurin包劳林
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CH Kraeling, John the Baptist; J. Thomas, Le mouvement baptiste en Palestine et Syrie; A. Plummer, Gospel According to St. Matthew, 30-31; M. Burrows, More Light on the Dead Sea Scrolls; W. Wink, John the Baptist in the Gospel Tradition; FF Bruce, NT History; E. Barnwell, "The Baptist in Early Christian Tradition," NTS 18:95ff.; CHH Scobie, John the Baptist.甲烷Kraeling,施洗约翰的J.托马斯,乐恩巴勒斯坦解放运动巴蒂斯特等Syrie的A.普拉默,福音根据圣马太,30日-31日的M. Burrows的,更多的光线对死海古卷;瓦特眨眼,约翰福音中的传统施洗法郎布鲁斯,新台币的历史;大肠杆菌巴恩韦尔“,在早期基督教传统浸会,”国税18:95法郎;。CHH斯克比,施洗约翰。


John the Baptist施洗约翰

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The "forerunner of our Lord."而“我们的主的先驱。”We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels.我们只有对他的零碎和不完善的帐户在福音。He was of priestly descent.他是祭司后裔。His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1 Chr. 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5).他的父亲,撒迦利亚,是一个过程中阿比亚牧师(1染色体。24:10),和他的母亲,伊丽莎白,对亚伦(路加福音1:5)的女儿了。 The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1).约翰的使命是预言的主题(太3:3;赛40:3。玛3:1)。。His birth, which took place six months before that of Jesus, was foretold by an angel.他的出生,这在之前的六个月耶稣的地方,是由天使预言。Zacharias, deprived of the power of speech as a token of God's truth and a reproof of his own incredulity with reference to the birth of his son, had the power of speech restored to him on the occasion of his circumcision (Luke 1:64).撒迦利亚,对话语权被剥夺了上帝的真理和他的参照,他的儿子出生责备自己的怀疑的理由,已恢复了对他的割礼之际(路加福音1:64)他说话的能力。 After this no more is recorded of him for thirty years than what is mentioned in Luke 1:80.在此之后没有更多的记录比什么是三十年在路加福音1:80提到他。John was a Nazarite from his birth (Luke 1:15; Num. 6:1-12).约翰是从他的出生拿细耳人(路加福音1:15;数量6:1-12。)。

He spent his early years in the mountainous tract of Judah lying between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea (Matt. 3:1-12).他花了在犹大山地道之间早年耶路撒冷和死海(太3:1-12)撒谎。At length he came forth into public life, and great multitudes from "every quarter" were attracted to him.终于,他来到了公共生活,有许多人提出了从被吸引到他的“每季度”。The sum of his preaching was the necessity of repentance.在总结他的说教是悔改的必要性。He denounced the Sadducees and Pharisees as a "generation of vipers," and warned them of the folly of trusting to external privileges (Luke 3:8).他谴责和法利赛人撒都该人的“毒蛇一代”,并警告说,相信到(路加福音3:8)外部愚蠢他们的特权。"As a preacher, John was eminently practical and discriminating. Self-love and covetousness were the prevalent sins of the people at large. On them, therefore, he enjoined charity and consideration for others. The publicans he cautioned against extortion, the soldiers against crime and plunder." “作为一个布道者,约翰是非常实用和歧视。自爱和贪婪都是广大人民的普遍的罪恶。在他们身上,因此,他责成慈善他人和审议。税吏他反对勒索警告,士兵们对犯罪和掠夺。“ His doctrine and manner of life roused the entire south of Palestine, and the people from all parts flocked to the place where he was, on the banks of the Jordan.他的学说和生活态度激起了巴勒斯坦整个南部,来自全国各地的人蜂拥到地方,他对约旦的银行。There he baptized thousands unto repentance.在那里,他受洗数千你们悔改。

The fame of John reached the ears of Jesus in Nazareth (Matt. 3:5), and he came from Galilee to Jordan to be baptized of John, on the special ground that it became him to "fulfil all righteousness" (3: 15).约翰的名声达到了拿撒勒(太3:5)耶稣的耳中,他从加利利来到约旦河接受洗礼的约翰的特殊理由,它成了他“履行所有正义”(3:15 )。John's special office ceased with the baptism of Jesus, who must now "increase as the King come to his kingdom. He continued, however, for a while to bear testimony to the Messiahship of Jesus. He pointed him out to his disciples, saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." His public ministry was suddenly (after about six months probably) brought to a close by his being cast into prison by Herod, whom he had reproved for the sin of having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip (Luke 3:19). He was shut up in the castle of Machaerus (qv), a fortress on the southern extremity of Peraea, 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, and here he was beheaded. His disciples, having consigned the headless body to the grave, went and told Jesus all that had occurred (Matt. 14:3-12). John's death occurred apparently just before the third Passover of our Lord's ministry. Our Lord himself testified regarding him that he was a "burning and a shining light" (John 5:35).约翰的特别办公室,停止与耶稣的洗礼,谁现在必须“增加国王来到他的王国。他继续说,但是有一段时间,要见证耶稣的弥赛亚。他指出他对门徒说, “看哪,神的羔羊。”突然,他的公共事务部(约六个月后可能)带进监狱,他被投一个紧密的希律王,就是他为自己所采取的有他的兄弟的妻子责备罪菲利普(路加福音3:19)。他被关在城堡的Machaerus(请参阅),一份关于Peraea,9英里以东的死海南端的堡垒,在这里,他被斩首。他的弟子,有托运的无头尸体的坟墓,去告诉耶稣所发生的一切(太14:3-12)。约翰的死亡发生之前,我们的主的事工第三逾越节明显。我们的主对于他自己作见证,他是一个“燃烧和一个耀眼的光“(约5:35)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


John the Baptist's Baptism施洗约翰的洗礼

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John's Baptism was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion.约翰的洗礼是不是基督教的洗礼,也不是,这是由弟子前,以我们的主的受难实行。Till then the New Testament economy did not exist.直到那么新约经纶并不存在。John's baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ.约翰的洗礼,必将其子民悔改,而不是基督的信仰。 It was not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24; 19:7).这不是在管理三位一体的名字,而被约翰的洗礼是由保罗rebaptized(徒18:24,19:7)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


John the Baptist's Baptism of Christ施洗约翰的洗礼的基督

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Christ had to be formally inaugurated into the public discharge of his offices.基督已被正式纳入公共履行他的办公室揭牌。For this purpose he came to John, who was the representative of the law and the prophets, that by him he might be introduced into his offices, and thus be publicly recognized as the Messiah of whose coming the prophecies and types had for many ages borne witness.为此,他来到约翰,谁是法律和先知的代表,由他,他可能被引入他的办公室,因而被公开作为弥赛亚其未来的预言和传播的许多类型的年龄已经认识证人。 John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ, for he understood not what he had to do with the "baptism of repentance."约翰起初拒绝授予他对基督的洗礼,因为他不理解他说的做的“悔改的洗礼。”But Christ said, "'Suffer it to be so now,' NOW as suited to my state of humiliation, my state as a substitute in the room of sinners."但基督说:“'患它是如此,现在,'现在适合我的国家的侮辱,我作为一个罪人的房间替代的状态。” His reception of baptism was not necessary on his own account.他接待的洗礼,没有必要对他自己的帐户。

It was a voluntary act, the same as his act of becoming incarnate.这是一个自愿的行为,因为他的行为一样成为体现。Yet if the work he had engaged to accomplish was to be completed, then it became him to take on him the likeness of a sinner, and to fulfil all righteousness (Matt. 3:15).然而,如果他所从事的工作是完成完成,然后它成为他采取对他的肖像的罪人,并履行所有的义(太3:15)。The official duty of Christ and the sinless person of Christ are to be distinguished.公务的基督和基督的无罪的人是加以区别。It was in his official capacity that he submitted to baptism.这是在他的官方身份,他提交的洗礼。In coming to John our Lord virtually said, "Though sinless, and without any personal taint, yet in my public or official capacity as the Sent of God, I stand in the room of many, and bring with me the sin of the world, for which I am the propitiation."在未来我们的主几乎约翰说,“虽然无罪,没有任何个人的污点,但在我的公共或官方作为上帝派来的能力,我站在了许多房间,我把罪恶的世界,为此我的和解。“ Christ was not made under the law on his own account.基督是没有根据法律对他自己的帐户。It was as surety of his people, a position which he spontaneously assumed.这是他的人作为担保人,这一立场,他自发地承担。 The administration of the rite of baptism was also a symbol of the baptism of suffering before him in this official capacity (Luke 12:50).对政府的洗礼仪式也是在他面前的痛苦在这个官方身份(路加福音12:50)洗礼的象征。In thus presenting himself he in effect dedicated or consecrated himself to the work of fulfilling all righteousness.因此,在提出自己的影响,他在奉献自己专用或履行所有正义的工作。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


John the Baptist施洗约翰

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Essene saint and preacher; flourished between 20 and 30 CE; fore-runner of Jesus of Nazareth and originator of the Christian movement.厄色尼圣和布道者; 20至30年蓬勃发展,脱颖而出,亚军的拿撒勒的耶稣和基督教运动的鼻祖。Of his life and character Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 5, § 2) says:说,他的生活和性格约瑟夫(“蚂蚁”。十八5,§ 2。):

"He was a good man [comp. ib. 1, § 5], who admonished the Jews to practise abstinence [ἀρετὴν = "Pharisaic virtue" = "perishut"; comp. "BJ" ii. 8, § 2], lead a life of righteousness toward one another and of piety [εὐσέβειαν = "religious devotion"] toward God, and then join him in the rite of bathing [baptism]; for, said he, thus would baptism be acceptable to Him [God] if they would use it not simply for the putting away of certain sins [comp. II. Sam. xi. 4] or in the case of proselytes [see Soṭah 12b; comp. Gen. R. i.], but for the sanctification of the body after the soul had beforehand been thoroughly purified by righteousness. The people flocked in crowds to him, being stirred by his addresses. King Herod Antipas, fearing lest the great influence John had over the people might be used by him to raise a rebellion, sent him to the fortress of Macherus as a prisoner, and had him put to death.“他是一个好人[补偿兴业1,§ 5。。],谁告诫犹太人实行禁欲[ἀρετὴν=”pharisaic的美德“=”perishut“。可比”。BJ的“二8,§ 2],铅一个对生活的另一种正义和虔诚[εὐσέβειαν=“宗教虔诚”]向神,然后再加入在洗澡[洗礼]仪式他,因为,他说,这样将可以接受洗礼,他[上帝]如果他们会用它不是简单的把某些的罪或者在案件的proselytes [见Soṭah12B条。可比将军河岛] [可比二山姆十一4。。。。],但对圣洁,后的灵体已经事先被彻底净化正气。市民蜂拥到他的人群,正在激起他的地址。希律王安提帕,怕以免影响很大约翰对他可能会被用来提高一个叛乱的人有,送他到了作为一个囚犯Macherus要塞,并把他处死。

"The people in their indignation over this atrocious act beheld in the destruction which came soon afterward upon the army of Herod a divine punishment." “在里面传来在销毁后,希律王军队的神圣的惩罚不久之后看到这一残暴行为的人在他们的愤慨。”

Legend of Birth.传说的诞生。

John the Baptist was made the subject of a legendary narrative embodied in Luke i.施洗约翰是作出的一个传奇体现在路加叙述主体岛5-25, 57-80, and iii. 5-25,57-80,及iii。1-20, according to which he was the son of Zacharias, a priest of the section of Abia, and of Elisabeth, also of priestly descent, and was born in their old age. 1-20,根据他的是撒迦利亚,有节的阿比亚牧师的儿子,和伊丽莎白,也祭司后裔,并在他们的晚年出生。The angel Gabriel announced John's birth to Zacharias while that priest stood at the altar offering incense, and told him that this child would be a Nazarite for life ("nezir 'olam"; Nazir i. 2); filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother's womb, he would be called upon to convert the children of Israel to God, and with the power of Elijah would turn the hearts of the fathers to the children while preparing the people for the Lord (Mal. iii. 24 [AV iv. 6]).天使加布里埃尔宣布约翰的诞生而撒迦利亚神父站在祭坛上献香,并告诉他,这孩子将是对生命的拿细耳人(“nezir'奥兰”;纳齐尔一,二),与圣灵充满他母亲的子宫里,他将被要求转换以色列人的神,并与以利亚的权力会变成了父亲的心转向儿女,而准备的主(玛三。24 [视听第四人民。 6])。Zacharias, hesitating to believe the message, was struck dumb, and his mouth was opened again only after the birth of the child, when at the circumcision a name was to be given him; then he answered simultaneously with his wife that he should be called "John," as the angel had foretold.撒迦利亚,不惜相信消息,惊得哑口无言,他的嘴被打开后,才在子女出生时,在割礼一个名字是他再次得到,然后他回答与他的妻子,同时,他应该被称为“约翰,”作为天使曾预言。 Zacharias, filled with the Holy Spirit, blessed God for the redemption of the people of Israel from the hand of their enemies (the Romans) through the house of David (a Messianic view altogether at variance with the New Testament conception), and prophesied that the child John should be called "Prophet of the Highest," one that would show how salvation should be obtained by remission of sins (through baptism; comp. Midr. Teh. to Ps. cxix. 76), so that through him a light from on high would be brought to "those that sit in darkness."撒迦利亚,被圣灵充满,祝福为以色列人民从他们的敌人(罗马人)的手赎回神借着大卫的房子(一救世主观点在与新约的观念差异完全),并预言约翰应该叫孩子“至高者的先知,”一个会显示如何拯救应得到缓解的罪孽(通过洗礼。。。。。比赛Midr到诗cxix 76),因此,通过他的光从高将提请“那些坐在黑暗中。”

John remained hidden in the desert until, in the fifteenth year of Tiberius, the word of God came to him, and he stepped forth, saying in the words of Isa.约翰仍然隐藏在沙漠中,直到在提庇留十五年,神的话临到他,他提出了加强,在伊萨话说。xl.加大码。2-5: "Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Matt. iii. 2), and preaching to the people to undergo baptism in repentance for the remission of their sins, and instead of relying on the merit of their father Abraham like hypocrites ("many-colored vipers"; see Hypocrisy), to prepare for the coming day of judgment and its fiery wrath by fruits of righteousness, sharing their coats and their meat with those that had none. 2-5:“你们当悔改:为天国在手”,并鼓吹人民接受悔改的洗礼,缓解他们的罪孽,而是对值得依靠(太三2)。他们的父亲亚伯拉罕像伪君子(“许多色毒蛇”,见伪善),准备的判断和其火热的愤怒仁义的果子来的日子,分享自己的外套和它们与那些已经没有肉。 To the publicans also he preached the same, telling them to exact no moretaxes than those prescribed; to the soldiers he declared that they should avoid violence and calumny (as informers) and be content with their wages.为了还他所宣扬的税吏一样,告诉他们确切的并不比那些规定moretaxes;的士兵,他宣布,他们应避免暴力和诽谤(作为告密者),并与他们的工资内容。 (The sermon of John the Baptist given here is obviously original with him, and the similar one of Jesus, Matt. xii. 33-34, xxiii. 33, is based thereon.) When asked whether he was the Messiah, he answered that with his baptism of repentance he would only prepare the people for the time when the Messiah would come as judge to baptize them with fire, to winnow them and burn the chaff with fire unquenchable (the fire of Gehenna; comp. Sibyllines, iii. 286; Enoch, xlv. 3, lv. 4, lxi. 8)-a conception of the Messiah which is widely different from the one which saw the Messiah in Jesus. (约翰的说教,这里给出的浸会显然是与他原来的,和耶稣,马特类似的。十二。33-34,二十三。33,是基于此事。)当记者问他是否是弥赛亚,他回答说:他悔改的洗礼,他只准备时间,为人民当弥赛亚将担任法官用火来洗他们,簸他们用火烧了难以抑制的(火地狱箔条。。比赛sibyllines,三286 ;伊诺克,四十五3,低压四,LXI的8),一个概念的弥赛亚,这是从一个广泛的看见耶稣的弥赛亚不同。。。。

Among the many that came to the Jordan to undergo the rite of baptism in response to the call of John, was Jesus of Nazareth, and the influence wrought through him created a new epoch in those circles among which Christianity arose, so that henceforth the whole life-work of John the Baptist was given a new meaning-as if in his Messianic expectations he had Jesus in view as the true Messiah (see Matt. iii. 14; John i. 26-36).其中许多来到约旦接受响应呼叫的约翰的洗礼仪式,是拿撒勒的耶稣,并通过他所造成的影响,创造了新时代的圈子,其中基督教产生的,所以,从今以后,整个生命施洗约翰的工作被赋予了新的含义,好像在他的救世主,他期望在视图耶稣是真正的弥赛亚(见太三14;。。约翰一26-36)。

His Appearance.他的外貌。

John the Baptist was regarded by the multitude as a great prophet (Matt. xiv. 5; Mark xi. 32).施洗约翰被认为是由众人作为一个伟大的先知(太十四五。马克十一32。)。His powerful appeal (see Matt. xi. 12) and his whole appearance reminded the people forcibly of Elijah the prophet; "he wore raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey" (Matt. iii. 4; comp. xi. 7-8).他强大的号召力(。。见太十一12)和他的外表提醒强行以利亚先知的人,“他穿的衣服骆驼的头发,和他的腰束皮带,吃的是蝗虫野蜜”(马特三4;。。。比赛十一7-8)。。 He stationed himself near some water-fountain to baptize the people, at Bethabara (John i. 28) or Ænon (John iii. 23).他驻扎近些水,喷泉洗礼的人自己,在贝塞巴拉(约翰一28)或阿农(约翰三世。23)。While he "preached good tidings unto the people" (Luke iii. 18), that is, announced to them that the redemption was at hand, he made his disciples prepare for it by fasting (Matt. ix. 14, xi. 18, and parallel passages).虽然他“宣扬好消息告诉了人们”(路加三。18),也就是向他们宣布赎回在手,他作出了他的弟子做好准备,禁食(太九。14日,十一。18和平行通道)。 The prayer he taught his disciples was probably similar to the so-called Lord's Prayer (Luke xi. 1).祈祷他教他的弟子很可能是类似于所谓的主祷文(路加福音十一。1)。John, however, provoked the wrath of King Herod because in his addresses he reproached the king for having married Herodias, his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evil things he had done.约翰,然而,挑起了愤怒的希律王,因为他的地址,他责备希罗底结婚后,他的兄弟腓力的妻子王,和所有的恶事,他做了什么。 Herod therefore sent for him and put him in prison.因此,希律王送他,他投入监狱。It was while in prison that John heard of the work of preaching or healing done by Jesus (Matt. xi. 2-19; Luke vii. 18-35).这是在监狱中,约翰的说教或治疗效果,听见耶稣的工作(太十一2-19。路加福音七18-35。)。Herod was afraid of the multitude and would not put John to death; but Herodias, says the legend (Matt. xiv. 6; Mark vi. 19 et seq.), had plotted revenge, and when on Herod's birthday a feast was given at which Herodias' daughter ingratiated herself into his favor by her dancing, she, at the instigation of her mother, asked that the head of John the Baptist be given her on a charger, and the cruel petition was granted.希律王是众人害怕,不会把约翰死,希罗底,说的传说(太十四6;。。。第六型19起),曾策划报复,当在希律王的生日宴会在会上得到其中希罗底的女儿献媚到他赞成由她跳舞,她,在她母亲的唆使要求把施洗约翰的头给予她一个充电器,和残酷的申请得到了批准,她自己。 John's disciples came and buried his body.约翰的门徒来,他的尸体埋葬。

The influence and power of John continued after his death, and his fame was not obscured by that of Jesus, who was taken by Herod to be John risen from the dead (Matt. xiv. 1-2 and parallel passages).约翰的影响和权力继续在他死后,他的名气不是靠耶稣,谁是由希律采取的掩盖是约翰从死里复活(太十四。1-2和平行通道)。 His teaching of righteousness (Matt. xxi. 32) and his baptism (Luke vii. 29) created a movement which by no means ended with the appearance of Jesus.他的教学的义(太二十一。32)和他的洗礼(路七29。)建立了一个这并不意味着与耶稣的外貌结束运动。There were many who, like Apollos of Alexandria in Ephesus, preached only the baptism of John, and their little band gradually merged into Christianity (Acts xviii. 25, xix. 1-7).有许多谁,像亚波罗在以弗所,亚历山大鼓吹只有约翰的洗礼,他们的小乐队逐渐合并到基督教(徒十八。25,十九。1-7)。 Some of the disciples of John placed their master above Jesus.作者:约翰的门徒耶稣一些凌驾于他们的主人。John had thirty apostles, of whom Simon Magus claimed to be the chief (Clementine, Recognitions, i. 60, ii. 8; ib. Homilies, ii. 23).使徒约翰有三十个,其中西门magus自称是科长(克莱门汀,承认,一60,二8。。兴业颂歌,二23。)。No doubt along the Jordan the work begun by John the Baptist was continued by his disciples, and later the Mandæans, called also "Sabians" (from "ẓaba'" = "to baptize") and "Christians according to John," retained many traditions about him (see Brandt, "Die Mandäische Religion," pp. 137, 218, 228; "Mandäer," in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc.").没有在约旦怀疑工作的施洗约翰开始是继续由他的弟子,后来曼德安,也称为“Sabians”(选自“扎巴”=“来洗”)和“基督徒根据约翰”,保留了许多关于他的传统(见勃兰特,“模具Mandäische宗教”,第137,218,228;“Mandäer,”在赫尔佐格,克,“实时encyc。”)。

Kaufmann Kohler考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Herzog-Hauck, Real-Encyc.赫尔佐格,克,实时encyc。sv Johannes der Täufer (where the whole literature is given); Soltau, in Vierteljahrschrift für Bibelkunde, 1903, pp. 37 et seq.K.希沃特约翰内斯明镜Täufer(其中给出了整个文学),索尔铎,在Vierteljahrschrift献给Bibelkunde,1903年,第37等seq.K.


St. John the Baptist圣若翰

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The principal sources of information concerning the life and ministry of St. John the Baptist are the canonical Gospels.关于生命和圣施洗约翰外交部新闻的主要来源是典型福音。Of these St. Luke is the most complete, giving as he does the wonderful circumstances accompanying the birth of the Precursor and items on his ministry and death.这些圣路加是最完整,让像他那样所附的前兆和他的部精彩的出生和死亡情况的项目。St. Matthew's Gospel stands in close relation with that of St. Luke, as far as John's public ministry is concerned, but contains nothing in reference to his early life.圣马太的福音站在与圣卢克,据约翰的公共事务部关注的是,密切的关系,而是包含在没有任何关于他早期的生活。From St. Mark, whose account of the Precursor's life is very meagre, no new detail can be gathered.从圣马可,其对易制毒化学的生活情况非常微薄,没有新的细节可以收集。Finally, the fourth Gospel has this special feature, that it gives the testimony of St. John after the Saviour's baptism.最后,第四个福音这个特殊的功能,它使圣约翰救主后的洗礼见证。Besides the indications supplied by these writings, passing allusions occur in such passages as Acts 13:24; 19:1-6; but these are few and bear on the subject only indirectly.除了这些著作提供的指示,通过典故13:24在这样的通道,作为行为发生; 19:1-6,但这些都是少数,关于这个问题只承担间接影响。To the above should be added that Josephus relates in his Jewish Antiquities (XVIII, v, 2), but it should be remembered that he is woefully erratic in his dates, mistaken in proper names, and seems to arrange facts according to his own political views; however, his judgment of John, also what he tells us regarding the Precursor's popularity, together with a few details of minor importance, are worthy of the historian's attention.到了应该说,约瑟夫在他的(十八,五,2)犹太古物涉及以上,但应该记住,他是可悲的,在适当的名称错误的日期,不稳定的,而且似乎安排的事实根据他自己的政治意见,但他的判断,约翰,也是他告诉我们关于易制毒化学的普及,对未成年人的重要性以及一些细节,是历史学家的值得关注的。 The same cannot be said of the apocryphal gospels, because the scant information they give of the Precursor is either copied from the canonical Gospels (and to these they can add no authority), or else is a mass of idle vagaries.同样不能说的猜测福音的,因为缺乏信息,他们给的前兆或者是复制从典型福音(和这些他们可以添加没有权力),或者是大规模的闲置变幻无常。

Zachary, the father of John the Baptist, was a priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which the priests were divided (1 Chronicles 24:7-19); Elizabeth, the Precursor's mother, "was of the daughters of Aaron", according to St. Luke (1:5); the same Evangelist, a few verses farther on (1:36), calls her the "cousin" (syggenis) of Mary.扎卡里,施洗约翰的父亲,是一个对阿比亚,对二零零四年到其中的祭司分为课程第八场(1方志24:7-19)祭司伊丽莎白,前驱体的母亲,“是亚伦的女儿“据圣卢克(1:5);同样的传播者,在更远一些诗句(1:36),要求她为”表妹“(syggenis)的玛丽。 These two statements appear to be conflicting, for how, it will be asked, could a cousin of the Blessed Virgin be "of the daughters of Aaron"?这两项声明似乎是矛盾的,如何,它会问,可能出现一个表弟的圣母是“亚伦的女儿”?The problem might be solved by adopting the reading given in an old Persian version, where we find "mother's sister" (metradelphe) instead of "cousin".这个问题可能得到解决,采取在一个古老的波斯语版本,在那里我们找到“妈妈的妹妹”(metradelphe),而不是“表姐”给定的阅读。

A somewhat analogous explanation, probably borrowed from some apocryphal writing, and perhaps correct, is given by St. Hippolytus (in Nicephor., II, iii).一个有点类似的解释,可能是借鉴了一些猜测写作,也许是正确的,是由圣西波吕(在Nicephor。第一,二,三)。According to him, Mathan had three daughters: Mary, Soba, and Ann.据他说,马堂有三个女儿:玛丽,荞麦面,和安。Mary, the oldest, married a man of Bethlehem and was the mother of Salome; Soba married at Bethlehem also, but a "son of Levi", by whom she had Elizabeth; Ann wedded a Galilean (Joachim) and bore Mary, the Mother of God.玛丽,最古老的,娶了伯利恒人,是莎乐美的母亲;荞麦面已婚在伯利恒也不过一个“利未的儿子”,由被她伊丽莎白安嫁给了一个伽利略(约阿希姆)和孔玛丽的母亲神。 Thus Salome, Elizabeth, and the Blessed Virgin were first cousins, and Elizabeth, "of the daughters of Aaron" on her father's side, was, on her mother's side, the cousin of Mary.因此莎乐美,伊丽莎白和圣母首次表兄弟,和伊丽莎白的“亚伦的女儿”在她父亲的身边,在她母亲的身边,玛利亚的表妹。Zachary's home is designated only in a vague manner by St. Luke: it was "a city of Juda", "in the hill-country" (I, 39).Zachary的家被指定只能在一个模糊的方式,由圣路克:这是“一个城市的犹大”,“在山上国”(一,39)。Reland, advocating the unwarranted assumption that Juda might be a misspelling of the name, proposed to read in its stead Jutta (Joshua 15:55; 21:16; DV; Jota, Jeta), a priestly town south of Hebron.雷兰,倡导不必要的假设,即可能是犹大建议阅读取而代之尤塔的名称,拼写错误(约书亚15:55; 21:16;的DV,霍塔,Jeta),一个城市希伯伦南部的祭司。But priests did not always live in priestly towns (Mathathias's home was at Modin; Simon Machabeus's at Gaza).但是神父没有永远活在祭司镇(Mathathias的家在莫丁;西蒙Machabeus在加沙的)。A tradition, which can be traced back to the time before the Crusades, points to the little town of Ain-Karim, five miles south-west of Jerusalem.一个传统,这可以追溯到十字军东征前的时间,到艾因-卡里姆5英里南耶路撒冷西小城镇点。

The birth of the Precursor was announced in a most striking manner.诞生的前兆宣布以最引人注目的方式。Zachary and Elizabeth, as we learn from St. Luke, "were both just before God, walking in all the commandments and justifications of the Lord without blame; and they had no son, for that Elizabeth was barren" (i, 6-7).扎卡里和伊丽莎白,因为我们学习圣卢克,“都只是在神面前,走在一切诫命和主理据,没有责怪,他们没有儿子,因为这是伊丽莎白不毛之地”(一,6-7 )。Long they had prayed that their union might be blessed with offspring; but, now that "they were both advanced in years", the reproach of barrenness bore heavily upon them.龙他们祈祷,他们的工会可能与后代幸福,但是,现在,“他们都是上了年纪”,对贫困责备膛又重重的。"And it came to pass, when he executed the priestly function in the order of his course before God, according to the custom of the priestly office, it was his lot to offer incense, going into the temple of the Lord. And all the multitude of the people was praying without, at the hour of incense. And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. And Zachary seeing him, was troubled, and fear fell upon him. But the angel said to him: Fear not, Zachary, for thy prayer is heard; and they wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John: and thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice in his nativity. For he shall be great before the Lord; and shall drink no wine nor strong drink: and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb. And he shall convert many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias; that he may turn the hearts of the fathers unto the children, and the incredulous to the wisdom of the just, to prepare unto the Lord a perfect people" (i, 8-17). “它来传递,当他执行的过程中,他为了在上帝面前的祭司功能,根据该祭司办公室习俗,这是他可以提供许多帮助香,进耶和华的殿去。所有的人民群众是外面祷告,在香小时。且显然他是一个有主的使者,在香坛的右边站着。和Zachary看见他,感到不安,并担心在他的身上。但天使对他说:不要害怕,因为你的祈祷扎卡里,是听见了,他们的妻子伊丽莎白要给你生一个儿子,你要给他起名叫约翰:和你有喜悦和欢乐,将有许多人喜欢他的耶稣诞生因为他要为大,在耶和华面前,并且要饮没有酒,也没有强有力的饮料:。。和他应充满圣灵,甚至从他母亲的子宫里,他要转换的许多以色列人向耶和华他们的神,他必去他面前的精神和力量的埃利亚斯。说,他可能会变成了父亲的心献给孩子,到了义人的智慧,怀疑准备向主一个完美的人“(我,8-17)。 As Zachary was slow in believing this startling prediction, the angel, making himself known to him, announced that, in punishment of his incredulity, he should be stricken with dumbness until the promise was fulfilled.由于在扎卡里相信这个惊人的预测,天使,将自己知道他慢,宣布,在他的怀疑处罚的,应当与哑受灾应验了之前的承诺。 "And it came to pass, after the days of his office were accomplished, he departed to his own house. And after those days, Elizabeth his wife conceived, and hid herself five months" (i, 23-24). “它来传递,他的办公室后的日子已满,他离开自己的房子。这些日子以后,他的妻子伊丽莎白的设想,就隐藏了五个月”(一,23-24)。

Now during the sixth month, the Annunciation had taken place, and, as Mary had heard from the angel the fact of her cousin's conceiving, she went "with haste" to congratulate her.现在在第六个月,报喜已发生,而且,正如玛丽从天使听到了她的表妹事实的构思,她接着说,“就急忙”向她表示祝贺。"And it came to pass, that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant" -- filled, like the mother, with the Holy Ghost -- "leaped for joy in her womb", as if to acknowledge the presence of his Lord.“它来传递,当伊丽莎白听到玛利亚,婴儿称呼” - 填补,像妈妈与圣灵 - “跃升为她的子宫里的欢乐”,因为如果承认他的存在主。Then was accomplished the prophetic utterance of the angel that the child should "be filled with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb".当时完成了先知话语的天使,儿童应“充满了圣灵甚至从他母亲的子宫里。”Now as the presence of any sin whatever is incompatible with the indwelling of the Holy Ghost in the soul, it follows that at this moment John was cleansed from the stain of original sin.现在,作为任何罪无论是与灵魂中的留置圣灵存在不兼容,因此,在这一刻约翰从原罪的污染洁净。When "Elizabeth's full time of being delivered was come. . .she brought forth a son" (i, 57); and "on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they called him by his father's name Zachary. And his mother answering, said: Not so, but he shall be called John. And they said to her: There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. And they made sign to his father, how he would have him called. And demanding a writing table, he wrote, saying: John is his name. And they all wondered" (i, 59-63).当“伊丽莎白正在交付全时候到了,她带来了一个儿子。。。”(一,57);。和“第八日,他们来给这孩子,他们叫他父亲的名字扎卡里他和他的妈妈回答说:。不是这样,但他应被称为约翰,他们对她说:有你亲族中没有叫这个名字,他们就赶快给他的父亲,问他要他打电话。。要求以书面形式表,他说,他说:。约翰是他的名字,他们都想知道“(我,59-63)。 They were not aware that no better name could be applied (John, Hebrew; Jehohanan, ie "Jahweh hath mercy") to him who, as his father prophesied, was to "go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways; to give knowledge of salvation to his people, unto remission of their sins: through the bowels of the mercy of our God" (i, 76- 78).他们没有意识到,没有更好的名字可以适用(约翰,希伯来语;约哈难,即“亚威上帝慈悲”),以他谁,因为他的父亲预言,是“去之前,面对上帝准备他的道路;在认识救恩给他的人民,你们缓解他们的罪孽:通过我们神怜悯的大便“(一,76 - 78)。Moreover, all these events, to wit, a child born to an aged couple, Zachary's sudden dumbness, his equally sudden recovery of speech, his astounding utterance, might justly strike with wonderment the assembled neighbours; these could hardly help asking: "What an one, think ye, shall this child be?"此外,所有这些活动,即,所生的一中年夫妇一个孩子,Zachary的突然哑,他同样突然的言论恢复,他的惊人的话语,可能会理直气壮地罢工,好奇的组装邻居,这些禁不住问:“什么一一,你们认为,应这孩子呢?“ (i, 66).(一,66)。

As to the date of the birth of John the Baptist, nothing can be said with certainty.至于对施洗约翰的出生日期,没有什么可以肯定地说。The Gospel suggests that the Precursor was born about six months before Christ; but the year of Christ's nativity has not so far been ascertained.福音表明,前身是出生约在公元前六个月,但基督的耶稣诞生的一年,迄今尚未确定。 Nor is there anything certain about the season of Christ's birth, for it is well known that the assignment of the feast of Christmas to the twenty-fifth of December is not grounded on historical evidence, but is possibly suggested by merely astronomical considerations, also, perhaps, inferred from astronomico-theological reasonings.也没有任何关于基督的出生季节肯定的,因为它是众所周知的是,圣诞节盛宴第二十十二月十五分配上没有历史证据为基础,但可能是由纯粹的天文因素,也建议,也许,推断天文神学道理。 Besides, no calculations can be based upon the time of the year when the course of Abia was serving in the Temple, since each one of the twenty-four courses of priests had two turns a year.此外,没有计算可依据的这一年的时间时,阿比亚当然是在寺庙服务,因为每个牧师的二四课程之一了两圈一年。Of John's early life St. Luke tell us only that "the child grew, and was strengthened in spirit; and was in the deserts, until the day of his manifestation to Israel" (i, 80).约翰的早期生命圣卢克告诉我们,只有“孩子长大,并在精神加强,在旷野,直到他的表现一天的以色列,”(一,80)。Should we ask just when the Precursor went into the wilderness, an old tradition echoed by Paul Warnefried (Paul the Deacon), in the hymn, "Ut queant laxis", composed in honour of the saint, gives an answer hardly more definite than the statement of the Gospel: "Antra deserti teneris sub annis. . .petiit . . ."如果我们要求就在易制毒化学旷野,一个古老的传统,保罗Warnefried(保罗执事),回荡在赞美诗,“UT斯达康queant laxis”,在荣誉的圣组成,给出了一个答案几乎肯定比声明的福音:“Antra deserti teneris分阿尼斯petiit。。。。。。” Other writers, however, thought they knew better.其他作家,但是,认为他们知道更好。For instance, St. Peter of Alexandria believed St. John was taken into the desert to escape the wrath of Herod, who, if we may believe report, was impelled by fear of losing his kingdom to seek the life of the Precursor, just as he was, later on, to seek that of the new-born Saviour.例如,圣彼得亚历山大认为圣约翰被带到沙漠逃生的希律王的愤怒,是谁,如果我们可以相信的报告,是由失去他的王国,寻求人生的前兆恐惧的驱使,就如同他是,后来,寻求指出,新出生的救世主。 It was added also that Herod on this account had Zachary put to death between the temple and the altar, because he had prophesied the coming of the Messias (Baron., "Annal. Apparat.", n. 53).这还增加了希律王在此帐户的扎卡里付诸在殿和坛死亡,因为他预言未来的messias(Baron.,“Annal。Apparat。”,注53)。 These are worthless legends long since branded by St. Jerome as "apocryphorum somnia".这是因为由圣杰罗姆品牌为“apocryphorum somnia”长毫无价值的传说。

Passing, then, with St. Luke, over a period of some thirty years, we reach what may be considered the beginning of the public ministry of St. John (see BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY).传球,那么,与圣路加,在一个大约三十年期间,我们达到什么可考虑的圣约翰(见圣经年表)公共事务部的开始。 Up to this he had led in the desert the life of an anchorite; now he comes forth to deliver his message to the world.直至他率领在沙漠中的隐士生活,现在他来提出他的信息传递到世界各地。"In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar. . .the word of the Lord was made unto John, the son of Zachary, in the desert. And he came into all the country about the Jordan, preaching" (Luke 3:1-3), clothed not in the soft garments of a courtier (Matthew 11:8; Luke 7:24), but in those "of camel's hair, and a leather girdle about his loins"; and "his meat" -- he looked as if he came neither eating nor drinking (Matthew 11:18; Luke 7:33) -- "was locusts and wild honey" (Matthew 3:4; Mark 1:6); his whole countenance, far from suggesting the idea of a reed shaken by the wind (Matthew 11:7; Luke 7:24), manifested undaunted constancy. (路加3“在提庇留在位十五年,凯撒的主词是在旷野直到约翰,扎卡里的儿子,他就来到国家对约旦,说教。。。。”: 1-3),而不是在一个朝臣(马太11:8软衣服穿,路加福音7:24),但在这些“骆驼的头发,和他的腰束皮带”,和“他的肉” - 他看上去好像他来了,也不吃也不喝(马太11:18;路加福音19:33) - “是蝗虫和野生蜂蜜”(马太3:4,马可福音1:6),他的整个面貌,远离暗示主意由风吹动的芦苇(马太11:7,路加福音7:24),表现大无畏恒常。 A few incredulous scoffers feigned to be scandalized: "He hath a devil" (Matthew 11:18).一些怀疑的讥诮假装是震惊:“他是被魔鬼”(马太11:18)。Nevertheless, "Jerusalem and all Judea, and all the country about Jordan" (Matthew 3:5), drawn by his strong and winning personality, went out to him; the austerity of his life added immensely to the weight of his words; for the simple folk, he was truly a prophet (Matthew 11:9; cf. Luke 1:76, 77).不过,“耶路撒冷和犹太全地,和所有关于乔丹的国家”(马太3:5),并赢得了他坚强的性格吸引,去了他,他的生活将极大地节约了他的话的重量;为民风淳朴,他是一个真正的先知(马太11时09分。比照路加福音1:76,77)。 "Do penance: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand" (Matthew 3:2), such was the burden of his teaching. “不要忏悔:为天国在手”(马太3:2),这就是他的教学负担。Men of all conditions flocked round him.所有的男性也会蜂拥而至围着他。

Pharisees and Sadducees were there; the latter attracted perhaps by curiosity and scepticism, the former expecting possibly a word of praise for their multitudinous customs and practices, and all, probably, more anxious to see which of the rival sects the new prophet would commend than to seek instruction.法利赛人和撒都该人在那里,后者吸引了好奇和怀疑也许,他们的习俗和做法的众多前预期,原因可能是赞美词及所有可能,更渴望看到,其中的对手新教派的先知会称赞比寻求指示。 But John laid bare their hypocrisy.但约翰戳穿他们的虚伪。Drawing his similes from the surrounding scenery, and even, after the Oriental fashion, making use of a play on words (abanimbanium), he lashed their pride with this well-deserved rebuke: "Ye brood of vipers, who hath shewed you to flee from the wrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of penance. And think not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham for our father. For I tell you that God is able of these stones to raise up children to Abraham. For now the axe is laid to the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doth not yield good fruit, shall be cut down, and cast into the fire" (Matthew 3:7-10; Luke 3:7-9).借助周围的景色他的比喻,甚至,在东方时尚,使得一个文字游戏使用(abanimbanium),他抨击这是当之无愧的训斥他们的骄傲:“你们的毒蛇,谁所指示你们逃避育雏从愤怒到呢?你们要结出果实值得忏悔。3:9不要自己心里说,我们有我们的父亲亚伯拉罕。我告诉你们,神能从这些石头中给亚伯拉罕兴起子孙来。对于现在的斧子已放在树根上的每一棵树因此,岂不产生良好的成果,应被削减下来,丢在火里。“(马太3:7-10,路加福音3:7-9)。 It was clear something had to be done.很明显,这在某种程度上可以做。The men of good will among the listeners asked: "What shall we do?"在听众的良好意愿人问:“我们怎么办?”(Probably some were wealthy and, according to the custom of people in such circumstances, were clad in two tunics.-Josephus, "Antiq.", XVIII, v, 7). (也许有些人富裕,并根据人们习惯在这种情况下,分别在两个tunics. -约瑟夫包,“Antiq。”十八,五,七)。"And he answering, said to them: He that hath two coats, let him give to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do in like manner" (Luke 3:11). “他回答,对他们说:他认为有两件衣裳,让他给他那没有的,他说,祂所肉,让他在喜欢的方式做”(路加福音3:11)。Some were publicans; on them he enjoined not to exact more than the rate of taxes fixed by law (Luke 3:13).有些是税吏,他们不准确,他受命超过了法律所固定税率(路加福音3:13)。To the soldiers (probably Jewish police officers) he recommended not to do violence to any man, nor falsely to denounce anyone, and to be content with their pay (Luke 3:14).向士兵(可能是犹太人的警务人员),他建议不要做任何人的暴力行为,也错误地谴责任何人,并与他们的薪酬(路加福音3:14)的内容。 In other words, he cautioned them against trusting in their national privileges, he did not countenance the tenets of any sect, nor did he advocate the forsaking of one's ordinary state of life, but faithfulness and honesty in the fulfillment of one's duties, and the humble confession of one's sins.换言之,他告诫不要在其国家的特权信任他们,他也不赞成任何教派的教义,也没有他主张一个人的正常状态的生活,但忠诚和诚实的人的职责履行放弃,而谦卑忏悔一个人的罪过。

To confirm the good dispositions of his listeners, John baptized them in the Jordan, "saying that baptism was good, not so much to free one from certain sins [cf. St. Thomas, "Summ.为了确认他的听众的好性情,约翰在约旦河受洗他们,“他说,洗礼是好的,没有那么多来自[比照某些罪孽免费的。圣托马斯,”萨姆。 Theol.", III, A. xxxviii, a. 2 and 3] as to purify the body, the soul being already cleansed from its defilements by justice" (Josephus, "Antiq.", XVIII, vii). Theol。“,三,三十八答,答:2和3,以净化身体],灵魂被清洗已经从污秽的正义”(约瑟夫,“Antiq。”十八,七)。This feature of his ministry, more than anything else, attracted public attention to such an extent that he was surnamed "the Baptist" (ie Baptizer) even during his lifetime (by Christ, Matthew 11:11; by his own disciples, Luke 7:20; by Herod, Matthew 14:2; by Herodias, Matthew 14:3).他的这个部的功能,比什么都重要,引起公众的注意,他是这样一个姓“浸信会”的范围(即施洗),即使在他的一生(基督,马修11:11;由他自己的弟子,卢克7 :20;的希律王,马修14时02分,由希罗底,马太14:3)。Still his right to baptize was questioned by some (John 1:25); the Pharisees and the lawyers refused to comply with this ceremony, on the plea that baptism, as a preparation for the kingdom of God, was connected only with the Messias (Ezekiel 36:25; Zechariah 13:1, etc.), Elias, and the prophet spoken of in Deuteronomy 18:15.不过他有权洗了质疑一些(约1:25)法利赛人的律师拒绝遵守这个仪式上呼吁,即洗礼,作为神的国的准备,是连接与弥赛亚只(以西结书36:25;撒迦利亚13:1等),埃利亚斯,在申命记18:15和口语的先知。 John's reply was that he was Divinely "sent to baptize with water" (John 1:33); to this, later on, our Saviour bore testimony, when, in answer to the Pharisees trying to ensnare him, he implicitly declared that John's baptism was from heaven (Mark 11:30). John的回答是,他是神圣的“发送到施洗的水”(约1:33);在这以后,我们的救主孔的证词时,在回答法利赛人企图诱捕他,他含蓄地宣布,约翰的洗礼是从天上(马克11:30)。 Whilst baptizing, John, lest the people might think "that perhaps he might be the Christ" (Luke 3:15), did not fail to insist that his was only a forerunner's mission: "I indeed baptize you with water; but there shall come one mightier than I, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to loose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: whose fan is in his hand and he will purge his floor; and will gather the wheat into his barn, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire" (Luke 3:16, 17).虽然施洗约翰,以免人可能认为“或许他可能是基督”(路3:15),没有失败,他坚持只有一个先行者的使命:“我的确用水给你们施洗,但有应来一个比我更大,在天花乱坠的鞋子我不值得松动:他应洗与圣灵与火给你们:谁的风扇在他手中,他将清除他的地板,并将收集到他的小麦谷仓里,把糠他将与不灭的火燃烧“(路加福音3:16,17)。 Whatever John may have meant by this baptism "with fire", he, at all events, in this declaration clearly defined his relation to the One to come.无论约翰可能有此“火”的洗礼意思,他在所有的事件,在此声明明确界定他的关系到一个来。Here it will not be amiss to touch on the scene of the Precursor's ministry.在这里,它不会见怪谈谈对易制毒化学的事工现场。 The locality should be sought in that part of the Jordan valley (Luke 3:3) which is called the desert (Mark 1:4).当地应要求在这约旦河谷(路加3:3)被称为沙漠(马克1:4)的一部分。Two places are mentioned in the Fourth Gospel in this connection: Bethania (John 1:28) and Ennon (AV Ænon, John 3:23).两个地方提到了第四福音在这方面:贝萨尼亚(约翰福音1:28)和Ennon(影音阿农,约翰3:23)。As to Bethania, the reading Bethabara, first given by Origen, should be discarded; but the Alexandrine scholar perhaps was less wrong in suggesting the other reading, Bethara, possibly a Greek form of Betharan; at any rate, the site in question must be looked for "beyond the Jordan" (John 1:28).至于贝萨尼亚,阅读贝塞巴拉,首先由奥利给出,应该被丢弃,但在亚历山大的学者也许是不太暗示其他阅读,Bethara,可能是错的Betharan希腊的形式;无论如何,有问题的网站必须为看“超越乔丹”(约翰1:28)。 The second place, Ennon, "near Salim" (John 3:23), the extreme northern point marked in the Madaba mosaic map, is described in Eusebius's "Onomasticon" as being eight miles south of Scythopolis (Beisan), and should be sought probably at Ed-Deir or El-Ftur, a short distance from the Jordan (Lagrange, in "Revue Biblique", IV, 1895, pp. 502-05).第二,Ennon,“近萨利姆”(约翰3:23),北部的极端点在地图上标出马达巴马赛克,是描述在尤西比乌斯的“Onomasticon”说成是八英里以南Scythopolis(备三),并应寻求可能是在电火花在Deir或El - Ftur,从约旦短距离(拉格朗日在“杂志Biblique”,第四,1895年,第502-05)。Moreover, a long-standing tradition, traced back to AD 333, associates the activity of the Precursor, particularly the Baptism of the Lord, with the neighbourhood of Deir Mar-Yuhanna (Qasr el-Yehud).此外,长期的传统,追溯到公元333,联营公司的前兆,尤其是主的洗礼与三月的Deir - Yuhanna说街道(卡斯尔埃尔- Yehud),活动。

The Precursor had been preaching and baptizing for some time (just how long is not known), when Jesus came from Galilee to the Jordan, to be baptized by him.易制毒化学说教和洗礼已经有一段时间(只是不知道有多长),当耶稣从加利利来到约旦河,由他的洗。Why, it might be asked, should He "who did no sin" (1 Peter 2:22) seek John's "baptism of penance for the remission of sins" (Luke 3:3)?为什么,有人可能会问,那么,他:“谁没有罪”(1彼得2:22)寻求约翰的“为缓解的罪孽忏悔的洗礼”(路加福音3:3)? The Fathers of the Church answer very appropriately that this was the occasion preordained by the Father when Jesus should be manifested to the world as the Son of God; then again, by submitting to it, Jesus sanctioned the baptism of John.教会的神父们的回答非常恰当,这是由父亲钦点的质询时,耶稣应体现为与世界的神的儿子,然后再次提交给它,耶稣批准了约翰的洗礼。 "But John stayed him, saying: I ought to be baptized by thee, and comest thou to me?" “但约翰留住他,说:我应该由你的洗,你反倒上我吗?”(Matthew 3:14). (马太福音3:14)。These words, implying, as they do, that John knew Jesus, are in seeming conflict with a later declaration of John recorded in the Fourth Gospel: "I knew him not" (John 1:33).这些话,暗示,因为他们做的,约翰知道耶稣,约翰在与冲突后的声明似乎都记录在第四福音:“我不认识他”(约翰福音1:33)。 Most interpreters take it that the Precursor had some intimation of Jesus being the Messias: they assign this as the reason why John at first refused to baptize him; but the heavenly manifestation had, a few moments later, changed this intimation into perfect knowledge.大多数翻译是否可以认为,易制毒化学了一些暗示耶稣是弥赛亚了:他们指派为理由,为什么约翰在第一次拒绝给他洗礼如此,还有天上的表现了,几分钟后,变成了完美的知识这个暗示。 "And Jesus answering, said to him: Suffer it to be so now. For so it becometh us to fulfil all justice. Then he suffered him. And Jesus being baptized, forthwith came out of the water: and lo, the heavens were opened to him. . .And, behold, a voice from heaven, saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased" (Matthew 3:15-17). “耶稣回答,对他说:。。。就忍受如此现在如此行事为人我们能够履行所有正义然后,他许了他与耶稣的洗礼,随即出来的水:和LO,天就开了对他,忽然有一个声音从天上说:。。。这是我的爱子,我所高兴“(马太福音3:15-17)。

After this baptism, while Jesus was preaching through the towns of Galilee, going into Judea only occasionally for the feast days, John continued his ministry in the valley of the Jordan.经过这次洗礼,而耶稣是说教,通过加利利的城镇,要到犹太的节日只是偶尔,约翰继续在约旦河谷的事工。It was at this time that "the Jews sent from Jerusalem priests and Levites to him, to ask him: Who are thou? And he confessed, and did not deny: and he confessed: I am not the Christ. And they asked him: What then? Art thou Elias? And he said: I am not. Art thou the prophet? And he answered: No. They said, therefore, unto him: Who are thou, that we may give an answer to them that sent us? What sayest thou of thyself? He said: I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaias" (John 1:19-23).正是在这个时候,“犹太人从耶路撒冷差祭司和利未人给他,问他:谁是你和他供认,并没有否认:他承认:我不是基督,他们问他。:那么,你的艺术埃利亚斯和他说:??。我不是艺术,你的先知,他回答说:不,它们说,因此,对他说:你是谁,我们可以给他们一个答案发送给我们?什么自己说,你他说:我就是那在旷野有人声喊着,修直主的道路,正如先知伊萨亚斯说,“(约1:19-23)。 John denied he was Elias, whom the Jews were looking for (Matthew 17:10; Mark 9:10).约翰否认他是埃利亚斯,其中犹太人为寻找(马太17:10;马克9:10)。Nor did Jesus admit it, though His words to His disciples at first sight seem to point that way; "Elias indeed shall come, and restore all things. But I say to you, that Elias is already come" (Matthew 17:11; Mark 9:11-12).耶稣也没有承认这一点,尽管他的话在他的弟子乍一看似乎一点的方式;“埃利亚斯确实应来,并恢复所有的东西,但我告诉你们,以利亚已经来了。”(马太17:11;马克9:11-12)。 St. Matthew notes "the disciples understood, that he had spoken to them of John the Baptist" (Matthew 17:13).马太说明“弟子明白,他曾谈到施洗约翰给他们”(马太福音17:13)。This was equal to saying, "Elias is not to come in the flesh."这等于说,“埃利亚斯不来的肉。”But, in speaking of John before the multitude, Jesus made it plain that he called John Elias figuratively: "If you will receive it, he is Elias that is to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matthew 11:14, 15).但是,约翰在众人面前说话,耶稣已清楚表明,他叫约翰埃利亚斯比喻:“如果你收到它,他是埃利亚斯这是今后他的耳可听的,就应当听。”(马太11 :14,15)。This had been anticipated by the angel when, announcing John's birth to Zachary, he foretold that the child would go before the Lord "in the spirit and power of Elias" (Luke 1:17).这已得到天使的时候,宣布约翰的出生到扎卡里预期,他预言这个孩子会去,在耶和华面前“的精神和力量的埃利亚斯”(路加福音1:17)。 "The next day, John saw Jesus coming to him and he saith: Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said: After me there cometh a man, who is preferred before me: because he was before me that he may be made manifest in Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. And I knew him not; but he who sent me to baptize with water, said to me: He upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining upon him, he it is that baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. And I saw, and I gave testimony, that this is the Son of God" (John 1:20-34). “第二天,约翰看见耶稣来到他,他说:。看哪上帝的羔羊,你看他谁夺去了世界的罪恶,这是人,我说他:在我之后来到有一个人,谁是首选。。。在我面前:因为他在我面前的是,他可能会在以色列的体现,所以我来用水施洗 我不认识他,但他谁送我来用水施洗的,对我说:他对人你看见圣灵降下来,落在他身上剩下的,这人就是用圣灵施洗的,我看到了,我作见证,这是神的儿子“(约1:20-34。 )。

Among the many listeners flocking to St. John, some, more deeply touched by his doctrine, stayed with him, thus forming, as around other famous doctors of the law, a group of disciples.其中植绒圣约翰,一些深受他的学说更感动,许多听众留下了他,从而形成,为各地的法律,其他组的弟子名医。These he exhorted to fast (Mark 2:18), these he taught special forms of prayer (Luke 5:33; 11:1).他告诫这些快(马克2:18),他教这些特殊形式的祈祷(路加福音5:33; 11:1)。Their number, according to the pseudo-Clementine literature, reached thirty (Hom. ii, 23).他们的人数,根据伪克莱门汀文学,达到三十(Hom.二,23)。Among them was Andrew of Bethsaida of Galilee (John 1:44).其中是安德鲁伯赛大的加利利(约翰1:44)。One day, as Jesus was standing in the distance, John, pointed Him out, repeated his previous declaration: "Behold the Lamb of God".有一天,耶稣在远处站着,约翰,指出他,重申了他先前的声明:“看哪,神的羔羊”。Then Andrew, with another disciple of John, hearing this, followed Jesus (John 1:36-38).后来安德鲁,与另一弟子约翰听到这话时,遵照耶稣(约翰福音1:36-38)。The account of the calling of Andrew and Simon differs materially from that found in St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke; yet it should be noticed that St. Luke, in particular, so narrates the meeting of the two brothers with the Saviour, as to let us infer they already knew Him.作者:安德鲁和西蒙呼叫帐户重大不同,在圣马太,圣马克,和圣卢克发现,但应该看到,圣路加,尤其是这样叙述了两兄弟会见救主,才能让我们推断他们已经认识他。 Now, on the other hand, since the Fourth Evangelist does not say that Andrew and his companions forthwith left their business to devote themselves exclusively to the Gospel or its preparation, there is clearly no absolute discordance between the narration of the first three Gospels and that of St. John.现在,在另一方面,由于第四传播者不说,安德鲁和他的同伴随即离开了他们的业务,专门致力于福音及其筹备工作,很明显,没有之间的叙事与前三福音,绝对的不一致圣约翰。

The Precursor, after the lapse of several months, again appears on the scene, and he is still preaching and baptizing on the banks of the Jordan (John 3:23).后的易制毒化学时隔几个月,再次出现在现场,他仍然是说教和对约旦(约翰3:23)银行洗礼。Jesus, in the meantime, had gathered about Himself a following of disciples, and He came "into the land of Judea: and there He abode with them, and baptized" (John 3:22), -- "though Jesus himself did not baptize, but his disciples" (John 4:2).耶稣,在此期间,收集了关于他自己的弟子后,他来到“进入犹太土地:他在那里与他们居留权,并领洗”(约3:22), - “虽然自己没有耶稣施洗,乃是他的门徒“(约4:2)。-- "There arose a question between some of John's disciples and the Jews [the best Greek texts have "a Jew"] concerning purification" (John 3:25), that is to say, as is suggested by the context, concerning the relative value of both baptisms.- “我们之间出现了一些约翰的门徒和犹太人[最好的希腊文有问题”犹太人“]关于净化”(约翰福音3:25),这就是说,因为是由上下文的建议,有关相对值均洗礼。 The disciples of John came to him: "Rabbi, he that was with thee beyond the Jordan, to whom thou gavest testimony, behold he baptizeth, and all men come to him" (John 3:26-27).约翰的门徒来对他说:“拉比,从前同你超越乔丹,你所赐给的证词,见他施洗,众人都往他”(约翰福音3:26-27)。 They undoubtedly meant that Jesus should give way to John who had recommended Him, and that, by baptizing, He was encroaching upon the rights of John.他们无疑意味着耶稣应让位给他,谁曾推荐他,并说,由洗礼,他是在约翰的权利受到侵犯。"John answered and said: A man cannot receive anything, unless it be given him from heaven. You yourselves do bear me witness, that I said, I am not Christ, but that I am sent before him. He that hath the bride is the bridegroom: but the friend of the bridegroom, who standeth and heareth him, rejoiceth with joy because of the bridegroom's voice. This my joy, therefore, is fulfilled. He must increase, but I must decrease. He that cometh from above, is above all. He that is of the earth, of the earth he is, and of the earth he speaketh. He that cometh from heaven, is above all. And what he hath seen and heard, that he testifieth. . ." “约翰回答说:。。一个人不能得到任何东西,除非它是从天上赐你们自己做给我作见证,我说,我不是基督,但我送到他面前,他说,祂所新娘新郎:。但新郎,谁站着听见他与因为新郎的声音喜悦欢乐的朋友,这我的欢乐,因此,这是实现他必兴旺,我必衰微,他从地上,反成了。。上述所有条款。他是地球,地球的他,和他说话的地球。他是从天上来的,是高于一切。什么他已经看到和听到,他作见证。。。“ (John 3:27-36). (约翰福音3:27-36)。

The above narration recalls the fact before mentioned (John 1:28), that part of the Baptist's ministry was exercised in Perea: Ennon, another scene of his labours, was within the borders of Galilee; both Perea and Galilee made up the tetrarchy of Herod Antipas.上面叙述回顾之前提到(约翰1:28)的事实,即浸会的佩雷亚部的一部分是在行使:Ennon,另一个,他的劳动场面,在边界的加利利了;既佩雷亚和加利利的弥补了tetrarchy希律安提帕。 This prince, a son worthy of his father Herod the Great, had married, likely for political reasons, the daughter of Aretas, king of the Nabathaeans.这王子,一个儿子,他无愧于伟大的父亲希律王,已经结婚了,很可能出于政治原因,对Aretas,在Nabathaeans国王的​​女儿。 But on a visit to Rome, he fell in love with his niece Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Philip (son of the younger Mariamne), and induced her to come on to Galilee.但是在罗马访问期间,他爱上了他的侄女希罗底,他的同父异母兄弟菲利普(儿子的年轻Mariamne)的妻子,并诱导她来上加利利。 When and where the Precursor met Herod, we are not told, but from the synoptic Gospels we learn that John dared to rebuke the tetrarch for his evil deeds, especially his public adultery.何时何地会见了易制毒化学希律王,我们也不知道,但是从天气学,约翰福音,我们敢于斥责分封他的恶行,尤其是他的公共通奸。 Herod, swayed by Herodias, did not allow the unwelcome reprover to go unpunished: he "sent and apprehended John and bound him in prison".希律王,希罗底动摇了,没有让不受欢迎的责备逍遥法外:他“被捕发送和约翰和约束,在狱中他。” Josephus tell us quite another story, containing perhaps also an element of truth.约瑟夫的故事告诉我们,完全是另一回事,也许还包含一个真实的成分。"As great crowds clustered around John, Herod became afraid lest the Baptist should abuse his moral authority over them to incite them to rebellion, as they would do anything at his bidding; therefore he thought it wiser, so as to prevent possible happenings, to take away the dangerous preacher. . .and he imprisoned him in the fortress of Machaerus" (Antiq., XVIII, v, 2). “由于许多群众聚集周围约翰,希律成为以免浸会害怕他们应该滥用他的道德权威对他们煽动叛乱,因为他们在他的吩咐做什么,所以他认为明智的,以防止可能发生的事情,以带走的危险布道者。。。和他囚禁在他的Machaerus堡垒“(Antiq.,十八,五,2)。 Whatever may have been the chief motive of the tetrarch's policy, it is certain that Herodias nourished a bitter hatred against John: "She laid snares for him: and was desirous to put him to death" (Mark 6:19).无论可能一直是分封的政策的主要动机,可以肯定的是希罗底,孕育了对约翰深恶痛绝:“她为他奠定了圈套:渴望,并把他治死”(马可福音6:19)。 Although Herod first shared her desire, yet "he feared the people: because they esteemed him as a prophet" (Matthew 14:5).虽然她的第一个共享希律王的愿望,但“他担心的人:因为他们尊敬他作为先知”(马太14:5)。After some time this resentment on Herod's part seems to have abated, for, according to Mark 6:19-20, he heard John willingly and did many things at his suggestion.一段时间后,这个希律王的一部分不满似乎已经减弱,因为根据马克6:19-20,他听到约翰心甘情愿地做很多事情在他的建议。

John, in his fetters, was attended by some of his disciples, who kept him in touch with the events of the day.约翰在他的脚镣,参加了他的弟子,谁保持着联系与当天发生的事件他一些。He thus learned of the wonders wrought by Jesus.因此,他学会了耶稣带来的奇迹。At this point it cannot be supposed that John's faith wavered in the least.在这一点上不能假定,约翰的信心丝毫没有动摇过。 Some of his disciples, however, would not be convinced by his words that Jesus was the Messias.他的一些门徒,但是,​​这不会相信他的话,耶稣是弥赛亚。Accordingly, he sent them to Jesus, bidding them say: "John the Baptist hath sent us to thee, saying: Art thou he that art to come; or look we for another? (And in that same hour, he cured many of their [the people's] diseases, and hurts, and evil spirits; and to many that were blind he gave sight.) And answering, he said to them: Go and relate to John what you have heard and seen: the blind see, the lame walk, the lepers are made clean, the deaf hear, the dead rise again, to the poor the gospel is preached: and blessed is he whosoever shall not be scandalized in me" (Luke 7:20-23; Matthew 11:3-6).因此,他派他们去耶稣,投标他们说:“施洗约翰打发我们来见你,说:你的艺术,他认为艺术来,或者我们再看看(在同一时刻,他治好了许多有? [人民]的疾病,伤害,和邪恶的精神;并好些瞎子能看见)和回答,他对他们说:。前往,并涉及到约翰你所听到和看到:瞎子看见,瘸子行走,长大麻疯的洁净,聋子听见,死人复活,对穷人有福音传给他们:他是有福凡不因我震惊“(路加福音7:20-23,马太福音11:3 - 6)。How this interview affected John's disciples, we do not know; but we do know the encomium it occasioned of John from the lips of Jesus: "And when the messengers of John were departed, he began to speak to the multitudes concerning John. What went ye out into the desert to see? A reed shaken with the wind?"这怎么采访影响约翰的门徒,我们不知道,但我们知道推崇它的约翰引起从耶稣的嘴唇:“当约翰的使者离开,他开始说话,众人就约翰,怎么样去了。你们到沙漠看什么呢,要看风吹动的芦苇?“ All knew full well why John was in prison, and that in his captivity he was more than ever the undaunted champion of truth and virtue.所有完全知道为什么约翰在监狱里,而且在他的囚禁,他比以往任何时候都无所畏惧的真理和美德冠军。 - "But what went you out to see? A man clothed in soft garments? Behold they that are in costly apparel, and live delicately, are in the houses of kings. But what went you out to see? A prophet? Yea, I say to you, and more than a prophet. This is he of whom it is written: Behold, I send my angel before thy face, who shall prepare thy way before thee. For I say to you: Amongst those that are born of women, there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptist" (Luke 7:24-28).- ?“你出了什么,但看到一个人穿柔软的衣服看哪,他们是在昂贵的服装,生活精致,在国王的房子是你出了什么,但看到一个先知是啊,我。??告诉你,他比先知更这是谁写他:。看哪,我送在你面前,谁应准备在你面前,把你我的​​天使我告诉你:。当中那些出生的妇女,没有一个大过施洗约翰的先知“(路加福音7:24-28)。 And continuing, Jesus pointed out the inconsistency of the world in its opinions both of himself and his precursor: "John the Baptist came neither eating bread nor drinking wine; and you say: He hath a devil. The Son of man is coming eating and drinking: and you say: Behold a man that is a glutton and a drinker of wine, a friend of publicans and sinners. And wisdom is justified by all her children" (Luke 7:33-35).和持续,耶稣指出了在这两个对自己的意见和他的易制毒化学世界的矛盾:“施洗约翰来,不吃饼,不喝酒,而你说:。他是被魔鬼人子来了饮食饮酒:和你说:看一个男人,是老饕和酒鬼酒,一税吏和罪人的朋友和智慧是她所有的孩子正当的“(路加福音7:33-35)。。 St. John languished probably for some time in the fortress of Machaerus; but the ire of Herodias, unlike that of Herod, never abated: she watched her chance.圣约翰冷落可能对一些在Machaerus堡垒的时候,但愤怒的希罗底,不像希律,从未减弱:她看着她的机会。It came at the birthday feast which Herod, after Roman fashion, gave to the "princes, and tribunes, and chief men of Galilee. And when the daughter of the same Herodias [Josephus gives her name: Salome] had come in, and had danced, and pleased Herod and them that were at table with him, the king said to the damsel: Ask of me what thou wilt, and I will give it thee. . .Who when she was gone out, said to her mother, what shall I ask? But she said: The head of John the Baptist. And when she was come in immediately with haste to the king, she asked, saying: I will that forthwith thou give me in a dish, the head of John the Baptist. And the king was struck sad. Yet because of his oath, and because of them that were with him at table, he would not displease her: but sending an executioner, he commanded that his head should be brought in a dish: and gave it to the damsel, and the damsel gave it to her mother" (Mark 6:21-28). 。它曾经在生日宴会的希律王,在罗马时装,给了“王子,和民官,并加利利首领而当相同的希罗底的女儿[约瑟夫给她的名字:莎乐美]已经来了,并已跳舞,希律和同席的人,国王对女子说:。。。你问我什么病,我必给你是谁时,她出去了,对她母亲说,什么我应该问,但她说:?。约翰的头浸,趁她在马上拿出匆忙向国王,她问,他说:我会是你给我立即在一碟,施洗约翰的头。王感到震惊悲伤,却因为他的誓言,因为他们与他同在桌上,他不会得罪她:。但发送刽子手,他吩咐他的头应该在一盘带来了:给了它的姑娘,和姑娘送给她的母亲“(马可福音6:21-28)。 Thus was done to death the greatest "amongst them that are born of women", the prize awarded to a dancing girl, the toll exacted for an oath rashly taken and criminally kept (St. Augustine).因此做的目的是死亡的最大:“在他们说,是出生的妇女”,该奖项颁发给一个跳舞的女孩,为保持贸然采取和刑事责任(圣奥古斯丁)宣誓,付出的代价。 At such an unjustifiable execution even the Jews were shocked, and they attributed to Divine vengeance the defeat Herod sustained afterwards at the hands of Aretas, his rightful father-in-law (Josephus, loc. cit.).在这样一个毫无道理的执行甚至犹太人被惊呆了,他们由于神圣的复仇失败后持续希律王在Aretas手中,他应有的岳父岳母(约瑟夫,同上。同上。)。 John's disciples, hearing of his death, "came, and took his body, and laid it in a tomb" (Mark 6:29), "and came and told Jesus" (Matthew 14:12).约翰的门徒,听他的死亡,“来了,把他的身体,葬在坟墓里”(马可福音6:29)“,并去告诉耶稣”(马太14:12)。

The lasting impression made by the Precursor upon those who had come within his influence cannot be better illustrated than by mentioned the awe which seize upon Herod when he heard of the wonders wrought by Jesus who, in his mind, was not other than John the Baptist come to life (Matthew 14:1, 2, etc.).在持久的印象的前兆时所作的谁曾在他的影响力来不能更好地说明比提到的敬畏其中要求希律抓住的时候,他的耶稣谁,在他心目中,没有比约翰其他浸会带来的奇迹听到来生活(马太14时01分,2等)。 The Precursor's influence did not die with him.前驱体的影响没有死他。It was far-reaching, too, as we learn from Acts 18:25; 19:3, where we find that proselytes at Ephesus had received from Apollo and others the baptism of John.这是深远的,也一样,我们从行为学18:25; 19时03分,在那里我们发现,在以弗所的proselytes收到了来自阿波罗和其他人的约翰的洗礼。Moreover, early Christian writers speak of a sect taking its name from John and holding only to his baptism.此外,早期基督教作家谈论一个名字到它由约翰和举行不仅对他的洗礼教派。The date of John the Baptist's death, 29 August, assigned in the liturgical calendars can hardly be relied upon, because it is scarcely based upon trustworthy documents.在施洗约翰的死,在8月29日指定礼仪日历,日期也难以依靠,因为它是在几乎没有值得信赖的文件。His burial-place has been fixed by an old tradition at Sebaste (Samaria).他的墓地,这里已被固定由一个在Sebaste(撒马利亚)古老的传统。But if there be any truth in Josephus's assertion, that John was put to death at Machaerus, it is hard to understand why he was buried so far from the Herodian fortress.但是,如果有任何约瑟夫的断言的真理,是约翰,并于Machaerus死刑,这是很难理解为什么他被安葬迄今从希律堡垒。 Still, it is quite possible that, at a later date unknown to us, his sacred remains were carried to Sebaste.然而,这是非常有可能的,在以后的日子我们未知的,他的神圣的遗体被运到Sebaste。At any rate, about the middle of the fourth century, his tomb was there honoured, as we are informed on the testimony of Rufinus and Theodoretus.无论如何,有关的第四个世纪中叶,他的坟墓在那里荣幸,因为我们对rufinus和Theodoretus证词通知。 These authors add that the shrine was desecrated under Julian the Apostate (c. AD 362), the bones being partly burned.这些作者补充说,靖国神社是亵渎下的叛教者朱利安(约公元362),骨头被部分烧毁。A portion of the rescued relics were carried to Jerusalem, then to Alexandria; and there, on 27 May, 395, these relics were laid in the gorgeous basilica just dedicated to the Precursor on the site of the once famous temple of Serapis.一个获救的一部分文物被运到耶路撒冷,然后到亚历山大;还有5月27日,395,这些文物被解雇,在短短专线对一次著名的塞拉皮斯寺遗址的易制毒化学大教堂的华丽。 The tomb at Sebaste continued, nevertheless, to be visited by pious pilgrims, and St. Jerome bears witness to the miracles there wrought.在Sebaste墓继续进行,然而,由虔诚的朝圣者访问,并圣杰罗姆见证奇迹的出现而行。Perhaps some of the relics had been brought back to Sebaste.也许一些文物已被带回Sebaste。Other portions at different times found their way to many sanctuaries of the Christian world, and long is the list of the churches claiming possession of some part of the precious treasure.在不同时期的其他部分找到自己的方式向许多避难所的基督教世界,长是声称一些教会拥有的宝贵财富的一部分名单。 What became of the head of the Precursor is difficult to determine.什么的前兆头变得难以确定。Nicephorus (I, ix) and Metaphrastes say Herodias had it buried in the fortress of Machaerus; others insist that it was interred in Herod's palace at Jerusalem; there it was found during the reign of Constantine, and thence secretly taken to Emesa, in Phoenicia, where it was concealed, the place remaining unknown for years, until it was manifested by revelation in 453. Nicephorus(一,九)和Metaphrastes说希罗底了它在Machaerus堡垒埋葬;人坚持​​认为,它被埋葬在希律王的,在耶路撒冷的宫殿,那里被发现在君士坦丁的统治,并从那里偷偷带到Emesa在腓尼基,它被掩盖,余下的地方不明满,直到它表现为启示453。 In the many and discordant relations concerning this relic, unfortunately much uncertainty prevails; their discrepancies in almost every point render the problem so intricate as to baffle solution.在许多有关这个遗迹和不和谐的关系,不幸的是很大的不确定性普遍存在,几乎在每一点上,他们的差异呈现错综复杂的问题,以便以挡板的解决方案。 This signal relic, in whole or in part, is claimed by several churches, among them Amiens, Nemours, St-Jean d'Angeli (France), S. Silvestro in Capite (Rome).这个信号的遗迹,全部或部分声称由几座教堂,其中亚眠,内穆尔,圣,让德安杰利(法国),学在Capite西尔维斯特(罗马)。 This fact Tillemont traces to a mistaking of one St. John for another, an explanation which, in certain cases, appears to be founded on good grounds and accounts well for this otherwise puzzling multiplication of relics.这一事实蒂耶蒙痕迹的一圣约翰另一个误会,一解释,因为在一些情况下,似乎是建立在很好的理由和解释这种令人费解的乘法的文物,否则好。 The honour paid so early and in so many places to the relics of St. John the Baptist, the zeal with which many churches have maintained at all times their ill-founded claims to some of his relics, the numberless churches, abbeys, towns, and religious families placed under his patronage, the frequency of his name among Christian people, all attest the antiquity and widespread diffusion of the devotion to the Precursor.这项荣誉付出了这么早,这么多的地方,圣施洗约翰,与许多教会都始终保持着热情的文物他们非法成立的声请,他的遗物中,无数的教堂,修道院,一些城镇,和他的赞助下放置宗教的家庭,他在基督教的人的名字的频率,都证明了古代的奉献精神和广泛扩散到先导。 The commemoration of his Nativity is one of the oldest feasts, if not the oldest feast, introduced into both the Greek and Latin liturgies to honour a saint.他的圣诞纪念是最古老的节日之一,如果不是最古老的节日,到这两个希腊和拉丁礼仪介绍荣誉圣人。But why is the feast proper, as it were, of St. John on the day of his nativity, whereas with other saints it is the day of their death?但是,为什么是正确的盛宴,因为它是圣约翰,在他生日上,而与其他圣人这是他们的死期? Because it was meant that the birth of him who, unlike the rest, was "filled with the Holy Ghost even from his mother's womb", should be signalized as a day of triumph.因为这是意味着,他出生谁,不像其他的,是“被圣灵充满,甚至从他母亲的子宫里”,应灯号作为一个胜利的日子。The celebration of the Decollation of John the Baptist, on 29 August, enjoys almost the same antiquity.该断头的施洗约翰8月29日,庆祝,享有几乎相同的古物。We find also in the oldest martyrologies mention of a feast of the Conception of the Precursor on 24 September.我们发现最古老的martyrologies也是一个对9月24日易制毒化学观盛宴提及。But the most solemn celebration in honour of this saint was always that of his Nativity, preceded until recently by a fast.但是,在这个最隆重的庆祝圣荣誉总是认为他的诞生,在此之前,直到最近一个快。Many places adopted the custom introduced by St. Sabas of having a double Office on this day, as on the day of the Nativity of the Lord.许多地方采取由圣Sabas介绍了在这一天有双重办公室的习俗,作为对主耶稣诞生日。 The first Office, intended to signify the time of the Law and the Prophets which lasted up to St. John (Luke 16:16), began at sunset, and was chanted without Alleluia; the second, meant to celebrate the opening of the time of grace, and gladdened by the singing of Alleluia, was held during the night.第一个办事处,旨在表明对法律和先知,一直延续到圣约翰(路加福音16:16),日落开始,并没有高喊哈利路亚时间,第二,为了庆祝开幕时间的宽限期,并欢喜由哈里路亚唱歌,是在晚上举行。 The resemblance of the feast of St. John with that of Christmas was carried farther, for another feature of the 24th of June was the celebration of three masses: the first, in the dead of night, recalled his mission of Precursor; the second, at daybreak, commemorated the baptism he conferred; and the third, at the hour of Terce, honoured his sanctity.作者:圣约翰与圣诞节盛宴进行进一步的相似的另一个特点6月24日,是人民群众庆祝三:第一,在夜深人静的时候,回忆起易制毒化学团;第二,天一亮,纪念他的洗礼授予;并于泰尔塞小时的三分之一,履行其神圣性。 The whole liturgy of the day, repeatedly enriched by the additions of several popes, was in suggestiveness and beauty on a part with the liturgy of Christmas.当天整个礼仪,多次受到教皇的几个补充丰富,是在暗示和美容上一个圣诞节的礼仪的一部分。So sacred was St. John's day deemed that two rival armies, meeting face to face on 23 June, by common accord put off the battle until the morrow of the feast (Battle of Fontenay, 841).圣约翰是如此神圣的一天,两个对手视为军队,面对面会议6月23日,由共同协议推迟到的盛宴(战役丰特奈,841)明天的战斗。 "Joy, which is the characteristic of the day, radiated from the sacred precincts. The lovely summer nights, at St. John's tide, gave free scope to popular display of lively faith among various nationalities. Scarce had the last rays of the setting sun died away when, all the world over, immense columns of flame arose from every mountain-top, and in an instant, every town, and village, and hamlet was lighted up" (Guéranger). “欢乐,这是当天特点,从神圣区辐射。可爱的夏夜在圣约翰的潮流,提供免费的范围,以生动的信仰流行的展示各民族。稀缺已是夕阳最后的余辉消失时,所有的世界各地,巨大的火焰从每列产生的山顶,并在瞬间,每个镇,村,和哈姆雷特是灯火通明“(Guéranger)。 The custom of the "St. John's fires", whatever its origin, has, in certain regions, endured unto this day.而“圣约翰的火灾”的习俗,不论其来源,已在某些地区,忍着,直到今日。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息写查尔斯L Souvay。Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.转录由托马斯M巴雷特。Dedicated to the Rickreall, Oregon (USA) Christmas Pageant The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.竭诚为里克雷尔,俄勒冈州(美国)圣诞大游行的天主教​​百科全书,体积八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

Besides the Gospels and the Commentaries thereon, JOSEPHUS and the many Lives of Christ, EUSEBIUS, Hist.除了福音和评注就此,约瑟夫和基督,尤西比乌斯,历史的许多人的生命。Eccl., I, xi; Acta pour servir a l'histoire eccles., I (Brussels, 1732), 36-47; notes p.传道书,我十一。兽类倒servir一欧莱雅历史学埃克尔斯,我(布鲁塞尔,1732年),36-47。笔记页210-222; HOTTINGER, Historia Orientalis (Zurich, 1660), 144-149; PACIANDI, De cultu J. Baptistae in Antiq. 210-222;霍廷格,历史山东教育(苏黎世,1660),144-149; PACIANDI,德cultu j的Baptistae在Antiq。 Christ., III (Rome, 1755); LEOPOLD, Johannes der Taufer (Lubeck, 1838); CHIARAMONTE, Vita di San Giovanni Battista (Turin, 1892); YESTIVEL, San Juan Bautista (Madrid, 1909).基督,三(罗马,1755)。利奥波德,约翰内斯明镜Taufer(吕贝克,1838年); CHIARAMONTE,圣乔万尼巴蒂斯塔迪维塔(都灵,1892年); YESTIVEL,圣胡安包蒂斯塔(马德里,1909年)。



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