Judaism犹太教

General Information一般资料

Moses initiated Judaism about 1600 BC.公元前1600年左右开始摩西犹太教。

The religion and culture of the Jewish people.宗教和犹太人民的文化。Jewish civilization includes historical, social, and political dimensions in addition to the religious.犹太文明包括除了宗教历史,社会和政治层面。The word "Judaism" derives from the Greek Ioudaismos, a term first used in the intertestamental period by Greek speaking Jews to distinguish their religion from hellenism (see 2 Macc. 2:21; 8:1; 14:38).单词“犹太教”派生,从希腊Ioudaismos一个术语最早是由希腊讲犹太人在intertestamental希腊时期,以区别于他们的宗教(见2排雷2:21。8:1; 14:38)。In the NT the word appears twice (Gal. 1:13 - 14) in reference to Paul's prior consuming devotion to Jewish faith and life.在新台币字出现两次(加拉太书1:13 - 14)在提到保罗的前消费献身犹太信仰和生活。

Development发展

Hebrew religion began to give rise to Judaism after the destruction of the temple and the exile of Judah in 586 BC.希伯来宗教开始产生后的犹太教圣殿被毁和犹太流亡在公元前586年。The term "Jew," in its biblical use, is almost exclusively postexilic.术语“犹太人”,在其圣经的使用,几乎完全是postexilic。 The Jewish religion of the biblical period evolved through such historical stages as the intertestamental, rabbinic, and medieval to the modern period of the nineteenth century with Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform Judaism.因此,通过历史阶段的转变,圣经时期的犹太宗教intertestamental,拉比,和中世纪到与东正教,保守党和改革犹太教十九世纪的现代时期。

Along the way Jewish religion took on new teachings and practices.一路上犹太宗教有了新的教义和做法。But with the lengthy development of Judaism and its many changes it is incorrect to posit, as some have done, that Jewish history produced two separate religions: an OT religion of Israel and the postexilic religion of Judaism.但随着它的许多变化,犹太教和漫长的发展是不正确的假定,如一些人所做的,犹太人的历史产生了两个不同的宗教:以色列被占领土的宗教和犹太教postexilic宗教。 Despite the shifting phases of its history, the essence of the religious teaching of Judaism has remained remarkably constant, firmly rooted in the Hebrew Scriptures (OT).尽管它的历史阶段的转变,对犹太教的宗教教学的本质却始终保持不变,在希伯来文圣经牢牢(OT)的根源。Judaism is a religion of ethical monotheism.犹太教是一神论宗教的道德。For centuries many Jews have sought to distill its essential features from one biblical verse that calls Israel "to act justly, to love mercy and to walk humbly with your God" (Mic. 6:8).数百年来许多犹太人试图从一个经文提炼调用以色列“行公义,好怜悯,走与你的神谦卑”(Mic. 6:8),其基本特征。

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The Babylonian exile brought certain modifications in Jewish religious life.流亡在巴比伦的犹太人的宗教生活带来了一定的修改。 Deprived of land, temple, and cultic priestly ministrations, Judaism began to adopt a nonsacrificial religion.土地,庙宇,祭司和邪教ministrations被剥夺,犹太教开始采取nonsacrificial宗教。 Jews began to gather in homes for the reading of Scripture, for prayer and instruction.犹太人开始在家里收集的经文,祈祷和阅读指导。Here may be traced the earliest roots of the synagogue.在这里,可以追溯到最早的犹太教堂根。Now "lip sacrifice" (prayer and penitence) rather than "blood sacrifice" (sheep and goats) became central to the life of piety.现在,“唇牺牲”(祈祷和忏悔),而不是“血祭”(绵羊和山羊)成为中央对虔诚的生活。

There was one thing Israel carried to Babylon and clung to dearly.有一件事以色列被掳到巴比伦去,靠着对高昂的代价。It was the law, the Torah, for by it Israel was assured of its divine calling and mission.这是法律,它的圣经由以色列是其神圣的使命要求和保证。In the fifth century the "father of Judaism," Ezra the scribe, enacted religious reforms by appealing to the Torah.在五世纪的“犹太教之父”,文士以斯拉,颁布呼吁托拉宗教的改革。The priesthood was purified and mixed marriages dealt with as the principles of the law became applied to every detail of life.司铎是纯化和异族通婚与作为法律的原则,成为适用于每一个生活细节处理。Gradually many Jews came to believe that here lay the only real proof of who was a true Jew: vigorous, unflinching obedience to the teachings of Torah.渐渐地许多犹太人相信,在这里奠定了唯一真正的证明谁是真正的犹太人:充满活力,坚定不移地服从托拉的教诲。

Scribes became the priestly interpreters of the Torah, setting forth their own authoritative teachings.文士成为律法的祭司口译,阐明自己的权威的教义。By the second century BC the Pharisees taught that the oral law carried the same authority as the law of Moses.到了公元前二世纪的法利告诉我们,进行口服法作为法律的摩西同样的权力。Later Jesus denied that the traditions of men were equal in authority to the written law (Mark 7:1 - 23); in addition, Paul denied that man could be justified before God by perfect obedience to that law (Gal. 3).后来耶稣否认人的传统,在权力的书面法律面前一律平等(马克7:1 - 23),此外,保罗否认人可以有道理的完美服从上帝面前该法(加3)。

The destruction of the temple in 70 AD and the scattering of thousands of Jews from the land brought a sudden demise to the priesthood.该寺庙和在公元70年,来自土地的犹太人摧毁了数千散射突然去世的神职人员。Johanan ben Zakkai, a Pharisee, was soon permitted by the Romans to open an academy at Jabneh.哈难奔Zakkai,是法利赛人,很快就被允许的罗马人开Jabneh奥斯卡。He took it upon himself to install rabbis as the keepers and legislators of Torah.他把它安装在自己的人员和立法者的托拉拉比。By word of mouth the rabbis passed their teachings from generation to generation until the oral law (Mishnah) was written down about 200 AD, Rabbi Judah ha - Nasi its chief editor.通过口耳相传的拉比一代传一代,直到他们的教诲,以口服法(米示拿)被写了200,公元下来拉比犹大公顷 - 纳西其主编。 By 500 AD the Talmud was completed with the issuing of the Gemara, a rabbinical commentary on the Mishnah.到公元500犹太法典完成了革马拉,对犹太教的mishnah评发行。The Talmud contains more than 6,000 folio pages and references to more than 2,000 scholar - teachers.犹太法典包含超过6000对开页,引用超过2000学者 - 教师。It became the basic document of rabbinic Judaism, and still holds a major place in shaping Jewish thought.它成为拉比犹太教的基本文件,但仍然持有犹太思想形成的主要场所。

Basic Doctrines and Beliefs基本教义和信仰

According to the teaching of Judaism there is no set of beliefs upon the acceptance of which the Jew may find salvation.根据犹太教教有没有一套在接受信仰的犹太人,其中可能会发现得救。Even Maimonides' thirteen articles of faith, as close as Judaism ever came to a catechism, is not binding on the conscience of Jews.即使迈蒙尼德'十三篇的信念,亲如曾经来到一个犹太教教义,是不是对犹太人的良心具有约束力。 Judaism has historically put more stress upon the deed (miswa) than the creed ('ani ma 'amin, "I believe").历史上把犹太教信条更比后,契税(miswa)压力('ani马阿明,“我相信”)。Nevertheless, from Talmudic times, as a way of life Judaism has been distinguished by giving special emphasis to certain beliefs and ethical values.不过,从塔木德倍犹太教的生活的方式,一直尊敬给予特别强调某些信念和道德观念。

In the Mishnah (Abot 1:2) one sees the broad philosophy that governed the minds of the early rabbis:在米示拿(Abot 1:2)人们看到广大哲学管辖的早期拉比的脑海中:

"By three things is the world sustained:“通过三件事情是世界上持续:

This basic teaching is further underscored by the threefold function of the synagogue as a "house of study" (for learning of Torah), "house of prayer" (for worship of God), and "house of assembly" (for the care of community needs).这一基本教学是进一步强调了作为一个“家学”三方面功能的犹太教堂(学习的圣经),“祷告的殿”(为神崇拜),以及“众议院”(为照顾社会需求)。

Contemporary Judaism often speaks of four foundational pillars of the Jewish faith, each interacting as a major force as part of the covenant: (1) The Torah, always a living law as the written Torah is understood in light of the oral Torah; (2) God, a unity (one), spiritual (not a body), and eternal; (3) The people (Israelites Jews), called into being by God as members of one family, a corporate personality, a community of faith; and (4) The land (known today as Eretz Yisrael), a bond going back to Abraham, the "father of the Hebrew people" (Gen. 17:7 - 8).当代犹太教经常说,作为该公约的一部分,四个基本支柱的犹太信仰,每个的一支重要力量相互作用:(1)圣经,总是活法作为书面律法是在口头律法来了解;(2 )上帝,一个团结(一),精神(而不是一个机构),和永恒的;(3)人(以色列人犹太人),到神被作为一个家庭,一个企业的个性,一个社会的信念成员呼吁;及(4)土地(被称为今天Eretz以色列),债券回到亚伯拉罕,“父亲的希伯来人”(创17:7 - 8)。

In its modern expression Judaism is also shaped by the following traditional beliefs:在其现代表达犹太教也形成以下的传统观念:

(1) Man is pivotal in the universe. He sees himself as partner with God in the unending process of creation.(1) 人是关键中的宇宙。他认为自己作为合作伙伴创造神的永无休止的过程。 In rabbinic thought, "God needs man as much as man needs God."在拉比想,“上帝需要人多达人需要神。”

(2) Man is a responsible moral agent, fully accountable for his acts. He is free to shape his own destiny.(2) 人是一个负责任的道德代理人,全面负责他的行为。他可以自由地塑造自己的命运。

(3) Human progress is possible as man realizes the great potential within him. The nature of man is basically good, or neutral, free from the encumbrance of original sin.(3) 人类的进步是可能的人认识到在他的潜力很大。性质的人基本上是好的,或中性,赎罪从原来的产权负担的。Thus man may be optimistic and hopeful about his future.因此,男子可能是乐观和对自己的未来充满希望。

(4) "This - worldliness" is a distinguishing mark of Judaism. The Hebrew Scriptures focus more on earth and man than upon heaven and God. (4)“这-出世”是一个显着标志的犹太教希伯来文圣经,集中更多人比在地球上的天堂。Hence, lengthy speculation about the afterlife and otherworldy realities has never occupied a major position in Jewish thought.因此,关于来世长时间的猜测和otherworldy现实从来没有犹太人的思想占据了主要地位。

(5) All of life must be regarded as sacred. Man is to seek to imitate God in sanctifying his every action.(5) 生命的所有必须被视为神圣的。人是寻求模仿上帝的行动在他的每一个圣洁。Time must be imbued with the seeds of eternity.时间必须是充满永恒的种子。

(6) Man is to pursue peace, justice, and righteousness. Salvation is dependent upon the betterment of society through good deeds.(6) 人是追求和平,正义和正气。救国事迹的改善依赖于良好的社会通过。Historically, Jews have seen the Messiah as God's anointed human representative (not a God - man) who would usher in a golden age of societal and spiritual redemption.从历史上看,犹太人看到了弥赛亚作为神的受膏者人的代表(不是神 - 人)谁将会迎来一个社会和精神救赎的黄金时代。 Today, however, Reform Judaism teaches that the Messianic Age will appear when humankind collectively, by its acts, reaches a level of true enlightenment, peace, and justice.然而,今天,改革犹太教教导我们,弥赛亚时代时会出现人类的集体,其行为,达到了真正的启示,和平与正义的水平。

MR Wilson威尔逊先生
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
L Baeck, The Essence of Judaism; H Danby, The Mishnah; H Donin, To Be a Jew; EJ, X; A Hertzberg, ed., Judaism; GF Moore, Judaism; M Steinberg, Basic Judaism; L Trepp, Judaism: Development and Life.L Baeck,犹太教的本质,高h丹比,该mishnah高h Donin,是一个犹太人; EJ中,x,一个赫兹伯格,教育署,犹太教,绿摩尔,犹太教〔M斯坦伯格,基本犹太教的L Trepp,犹太教。:发展和生活。


Judaism犹太教

Additional Information附加信息

Several distinct approaches to Judaism presently exist.犹太教几种不同的办法,目前存在的。

Conservative Judaism保守犹太教

Established to preserve in America the historical Judaism.保存在美国成立的历史犹太教。Beliefs include the Torah, and the dietary laws of traditional Judaism, use of the Hebrew language, men worship with their heads covered.信仰,包括圣经,和传统的犹太教,在希伯来语言使用的饮食规律,男性崇拜他们的头覆盖。

There are currently around 1,500,000 Conservative Jews in the United States, worshipping in 762 Synagogues.目前有大约1,500,000保守的犹太人在美国,在762会堂崇拜。

Orthodox Judaism正统犹太教

Preserves the theology and traditions of Old World Jewry in the New World.保留了神学和新世界旧世界犹太人的传统。It assigns equal authority to the written and oral law and to the ancient Jewish codes of the Torah and Talmud.它分配平等权力的书面和口头法律,对古犹太圣经和犹太法典的代码。The Torah is all-important and basic to everything else, since it is Of God.律法是所有重要的和基本的一切,因为它是从神来。The coming Messiah will be a descendent of David.即将到来的弥赛亚将是大卫的后裔。The Biblical dietary laws are strictly observed.圣经中的饮食法得到严格遵守。Hebrew is used in synagogue prayers, English in the sermons.希伯来语用于祈祷的犹太教堂,英国在布道。

Hasidic Orthodox (Hasidism) opposes all changes or innovation in dress, speech and education.哈西德派东正教(Hasidism)反对一切在衣着,言语和教育的转变或创新。The German and western European is less severe, adopting some modern changes.德国和西欧没有那么严重,采用一些现代的变化。

There are currently around 1,075,000 Orthodox Jews in the United States, worshipping in 800 Synagogues.目前有大约1,075,000东正教犹太人在美国,在800个犹太教堂崇拜。

Reconstructionist Judaism重建主义犹太教

This denomination attempts to combine Jewish beliefs with the environment of a modern democratic state (America).这一教派试图结合的现代民主国家(美国)环境犹太信仰。It feels that Judaism is an evolving religion rather than static as the other Jewish groups believe.它认为,犹太教是一个不断发展的宗教,而不是静态的其他犹太团体认为。This originated in 1934 under the leadership of Mordecai Kaplan.这起源于1934年在末底改卡普兰领导。

Mordecai Menahem Kaplan (1881-1983) was an American rabbi who founded Reconstructionism, a movement based on the view that Judaism is essentially a religious civilization.莫迪凯梅纳海姆卡普兰(1881年至1983年)是美国拉比谁创立重建派,就认为基本上是一个犹太教宗教文明为基础的运动。

Kaplan was born in Švenèionys, Lithuania.卡普兰出生在Švenèionys,立陶宛。At the age of eight, he was brought to the United States.在八岁那年,他被带到美国。After studying at the College of the City of New York and at Columbia University, he was ordained (1902) at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, where he later became principal (1909) of the teachers institute, dean (1931), and dean emeritus (1947).后在纽约市立学院,并在哥伦比亚大学学习,他被祝圣(1902)在美国犹太神学院,在那里他后来成为校长(1909年)的教师学院院长(1931年),和院长名誉教授(1947年)。

In 1916 he established the Jewish Center in New York City, where he served as rabbi until 1922.1916年他建立了纽约市,在那里他担任拉比,直到1922年担任犹太中心。He then established the Society for the Advancement of Judaism, which became the core of Reconstructionism.然后,他设立了犹太教地位,成为重建派核心的社会。The movement was defined in the Reconstructionist, a periodical he edited, that was dedicated to "the advancement of Judaism as a religious civilization, to the upbuilding of Eretz Yisrael [the land of Israel] as the spiritual center of the Jewish People, and to the furtherance of universal freedom, justice, and peace."这场运动被界定在重建主义,他主编的期刊,这是专门以“作为宗教的犹太教文明进步,到upbuilding Eretz以色列作为犹太人民的精神中心[以色列土地],并普遍的自由,正义与和平的进一步完善。“Among Kaplan's writings that define the movement are Judaism as a Civilization (1934) and The Religion of Ethical Nationhood (1970).在卡普兰的著作,定义运动是作为一种文明(1934)和宗教伦理建国(1970)犹太教。

There are currently around 65,000 Reconstructionist Jews in the United States, worshipping in 100 Synagogues.目前有大约65,000重建主义犹太人在美国,在100个犹太教堂崇拜。

Reform Judaism改革犹太教

This liberal Judaism uses shortened synagogue services with organ music and vernacular references.这个宽松的犹太教使用缩短与管风琴音乐和白话参考犹太教堂服务。The feel that Judaism should "alter its externals to strengthen its eternals."犹太教的感觉是要“改变其外部加强永生。”Reform holds that there is divine authority only in the written law of the Old Testament (its main distinction from Orthodox.) They feel that the practices of dietary laws and covering the head at worship are outmoded and should be abandoned.改革认为,有神圣的权力只能在旧约律法(其从正统的主要区别。)他们觉得,饮食规律和覆盖在拜头的做法过时,应该抛弃。 They do not believe in the messianic restoration of the Jewish state.他们不相信在这个犹太国家的救世主恢复。They are abandoning belief in a personal Messiah, but still expect a coming messianic age.他们放弃了个人的救世主的信仰,但仍期待未来救世主的年龄。They advocate maintaining those Jewish customs, traditions and values in Israel which have inspirational value.他们主张维护这些犹太人的习俗,传统和价值观,在以色列有鼓舞人心的价值。

There are currently around 1,500,000 Reform Jews in the United States, worshipping in 896 Synagogues.目前有大约1,500,000改革的犹太人在美国,在896会堂崇拜。

Karaites卡拉

Karaites or Caraites (from Hebrew qârâ,"to read") are a Jewish sect, considered heretical by Orthodox Jews, which believes in the strict interpretation of the Jewish Scriptures and rejects the Talmud and the rabbinical traditions incorporated in Judaism during the first six centuries AD.卡拉或Caraites(从希伯来文加拉,“阅读”)是一个犹太节,审议了东正教犹太人,这相信在犹太圣经严格的解释,拒绝邪教的塔木德和犹太教纳入在第一六百年传统的犹太教广告。 The sect was founded in Baghdâd (now in Iraq) about 765 by Anan ben David, a Jewish religious leader.该节创立于巴格达约765(今伊拉克)由阿南本大卫,一个犹太宗教领袖。The doctrine of Karaism is also called Ananism.该Karaism学说也被称为Ananism。The sect survives in several Middle Eastern countries, with some 17,000 adherents.该教派存活几个中东国家,与一些17000追随者。

There are currently around 1,500 Karaite Jews in the United States, worshipping in two Synagogues.目前有大约1500名圣经派犹太人在美国,在两个犹太教堂崇拜。

There are also Liberal and Progressive wings of Judaism.也有犹太教的自由和进步的翅膀。

These numbers total approximately 4,140,000 Jews in the United States, although there are sources that give 6,015,000 as the total for North America (with around 70,000 in Canada.)这些数字在美国共约414.0万犹太人,虽然有消息来源,让作为北美共601.5万(在加拿大拥有约70,000)。


Judaism犹太教

Advanced Information先进的信息

Judaism, the religion of the Jews, claims over 14 million adherents throughout the world.犹太教,犹太人的宗教,索赔超过1400万世界各地的信徒。It is the oldest living religion in the Western world.它是在西方世界最古老的宗教。Historically, Judaism served as the matrix for Christianity and Islam, the other two great monotheistic religions, which together with Judaism claim half the world's population as adherents.从历史上看,犹太教基督教和伊斯兰教担任,为基体的其他两个伟大的一神教,这与犹太教共同要求世界上一半的人口为信徒。

Beliefs信仰

Judaism was the first religion to teach Monotheism, or belief in one God.犹太教是第一个宗教教一神教,或信仰一个上帝。This belief is the basis of Judaism and is summed up in the opening words of the Shema, recited daily: "Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One" (Deut. 6:4).这种信仰是犹太教的基础,是在总结射麻的开头语了,每天背诵:“听以色列啊,主我们的上帝,上帝是一个”(申命记6:4)。 Jews believe that God's providence extends to all people but that God entered into a special Covenant with the ancient Israelites.犹太人相信,上帝的普罗维登斯延伸到所有的人,但上帝将与古代以色列人进入特别公约。They do not believe that they were chosen for any special privileges but rather to bring God's message to humanity by their example.他们不相信他们被选为任何特权,而是以他们为榜样,使神的讯息给人类。Belief in a coming Messiah has been a source of optimism for Jews.在即将到来的弥赛亚信仰一直是乐观的犹太人的来源。

The beliefs of Judaism have never been formulated in an official creed; Judaism stresses conduct rather than doctrinal correctness. Its adherents have a considerable measure of latitude in matters of belief, especially concerning the messianic future and immortality.犹太教的信仰从来没有制定正式的信条; 犹太教强调行为的正确性,而不是理论上的不朽及其追随者的事项有衡量的纬度相当的信仰,尤其是关于未来的救世主。 Judaism is a this - world religion; its objective is a just and peaceful world order on earth.犹太教是这一点 - 世界宗教,它的目标是在地球上正义与和平的世界秩序。This hope is assured by the belief that God is the Lord of history as well as of nature.这种希望是有保证的信念,上帝是历史的主,像大自然以及。

The basic source of Jewish belief is the Hebrew Bible (called the "Old Testament" by Christians), especially its first five books, called the Torah or the Pentateuch. The Torah was traditionally regarded as the primary revelation of God and his law to humanity; it is considered as valid for all time. 犹太信仰的基本来源,是希伯来文圣经(所谓的“旧约”的基督教徒),特别是其第一个五年的书籍,称为律法或律法五。在传统上被视为人类的启示主神和他的律师向它被认为是所有时间内有效。 Its laws were clarified and elaborated in the oral Torah, or the tradition of the elders, and were eventually written down in the Mishnah and Talmud. Thus, Judaism did not stop developing after the Bible was completed. The traditional Jewish prayer book is an important result of this process of development, reflecting the basic beliefs of Judaism as well as changes in emphasis in response to changing conditions.其法律得以澄清和长老在口头阐述律法,或传统的,并最终被写下来的mishnah塔木德和。 因此,犹太教并没有停止发展后,圣经已经完成。传统的犹太祈祷书是一个重要的这个发展过程中反映的回应犹太教的基本信仰,以及在重点的变化,结果不断变化的情况。 During the Middle Ages, systematic codes of talmudic law were compiled.在中世纪,塔木德法系统进行了汇编代码。Jewish literature - legal, ethical, philosophic, mystical, and devotional - is virtually endless.犹太文学 - 法律,道德,哲学,神秘和虔诚的 - 几乎是无止境的。

Practices实践

Judaism has a system of law, known as Halachah, regulating civil and criminal justice, family relationships, personal ethics and manners, social responsibilities - such as help to the needy, education, and community institutions - as well as worship and other religious observances.犹太教有知名律师为Halachah,调节民事和刑事司法,家庭关系,个人的职业道德和礼仪,社会责任制度 - 如帮助有需要的人士,教育和社区机构 - 以及其他宗教崇拜和纪念活动。Some laws once deemed very important, for example, laws governing the offering of sacrifice and most rules of ceremonial defilement and purification, have not been practiced since the destruction of the Second Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD.有些法律一旦被视为非常重要的,例如,法律管辖的祭祀和礼仪污辱和净化大多数规则,没有得到实行以来的第二圣殿在耶路撒冷在公元70年毁灭。

Individual practices still widely observed include the dietary laws (Kosher); rules concerning the marital relationship, daily prayer, and study; and the recital of many blessings, especially before and after meals.个别做法仍然普遍观察到的包括(犹太)饮食规律,规则关于婚姻关系,每日祈祷,并研究,特别是吃饭前后,不少祝福演奏。 The Sabbath and festivals are observed both in the home and in the Synagogue, a unique institution for prayer and instruction that became the model for the church in Christianity and for the mosque in Islam.安息日和节日都观察到无论是在家里和在犹太教堂,一个独特的祈祷和教学机构,成为在基督教教堂的模型和伊斯兰教的清真寺。 Traditionally observant Jews wear tefillin, or Phylacteries, on their forehead and left arm during morning prayers, and affix to their doorposts a mezuzah, a little box containing a parchment scroll inscribed with passages of the Torah that emphasize the unity of God, his providence, and the resulting duty of serving him.传统上观察入微的犹太人穿在早上祈祷tefillin,或在他们的前额和左臂圣物,并追究他们的门框上一mezuzah,包含一个小盒子羊皮纸卷轴与圣经经文,强调神,他的普罗维登斯统一刻,和他的服务导致的责任。 In accordance with biblical law, men wear a fringed shawl (tallith) during prayer.按照圣经的法律规定,男人穿在礼拜的流苏披肩(tallith)。Covering the head is a widespread custom.覆盖头部是一种普遍的习俗。

The Jewish religious calendar, of Babylonian origin, consists of 12 lunar months, amounting to about 354 days.犹太宗教日历,巴比伦的起源,组成12个农历月,金额约354天。Six times in a 19 year cycle a 13th month is added to adjust the calendar to the solar year.六一19年的周期第13个月添加到调整日历的太阳年。The day is reckoned from sunset to sunset.估计这一天从日落到日落。

The Sabbath, from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday, is observed by refraining from work and by attending a synagogue service.安息日,从周五日落至周六日落,是由参加工作,避免和观察到的一个犹太教堂服务。Friday evening is marked in the home by the lighting of a lamp or candles by the woman of the household, the recital of the kiddush (a ceremonial blessing affirming the sanctity of the day) over a cup of wine, and the blessing of children by parents.星期五晚上是在家里显着的一盏灯或蜡烛,由家庭,演奏了kiddush以上的女人一杯酒(一祝福仪式肯定了神圣的一天)照明,以及对儿童的祝福父母。 The end of the Sabbath is marked by parallel ceremonies called havdalah.安息日的最后一天被称为havdalah平行仪式。Similar home ceremonies occur on the festivals.首页上发生类似的节日庆典。

The holidays prescribed in the Torah are the two "days of awe," Rosh Hashanah (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), and three joyous festivals, Passover, Shavuoth (Feast of Weeks), and the Feast of Tabernacles.在律法规定的节日是两个“敬畏天”犹太新年(新年)和赎罪日(赎罪日),和三个欢乐的节日,逾越节,Shavuoth(周节),和住棚节。 Later additions are the festive occasions of Chanukah and Purim, and the fast of the Ninth of Av (Tishah be - Av), commemorating the destruction of the Temple.后来增加是光明节和普珥节的节日,以及快速的九届的AV(Tishah是 - 大道),纪念圣殿被毁。

On the 8th day after birth, male children are circumcised as a sign of the covenant with Abraham; the boy is named during the ceremony.在出生后第8天,男性儿童的割礼作为与亚伯拉罕立约的记号,男孩是在命名仪式。Girls are named at a synagogue service. At the age of 13, a boy is deemed responsible for performing the commandments (Bar Mitzvah). To mark his new status, the bar mitzvah takes part in the Bible readings during a synagogue service.女孩被命名为一犹太教堂服务13。在这个时代,一个男孩被认为地位负责执行的命令(成年礼)。为了纪念他的新的,成人礼的一部分需要阅读圣经时,在犹太教堂服务。 (The synagogue service is sometimes popularly referred to as the bar mitzvah.) A similar ceremony for girls (bat mitzvah) is a recent innovation. Somewhat older is the confirmation ceremony for both sexes introduced by Reform Judaism; it is usually a class observance on or near Shavuoth.普遍服务有时被称为成年礼。)犹太教堂类似)是仪式的女孩(蝙蝠mitzvah最近创新。(略为年长是改革犹太教确认仪式介绍了男女双方,它通常是一个类遵守有关或近Shavuoth。

Judaism has characteristic, but not unparalleled, customs concerning marriage and death and mourning.犹太教的特点,但不是独一无二的,海关关于婚姻及死亡和哀悼。The importance attached to recital of the Kaddish prayer by mourners dates from the Middle Ages.的重视祈祷演奏的ḳaddish从中世纪哀悼日期。The prayer itself is much older and was originally recited as the conclusion of a sermon; it is related in thought and language to the "Lord's Prayer" of Christians.祈祷本身就是很多老年人和原本是作为一个讲道结束背诵,它是在思想和语言相关的“主祷文”的基督徒。After the disasters during the First Crusade, the Jews of central and later eastern Europe introduced a memorial service on Yom Kippur and on other holidays; they also began to observe the anniversary of the death of parents.在第一次十字军东征后的灾难,中央和后来东欧犹太人赎罪日介绍及其他假期的追悼会,他们也开始观察父母的忌日。

History历史

In the biblical account, the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob received the revelation of the one, true God, who promised special protection to the Israelite tribes (of whom there were 12, descended from the 12 sons of Jacob, who was also called Israel).在圣经的帐户,始祖亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各得到了一个,真正的上帝,谁答应特别保护以色列人部落启示(其中有12个,从雅各的12个儿子,谁也叫下降以色列)。

Origins起源

Many 19th century scholars held that monotheism gradually emerged out of Polytheism, the evolution being complete only with the great prophets in the 8th century BC and later.许多19世纪的学者认为,一神教逐渐出现了多神教的那样,只与嬗变,在公元前8世纪以后,伟大的先知完成。Today many are convinced that monotheism was already a reality in the days of Moses (13th century BC) and that later prophets developed more fully only the ethical and spiritual implications of the belief.今天,许多人相信,一神教已经是在摩西(公元前13世纪)的日子现实,后来先知更充分地拟定只相信道德和精神意义的。 All the Israelite tribes agreed on the worship of one God named Yahweh (GOD); they shared the memory of slavery in Egypt, the deliverance under Moses, and the Mosaic covenant and revelation at Sinai.所有的以色列人部落商定了一个名为耶和华神(上帝)的崇拜,他们还共同在埃及,摩西下解脱奴役内存,镶嵌在西奈盟约和启示。 Although some practices were borrowed from surrounding peoples (agricultural festivals, civil jurisprudence), the Israelite religion was kept pure of paganism through the strenuous efforts of the prophets.虽然有些做法是从周围的人民(农业节庆,民间判例)借来的,宗教的以色列人被关通过艰苦的努力先知的异教纯洁。

Unparalleled in any other Near Eastern religion are Judaism's prohibition of images, observance of the Sabbath, dietary laws, legislation guaranteeing support of the poor as a matter of right, and protection of slaves and animals against cruelty. When a loose tribal confederation was replaced by a national state under Kings Saul and David a national Temple in Jerusalem helped unify the people spiritually. 宗教无与伦比的东部其他近是犹太教的禁令的图像,遵守安息日的,饮食规律,立法保障穷人的支持,作为一种权利事项,并通过保护奴隶的人反对,虐待动物。当一个松散的邦联部落取代根据国王扫罗和大卫的民族国家在耶路撒冷圣殿有助于国家统一的人的心灵。 After the division of the kingdom following the death (c. 933) of Solomon, the northern kingdom of Israel also had national shrines.后王国分裂后,所罗门死了(约933),北部的以色列王国也有民族圣地。

Prophets先知

The Prophets exercised decisive influence on all development in Israel.先知行使所有在以色列的发展具有决定性的影响。 From the time of the 11th century BC prophet Samuel, they ceased to be mere soothsayers and became more and more national leaders, speaking in the name of God (the Hebrew word for prophet is navi, meaning "spokesman").从公元前11世纪先知撒母耳的时候,他们不再是单纯的占卜者,并成为越来越多国家的领导人,在上帝的名字(希伯来字是对先知导航,意思是“代言人”)发言。 They upheld strict principles of justice and humanity, criticizing bluntly the most powerful forces in the nation.他们坚持严格的正义和人道的原则,直言不讳地批评在全国最强大的力量。They warned of national disaster unless a radical improvement of religious and moral standards was realized.他们警告说,全国性的灾难,除非有宗教和道德标准,实现了彻底改善。The reform movement led by King Josiah (c. 640 - 609 BC), based on the Book of Deuteronomy, was probably undertaken under prophetic influence; the reforms included abolishing all local shrines and sanctuaries and limiting sacrifice to the Temple in Jerusalem.改革运动的领导约西亚王(公元前640 - 公元前609),在申命记书改编,很可能是先知的影响下进行;的改革,包括取消所有地方神社和避难所,并限制牺牲在耶路撒冷的圣殿。

This dramatized belief in one God and reduced the importance of sacrifice in the daily life of the worshiper.这种一神信仰,并减少了戏剧化的崇拜者日常生活中牺牲的重要性。The gap left by the abolition of the local shrines was eventually filled by the establishment of the Synagogue, but there is no clear reference to this new institution until some four centuries later.留下的空白由最终被建立的犹太教堂填补了当地的神社废除,但没有明确提到,直到四个世纪之后,这个新机构。The most mature and eloquent expression of prophetic ideals is found in the recorded speeches of the later prophets, beginning in the 8th century BC with the prophet Amos.理想的预言最成熟和雄辩的表达被发现在后来先知发言记录,在与先知阿摩司公元前8世纪开始。

The Exile and Foreign Influences流亡和国际的影响

The fall of both kingdoms and the Babylonian Captivity (586 - 538 BC) were perceived as a confirmation of the prophetic predictions and therefore of the truth of their message.这两个王国的崩溃和巴比伦圈养(586 - 538年)被视为先知预言的确认和真理,因此他们的信息。Thus the Israelites were prepared to listen to the prophets of hope who now appeared, promising not only national restoration but also the ultimate redemption of all peoples from idolatry, injustice, and war.因此,以色列人愿意倾听先知谁的希望,现在看来,前途不仅国家恢复,而且从偶像崇拜,不公正,以及所有人民战争的最终赎回。

Returning exiles were leaders in the revival of the Palestinian center (now confined to the area of the former southern kingdom of Judah) and the building of the Second Temple.返回的流亡者在巴勒斯坦领导人复兴中心(目前仅限于前南的犹大王国​​区)和第二圣殿的建设。The high priests usually served as official representatives to the Persian government and to the succeeding empires.通常的高级神职人员担任政府的波斯帝国和随后的官方代表。In the middle of the 5th century BC, the final form was given to the Torah - in the opinion of many scholars, a composite of laws, narratives, and poems dating from different periods, but with beginnings going back to Moses; and the people formally accepted the Torah as the rule for their life.在公元前5世纪中叶,最后的形式给予了托拉 - 在许多学者,法律,叙述,从不同时期的约会诗复合意见,但开端可以追溯到摩西和人民正式接受为他们的生活规律的律法。Shortly thereafter the Samaritans broke away from the main body of Judaism; small numbers of this sect still survive.此后不久,撒玛利亚脱离了犹太教的主体,本节还有少量生存。

During this period, prophecy waned and finally disappeared, but the writings of the great prophets were compiled and accepted as sacred literature.在此期间,预言减弱并最终消失,但伟大的先知的著作进行了汇编,作为神圣的文学接受。Other books were composed - notably, wisdom literature, such as Job - and many of them were eventually included in the Bible.其他书籍组成 - 值得注意的是,智慧文学,如工作, - 其中许多人最终在圣经中。

Some elements of Persian religion were incorporated into Judaism: a more elaborate doctrine of Angels; the figure of Satan; and a system of beliefs concerning the end of time, including a predetermined scheme of world history, a final judgment (Last Judgment), and the Resurrection of the dead.波斯宗教的一些内容纳入犹太教:更详细的天使学说;撒旦的数字;和关于结束的时间,其中包括了世界历史,最后判决(最后判决)预案的信仰体系,死者复活。 These ideas were expounded in many visionary documents called apocalypses; none of them was included in the Hebrew Bible except the Book of Daniel (Apocalypse Eschatology).这些思想在许多富有远见的文件阐述了所谓的启示,其中没有一个是在希伯来圣经包括除丹尼尔(末世启示录)书籍。

Hellenism and Judaism希腊和犹太教

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great (d. 323 BC), Judea (as Judah came to be called) passed under the rule of Alexander's Egyptian successors (the Ptolemies) and later his Syrian successors (the Seleucids).继征服的亚历山大大帝(公元前四323),朱迪亚(如犹太来到被称为)根据亚历山大的(即托勒密)埃及继承人通过的统治,后来他(塞留西士)叙利亚接班人。 Under these Hellenistic rulers, Jewish life was changed both inwardly and outwardly, in Palestine and in the growing Diaspora.根据这些古希腊的统治者,犹太人的生活被改变了内向和外向,在巴勒斯坦和散居在不断增长。In Alexandria, which acquired a large Jewish population, novel forms of Judaism emerged. The Bible was translated into Greek (the Septuagint), the first of innumerable translations.在亚历山德里亚,其中获得了大量犹太居民,新形式出现的犹太教。 圣经被翻译成希腊文译本(七十),无数的第一次。New explanations of the Torah were devised in the 1st century AD by Philo of Alexandria.的律法制定了新的解释,在第一世纪由亚历山大斐罗广告。

The Greek language and customs also affected Palestinian Jewry; the Jewish emphasis on study may be in part the result of Greek influence.希腊语言和风俗也影响了巴勒斯坦的犹太人,犹太人对学习的重点可能部分是希腊影响的结果。But while many Jews were attracted to pagan customs and attitudes, the majority resisted these trends.不过,虽然许多犹太人被吸引到异教习俗和态度,大多数抵制这些趋势。The attempt of the Seleucid king Antiochus IV to impose the Greek religion by force aroused open rebellion led by the Maccabees, a Jewish priestly family.作者:塞琉国王安提四企图强加的公开叛乱引起的马加比,一个犹太牧师家庭的希腊宗教领导的部队。During the short period of Judean independence under the Maccabees (also called Hasmoneans) a movement of proselytizing began that was apparently not organized but was nevertheless energetic.在独立的犹太马加比下短期内(也称为哈斯摩年王朝)的传教运动开始的,显然没有组织的,但尽管如此精力充沛。 Large numbers of persons, disillusioned with the old pagan cults, adopted Judaism formally or attached themselves unofficially to the synagogue.大量的人,与旧的异教邪教失望,犹太教通过正式或非正式地重视自己的犹太教堂。

The Sects该教派

The worldliness of the later Maccabees alienated most of their subjects, and effective leadership passed more and more to pious and learned laymen, especially after the Romans established control in 63 BC. These laymen formed the party of the Pharisees (separatists); democratic in spirit, the Pharisees sought to adapt the laws of the Torah to changing needs, utilizing old popular traditions (oral Torah), which they expanded by the free method of Midrash, or verse - by - verse interpretation of scripture.马加比世俗的后来的疏远大部分科目,并通过有效的领导越来越多的普通人,以虔诚和教训,特别是公元前后,罗马人建立的控制在63。这些外行形成分裂党的法利()的精神,民主的,法利设法适应的律法的法律不断变化的需要,利用民间传统老(口头律法),他们由米德拉士免费的方法,扩大或诗句 - 由 - 诗的经文解释。Their opponents, the Sadducees, were drawn largely from the wealthy classes and from the priesthood; conservative in religious matters, the Sadducees interpreted scripture strictly, disregarding the oral tradition and popular customs, and rejecting the doctrine of resurrection. The Pharisees were followed by the majority; all subsequent Judaism was pharisaic, and the roots of Christianity and Islam are found in pharisaic Judaism.他们的对手, 撒都该人,分别得出主要来自富裕阶层和神职人员;,保守的宗教,撒都该严格解释经文,不顾口述传统和流行的习俗,并拒绝主义的复活。法利赛人的随访多数; pharisaic的所有后续犹太教,伊斯兰教和基督教的根源和pharisaic的犹太教中找到。( The Essenes were a sort of right wing, monastic splinter group of the Pharisees; they probably wrote the Dead Sea Scrolls.)在爱色尼是一个法利排序右翼集团的,寺院的分裂,他们可能写了死海古卷。)

Talmudic or Rabbinic Judaism塔木德或拉比犹太教

After the disastrous revolt against Rome in 66 - 70 AD, the pharisaic leaders, whose successors bore the title Rabbi, rallied the people around the synagogue and the academies of learning.罗马后,在66个灾难性的打击反抗 - 公元70年,领导的Pharisaic,其继任者承担的标题拉比,凝聚了周围人的犹太教堂和学习的院校。Through centuries of effort (recorded in the Mishnah, Talmud, and many works of midrash) they produced a disciplined and loyal Jewish community.通过努力(在米德拉士的mishnah,犹太法典,许多作品记录),他们制作了一个世纪的纪律和忠诚的犹太社区。

The earliest Christians differed from other Jews chiefly in their belief that Jesus was the messiah.从最早的其他犹太人的主要差异在他们认为耶稣是弥赛亚基督徒。But under the leadership of Saint Paul and others, gentile Christianity soon became dominant, and the break between the two religions became complete.但在圣保罗和其他人的领导下,很快成为氏族基督教占主导地位,以及两个宗教之间的休息成了完成。When the Roman Empire became officially Christian in the 4th century AD, the Jews became subject to many discriminatory laws, including a prohibition against seeking or even accepting converts.当罗马帝国正式成为在公元4世纪基督教,犹太人开始受到许多歧视性的法律,包括对寻求或接受转换,甚至禁止。

In the 4th century, religious and legal leadership was assumed more and more by the Babylonian center of learning; and from the 5th century, the Babylonian Talmud was generally accepted as the authoritative source of law.在4世纪,宗教和法律的领导承担越来越多的学习巴比伦中心,以及从公元5世纪,巴比伦塔木德,一般作为法律权威人士接受。 Thereafter world leadership remained with the Babylonian scholars; the heads of the academies, called Gaonim ("excellencies"), provided information and advice on legal and other questions to the Diaspora communities.此后世界领先地位依然是巴比伦学者;元首的院校,被称为Gaonim(“阁下”),提供法律和其他问题,散居社区的信息和建议。 In the 8th century, the sect of Karaites broke away, rejecting tradition and rabbinic authority, and seeking to live by the letter of the biblical law.在8世纪,卡拉派信徒脱离邪教,拒绝传统和拉比的权威,并寻求生活所圣经的法律条文。After four centuries of vigorous activity, the sect declined; today only remnants survive.经过四年的积极活动百年来,该教派下降;今天只有残留物生存。

Philosophy and Mysticism哲学与神秘主义

By 1000 AD, the Babylonian center was in decline, but new centers of Jewish culture emerged in North Africa and in Muslim Spain.到公元1000年,巴比伦的中心是在下降,但新的犹太文化中心,在北非和穆斯林西班牙出现。(The Spanish Jews, together with the oriental communities, came to be known as Sephardim, and those of Christian Europe as Ashkenazim. The two groups differ somewhat in liturgical forms, in the pronunciation of Hebrew, in their music, and in many customs.) Under tolerant rulers, Jews participated actively in the Arabic cultural renaissance. (西班牙犹太人,再加上东方社区,后来被称为Sephardim,和欧洲的基督教作为德系犹太人。两组有所不同的礼仪形式,在希伯来文发音,在他们的音乐,而且在许多风俗习惯。 )根据宽容的统治者,犹太人积极参加了阿拉伯文化的复兴。In addition to commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, they also wrote extensively on grammar, science, and philosophy, usually in Arabic, and produced outstanding poetry in Hebrew, both religious and secular.除了对圣经和犹太法典的评论,他们还写了大量关于语法,科学和哲学,通常是在阿拉伯文,希伯来文和生产优秀诗歌,宗教和世俗的。

Although the first important Jewish philosopher was the Gaon Saadia in Baghdad (10th century), nearly all of his important successors were of Spanish origin, including the preeminent Maimonides.虽然第一个重要的犹太哲学家是在巴格达(10世纪),gaon的Saadia几乎都是他的重要接班人的西班牙血统,其中包括杰出的迈蒙尼德。 These philosophers were scholastics, like their Muslim and Christian contemporaries, drawing largely on the works of Aristotle and the Neoplatonists.这些被经院哲学家,像他们的穆斯林和基督教的同时代人,根据对亚里士多德和柏拉图的作品在很大程度上。 Like Philo, they tended to explain difficult Bible passages as allegories.斐罗一样,他们往往难以解释圣经作为寓言通道。 Their writings were welcomed by intellectuals trying to harmonize revealed religion with the new scientific learning.他们的著作受到欢迎,试图协调与学习新的科学发现宗教的知识分子。But the masses were not interested in them, and many of the orthodox leaders regarded the new doctrines as subversive.但是,群众不关心他们,许多领导人的正统视为颠覆性的新理论。After the death of Maimonides, his admirers and detractors waged a bitter struggle in Christian Spain and the Provence.后迈蒙尼德死后,他的崇拜者与反对者展开了在基督教西班牙和普罗旺斯激烈的斗争。His last important successor, Chisdai Crescas (d. 1410), undertook a critique of Aristotle in the interest of simple faith.他的最后一个重要的继任者,Chisdai Crescas(草1410),进行简单的信念,在利益的亚里士多德批评。

More lasting and widespread was the influence of Kabbalah ("tradition"), a term that includes various mystical doctrines and practices.更持久,广泛的是卡巴拉(“传统”),一个术语,它包括各种神秘理论和实践的影响。Mystical elements appear in the old apocalypses and in talmudic and gaonic literature.神秘的元素出现在旧的启示,并在塔木德和gaonic文学。There were mystical movements in Europe as well, culminating in the 13th and 14th centuries in southern France and northern Spain.有神秘的运动在欧洲以及在13和14世纪最后在法国南部和西班牙北部。A wealth of kabbalistic writings was produced, including the Zohar ("splendor") of Moses de Leon (13th century).著作丰富的卡巴拉制作,包括摩西德莱昂(13世纪)佐哈尔(“辉煌”)。

There are many kabbalistic systems.有许多卡巴拉系统。In addition to true mystical experience, they contain mythological and magical elements, reinterpretations of biblical and talmudic passages and of prayers and commandments, Neoplatonic ideas, and messianic speculations.除了真正的神秘经验,它们包含神话和魔幻元素,圣经和塔木德通道和祈祷和诫命,柏拉图的思想重新解释,和救世主揣测。 The tragedies that befell the Jews of Spain, culminating in the expulsion of 1492, called for stronger comfort than rational philosophies could offer.悲剧降临,西班牙的犹太人,在1492年最终驱逐,更有力的舒适要求比理性理念可以提供。This was in some measure provided by Kabbalah, with its enthralling mysteries and increasing emphasis on messianism.这在一定程度上提供了卡巴拉,其迷人的奥秘,并增加对弥赛亚的重视。The Jews of central and eastern Europe also cultivated Kabbalah.中部和东部欧洲的犹太人也培养卡巴拉。These communities were unsurpassed in talmudic learning; French scholars contributed much to biblical studies also.这些社区在塔木德学习无与伦比;法国学者也贡献良多,圣经研究。They introduced a number of legal changes to improve the status of women including a formal ban on polygamy.他们推出了法律修改,以改善包括对一夫多妻制的正式禁止妇女的地位。

The 17th century saw a revival of Jewish life in Palestine.17世纪看到了犹太人生活在巴勒斯坦的复兴。 An attempt to revitalize the legal system by creating a new Sanhedrin, or central court, was unsuccessful.试图重振创建一个新的公会,或中央法院的法律制度,是不成功的。But a 17th century mystical revival had a profound effect on Jewish thought and liturgy.但是,17世纪的复兴有一个神秘的犹太思想和礼仪深远的影响。The messianic speculations of this new Kabbalah, taught by Isaac Luria, and the massacres of Polish Jewry in 1648 formed an explosive combination; in 1665 a Turkish Jew, Sabbatai Zevi, proclaimed himself the messiah.通过这一新的卡巴拉教艾萨克卢里亚,并在1648年波兰的犹太人大屠杀的救世主揣测形成了一个爆炸性的组合,在1665年土耳其犹太人,萨瓦塔伊赛维,宣称自己是弥赛亚。 There had been many such messianic claimants over the centuries, but they never achieved more than a local following; Sabbatai's announcement, however, shook world Jewry.曾有过许多这样的数百年救世主索赔,但他们从来没有达到以上地方以下;萨瓦塔伊的公布,但是,震撼世界犹太人。Thousands of believers left their homes to join him in Palestine.成千上万的信徒离开家园加入巴勒斯坦他。When Sabbatai broke under threats and accepted Islam, there was widespread disillusionment and despair.当萨瓦塔伊爆发威胁下,接受伊斯兰教,存在着广泛的幻灭和绝望。Yet a substantial number of believers kept up an underground Sabbatean movement for over a century, finding kabbalistic justifications for their leader's apostasy and awaiting his triumphant return.然而,一个相当数量的信徒保持一个地下Sabbatean运动超过一个世纪,寻找他们的领导人的理由叛教卡巴拉并等待他凯旋归来。

A more positive mystical movement arose in eastern Europe in the 18th century. It was founded by Baal Shem Tov and was known as Hasidism. Its leaders were versed in the mysteries of Kabbalah, but they addressed themselves to the unlearned masses, teaching them a simple and joyous faith and encouraging them to express their religious feelings in ecstatic song and dance.一个更积极的神秘主义运动兴起于东欧在18世纪。 它是由巴尔闪Tov,被称为Hasidism。卡巴拉及其领导人在熟悉的奥秘,但他们解决自己的胸无点墨群众,教他们一个简单的和快乐的信念,并鼓励他们表达欣喜若狂歌舞他们的宗教感情。 Initially opposed by the rabbinic leaders as heretical, Hasidism survived such attacks and is today regarded as representative of extreme Orthodoxy.作为最初由拉比领袖反对邪教,Hasidism幸存这种攻击,被视为极端正统派的代表认为今天。The movement declined for a time because it fostered "the cult of personality" and encouraged superstition, but it seems to have regained vitality in some American cities and in Israel.拒绝了这一运动时间,因为它培养的“个人崇拜”,并鼓励迷信,但它似乎已经恢复了一些美国城市和以色列的生命力。

Modern Developments现代发展

Except for these mystic stirrings, Jewish life from the 16th to the 19th centuries - the Ghetto period - was rather torpid.除了这些神秘的穷途,犹太人的生活从16到19世纪 - 贫民区时期 - 是相当麻痹。But gradually modern scientific and philosophic ideas penetrated the ghetto.但是,现代科学和哲学逐步渗透到黑人区的想法。 These influences began to be felt in the West during the 17th century.这些影响开始被西方认为在17世纪。The Enlightenment of the 18th century witnessed discussion of improving the situation of Jews and led to their emancipation under the impact of the American and French revolutions.在18世纪的启蒙目睹改善对犹太人的形势进行讨论和领导下,美国和法国革命的影响到了自己的解放。Though progress in Germanic lands was slow and disappointing, and in eastern Europe and in the Muslim lands virtually nonexistent, the impact of new ideas was felt everywhere among Jews.虽然在日耳曼的土地进展缓慢,令人失望,在东欧和穆斯林的土地几乎不存在,新观念的影响,有人认为犹太人中无处不在。The Jewish community no longer provided its members with political status.犹太社区不再提供其成员的政治地位。Wherever Jews received citizenship, the old Jewish community lost its authority; in the New World it had never existed, and in Russia it was dissolved by government order in 1844.只要犹太人收到公民,旧犹太社区失去其权威,而在新的世界从来没有存在,它是由俄罗斯政府的命令在1844年解散。No longer subject to community discipline, confused by new social and intellectual conditions, Jews were uncertain of their place in the modern world.不再受社会的纪律,新的社会和智力条件相混淆,犹太人被他们在现代社会中发生的不确定性。

One response was Haskalah, the Hebrew word for "Enlightenment," which sought to bring modern knowledge and ideas to large numbers of Jews, using chiefly writings in modern Hebrew.一个反应是启蒙运动,为“启蒙”,它试图把现代知识和思想的大批犹太人,用现代希伯来语著作主要是在希伯来文词。Moses Mendelssohn made the pioneer effort in 18th century Berlin.摩西门德尔松在18世纪柏林的先驱的努力。His program - to combine modern education with strict Orthodox practice - was ineffective; his efforts led rather to assimilation, even to Christian baptism for worldly advancement.他的计划 - 要结合现代教育实践中严格东正教 - 是无效的,他的努力导致相当同化,甚至基督教洗礼的世俗地位。 In Austrian Poland (Galicia), Haskalah was more fruitful, resulting in new efforts to study Jewish history and literature by modern critical methods ("the science of Judaism"), a trend continued with great success in Germany.在奥地利波兰(加利西亚),启蒙运动更富有成果,在新的努力,研究犹太人的历史和现代的文学批评方法(“科学的犹太教”)造成的,这一趋势继续在德国取得巨大成功。

In Russia, the attempt at popular education, with the slogan "Be a Jew at home and a man elsewhere," was soon recognized as futile because of the government's viciously anti Jewish policies.在俄罗斯,企图在普及教育的口号,“在家里一个犹太人和其他地方的人”,是因为一旦政府的恶毒的反犹太人政策徒劳的认可。 In its place, a movement for Jewish nationalism arose - first expressed in secular literature in Hebrew - decades before the rise of political Zionism.在其位,为犹太民族主义运动的兴起 - 首次在世俗的希伯来文学表达 - 十年前的政治犹太复国主义兴起。Later a strong socialist movement developed in urban centers, and these Jewish socialists spoke in Yiddish, the folk language, rather than in Hebrew.后来,一位强大的社会主义运动在城市中心发展,这些犹太社会主义者以意第绪语,民间语言,而不是在希伯来文。

In the West, Enlightenment led to attempts at religious reconstruction, partly as a response to spreading indifference and apostasy that ghettoized Orthodoxy could not check.在西方,启蒙运动,导致重建企图在宗教,部分作为传播的冷漠和叛教的ghettoized东正教无法检查的回应。The first reforms were external, to provide a more decorous and attractive synagogue service, with portions of the service read in the language of the country, organ and choral music, and the revival of preaching.第一次改革是外部,以提供一个更高雅和有吸引力的犹太教堂服务,与在该国,器官和合唱音乐,语言,鼓吹复兴阅读服务的部分。 These changes aroused Orthodox opposition and sometimes government intervention.这些变化引起了东正教的反对,有时政府的干预。The Reformers had recourse to the newly developing "science of Judaism," showing that Judaism had always grown and changed.改革者求助于新发展“科学的犹太教,”这说明犹太教一直成长和改变。Eventually they developed a modernist theology, rejecting the literalist understanding of Scripture and the changeless authority of the halachah.最终,他们开发出一种现代神学,拒绝了圣经的字面理解和权威的halachah不变。

They upheld a doctrine of progressive revelation, equating the revelation of God with the education of the Jewish people and of all humanity.他们坚持了渐进式的启示教义,等同于对犹太人民的教育和全人类的上帝的启示。They rejected the traditional prayers that asked for a return to the land of Israel and the restoration of sacrifices.他们拒绝了,对于一个到以色列的土地和牺牲的回报要求恢复传统的祈祷。Instead of a personal messiah, they envisioned a messianic age of brotherhood and peace; and instead of bodily resurrection, they taught a purely spiritual immortality.取而代之的是个人的救世主,他们设想的兄弟情谊与和平的救世主年龄和身体复活,而是他们教一个纯粹的精神不朽。 They discarded many traditional observances as no longer meaningful, modified others, and introduced new ones, such as confirmation.他们丢弃不再有意义,修改其他许多传统庆祝活动,并推出新的,如确认。They also affirmed the equality of women in religious matters.他们也肯定了对宗教事务的平等。A second group of modernists held similar theoretical views, but retained traditional practice with only limited modifications; they became the spiritual fathers of Conservative Judaism in the United States.第二组的现代主义者举行了类似的理论观点,但只有有限的修改,保留传统做法,他们成为在美国保守派犹太教的精神之父。

All parties, including the Orthodox Jews in western countries, were perfervid in patriotism toward their several lands.所有各方,包括东正教犹太人在西方国家,他们非常热心朝着他们几个土地的爱国主义精神。All were deeply affected by 19th century liberalism - optimistic, universalistic, and convinced of the reality of progress.都深深影响19世纪的自由主义 - 乐观,普遍性和进步的现实深信不疑。The modernist movements, starting in Germany, had only modest success in Europe, but expanded greatly in North America.现代主义运动,开始在德国,在欧洲只有适度的成功,但大大扩大了在北美。They have since acquired followers in Latin America, South Africa, Australia, and Israel. The terms Reform, Liberal, Progressive, Conservative, and Reconstructionist are used in various countries with varying shades of meaning; all designate nonorthodox versions of Jewish religion.此后,他们收购了以色列的追随者在拉丁美洲,南非,澳大利亚和。条款改革,自由,进步,保守,重建主义在不同国家使用不同深浅意味着所有的犹太宗教指定nonorthodox版本。

New forms of Jewish community and synagogue organization, mostly on a voluntary basis, emerged in the 19th century.犹太教的犹太社区和组织在自愿的基础上多,新形式,出现在19世纪。The old rabbinic academies (Yeshivoth) confined instruction to the Talmud and its commentaries.旧(Yeshivoth)拉比院校局限于指令的犹太法典及其评注。At this time modern rabbinical seminaries were established whose students were exposed to the whole range of Jewish history and lore and were required to obtain a university degree as well.在这个时候现代犹太教神学院的成立,其暴露的犹太历史和传说的一系列学生,并须取得大学学位以及。Important works were written on Jewish theology, displaying Kantian and post - Kantian influences.重要的作品是写在犹太神学,康德和展示后 - 康德的影响。Completely new were trends toward a secularist understanding of Jewish life, more or less completely rejecting religion and finding a substitute in nationalistic and cultural activities.完全新人走向世俗犹太人生活的理解,趋势或多或少完全拒绝宗教和寻找民族主义和文化活动中的替代品。

The prevailing liberal, optimistic mood gradually cooled as official oppression and widespread hatred continued in eastern Europe while Anti Semitism also flourished in the West.普遍的自由,乐观情绪逐渐降温的官方压迫和普遍的憎恨,同时继续在东欧也反主义在西方蓬勃发展。Jewish thinkers exhibited an increasing sense of the tragic element in human life, in the style of existentialism.犹太思想家展示了在人类生命的悲剧意识元素增加,在存在主义的风格。The trend toward Jewish nationalism took concrete form in the movement of Zionism.犹太人的民族主义思潮走向参加了犹太复国主义运动的具体形式。Initially opposed by many religious leaders of all parties and by the Jewish socialists, Zionism was vindicated by the march of events, culminating in the Holocaust.最初由各方许多宗教领袖和反对的犹太社会主义者,犹太复国主义平反游行的事件,在大屠杀中达到高潮。World Jewry, despite many divisions and disagreements, is today united in concern and support for the State of Israel, which was established in 1948.世界犹太人尽管有许多分歧和分歧,是在关心和以色列国,并于1948年成立支持联合国今天。

At present, because of political circumstances, rigid Orthodoxy is the only form of Judaism officially recognized in Israel, for example, in solemnizing marriages and in military chaplaincy. 目前,由于政治环境下,严格正统的犹太教是唯一的形式正式承认以色列,例如,在solemnizing婚姻和军事牧师。But a large part of the population is remote from formal religion, and the modernist versions have difficulty making their message heard.但是,人口的很大一部分是从正规宗教遥远,现代版本有困难使他们听到的消息。

A great exodus of Jews from the Soviet Union began in the 1970s and reached new heights in the early '90s.一个犹太人从苏联伟大的逃亡开始于70年代和90年代初达到新的高度。In the West, despite loss of members, mixed marriages, and a serious drop in the Jewish birthrate, religious institutions are flourishing.在西方,尽管损失的成员,异族通婚,并在犹太人的出生率严重下降,宗教机构正在蓬勃发展。The number of synagogues and synagogue members increased dramatically after World War II.犹太教堂和犹太教堂的成员人数急剧增加第二次世界大战后。There has been a remarkable resurgence of Orthodoxy after a long period of decline, and modernist groups are placing greater emphasis on tradition and ceremony.目前已经经过了长期低落的正统显着复苏,以及现代集团正在把更多的传统和仪式的重视。

Bernard J Bamberger伯纳德Ĵ班贝格

Bibliography: 参考书目:
J Agus, The Evolution of Jewish Thought (1959) and The Jewish Quest (1983); L Baeck, The Essence of Judaism (1948); BJ Bamberger, The Story of Judaism (1971); JL Blau, Modern Varieties of Judaism (1966); B Blech, Understanding Judaism (1991); AA Cohen, The Natural and Supernatural Jew (1962); EL Fackenheim, What is Judaism? Ĵ阿古斯,对犹太人的思想(1959年)的演变和犹太探索(1983年)的L Baeck,犹太教的本质(1948年);北京班贝格,犹太教的故事(1971年);巨浪布劳,现代品种的犹太教(1966年条),b布莱赫,理解犹太教(1991年);机管局科恩,自然和超自然的犹太人(1962年);发光Fackenheim,什么是犹太教? (1988); L Finkelstein, The Jews: Their History, Culture, and Religions (1971); M Gilbert, ed., The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization (1991); N Glazer, American Judaism (1973); D Goldberg and J Rayner, The Jewish People (1987); J Goldin, The Jewish Expression (1970); A Heschel, God in Search of Man (1955); M Meyer, The Origins of the Modern Jew (1967) and, as ed., Ideas of Jewish History (1987); J Neusner, The Life of the Torah: Readings in the Jewish Religious Experience (1974) and The Way of the Torah (1988); D Silver and B Martin, A History of Judaism (1974); Z Sobel and B Beit - Hallahmi, eds., Tradition, Innovation, Conflict: Judaism in Contemporary Israel (1991); G Wigoder, Encyclopedia of Judaism (1989). (1988年),L芬克尔斯坦,犹太人:。他们的历史,文化和宗教(1971年)〔M吉尔伯特,教育署,犹太文明(1991)画报图集; ñ格拉泽,美国犹太教(1973年); ð戈德堡和J雷纳,犹太人民(1987年); Ĵ戈尔丁,犹太人表达(1970年),一个Heschel,上帝在人类搜索(1955年)〔M迈耶,现代犹太人(1967年),并作为版的起源,思想。犹太人的历史(1987年); Ĵ柳斯尼,对托拉生活:在犹太宗教经验(1974年)阅读和律法(1988)路; ð银和B马丁,一个犹太教的历史(1974年); ž索贝尔和B贝特 - Hallahmi合编,传统,创新,冲突:当代以色列(1991年)犹太教; Ğ Wigoder,犹太教(1989)百科全书。。



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