Saint Joseph, St. Joseph圣约瑟夫

General Information一般资料

Saint Joseph was the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. Given prominent attention in the first two chapters of Matthew and Luke, Joseph is portrayed as a carpenter in Nazareth, a righteous descendant of Bethlehem's David, and a kind husband and father. 圣约瑟夫是父亲丈夫的玛丽,耶稣的母亲基督。伯利恒鉴于突出注意在头两章的马修和后代卢克,正义约瑟夫被描绘成一个木匠在拿撒勒大卫,一种丈夫。 Although little else is known of his life, Joseph's faithful cooperation in the birth of Christ earned him sainthood.虽然没有其他人知道他的生命,约瑟夫在基督诞生忠实的合作为他赢得了圣人。He is venerated by Orthodox and by Roman Catholics, who consider him the patron saint of workers.他是崇敬,由东正教和罗马天主教,谁认为他的工人的守护神。Feast days: May 1 (Western); first Sunday after Christmas (Eastern).节日:5月1日(西部);圣诞节后第一次(东区)星期日。

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St. Joseph圣若瑟

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary and foster-father of Our Lord Jesus Christ.配偶的圣母玛利亚和寄养我们的主耶稣基督的父。

LIFE生命

Sources来源

The chief sources of information on the life of St. Joseph are the first chapters of our first and third Gospels; they are practically also the only reliable sources, for, whilst, on the holy patriarch's life, as on many other points connected with the Saviour's history which are left untouched by the canonical writings, the apocryphal literature is full of details, the non-admittance of these works into the Canon of the Sacred Books casts a strong suspicion upon their contents; and, even granted that some of the facts recorded by them may be founded on trustworthy traditions, it is in most instances next to impossible to discern and sift these particles of true history from the fancies with which they are associated.关于圣若瑟生活信息的主要来源是我们的第一个和第三个福音第一章;他们几乎也是唯一可靠的来源,因为,同时,对圣主教的生活,与其他许多连接点,救主的历史,是遗留下来的典型著作原封不动,猜测文学是细节完整,不进入的圣书佳能接纳这些作品转换后,其内容的强烈的怀疑和,甚至想当然地认为一些事实他们所记录的可能是传统上值得信赖的成立,它是在大多数情况下几乎是无法辨别和筛选这些粒子的真实历史的幻想与它们有关联的。 Among these apocryphal productions dealing more or less extensively with some episodes of St. Joseph's life may be noted the so-called "Gospel of James", the "Pseudo-Matthew", the "Gospel of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary", the "Story of Joseph the Carpenter", and the "Life of the Virgin and Death of Joseph".在这些交易未经证实的产品或多或少广泛地圣约瑟生活中的一些事件可能会指出,所谓的“福音詹姆斯”,“伪马修”,有“圣母玛利亚的圣诞福音”,则“约瑟的故事匠”,和“圣母和约瑟夫死亡的生活”。

Genealogy家谱

St. Matthew (1:16) calls St. Joseph the son of Jacob; according to St. Luke (3:23), Heli was his father.马太(1:16)调用圣若瑟的儿子雅各布,据圣卢克(23分),直升机是他的父亲。This is not the place to recite the many and most various endeavours to solve the vexing questions arising from the divergences between both genealogies; nor is it necessary to point out the explanation which meets best all the requirements of the problem (see GENEALOGY OF CHRIST); suffice it to remind the reader that, contrary to what was once advocated, most modern writers readily admit that in both documents we possess the genealogy of Joseph, and that it is quite possible to reconcile their data.这不是适合朗诵的许多和大多数各种努力来解决双方之间的分歧而产生令人烦恼的族谱问题;也不是要指出的解释符合最佳的所有要求的问题(见基督的家谱)就够了,提醒读者的是,相反的是曾经主张,最现代作家毫不迟疑地承认,在这两个文件,​​我们具备了约瑟夫家谱,这是完全可能的调和他们的数据。

Residence居住

At any rate, Bethlehem, the city of David and his descendants, appears to have been the birth-place of Joseph.无论如何,伯利恒,大卫和他的后裔的城市,似乎一直是出生的约瑟夫举行。When, however, the Gospel history opens, namely, a few months before the Annunciation, Joseph was settled at Nazareth.但是,当打开历史的福音,即前几个月报喜,约瑟夫是定居在拿撒勒。Why and when he forsook his home-place to betake himself to Galilee is not ascertained; some suppose -- and the supposition is by no means improbable -- that the then-moderate circumstances of the family and the necessity of earning a living may have brought about the change.为什么当他放弃他的家,地方betake自己加利利没有确定,有些想 - 和假设绝不是不可能的 - 即家庭当时的中等收入情况和生活中必不可少的可能带来的变化。St. Joseph, indeed, was a tekton, as we learn from Matthew 13:55, and Mark 6:3.圣若瑟,确实是一个Tekton的,正如我们从马太福音13:55,和马克6:3学习。The word means both mechanic in general and carpenter in particular; St. Justin vouches for the latter sense (Dial. cum Tryph., lxxxviii, in PG, VI, 688), and tradition has accepted this interpretation, which is followed in the English Bible.这个词意味着在一般和特殊木工机械;圣贾斯汀后者意义(。Dial.暨Tryph,lxxxviii,在编号,六,688),与传统的先天不足已接受这一解释,这是在英国之后圣经。

Marriage婚姻

It is probably at Nazareth that Joseph betrothed and married her who was to become the Mother of God.这大概是在拿撒勒约瑟夫订婚和结婚她谁是成为天主之母。When the marriage took place, whether before or after the Incarnation, is no easy matter to settle, and on this point the masters of exegesis have at all times been at variance.当婚姻发生之前或之后发生的化身,是不容易的事情平静下来,并在此点注释的主人的差异已在任何时候都。Most modern commentators, following the footsteps of St. Thomas, understand that, at the epoch of the Annunciation, the Blessed Virgin was only affianced to Joseph; as St. Thomas notices, this interpretation suits better all the evangelical data.最现代的评论家,遵循圣托马斯的脚步,理解这一点,在报喜时代,圣母只是affianced约瑟夫,正如圣托马斯通知书,这一解释更适合所有的福音数据。

It will not be without interest to recall here, unreliable though they are, the lengthy stories concerning St. Joseph's marriage contained in the apocryphal writings.这不会是没有兴趣在这里回顾,虽然他们是不可靠的,关于圣若瑟的婚姻冗长的故事,载于未经著作。When forty years of age, Joseph married a woman called Melcha or Escha by some, Salome by others; they lived forty-nine years together and had six children, two daughters and four sons, the youngest of whom was James (the Less, "the Lord's brother").当四十岁,结婚的妇女叫约瑟夫一些Melcha或Escha,以别人莎乐美,他们住四十九年在一起,有六个子女,两个女儿和四个儿子,最年轻的一位是詹姆斯(少“主的兄弟“)。 A year after his wife's death, as the priests announced through Judea that they wished to find in the tribe of Juda a respectable man to espouse Mary, then twelve to fourteen years of age.一年后,他妻子的死亡,通过犹太祭司宣布,他们希望找到在犹大支派中的一个可敬的人信奉圣母玛利亚,然后十二到十四岁。Joseph, who was at the time ninety years old, went up to Jerusalem among the candidates; a miracle manifested the choice God had made of Joseph, and two years later the Annunciation took place.约瑟夫,谁当时九十年岁,上升到耶路撒冷之间的候选人,体现了一个奇迹,上帝选择的约瑟,并在两年后的报喜发生。These dreams, as St. Jerome styles them, from which many a Christian artist has drawn his inspiration (see, for instance, Raphael's "Espousals of the Virgin"), are void of authority; they nevertheless acquired in the course of ages some popularity; in them some ecclesiastical writers sought the answer to the well-known difficulty arising from the mention in the Gospel of "the Lord's brothers"; from them also popular credulity has, contrary to all probability, as well as to the tradition witnessed by old works of art, retained the belief that St. Joseph was an old man at the time of marriage with the Mother of God.他们作为圣杰罗姆风格,从许多基督教艺术家引起他的灵感,这些梦想,(例如见,拉斐尔的“婚筵的处女”),是无效的权力,他们的年龄不过,在过程中获得的一些流行,在其中一些教会作家寻求答案众所周知的困难,从在“上帝的兄弟”福音提到产生,从他们也很受欢迎轻信了,违反了所有的可能性,以及由旧目睹了传统艺术作品,保留了信仰,圣若瑟是在结婚与上帝的妈妈在一起的时间老人。

The Incarnation化身

This marriage, true and complete, was, in the intention of the spouses, to be virgin marriage (cf. St. Augustine, "De cons. Evang.", II, i in PL XXXIV, 1071-72; "Cont. Julian.", V, xii, 45 in PL. XLIV, 810; St. Thomas, III:28; III:29:2).这婚姻,真实和完整,是在有意的配偶,要处女结婚(见圣奥古斯丁,二,我在临时立法会三十四,1071至72年“德利弊埃旺。。”;。“续朱利安。“,第五章,第十二章,第四十四在特等45,810;圣托马斯三:。28;三:29:2)。 But soon was the faith of Joseph in his spouse to be sorely tried: she was with child.但很快被约瑟夫在他的配偶信心,可严峻的尝试:她和孩子。However painful the discovery must have been for him, unaware as he was of the mystery of the Incarnation, his delicate feelings forbade him to defame his affianced, and he resolved "to put her away privately; but while he thought on these things, behold the angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her, is of the Holy Ghost. . . And Joseph, rising from his sleep, did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife" (Matthew 1:19, 20, 24).多么痛苦的发现必须已对他来说,不知道他的神秘的化身,但他的细腻感受禁止他诋毁他的affianced,他决心“把她带走私人,但他对这些事情时,忽然想到主的天使出现在他在睡眠中,他说:约瑟,大卫的儿子,不要怕,只管娶过你的妻子马利亚,因为这是在她的设想,是圣灵和约瑟夫上升。。。从他的睡眠,也作为天使的上帝已命令他,并告诉他的妻子“(马太1:19,20,24)。

The Nativity and the Flight to Egypt耶稣诞生和飞行到埃及

A few months later, the time came for Joseph and Mary to go to Bethlehem, to be enrolled, according to the decree issued by Caesar Augustus: a new source of anxiety for Joseph, for "her days were accomplished, that she should be delivered", and "there was no room for them in the inn (Luke 2:1-7). What must have been the thoughts of the holy man at the birth of the Saviour, the coming of the shepherds and of the wise men, and at the events which occurred at the time of the Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, we can merely guess; St. Luke tells only that he was "wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him" (k12:33). New trials were soon to follow. The news that a king of the Jews was born could not but kindle in the wicked heart of the old and bloody tyrant, Herod, the fire of jealousy. Again "an angel of the Lord appeared in sleep to Joseph, saying: Arise, and take the child and his mother, and fly into Egypt: and be there until I shall tell thee" (Matthew 2:13).几个月后,时间到了约瑟夫和玛丽去伯利恒,要登记,根据法令发出的奥古斯都恺撒:一个新的焦虑来源的约瑟夫“她的日子,是完成了,她应交付“和”有没有为他们在客栈(路加福音2:1-7)的房间。哪些必须已在救世主,对牧羊人和智者来诞生了圣人的思想,并在事件在耶稣在圣殿演示时间发生,我们可以仅仅是猜测;圣卢克只告诉他“这些事情,讲了关于他想知道”(K12的:33)新的审判。很快效仿。认为是犹太人的王出生无法点燃,但在旧邪恶和血腥的暴君心的消息,希律王,火的嫉妒。同样“有主的使者向约瑟在睡眠中出现,他说:起来,带着孩子和他的母亲,并飞入埃及:与在那里,直到我会告诉你“(太2:13)。

Return to Nazareth回到拿撒勒

The summons to go back to Palestine came only after a few years, and the Holy Family settled again at Nazareth.传票回到巴勒斯坦后,才来了几年,和圣灵家庭解决再次在拿撒勒。St. Joseph's was henceforth the simple and uneventful life of an humble Jew, supporting himself and his family by his work, and faithful to the religious practices commanded by the Law or observed by pious Israelites.圣若瑟是今后一个卑微的犹太人简单和平静的生活,支持他的工作由他自己和家庭,并忠实于法律所指挥的宗教习俗,或虔诚的以色列人遵守。 The only noteworthy incident recorded by the Gospel is the loss of, and anxious quest for, Jesus, then twelve years old, when He had strayed during the yearly pilgrimage to the Holy City (Luke 2:42-51).唯一值得注意的事件记录的福音,是损失,因为,耶稣急于追求,那么十二岁,当他在每年朝拜圣城(路2:42-51)的范围。

Death死亡

This is the last we hear of St. Joseph in the sacred writings, and we may well suppose that Jesus's foster-father died before the beginning of Savior's public life.这是我们最后一次听到圣若瑟在神圣的著作,我们可以假设,耶稣的寄养父亲前救主的公共生活的开始死亡。In several circumstances, indeed, the Gospels speak of the latter's mother and brothers (Matthew 12:46; Mark 3:31; Luke 8:19; John 7:3), but never do they speak of His father in connection with the rest of the family; they tell us only that Our Lord, during His public life, was referred to as the son of Joseph (John 1:45; 6:42; Luke 4:22) the carpenter (Matthew 13:55).在一些情况下,的确,福音讲后者的母亲和兄弟(马太12:46,马可福音15:31,路加福音20:19,约翰7:3),但从来没有他们说的是他的父亲在连接,其余家庭,他们告诉我们,只有我们的主,在他的公共生活,被称为约瑟的儿子(约翰1:45; 18:42;路加福音4:22)木匠(马太13:55)。Would Jesus, moreover, when about die on the Cross, have entrusted His mother to John's care, had St. Joseph been still alive?耶稣会,而且,当时有大约死在十字架上,已委托他的母亲对约翰的关怀,得到了圣若瑟还活着吗?

According to the apocryphal "Story of Joseph the Carpenter", the holy man reached his hundred and eleventh year when he died, on 20 July (AD 18 or 19).据未经证实“的木匠约瑟的故事”,神圣的人达到了一百十一年去世时,他7月20日(公元18或19)。St. Epiphanius gives him ninety years of age at the time of his demise; and if we are to believe the Venerable Bede, he was buried in the Valley of Josaphat.圣埃皮法尼乌斯九十给他在他去世时的年龄岁,如果我们要相信老贝代,他在山谷,约萨法特掩埋。In truth we do not know when St. Joseph died; it is most unlikely that he attained the ripe old age spoken of by the "Story of Joseph" and St. Epiphanius.事实上,我们不知道什么时候死圣若瑟,这是最不可能,他达到了成熟的老所讲的“约瑟的故事”和圣埃皮法尼乌斯的。 The probability is that he died and was buried at Nazareth.的概率是,他死后被葬在拿撒勒。

DEVOTION TO SAINT JOSEPH奉献圣约瑟夫

Joseph was "a just man".约瑟夫是“公正的人”。This praise bestowed by the Holy Ghost, and the privilege of having been chosen by God to be the foster-father of Jesus and the Spouse of the Virgin Mother, are the foundations of the honour paid to St. Joseph by the Church.由圣灵赐予这好评,并有被神选择的是寄养父亲耶稣和圣母配偶的特权,是由教会支付圣若瑟的荣誉基础。So well-grounded are these foundations that it is not a little surprising that the cult of St. Joseph was so slow in winning recognition.因此,有充分根据的是这些基础,这是不是有点令人惊讶的是圣若瑟邪教是如此缓慢赢得认可。 Foremost among the causes of this is the fact that "during the first centuries of the Church's existence, it was only the martyrs who enjoyed veneration" (Kellner).其中最主要的原因,这是事实,“在教会的存在的第一个世纪,它是唯一的烈士谁享有崇拜”(凯尔纳)。Far from being ignored or passed over in silence during the early Christian ages, St. Joseph's prerogatives were occasionally descanted upon by the Fathers; even such eulogies as cannot be attributed to the writers among whose works they found admittance bear witness that the ideas and devotion therein expressed were familiar, not only to the theologians and preachers, and must have been readily welcomed by the people.远离被忽视或通过保持沉默,在早期基督教时代,圣若瑟的特权被偶尔descanted经父亲,甚至连这样的颂词,如不能归因于作家在其作品,他们发现纳作证的思想和奉献精神其中表现都很​​熟悉,不仅对神学家和传教士,而且必须是容易被人们的欢迎。 The earliest traces of public recognition of the sanctity of St. Joseph are to be found in the East.作者:神圣的圣若瑟最早的痕迹公开承认要在东方发现。His feast, if we may trust the assertions of Papebroch, was kept by the Copts as early as the beginning of the fourth century.他的盛宴,如果我们可以信任Papebroch的说法,是由科普特人早​​在第四世纪初保管。Nicephorus Callistus tells likewise -- on what authority we do not know -- that in the great basilica erected at Bethlehem by St. Helena, there was a gorgeous oratory dedicated to the honour of our saint.Nicephorus卡利斯图斯告诉同样 - 什么权力,我们不知道 - 在伟大的大教堂在伯利恒的圣赫勒拿竖立,有一个美丽的小礼拜堂奉献给我们的圣人的荣誉。Certain it is, at all events, that the feast of "Joseph the Carpenter" is entered, on 20 July, in one of the old Coptic Calendars in our possession, as also in a Synazarium of the eighth and nineth century published by Cardinal Mai (Script. Vet. Nova Coll., IV, 15 sqq.).能肯定的是,在所有的事件,认为“约瑟夫木匠”的盛宴,是进入7月20日,在我们掌握的旧科普特日历之一,在第八届和第九届世纪出版Synazarium枢机麦AS还(Script.兽医。新星科尔。,四,15 sqq。)。Greek menologies of a later date at least mention St. Joseph on 25 or 26 December, and a twofold commemoration of him along with other saints was made on the two Sundays next before and after Christmas.后期的希腊menologies至少提25日或12月26日圣若瑟,以及他与其他双重纪念圣人是基于两个星期日提出明年之前和之后的圣诞节。

In the West the name of the foster-father of Our Lord (Nutritor Domini) appears in local martyrologies of the ninth and tenth centuries, and we find in 1129, for the first time, a church dedicated to his honour at Bologna.在西方的寄养,我们的主(Nutritor多米尼)父亲的名字出现在第九和第十世纪当地martyrologies,我们发现在1129第一次,献给他的一所教堂在博洛尼亚的荣誉。 The devotion, then merely private, as it seems, gained a great impetus owing to the influence and zeal of such saintly persons as St. Bernard, St. Thomas Aquinas, St. Gertrude (d. 1310), and St. Bridget of Sweden (d. 1373).的奉献精神,那么仅仅是私人的,因为它看来,获得了巨大的推动力,由于影响力和作为圣伯纳德,圣托马斯阿奎那,圣格特鲁德(四1310),和圣瑞典布里奇特这样圣洁的人的热情(四1373)。 According to Benedict XIV (De Serv. Dei beatif., I, iv, n. 11; xx, n. 17), "the general opinion of the learned is that the Fathers of Carmel were the first to import from the East into the West the laudable practice of giving the fullest cultus to St. Joseph".根据本笃十四(德业│棣beatif,我,四,第11号。。XX条,17条),“的教训普遍的看法是,佳美的父亲被纳入率先导入从东西方给予充分宗教局向圣约瑟夫“值得称道的做法。 His feast, introduced towards the end shortly afterwards, into the Dominican Calendar, gradually gained a foothold in various dioceses of Western Europe.他的盛宴,介绍接近尾声,不久之后,到多米尼加日历,逐渐获得了西欧各教区的立足点。Among the most zealous promoters of the devotion at that epoch, St. Vincent Ferrer (d. 1419), Peter d'Ailly (d. 1420), St. Bernadine of Siena (d. 1444), and Jehan Charlier Gerson (d. 1429) deserve an especial mention.之间的奉献在那个时代最热心的推动者,圣文森特费雷尔(草1419),彼得德阿伊(草1420),圣锡耶纳伯纳丁(草1444),和查汉Charlier为格尔森(草1429)值得特别一提。 Gerson, who had, in 1400, composed an Office of the Espousals of Joseph particularly at the Council of Constance (1414), in promoting the public recognition of the cult of St. Joseph.格尔森,谁曾在1400年,组成特别是在安理会的康斯坦茨(1414),在促进圣若瑟公众认识邪教的一个约瑟的婚筵的办公室。 Only under the pontificate of Sixtus IV (1471-84), were the efforts of these holy men rewarded by Roman Calendar (19 March).只有在教宗的西斯四(1471年至1484年),是由罗马日历(3月19日)奖励这些神圣的男子的努力。From that time the devotion acquired greater and greater popularity, the dignity of the feast keeping pace with this steady growth.从那个时候,获得更大的投入和更大的普及,在保持稳定的增长速度与此盛宴的尊严。At first only a festum simplex, it was soon elevated to a double rite by Innocent VIII (1484-92), declared by Gregory XV, in 1621, a festival of obligation, at the instance of the Emperors Ferdinand III and Leopold I and of King Charles II of Spain, and raised to the rank of a double of the second class by Clement XI (1700-21).起初只有一festum单纯,很快就被提升到一个无辜八双仪式(1484年至1492年),由格雷戈里十五宣布,在1621年,一个节日的义务,在皇帝斐迪南三世和利奥波德一世实例和西班牙国王查尔斯二世,并提高到一个第二课堂一倍克莱门特十一(1700至1721年)的排名。 Further, Benedict XIII, in 1726, inserted the name into the Litany of the Saints.此外,本笃十三,在1726年,插入到一连串的圣人的名字。

One festival in the year, however, was not deemed enough to satisfy the piety of the people.在今年的节日之一,然而,不被视为足以满足人民的虔诚。The feast of the Espousals of the Blessed Virgin and St. Joseph, so strenuously advocated by Gerson, and permitted first by Paul III to the Franciscans, then to other religious orders and individual dioceses, was, in 1725, granted to all countries that solicited it, a proper Office, compiled by the Dominican Pierto Aurato, being assigned, and the day appointed being 23 January.作者:圣母和圣若瑟婚筵的盛宴,所以极力倡导的格尔森,并允许由保罗三先济,然后向其他宗教的订单和个人教区,成立于1725年,给予所有国家征求它,一个适当的办公室,由多米尼加Pierto Aurato编译,被分配,以及被指定的日期1月23日。Nor was this all, for the reformed Order of Carmelites, into which St. Teresa had infused her great devotion to the foster-father of Jesus, chose him, in 1621, for their patron, and in 1689, were allowed to celebrate the feast of his Patronage on the third Sunday after Easter.不仅如此,为加尔默罗改革秩序,在其中注入了她的圣德肋撒伟大献身精神,寄养的父亲耶稣,选择了他,在1621年为他们的靠山,并在1689年,被允许以庆祝这个节日他在复活节后的第三个星期日的赞助。 This feast, soon adopted throughout the Spanish Kingdom, was later on extended to all states and dioceses which asked for the privilege.这个盛宴,很快通过了整个西班牙王国,后来就扩大到所有国家和教区这对于特权的要求。No devotion, perhaps, has grown so universal, none seems to have appealed so forcibly to the heart of the Christian people, and particularly of the labouring classes, during the nineteenth century, as that of St. Joseph.没有奉献,也许已经变得如此普遍,似乎也没有提出上诉,以便强行向基督教人民的心,特别是劳动阶级,在十九世纪,是圣若瑟。

This wonderful and unprecedented increase of popularity called for a new lustre to be added to the cult of the saint.这对于一个新的光彩称为空前增加知名度精彩,要添加到圣人的崇拜。Accordingly, one of the first acts of the pontificate of Pius IX, himself singularly devoted to St. Joseph, was to extend to the whole Church the feast of the Patronage (1847), and in December, 1870, according to the wishes of the bishops and of all the faithful, he solemnly declared the Holy Patriarch Joseph, patron of the Catholic Church, and enjoined that his feast (19 March) should henceforth be celebrated as a double of the first class (but without octave, on account of Lent).因此,对教宗比约九第一行为之一的,本人致力于奇圣若瑟,是扩展到整个教会的惠顾盛宴(1847年),和12月,1870年,根据的意愿和所有信徒的主教,他郑重宣布圣主教约瑟夫,靠山的天主教教会,并责成他的盛宴(3月19日),今后应作为一流的双重庆祝(但没有八度,在大斋期的帐户)。 Following the footsteps of their predecessor, Leo XIII and Pius X have shown an equal desire to add their own jewel to the crown of St. Joseph: the former, by permitting on certain days the reading of the votive Office of the saint; and the latter by approving, on 18 March, 1909, a litany in honour of him whose name he had received in baptism.继其前任的脚步利奥十三世和庇护X表现出平等的愿望,加入自己的宝石到圣若瑟冠:前者由在某些日子允许对圣人的奉献办公室阅读;和通过批准后,3月18日,1909年,在他的名字,他曾在接受洗礼一连串的荣誉。

Publication information Written by Charles L. Souvay.出版信息写查尔斯L Souvay。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。In memory of Father Joseph Paredom The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在神父Paredom的天主教百科全书,音量八内存。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


(Old Testament) Joseph(旧约)约瑟夫

General Information一般资料

Joseph, the 11th son of Jacob and the first son of Jacob's favorite wife, Rachel, is the biblical hero in the drama of Genesis 37-50.约瑟夫,雅各的儿子和11日,雅各最喜爱的妻子,雷切尔的第一个儿子,是在圣经创世纪37-50戏剧的英雄。Joseph's favored status and his coat of many colors, a gift from his father, caused his brothers to be jealous, and they staged his accidental "death."约瑟夫的最惠国待遇地位和他的37:32从他父亲的礼物,使他的兄弟是嫉妒,他们上演他的意外“死亡。”Joseph was actually taken to Egypt, where his ability to interpret dreams brought him into favor with the pharaoh.约瑟夫实际上是采取埃及,在那里他有能力解释梦带进赞成与法老他。Joseph became a high Egyptian official.约瑟夫成为一个高埃及官员。When, during a famine, his unsuspecting brothers sought grain in Egypt, the forgiving Joseph--whom his brothers did not at first recognize--arranged a family reunion.时,在一次饥荒,他的毫无戒心的兄弟寻求在埃及,宽恕约瑟夫粮食 - 其中他的兄弟们开始并没有认识到 - 安排了与家人团聚。Thus the whole family of Jacob moved to Egypt and lived there until the Exodus.因此,雅各全家移居到埃及和生活,直到那里的外流。


Joseph约瑟夫

Advanced Information先进的信息

Joseph, remover or increaser.约瑟夫,卸妆或增速。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Joseph约瑟夫

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim.在雅各的长子拉结,和对玛和以法莲支派直接祖先第十一儿子。His life is narrated in Gen., xxx, 22-24; xxxvii; xxxix-1, wherein contemporary scholars distinguish three chief documents (J, E, P).他的一生是叙述在将军,三十,22-24,三十七,三十九- 1,其中当代学者区分三个主要文件(J,电子,磷)。(See ABRAHAM) The date of his eventful career can be fixed only approximately at the present day, for the Biblical account of Joseph's life does not name the particular Pharaoh of his time, and the Egyptian customs and manners therein alluded to are not decisive as to any special period in Egyptian history. (见亚伯拉罕)他不平凡的职业生涯的日期可以固定只有大约在今天,为约瑟的生活并不名字的时候,他特别法老圣经的帐户,和埃及的习俗和礼仪其中提到,并不是决定性的在埃及历史上的任何特殊的时期。 His term of office in Egypt falls probably under one of the later Hyksos kings (see EGYPT).他在埃及的任期可能属于根据后来希克索斯国王(见埃及)之一。His name, either contracted from Jehoseph (Psalm 81:6, in the Hebrew) or abbreviated from Joseph-El (cf. Karnak inscription of Thothmes III, no. 78), is distinctly connected in Gen., xxx, 23, 24, with the circumstances of his birth and is interpreted: "may God add".他的名字,无论是从合同Jehoseph(诗篇81:6,在希伯来文)或从约瑟夫- el的缩写(参见卡纳克题词的Thothmes三,没有。78),是明显的,在将军,三十,23,24连,与他出生的情况,并解释:“愿上帝添加”。 He was born in Haran, of Rachel, Jacob's beloved and long-barren wife, and became the favourite son of the aged patriarch.他出生在哈兰的雷切尔雅各布的敬爱和长期荒芜的妻子,并成为老年人喜爱的族长的儿子。After Jacob's return to Chanaan, various circumstances made Joseph the object of the mortal hatred of his brothers.雅各布后重返Chanaan,各种情况作出约瑟夫凡人,他的兄弟仇恨的对象。He had witnessed some very wicked deed of several among them, and they knew that it had been reported to their father.他曾亲眼目睹了一些它们之间的一些非常恶毒的行为,他们知道这已经报告给他们的父亲。Moreover, in his partiality to Joseph, Jacob gave him an ample garment of many colours, and this manifest proof of the patriarch's greater love for him aroused the jealousy of Joseph's brothers to such an extent that "they could not speak peaceably to him".此外,在他的偏袒约瑟夫,雅各给他一个多种颜色的丰富服装,这个族长的更大的对他的爱表现证明引起了约瑟的兄弟们嫉妒到这样的程度,“他们可能不会说和睦的他”。 Finally, with the imprudence of youth, Joseph told his brothers two dreams which clearly portended his future elevation over them all, but which, for the present, simply caused them to hate him all the more (Genesis 37:1-11).最后,轻率的青年,约瑟夫告诉他的兄弟两个梦想,这显然预示了他们自己的未来高度,但就目前来说,只是造成他们恨他,更(创37:1-11)。 In this frame of mind, they seized upon the first opportunity to get rid of the one of whom they spoke as "the dreamer".在这种心态,让他们抓住的人,他们为“梦想家”说着一摆脱了第一次机会。As they fed their father's flocks in Dothain (now Tell Dothain, about fifteen miles north of Sichem), they saw from afar Joseph, who had been sent by Jacob to inquire about their welfare, coming to them, and they at once resolved to reduce to naught all his dreams of future greatness.由于它们喂食Dothain其父亲的羊群(现在告诉Dothain,约以北示剑十五英里),他们看到来自远方的约瑟夫,谁已被雅各就打发,询问他们的福利,来给他们,他们立刻解决,以减少未来的伟大化为乌有他所有的梦想。 At this point the narrative in Genesis combines two distinct accounts of the manner in which the brothers of Joseph actually carried out their intention of avenging themselves upon him.在这一点上,在创世纪叙述结合两种方式,其中兄弟约瑟夫实际上履行了他们的报复后,他打算自己独特的帐户。These accounts present slight variations, which are examined in detail by recent commentators on Genesis, and which, far from destroying, rather confirm the historical character of the fact that, through the enmity of his brothers, Joseph was brought down to Egypt.这些帐户目前略有变化,这是远远摧毁详细审查最近评论员对成因,其中,,而确认的是,通过敌意,他的兄弟,约瑟夫被击落了埃及历史人物的事实。 To protect themselves they dipped Joseph's fine garment into the blood of a kid, and sent it to their father.为了保护自己,他们把手伸进一个孩子血液约瑟夫的优良服装,并把它交给他们的父亲。At the sight of this blood-stained garment, Jacob naturally believed that a wild beast had devoured his beloved son, and he gave himself up to the most intense grief (xxxvii, 12-35).在这个血淋淋的服装视线,雅各布认为,自然野兽吃掉了自己心爱的儿子,他给自己到最激烈的悲痛(三十七,12-35)。

While thus bewailed as dead by his father, Joseph was sold into Egypt, and treated with the utmost consideration and the greatest confidence by his Egyptian master, to whom Gen., xxxvii, 36, gives the name of Putiphar ["He whom Ra (the sun-god) gave"] and whom it describes as Pharaoh's eunuch and as the captain of the royal body-guard (cf. xxxix, 1).尽管这样,像死哀叹他的父亲,约瑟夫被卖到埃及,并以最大的代价与他的埃及主人最大的信心,向谁将军,三十七,36岁,给人的Putiphar [名字“治疗的人,他罗(太阳神)给了“]和谁作为法老的宦官,并作为英国皇家身体护卫长(参见第39届,1)描述。Quick and trustworthy, Joseph soon became his master's personal attendant.快速,可靠,约瑟夫很快就成了他的主人的个人服务员。 He was next entrusted with the superintendence of his master's house, a most extensive and responsible charge, such as was unusual in large Egyptian households.他是下一个委托他的主人的房子,最广泛的和负责任的费用,如在不寻常的大埃及家庭监督。With Yahweh's blessing, all things, "both at home and in the field", became so prosperous under Joseph's management that his master trusted him implicitly, and "knew not any other things, save the bread which he ate".随着耶和华的祝福,所有的事情,“无论在家里还是在外地”,变得如此根据约瑟夫的管理大师,他的繁荣信任他含蓄,“不知道任何其他东西,保存的粮,他吃了”。 While thus discharging with perfect success his manifold duties of major-domo (Egyp. mer-per), Joseph was often brought in contact with the lady of the house, for at that time there was as much free intercourse between men and women in Egypt as there is among us in the present day.虽然从而履行与完美的成功主要-多莫(Egyp.滨海每次),约瑟夫经常接触带来的女主人对当时在埃及有尽可能多男人和女人之间的自由交往,他的多方面的职责因为在我们中间是目前的一天。 Oftentimes she noticed the youthful and handsome Hebrew overseer, and carried away by passion, she repeatedly tempted him to commit adultery with her, till at length, resenting his virtuous conduct, she accused him of those very criminal solicitations wherewith she had herself pursued him.通常情况下,她注意到了年轻英俊的希伯来监督员,并进行了热情,她一再诱惑他与她犯奸淫,直到在长度,怨恨他的德行,她指责他的那些非常所受的刑事招揽她自己追求他。 The credulous master believed the report of his wife, and in his wrath cast Joseph into prison.轻信大师认为,他的妻子的报告,并在他的愤怒演员约瑟夫关进监狱。There also Yahweh was with His faithful servant: He gave him favour with the keeper of the prison, who soon placed in Joseph implicit confidence, and even committed to his charge the other prisoners (xxxix, 2-23).此外,还有耶和华与他的忠实仆人:他给了他赞成与监狱的看守,谁很快放置在约瑟夫隐含的信心,甚至由他负责的其他囚犯(第39届,2-23)。 Shortly afterwards two of Pharaoh's officers, the chief butler and chief baker, having incurred the royal displeasure for some reason unknown to us, were put in ward in the house of the captain of the guard.不久之后,两个法老的官员,行政管家和膳长后,所产生的一些原因不明王室对我们不满,是在病房,因此在护卫长府。They also were placed under Joseph's charge, and as he came in to them one morning, he noticed their unusual sadness.他们也被置于约瑟夫的费用,而且因为他是在给他们一个早晨,他发现自己的不寻常的悲伤。They could not catch the meaning of a dream which each had had during the night, and there was no professional interpreter of dreams near at hand.他们无法赶上了一个每个不得不在夜间,也没有专业的翻译梦近在咫尺梦的意义。Then it was that Joseph interpreted their dreams correctly, bidding the chief butler to remember him when restored to his office, as indeed he was three days after, on Pharaoh's birthday (xl).然后,它是约瑟夫解释他们的梦想正确,投标的首席管家记住他时,恢复到他的办公室,因为他实在是三天后法老的生日(四十)。 Two years rolled by, after which the monarch himself had two dreams, the one of the fat and lean kine, and the other of the full and withered ears.穿过了,两年之后,君主自己有两个梦想,对脂肪和瘦母牛之一,充分和枯萎的耳朵。Great was Pharaoh's perplexity at these dreams, which no one in the realm could interpret.伟大的法老的这些梦想,这是任何领域中的一个可以解释的困惑。This occurrence naturally reminded the chief butler of Joseph's skill in interpreting dreams, and he mentioned to the king what had happened in his own case and in that of the chief baker.这发生在解释自然想起梦想约瑟夫的技能首席管家,他提到了什么事,就在他自己的案件,在行政贝克所发生的国王。Summoned before Pharaoh, Joseph declared that both dreams signified that seven years of plenty would immediately be followed by seven years of famine, and further suggested that one-fifth of he produce of the years of plenty be laid by as provision for the years of famine.法老召前,约瑟夫宣布,这两个梦想,标志着七个丰年,将立即由七个荒年之后,并进一步建议之一,他十五年来产生大量被解雇的规定通过多年的饥荒。 Deeply impressed by the clear and plausible interpretation of his dreams, and recognizing in Joseph a wisdom more than human, the monarch entrusted to him the carrying out of the practical measure which he had suggested.留下深刻的印象,他的梦想明确和合理的解释,并认识到在约瑟夫的智慧超过人类,君主托付给他进行的实际措施,他曾建议了。 for this purpose he raised him to the rank of keeper of the royal seal, invested him with an authority second only to that of the throne, bestowed on him the Egyptian name of Zaphenath-paneah ("God spoke, and he came into life"), and gave him to wife Aseneth, the daughter of Putiphares, the priest of the great national sanctuary at On (or Heliopolis, seven miles north east of the modern Cairo).为此,他提出了他的英国皇家印章门将排名,投资与权力仅次于赋予他的Zaphenath - paneah埃及名(宝座前,他为“上帝发言,他把生命来” ),并给他妻子Aseneth,对Putiphares女儿,伟大的国家庇护在开(或赫利奥波利斯,七英里东北现代开罗)牧师。

Soon the seven years of plenty predicted by Joseph set in, during which he stored up corn in each of the cities from which it was gathered, and his wife, Aseneth, bore him two sons whom he called Manasses and Ephraim, from the favorable circumstances of the time of their birth.不久,约瑟夫预计七年的丰年,设置,在此期间,他存放在从它收集了玉米在每个城市,和他的妻子,Aseneth,为他生了两个儿子被他称为从有利的情况下玛拿西和以法莲,在其出生时。 Next came the seven years of dearth, during which by his skilful management Joseph saved Egypt from the worst features of want and hunger, and not only Egypt, but also the various countries around, which had to suffer from the same grievous and protracted famine (xli).接下来是七年来的缺乏,在此期间,由他娴熟地管理约瑟夫免于匮乏和饥饿,最恶劣的特点,不仅埃及埃及,但也各国家和地区,这不得不遭受同样严重和长期的饥荒(四十一)。 Among these neighbouring countries was counted the land of Chanaan where Jacob had continued to dwell with Joseph's eleven brothers.在这些邻近国家计数的土地Chanaan在雅各布继续纠缠与约瑟夫的十兄弟。Having heard that corn was sold in Egypt, the aged patriarch sent his sons thither to purchase some, keeping back, however, Rachel's second child, Benjamin, "lest perhaps he take harm in the journey".听完,玉米在埃及出售,老年人元老派他的儿子那里购买一些,保持背部,然而,雷切尔的第二个孩子,本杰明,“否则可能在旅途中,他采取的伤害”。 Admitted into Joseph's presence, his brothers failed to recognize in the Egyptian grandee before them the lad whom they had so cruelly treated twenty years before.李约瑟的存在承认,他的兄弟们没有认识到他们面前埃及贵族的人,他们有这么残酷地对待二十年前的小伙子。He roughly accused them of being spies sent to discover the undefended passes of the eastern frontier of Egypt, and when they volunteered information about their family, he, desirous of ascertaining the truth concerning Benjamin, retained one of them as hostage in prison and sent the others home to bring back their youngest brother with them.大约指责他送到发现埃及东部边境的不设防通行证间谍他们,当他们主动信息了解他们的家庭,他,关于查明真相本杰明渴望,监狱中的人质保留其中之一,并派别人家里带回他们与他们最小的弟弟。 On their return to their father, or at their first lodging-place on the way, they discovered the money which Joseph had ordered to be placed in their sacks.在他们返回自己的父亲,或在其第一次住宿,在路上的地方,他们发现了约瑟下令钱在他们的麻袋上。Great was their anxiety and that of Jacob, who for a time refused to allow his sons to return to Egypt in company with Benjamin.伟大的是他们的焦虑和雅各布,谁在一段时间内拒绝让他的儿子返回埃及公司本杰明。At length he yielded under the pressure of famine, sending, at the same time, a present to conciliate the favour of the Egyptian prime minister.终于,他取得了饥荒的压力下,发送,在同一时间,在场调解的埃及总理的青睐。at the sight of Benjamin Joseph understood that his brothers had told him the truth at their first appearance before him, and he invited them to a feast in his own house.在眼前的本杰明约瑟夫理解,他的兄弟告诉他,在其第一次出现在他面前的真相,他请他们在自己的房子来赴宴。At the feast he caused them to be seated exactly according to their age, and he honoured Benjamin with "a greater mess", as a mark of distinction (xlii-xliii).宴会上,他使他们能坐下来完全根据自己的年龄,他荣获“更大的混乱”本杰明作为区分标志(四十二,四十三)。 Then they left for home, unsuspecting that at Joseph's order his divining cup had been hidden in Benjamin's sack.然后,他们离开家,毫无戒心的,在约瑟夫的命令他的占卜杯已在本杰明的麻袋隐藏。They were soon overtaken, charged with theft of that precious cup, which, upon search, was found in the sack where it had been hidden.他们很快就被超越,那珍贵的杯子,其中,经搜查,在当时,它一直隐藏的口袋里搜被控盗窃。In their dismay they returned in a body to Joseph's house, and offered to remain as his bondmen in Egypt, an offer which Joseph declined, declaring that he would only retain Benjamin.在他们的失望,他们返回在给约瑟夫的家身体,并表示愿意继续为他bondmen在埃及,要约约瑟夫拒绝,声称他将只保留本杰明。 Whereupon Juda pleads most pathetically that, for the sake of his aged father, Benjamin be dismissed free, and that he be allowed to remain in his brother's place as Joseph's bondman.于是犹大恳求最可怜,他年迈的父亲的缘故,本杰明被解雇自由,他被允许留在他哥哥的约瑟的作过奴仆的地方。Then it was that Joseph disclosed himself to his brothers, calmed their fears, and sent them back with a pressing invitation to Jacob to come and settle in Egypt (xliv-xlv, 24).然后是约瑟夫透露自己对他的兄弟,安抚他们的恐惧,并送他们回到了一个紧迫的邀请雅各来定居埃及(四十四,四十五,24)。

It was in the land of Gessen, a pastoral district about forty miles north-east of Cairo, that Joseph called his father and brothers to settle.这是在对格森,约40英里处,开罗东部农牧区,约瑟叫他的父亲和兄弟定居的土地。There they lived as prosperous shepherds of the king, while in their misery the Egyptians were gradually reduced to sell their lands to the Crown, in order to secure their subsistence from the all-powerful prime minister of Pharaoh.在那里,他们为繁荣牧羊人国王,而在他们的苦难,埃及人逐渐减少他们的土地出售给官方,以确保生活在从全能的法老总理他们的生计。 And so Joseph brought it to pass that the former owners of landed property - with the exception, however, of the priests - became simple tenants of the king and paid to the royal treasury, as it were, an annual rent of one-fifth of the produce of the soil (xlvi, 28-xlvii, 26).于是约瑟把它通过,地产的前业主 - 以例外,但在祭司 - 成为简单的租户的国王和皇家国库支付,因为它是一个五分之一的年租金土壤的(四十六,28四十七,26)生产。During Jacob's last moments, Joseph promised his father that he would bury him in Chanaan, and caused him to adopt his two sons, Manasses and Ephraim (xlvii, 25-xlviii).在雅各布的最后时刻,约瑟夫答应他的父亲,他将他埋葬在Chanaan他,使他通过他的两个儿子玛拿西和以法莲(四十七,25四十八)。 After his father's demise, he had his body embalmed and buried with great pomp in the Cave of Machpelah (l, 1-14).之后,他的父亲去世,他和他的尸体经过防腐处理的麦比拉洞(升1-14)盛大埋葬。He also allayed the fears of his brothers who dreaded that he should now avenge their former ill-treatment of him.他也平息了他的兄弟谁害怕,他现在应该报复他们以前的虐待他治疗的恐惧。He died at the age of 110, and his body was embalmed and put in a coffin in Egypt (l, 15-25).他去世,享年110岁,他的尸体被防腐处理,并在埃及棺材(升,15-25)付诸表决。Ultimately, his remains were carried into Chanaan and buried in Sichem (Exodus 13:19; Joshua 24:32).最终,他的遗体被抬进Chanaan埋在示剑(出埃及记13:19;约书亚24:32)。

Such, in substance, is the Biblical account of Joseph's career.例如,在本质,是约瑟夫的职业生涯圣经帐户。In its wonderful simplicity, it sketches one of the most beautiful characters presented by Old-Testament history.在其精彩简单,它草图由旧全书介绍历史上最美丽的人物之一。As a boy, Joseph has the most vivid horror for the evil done by some of his brothers; and as a youth, he resists with unflinching courage the repeated and pressing solicitations of his master's wife.作为一个男孩,约瑟为他的兄弟做了一些邪恶的最生动的恐怖,以及作为一个青年,他用坚定的勇气,他的主人的妻子一再抗拒而紧迫的募捐。 Cast into prison, he displays great power of endurance, trusting to God for his justification.监,他显示的耐力大国,相信上帝,他的理由。When raised to the rank of viceroy of Egypt, he shows himself worthy of that exalted dignity by his skilful and energetic efforts to promote the welfare of his adopted countrymen and the extension of his master's power.当提高到了埃及总督军衔,他表明自己的,通过他的干练和大力推动其通过的同胞福祉和他的主人的崇高尊严的权力的延伸。 A character so beautiful made Joseph a most worthy type of Christ, the model of all perfection, and it is comparatively easy to point out some of the traits of resemblance between Jacob's beloved son and the dearly beloved Son of God.一个性格如此美丽作出约瑟夫是基督,所有完美的模型最有价值的类型,这是比较容易出点之间雅各布的心爱的儿子和神的亲爱的儿子相似的一些特点。 Like Jesus, Joseph was hated and cast out by his brethren, and yet wrought out their salvation through the sufferings they had brought upon him.像耶稣,约瑟夫是憎恨和他的弟兄们所投出,但造成透过他们所带来的苦难后,他的拯救。 Like Jesus, Joseph obtained his exaltation only after passing through the deepest and most undeserved humiliations; and, in the kingdom over which he ruled, he invited his brethren to join those whom heretofore they had looked upon as strangers, in order that they also might enjoy the blessings which he had stored up for them.像耶稣,约瑟夫获得通过后,才最深切和最冤枉的屈辱通过他的提升,以及,在英国,他的统治,他请他的兄弟加盟,以那些人,迄今他们已经看作陌生人之地,他们也有可能他所享受的保存起来祝福。 Like the Saviour of the world, Joseph had but words of forgiveness and blessing for all who, recognizing their misery, had recourse to his supreme power.像世界的救世主,但约瑟的宽恕和祝福所有谁的话,承认他们的苦难,求助于他的最高权力。It was to Joseph of old, as to Jesus, that all had to appeal for relief, offer homages of the deepest respect, and yield ready obedience in all things.这是老约瑟夫,以耶稣,都必须上诉救济,提供homages最深的尊重,以及产量服从一切准备就绪。Finally, to the Patriarch Joseph, as to Jesus, it was given to inaugurate a new order of things for the greater power and glory of the monarch to whom he owed his exaltation.最后,为牧首约瑟夫,以耶稣,这是给开创的更大的权力和荣耀的君主的人,他欠他的提升一个新秩序的事情。While thus recognizing the typical meaning of Joseph's career, one should not for a moment lose sight of the fact that one is in presence of a distinctly historical character.因此,虽然认识到约瑟夫的职业生涯典型意义,应为一时刻不能忽视这样一个事实:在一个历史人物的存在是明显的视线。 Efforts have indeed been made in certain quarters to transform the history of Joseph into a story of a tribe of the same name which, at some remote period, would have attained to great power in Egypt, and which, at a much later date, popular imagination would have simply pictured as an individual.努力确实已在某些方面变成了一个相同的名字,而在一些偏远期间,将实现在埃及的大国,并在更晚的日期,受欢迎的部落故事,历史的约瑟夫简单地想象将作为一个单独的照片。 But such a view of the Biblical account is decidedly inadmissible.但这种观点是对圣经帐户坚决不予受理。To careful scholars it will always appear more difficult to think of Joseph as a tribe that rose to power in Egypt than as an individual who actually passed through the experiences which are described in Genesis.要认真的学者,它会永远显得更困难的约瑟夫认为作为一个部落的玫瑰在埃及的权力比作为一个单独的究竟是谁通过这些经验,通过在创世记描述。 Again, they will always look upon the incidents narrated in the sacred record as too natural, and too closely related, to be entirely the product of fiction.同样,他们将永远视在太自然,太神圣的纪录密切相关叙述的事件,是完全的虚构的产物。The same historical character of the Biblical narrative is powerfully confirmed by the substantial agreement which contemporary critics feel bound to admit between the two principal documents (J, E), which, according to them, have been used in its composition: such an agreement points manifestly to an earlier oral tradition, which, when committed to writing in two distinct forms, was not materially affected by the altered circumstances of a later age.相同的历史人物的圣经叙事是有力地证实了实质性协议,当代的批评感到必须承认两国之间的主要文件(J,电子),其中,据他们已用于其组成:这样的协议要点显然到一个较早的口头传说,其中,当致力于在两种截然不同的形式写作,不是由一个较后的重大时代的改变情况影响。 It is finally put beyond the possibility of a doubt by the Egyptian colouring which is common to both these documents, and which will be presently described.这是最后把超出了疑虑的可能性由埃及着色这是常见的这两个文件,​​这将是目前描述。This Egyptian element is no mere literary dress with which the poplar fancy of a later date and in a distant land could have vested more or less happily the incidents narrated.这埃及的文学元素并非仅仅是其中的连衣裙以后的日期和在一个遥远的土地杨树花式可以有既得利益或多或少愉快事件的叙述。 It belongs to the very core of the history of Joseph, and is plainly a direct reflection of the manners and customs of ancient Egypt.它属于历史的约瑟夫的核心,显然是一对古埃及的礼仪和习俗的直接反映。Its constant truthfulness to things Egyptian proves the existence of an ancient tradition, dating as far back as the Egyptian period, and faithfully preserved in the composite account of Genesis.其一贯的真实性埃及的事情证明了一个古老的传统的存在,最早可以追溯到埃及期间,忠实地在创世纪综合户口保留。

The extent of the Egyptian colouring just referred to in the history of Joseph has been closely investigated by recent scholars.的埃及着色程度刚才提到的历史约瑟夫一直密切最近学者调查。The brown-skinned children of Israel, who brought camels richly laden from the East to the Nile, are drawn to life on the Egyptian monuments, and the three kinds of spices they were carrying into Egypt are precisely those which would be in demand in that country for medicinal, religious, or embalming purposes.以色列的棕色皮肤的孩子,是谁把骆驼从东丰富的载货到尼罗河,被吸引到生活在埃及古迹,以及他们的香料到埃及携带三种恰恰是那些有市场需求将在这国家药用,宗教,或防腐的目的。 The existence of various overseers in the houses of Egyptian grandees is in perfect harmony with ancient Egyptian society, and the mer-per or superintendent of the house, such as Joseph was, is in particular often mentioned on the monuments.在埃及显贵的房屋存在各种监督员在古埃及社会的完美和谐,经式的房子每或院长,如约瑟夫是,在经常提到的古迹特别是。 To the story of Joseph and his master's wife, there is a remarkable and well-known parallel in the Egyptian "Tale of the Two Brothers".对约瑟和他的主人的妻子的故事,有一个在埃及“两兄弟的故事”了不起的,众所周知的平行。The functions and dreams of the chief butler and chief baker are Egyptian in their minute details.的职能和行政管家和膳长的梦埃及在微小的细节。In the seven cows which Pharaoh saw feeding in the meadow, we have a counterpart of the seven cows of Athor, pictured in the vignette of chapter cxlviii of the "Book of the Dead".七只母牛在法老看到草地上觅食,我们有七个的Athor在了“死亡之书”一章cxlviii小品牛图,对应。Joseph's care to shave and change his raiment before appearing in the presence of Pharaoh, is in agreement with Egyptian customs.约瑟夫的关怀刮胡子,改变以前在法老面前显示他的衣裳,在与埃及海关协议。His advice to gather corn during the seven years of plenty falls in with Egyptian institutions, since all important cities were supplied with granaries.他的意见,收集过程中大量的七年玉米爱上了埃及机构,因为所有重要城市都与粮仓提供。Joseph's investiture, his change of name at his elevation, can be easily illustrated by reference to the Egyptian monuments.约瑟夫的investiture,他的名字在他的海拔变化,可以很容易地说明了参照埃及古迹。The occurrence of famines of long duration, the successful efforts made to supply the corn to the people year after year while they lasted, find their parallels in recently discovered inscriptions.对发生饥荒的时间长,成功作出努力,玉米供应向人民年复一年,而他们历时,发现他们在最近发现的铭文相似之处。 The charge of being spies, made by Joseph against his brothers, was most natural in view of the precautions known to have been taken by the Egyptian authorities for the safety of their Eastern frontier.因为,作为一个间谍费,由约瑟对他的兄弟,是已知最被埃及当局采取了为他们的东部边境的安全预防措施,自然观。 The subsequent history of Joseph, his divining cup, his giving to his brothers changes of garments, the land of Gessen being set apart for his father and brethren, because the shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians, Joseph's embalming of his father, the funeral procession for Jacob's burial, etc., exhibit in a striking manner the great accuracy of the Biblical account in its numerous and oftentimes passing references to Egyptian habits and customs.作者约瑟夫随后的历史,他的占卜杯,他给他的兄弟服装的变化,格森土地被设置除了为他的父亲和兄弟,因为牧羊人是一个埃及人所厌恶,约瑟夫的防腐他的父亲,葬礼游行为雅各的墓地等,表现出了惊人的方式对圣经在其众多的伟大的准确性和经常通过埃及风俗习惯参考。 Even the age of 110 years, at which Joseph died, appears to have been regarded in Egypt - as is shown by several papyri - as the most perfect age to be desired.即使是110岁,在这约瑟死了,似乎已经在埃及认为 - 这是由几个纸莎草纸显示 - 作为最完美的年龄不理想。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息写弗朗西斯大肠杆菌羊腿。Transcribed by Paul T. Crowley.转录由保罗吨克劳利。Dedicated to Mr. Michael Crowley and Mr. Neal Crowley and Families The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.迈克尔先生专用克劳利先生和尼尔克劳利和家庭的天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



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