Kabbalah, Cabala卡巴拉

General Information一般资料

Kabbalah, the Hebrew word for tradition, originally designated the legal tradition of Judaism, but it was later applied to the Jewish mystical tradition, especially the system of esoteric mystical speculation and practice that developed during the 12th and 13th centuries.卡巴拉,希伯来文词的传统,最初指定的法律传统的犹太教,但后来被应用到犹太神秘主义的传统,特别是深奥的神秘的思考与实践,在第12和13世纪开发的系统。 The speculative aspects of Kabbalah (Kabbalah iyyunit) were stressed in southern European schools; more practical, socioethical, and sometimes magical themes (Kabbalah maasit) were emphasized in northern European circles.卡巴拉(卡巴拉iyyunit)投机方面都强调了欧洲南部的学校,更实用,socioethical,有时(卡巴拉maasit)神奇的主题在北欧界重视。 Kabbalistic interest, at first confined to a select few, became the preoccupation of large numbers of Jews following their expulsion from Spain (1492) and Portugal (1495).卡巴拉的兴趣,起初仅限于少数,成为当务之急大批犹太人从西班牙以下的(1492)和葡萄牙(1495)驱逐出境。 The teachings of Kabbalah, as developed by the visionary Isaac ben Solomon Luria, are credited with giving rise to the Sabbatean movement led by Sabbatai Zevi.卡巴拉教义的,由有远见的伊萨克本所罗门群岛卢里亚发达,是记入与引起的Sabbatean运动由萨瓦塔伊赛维领导。

Like every other Jewish religious expression, Kabbalah was based on the Old Testament revelation.像其他的犹太宗教言论,卡巴拉是根据旧约的启示。The revealed text was interpreted with the aid of various hermeneutic techniques.所揭示的文本解释与解释学的各种技术援助。 Of the many methods available, the Kabbalists most frequently used three forms of letter and number symbolism: gematria, notarikon, and temurah.可用的方法很多,最常用的卡巴拉学者三个字母和数字符号形式:gematria,notarikon和temurah。

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The Kabbalists developed distinctive doctrines of creation and of redemption. Their doctrine of creation was built on a theory of emanations and asserted that the world derived from the transcendent and unknowable God (En Soph) through a series of increasingly material manifestations (sephirot). The卡巴拉学者开发了独特的理论创造的放射物和赎回。及其学说的理论创造,建立一个,并指出这个世界,来自超越不可知的神(恩Soph)通过)系列材料的日益表现(sephirot。 The manifestations were repeated, in some versions of Kabbalah, in four interlocking series or "worlds": emanation (atzilut), creation (beriah), formation (yetzirah), and action or making (assiyah).临床表现为反复,在一些版本的卡巴拉,在四个连锁系列或“世界”:气(atzilut),创造(比利亚),形成(yetzirah),并采取行动或决策(assiyah)。 By the sin of Adam and the later sins of humankind, the immanent aspect of God, or the Shekhinah (divine presence), was exiled in the final sephirah, malkhut (kingdom).通过对亚当的罪,后来人类的罪孽,神内在的方面,或Shekhinah(神的存在),被流放在最后sephirah,malkhut(王国)。 The sexual imagery of Kabbalah treats Shekhinah (the word is feminine in gender) as the female aspect of divinity; it symbolically expresses the idea of the restoration of harmony (tikkun) as the reunion of the male and female aspects of the divine, that is, as the reunion of divine transcendence and immanence.性图像的卡巴拉对待Shekhinah(这个词是女性在两性),作为女性方面的神,它象征性地表达了恢复的和谐理念(tikkun)作为神圣的男性和女性方面团聚,这是作为神圣的超越性和内在性团聚。

The classic document of the Kabbalistic tradition, the Zohar, was compiled by Moses de Leon about 1290.该卡巴拉传统,佐哈尔,古典文献,编制了摩西德莱昂约1290。A more systematic presentation of the basic doctrine is contained in Moses Cordovero's Pardes rimmonim (Garden of Pomegranates, 1548). Kabbalah was a major influence in the development of Hasidism and still has adherents among Hasidic Jews.一个更系统的基本教义介绍载于摩西Cordovero的Pardes rimmonim(花园的石榴,1548年)。 卡巴拉是一个重大影响的Ḥasidism发展的信徒和犹太人之间仍然有哈西德。

Joseph L Blau约瑟夫L布劳

Bibliography: 参考书目:
J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism (1981); PS Berg, Kaballah for the Layman (1982); JL Blau, The Christian Interpretation of the Cabala in the Renaissance (1944); J Dan and R Keiner, eds., The Early Kabbalah (1986); P Epstein, Kabbalah (1978); G Scholem, Kabbalah (1974); D Meltzer, ed., The Secret Garden (1976); H Weiner, Nine and One Half Mystics (1969). Ĵ阿伯尔森,犹太神秘主义(1981年);聚苯乙烯伯格,对于莱曼(1982年)犹太卡巴拉Kaballah;巨浪布劳,对文艺复兴时期(1944年)Cabala基督徒式的解释。Ĵ丹和R Keiner合编,早期卡巴拉(1986年); P爱泼斯坦,卡巴拉(1978)100肖勒姆,卡巴拉(1974年)。ð梅尔策,教育署,秘密花园(1976年); ħ韦纳,九和一个半神秘主义者(1969年)。


Kabbalah卡巴拉

Advanced Information先进的信息

(Heb. qabal, "to receive, tradition").(希伯来书qabal,“接收,传统”)。An esoteric mystic lore of Judaism, passed as secret doctrine to only the chosen few.一个深奥的神秘传说,犹太教,通过秘密学说只选定几个。Its origin is lost in antiquity, but one sees traces of ancient Jewish apocalyptic, talmudic, and midrashic literature and non Jewish sources of Gnosticism and Neoplatonism in Kabbalah.它的起源是失去了在古代,但人们看到的古老的犹太世界末日,犹太法典,并Midrashic文学和诺斯替主义和非犹太人的来源卡巴拉柏拉图的痕迹。 Its first systematic development occurred among the Babylonian Jewish Gaonim scholars (600 - 1000 AD).它的第一个系统的发展发生在巴比伦的犹太人Gaonim学者(600 - 公元1000年)。As the Babylonian center waned, other areas became prominent, Italy, Spain, southern France, and Germany, and the development continued in the 1100s and 1200s.随着巴比伦中心减弱,其他地区成为著名的,意大利,西班牙,法国南部和德国,在1100年代的发展和13世纪继续。The most prominent book of Kabbalah is the Zohar, which appeared in 1300 under Moses de Leon.最突出的卡巴拉书是佐哈尔,出现在1300年根据摩西德莱昂。Once this material was recorded, everyone was able to study it.一旦这种材料是记录,每个人都能够对其进行研究。Further development occurred in the sixteenth century in Safed, Israel, under Isaac Luria, who initiated a distinctive emphasis of redemption and messianism.发生在进一步发展中安全的,以色列,根据艾萨克卢里亚,是谁发起了独特的重点赎回和弥赛亚16世纪。Rabbis at times denounced this form of study as so much speculation that would only lead Jewish people away from mainline Judaism's three great emphases: repentance, prayer, and good deeds to man and God.拉比有时在谴责的三大重点,这种形式的研究,这么多的猜测,只会导致犹太人民远离主线犹太教:忏悔,祈祷,神对人行善。

Christians in the Middle Ages also became interested in Kabbalah, eg, Lully, Pico della Mirandela, and John Reuchlin.在中世纪,基督徒也成为卡巴拉感兴趣,例如,吕里,微微意大利Mirandela,约翰Reuchlin。As with Jewish people, there was also a reaction among some Christians against sterile belief, and it was thought that Kabbalah was a valid corrective.同犹太人民,也有一对不育之间的一些基督徒的信仰反应,有人认为卡巴拉是一个有效的纠正。Christians also studied this material to find verification of their mystical beliefs.基督徒也研究这种材料以寻求其神秘的信仰核查。

Kabbalah pictures God as being above all existence; through a series of ten emanations the world was created. The system is somewhat pantheistic since everything that exists has its place in God. 卡巴拉图片上帝的存在是最重要的是,通过一系列的emanations十一个世界是创造了上帝该系统是有点pantheistic因为一切都存在有它的位置。 Through good deeds a pious Jew supposedly affects the various emanations, ultimately affecting God on behalf of mankind.通过良好的事迹一个虔诚的犹太人,据称影响的各种emanations,最终影响代表人类的神。

Kabbalah includes reincarnation. The pure soul, once the body dies, will be present among the emanations who control the world. 卡巴拉包括转世。纯粹的灵魂,一旦身体死去,将目前世界上各emanations谁控制。An impure soul must be reborn in another body, and the process continues until it has been made pure.一个不纯的灵魂必须得到重生在另一个机构,这一进程继续进行,直到它已经取得了纯洁。Evil is only the negation of good, and in the Jewish setting evil is overcome through the three great emphases, along with strict adherence to the law.邪恶只有良好的否定,并在犹太人设置邪恶是通过克服三大重点,同时严格遵守相关法律以及。

What is most distinctive is the hermeneutical principle of finding hidden meanings in the texts of Scriptures. Human language in Scripture is examined not only allegorically and analogically, but also through the interpretation of words and letters according to their numerical equivalents, and by interchanging numerical equivalents new letters and words could be created, thereby allowing for new interpretations. 什么是最有特色的是圣经诠释学的原则人类语言的圣经。寻找隐藏的意义在文本进行审查,不仅allegorically和类比,而且还通过了,解释的单词和字母根据其数值当量和转乘数值当量新的字母和单词可以创造,从而使新的诠释。

Kabbalah influenced Jewish messianic movements, principally Hasidism, which developed a joyful religious expression that avoided sterile legalism.卡巴拉犹太救世主运动的影响,主要Hasidism,它制定了一个欢乐的宗教言论,避免无菌法家。

L Goldberg L戈德堡
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
J Abelson, Jewish Mysticism; DC Ginsburg, "The Kabbalah," in The Essenes; EJ, II; AE Waite, Holy Kabbalah; M Waxman, "The Kabbalah," in A History of Jewish Literature, II. Ĵ阿伯尔森,犹太神秘主义;直流金斯伯格,“卡巴拉”,在爱色尼;对EJ,二;声发射韦特,圣卡巴拉〔M克斯曼,“卡巴拉”,在一个犹太文学史,二。


Additional Information附加信息

What is Cabbalism?什么是Cabbalism?

Cabbala, Kaballah, Quabalah, and Qabal are all reference of what is commonly referred to as "Jewish (Gnostic) Mysticism." Cabbala,犹太卡巴拉Kaballah,Quabalah,并Qabal都是什么通常称为参考“犹太人(诺斯底)的神秘主义。”Jews believe that the Hebrew Moseretic Version of the Torah was written by God [Tetragrammaton] himself, prior to the creation.犹太人相信,希伯来Moseretic版本的律法是上帝[Tetragrammaton]写自己,之前的创作。 They believe that when Moses went to the top of Mt.他们认为,当摩西来到山顶。Sinai, God gave Him the written Torah as well as oral instructions for Cabbalism.西奈半岛,上帝给他的书面托拉以及Cabbalism口头指示。The primary written document concerning Cabbalism is the Zohar, which is contained in the Jewish Talmud.主要的书面文件,涉及Cabbalism是佐哈尔,这是在犹太法典中。Kaballah texts are only written in their original Hebrew, so non-Jews hopefully cannot read them.犹太卡巴拉Kaballah文本只写在他们原来的希伯来文,因此非犹太人希望无法读取它们。

Jews believe that King Solomon was the first great Cabbalist who developed rituals for controlling Demonic and angelic forces.犹太人相信,所罗门王是第一个伟大的Cabbalist谁开发力量控制恶魔和天使般的仪式。Jewish Cabbalists believe that there are 33 (Masonic) steps to attaining spiritual perfection.犹太Cabbalists相信,有33(共济会)的步骤,以实现精神上的完美。Through disciplined study of Cabbalism, Jews believe that they may eventually see God and become his intellectual equal.通过Cabbalism纪律的研究,犹太人相信他们最终会看到上帝,并成为他的智力相等。In the Jewish Talmud, a famous Cabbalistic Rabbi debates God, where God admits the Rabbi has beaten Him (YHWH, God)!在犹太法典,著名Cabbalistic拉比辩论上帝,而上帝承认拉比击败他(耶和华,上帝)!Jews also believe that through Cabbalism, they can perform the miracles of Jesus Christ.犹太人还认为,通过Cabbalism,他们可以执行耶稣基督的奇迹。In this fashion, they can themselves become individual Christs (their own Messiah) through spiritual "perfection?"在这种方式,他们可以自己通过精神成为个别基督(他们自己的弥赛亚)“圆满?”

R Novosel ř诺沃塞尔


Kabbala卡巴拉

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The term is now used as a technical name for the system of esoteric theosophy which for many generations played an important part, chiefly among the Jews, after the beginning of the tenth century of our era.这个词现在是作为一个深奥的神智制度,几代人发挥了重要作用的技术名称,主要是犹太人,后十世纪的我们这个时代的开始。It primarily signifies reception, and, secondarily, a doctrine received by oral tradition.它主要标志接待,并,其次,收到了口头传统学说。Its application has greatly varied in the course of time, and it is only since the eleventh or twelfth century that the term Kabbala has become the exclusive appellation for the system of Jewish religious philosophy which claims to have been uninterruptedly transmitted by the mouths of the patriarchs, prophets, elders, etc., ever since the creation of the first man.它的应用已大大不同,在时间的推移,它只是因为第十一届或12世纪,这个词已经成为卡巴拉的犹太宗教哲学体系,声称已通过不间断的口中传播的始祖专有称谓,先知,长老等,自从建立的第一人。

The two works which the advocates of this system treat as the authoritative exposition of its doctrines are the Book of Creation and the Zohar.这两个工程,这一制度的主张对待作为权威的论述,其理论是佐哈尔创作和图书。

THE BOOK OF CREATION本图书的创作

The Book of Creation is a short treatise consisting of six chapters subdivided into thirty-three very brief sections.在图书的创作是一种短论文进入三十三非常简短的章节划分六个章节组成。 It is written in Mishnic Hebrew, and is made up of oracular sentences.这是写在Mishnic希伯来文,并取得了神谕的句子了。It professes to be a monologue of the patriarch Abraham, who enumerates the thirty-two ways of wisdom by which God produced the universe, and who shows, by the analogy which is assumed to exist between the visible things and the letters which are the signs of thought, the manner in which all has emanated from God and is inferior to Him.它自称是一个族长亚伯拉罕,谁列举智慧第三两种方式,其中神产生了宇宙,谁独白表明,由这是假设之间存在的有形的东西和字母的标志是比喻思想,以何种方式,都有出自上帝,不如他。

THE ZOHAR佐哈尔

The Zohar, or second expository work of the Kabbala, has justly been called the "Bible" of the Kabbalists.该佐哈尔,或第二层次的卡巴拉解释性工作,具有公正被称为卡巴拉学家“圣经”。It is written in Aramaic, and its main portion is the form of a commentary on the Pentateuch according to the latter's division into fifty-two weekly lessons.这是写在阿拉姆语,其主要部分是根据对五成五十二周的经验教训后的分工形式的评注。Its title Zohar (light, splendour) is derived from the words of Genesis 1:3 ("Let there be light") with the exposition of which it begins.它的标题佐哈尔(光,辉煌)从创世纪1:3派生词(“要有光”)的论断,它开始。It is a compilatory work, wherein several fragments of ancient treatises can still be noticed.这是一个编纂工作,其中古代论文几个片段仍然可以看到。The following is a brief account of the chief contents -- doctrinal, hermeneutical, and theurgical -- of the Zohar.以下是主要内容的简要说明 - 理论,诠释,以及theu​​rgical - 的佐哈尔。

Doctrinal content of the Zohar教义内容的佐哈尔

The First World世界第一

Considered in Himself, the Supreme Being is the En-Soph (Endless, Infinite) and, in a certain sense, the En (Non-existent) since existence is in human conception a limitation which as such should not be predicated of Him.在自己考虑,最高法院存在的是恩Soph(无尽,无限),并在一定意义上说,因为存在恩(不存在)在人类的概念是指一间因此不应该被他预测的局限性。 We can conceive and speak of God only in so far as He manifests and, as it were, actualizes Himself in or through the Sephiroth.我们可以设想,并说只有上帝在迄今为止的表现和他,因为它是,记在自己或通过Sephiroth的。

His first manifestation was by way of concentration in a point called the first Sephira -- "the Crown", as it is called -- which is hardly distinguishable from the En-Soph from Whom it emanates, and which is expressed in the Bible by the Ehieyeh (I am).他的第一个表现是由集中在一个点的方式称为第一Sephira - “官方”,因为它是所谓 - 这是难以从恩Soph区别从谁它发散,而这是在圣经所表达的在Ehieyeh(我)。From the first Sephira proceeded a masculine or active potency called wisdom, represented in the Bible by Yah, and an opposite, ie a feminine or passive potency, called intelligence, and represented by Yahweh.从第一Sephira接着一男性或主动效力所谓的智慧,在通过对阿圣经代表,相反的,即女性或被动的效力,所谓的情报,以及雅威代表。 These two opposite potencies are coupled together by the "Crown", and thus yields the first trinity of the Sephiroth.这两个相反的效力是耦合在一起,由“官方”,从而产生了Sephiroth的第一个三位一体。From the junction of the foregoing opposite tendencies emanated the masculine potency called love, the fourth Sephira, represented by the Biblical El, and the feminine one justice, the fifth Sephira, represented by the Divine name Elohah.从上述相反的倾向男性化的效力所发出交界所谓爱情,第四sephira的,由圣经萨尔瓦多代表,正义的女性之一,第五sephira的,由神圣的名字Elohah代表。 From them again emanated the uniting potency, beauty, the sixth Sephira, represented in the Bible by Elohim.再从他们身上所发出的团结效力,美容,第六sephira的,代表由罗欣圣经。And thus is constituted the second trinity of the Sephiroth.并因此构成了三位一体的Sephiroth的第二次。

In its turn, beauty beamed forth the seventh Sephira, the masculine potency, firmness, corresponding to Yahweh Sabaoth, and this again produced the feminine potency splendour, represented by Elohe Sabaoth.反过来,美容横梁规定的第七sephira的,男性潜能,坚定性,相应的雅威千万军马,而这又产生了女性潜能的辉煌,由Elohe千万军马代表。 From splendour emanated the ninth Sephira, foundation, which answers the Divine name El-Hai and closes the third trinity of the Sephiroth.从所发出的第九sephira的,基础,神圣的名字,回答了厄尔尼诺海,并关闭三分之一三位一体的Sephiroth的辉煌。

Lastly, splendour sends forth kingdom, the tenth Sephira, which encircles all the others and is represented by Adonai.最后,辉煌发送出来的王国,第十届sephira的,它把所有的人,由阿多奈代表。

These ten Sephiroth are emanations from the En-Soph, forming among themselves and with Him a strict unity, in the same way as the rays which proceed from the light are simply manifestations of one and the same light.这十个Sephiroth的是从恩Soph放射物,形成相互之间以及与他严格的团结,以同样的方式,因为光线是从根本出发光的同一个光表现。 They are infinite and perfect when the En-Soph imparts His fullness to them, and finite and imperfect when that fullness is withdrawn from them (Ginsburg).他们是无限的和完善时,恩Soph赋予他丰满给他们,当那有限的和不完善的丰满,是从他们(金斯伯格)撤回。 In their totality, they represent and are called the archetypal man, without whom the production of permanent worlds was impossible.在他们的整体,它们代表,被称为典型的人,没有他们的常驻世界生产是不可能的。In fact, they constitute the first world, or world of emanations, which is perfect and immutable because of its direct procession from the Deity.事实上,它们构成了第一世界,或放射物的世界,这是完美的,因为它直接从神游行是一成不变的。

The Second, Third and Fourth Worlds第二次,第三次和第四次世界

Emanating immediately from this first world is the world of creation, the ten Sephiroth of which are of a more limited potency, and the substances of which are of the purest nature.产生立即从这个第一世界是创造的世界里,十Sephiroth的,其中一个更是有限的效力,而其中最纯净的本质是物质。 From the world of creation proceeds the world of formation, with its less refined ten Sephiroth, although its substances are still without matter.从创造收益形成的世界,世界与少精十Sephiroth的,虽然其物质的问题仍然没有。 Finally, from this third world proceeds the world of action or of matter, the ten Sephiroth of which are made of the grosser elements of the other works.最后,从本次世界收益的行动或事物的世界,其中10个Sephiroth是由其他作品的大要素。

The Angels天使

Of these worlds, the second, that of creation, is inhabited by the angel Metatron, who governs the visible world, and is the captain of the hosts of good angels who in ten ranks people the third world, that of formation.在这些世界里,第二,创造,是由天使梅塔特隆居住,谁管理的有形世界,是对善良的天使主持人队伍的人谁在十第三世界队长,即形成。 The demons or bad angels inhabit the fourth world, that of action, the lowest regions of which constitute the seven infernal halls wherein the demons torture the poor mortals whom they betrayed into sin in this life.恶魔还是坏天使居住在第四届世界,这种行动,最低的地区构成了七个展厅,其中的恶魔地狱酷刑罪的人,他们将在此生活背叛穷人凡人。 The prince of the demons is Samael (the "angel of poison or of death"); he has a wife called the Harlot; but both are treated as one person, and are called "the Beast".的恶魔王子是萨麦尔(“毒或死亡天使”),他有一个妻子叫妓女,但都被当作一个人,被称为“野兽”。

Man男子

Man was directly created not by En-Soph, but by the Sephiroth, and is the counterpart of the archetypal man.人是直接创造而不是由恩Soph,而是由Sephiroth的,而且是典型的人同行。His body is merely a garment of his soul.他的身体只不过是他的灵魂的衣服。Like God, he has a unity and a trinity, the latter being made up of the spirit representing the intellectual world, the soul representing the sensuous world, and the life representing the material world.像上帝,他有一个团结,三位一体,后者是由智力,代表世界的精神,代表着感性世界的灵魂,生命,代表着物质世界。Souls are pre-existent destined to dwell in human bodies, and subjected to transmigration till at last they return to God.灵魂是预先存在注定要住在人体内,并受到直到最后他们返回神轮回。

Destiny of the World世界的命运

The world also including Samael himself, will return ultimately--viz.双方还包括萨麦尔自己的世界,最终将返回 - 即。at the advent of the Messias born at the end of days--to the bosom of the Infinite Source.在在年底天出生的messias的来临 - 对胸部的无限来源。Then Hell shall disappear and endless bliss begin.然后地狱应消失和无休止的幸福开始。

Hermeneutical content of the Zohar诠释学内容的佐哈尔

All these esoteric doctrines of the Kabbala are supposed to be contained in the Hebrew Scriptures, in which, however they can be perceived only by those initiated into certain hermeneutical methods.所有这些深奥的卡巴拉教义应该是在希伯来文圣经,在其中,但是他们只能通过订立若干诠释学方法发起的知觉中。The following are the three principal methods of discovering the heavenly mysteries hidden under the letters and words of the Sacred Text:以下是三个字母和下发现了隐藏的神圣文本词天上的奥秘主要方法:

The Temurah (change) by means of which each letter of the Hebrew alphabet is interchanged with another, according to some definite process, as when Aleph, the first letter, becomes Lamed by interchange with the twelfth, the second, Beth, becomes, Mem, the thirteenth, etc.; or as, when the last letter takes place of the first, the last but one takes the place of the second, etc.; the Gematriah (Gr. gemetria), which consists in the use of the numerical values of the letters of a word for purposes comparison with other words, which give the same or similar combinations of numbers: thus in Genesis 49:10, "Shiloh come" is equivalent to 358, which is also the numerical value of Mashiah, whence it is inferred that Shiloh is identical with Messias; the Notarikon (Latin notarius), or process of reconstructing a word by using the initials of many, or a sentence by using all the letters of a single word as so many initials of other words; for instance, the word Agla is formed from the initials of the Hebrew sentence: "Thou (art) (a) Mighty (God) forever."通过对其中每一个希伯来字母与另一互换手段Temurah(改变),根据一些明确的过程,因为当麻原彰晃,第一个字母,成为通过与第十二届交汇处,残废第二,贝斯,变成记忆,第十三等;或作为,当最后一个字母注意到第一,最后一个需要的地方,但在第二,等场所; the Gematriah(Gr. gemetria),它在使用的数值由为目的,与其他词,这给数字相同或相似的组合比较一个单词的字母值:因此,在创世记49:10,“夏洛来”等于358,这也是Mash​​iah,何处数值这是推断,希洛是弥赛亚相同;的Notarikon(拉丁文notarius),或通过使用重建用一个字为其他文字,从而所有的字母缩写许多许多,一个句子或单词首字母的过程;例如,单词Agla形成从希伯来语缩写句:“你(艺术)(一)全能(神)永远。”

Theurgical content of the ZoharTheurgical内容的佐哈尔

The theurgical, or last chief element of the Zohar, needs no long description here.该theurgical,或最后的佐哈尔的首要因素,需要在这里不再描述。It forms part of what has been called the "practical" Kabbala, and supplies formulas by means of which the adept can enter into direct communication with invisible powers and thereby exercise authority over demons, nature, diseases, etc. To a large extent it is the natural outcome of the extraordinary hidden meaning ascribed by the Kabbala to the words of the Sacred Text, and in particular to the Divine names.它形成的东西被称为“实用”卡巴拉的一部分,并通过手段,其中善于可以进入直接沟通与无形的权力,从而行使恶魔,性质,疾病的权威,在很大程度上要等用品的公式是的非凡隐藏在卡巴拉归因于的神圣文本词语的含义自然的结果,特别是神圣的名字。

CONCLUSION结论

Of course, the Book of Creation does not go back to Abraham, as has been claimed by many Kabbalists.当然,图书的创作不回去亚伯拉罕,因为已经有很多卡巴拉学家称。Its ascription by others to Rabbi Akiba (d. AD 120) is also a matter of controversy.它通过向拉比秋叶(四公元120)其他归属也是一个有争议的问题。With regard to the Zohar, its compilation is justly referred to a Spanish Jew, Moses of Leon (d. 1305), while some of its elements seem to be of a much greater antiquity.关于佐哈尔,其汇编公正提到了西班牙犹太人,摩西的莱昂(草1305),而其中的一些内容似乎是一个更大的古物。 Several of its doctrines recall to mind those of Pythagoras, Plato, Aristotle, the neo-Platonists of Alexandria, the Oriental or Egyptian Pantheists, and the Gnostics of the earliest Christian ages.其学说的几个记起那些毕达哥拉斯,柏拉图,亚里士多德,新的亚历山德里亚,东方或埃及泛神论柏拉图,以及最早的基督教诺斯替派的青睐。 Its speculations concerning God's nature and relation to the universe differ materially from the teachings of Revelation.关于上帝的猜测的性质,关系到宇宙大不相同启示的教诲。

Finally, it has decidedly no right to be considered as an excellent means to induce the Jews to receive Christianity, although this has been maintained by such Christian scholars as R. Lully, Pico della Mirandola, Reuchlin, Knorr von Rosenroth, etc., and although such prominent Jewish Kabbalists as Riccio, Conrad, Otto, Rittangel, Jacob Franck, etc., have embraced the Christian Faith, and proclaimed in their works the great affinity of some doctrines of the Kabbala with those of Christianity.最后,它断然不会被视为一个极好手段,促使犹太人接受基督教认为,虽然这已为R吕里,微微意大利米兰多拉,Reuchlin,克诺尔冯Rosenroth等,而这些学者认为基督教虽然这样的著名的里奇奥,康拉德,奥托,Rittangel,雅各布弗兰克等,犹太卡巴拉学者已经接受了基督教信仰,并宣布在其作品中与基督教的一些教义卡巴拉很大的亲和力。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息写弗朗西斯大肠杆菌羊腿。Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.转录由约瑟夫托马斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全书,音量八。Published 1910.1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,十月一日,1910年。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Cabala Cabala

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

Name and Origin名称和由来

(Hebrew form Ḳabbalah [, from = "to receive"; literally, "the received or traditional lore"]): (希伯来文的形式卡巴拉[,从=“接收”,从字面上看,“收到的或传统知识”]):

The specific term for the esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as a revelation to elect saints from a remote past, and preserved only by a privileged few.对于深奥的或神秘的关于上帝和宇宙论,声称有特定任期来的一个启示,选出一个遥远的过去圣人下来,并保存仅由少数特权。At first consisting only of empirical lore, it assumed, under the influence of Neoplatonic and Neopythagorean philosophy, a speculative character.起初只有经验知识组成的,它承担,根据Neoplatonic和Neopythagorean理念,投机性的影响。 In the geonic period it is connected with a Mishnah-like text-book, the "Sefer Yeẓirah," and forms the object of the systematic study of the elect, called "meḳubbalim" or "ba'ale ha-ḳabbalah" (possessors of, or adepts in, the Cabala).在geonic期间它与一米示拿一样课本中,“Yeẓirah之书”,并形成了系统的选举研究对象,被称为“meḳubbalim”或“ba'ale公顷卡巴拉”(拥有者的或老手中,在Cabala)。 These receive afterward the name of "maskilim" (the wise), after Dan.这些接收后来的“maskilim”(聪明的)后丹的名字。 xii.十二。10; and because the Cabala is called ("ḥokmah nistarah" = the hidden wisdom), the initials of which are , they receive also the name of ("adepts in grace") (Eccl. ix. 11, Hebr.). 10,而且由于Cabala是称为(“ḥokmahnistarah”=隐藏的智慧),英文缩写,其中,他们还收到的名称(“在宽限期行家”)(传道书九11,黑布尔。。)。 From the thirteenth century onward the Cabala branched out into an extensive literature, alongside of and in opposition to the Talmud.从十三世纪起的Cabala跨足了广泛的文献旁边和反对犹太法典。It was written in a peculiar Aramaic dialect, and was grouped as commentaries on the Torah, around the Zohar as its holy book, which suddenly made its appearance.这是写在一个特殊的阿拉姆语方言,并归类为评上的律法作为其周围的圣书,它突然它的外观佐哈尔。

The Cabala is divided into a theosophical or theoretical system, Ḳabbalah 'Iyyunit () and a theurgic or practical Cabala, .该Cabala分为theosophical或理论体系,卡巴拉'Iyyunit()和一个theurgic或实际Cabala。 In view of the fact that the name "Cabala" does not occur in literature before the eleventh century (see Landauer, "Orient. Lit." vi. 206; compare Zunz, "GV" p. 415), and because of the pseudepigraphic character of the Zohar and of almost all the cabalistic writings, most modern scholars, among whom are Zunz, Grätz, Luzzatto, Jost, Steinschneider, and Munk (see bibliography below), have treated the Cabala with a certain bias and from a rationalistic rather than from a psychologico-historical point of view; applying the name of "Cabala" only to the speculative systems which appeared since the thirteenth century, under pretentious titles and with fictitious claims, but not to the mystic lore of the geonic and Talmudic times.鉴于该名称为“Cabala”不会出现在文学之前,11世纪(见兰,“东方里拉。。”六206;。比较Zunz,“颗粒”第415页),而且由于pseudepigraphic该佐哈尔和几乎所有的cabalistic著作的性格,最现代化的学者,其中有聪茨,格拉茨,卢扎托,约斯特,Steinschneider,和芒克(见参考书目下文),已经治疗了一定的偏见,从理性的,而在Cabala不是从一个角度psychologico历史的角度,采用的为“Cabala”的名义向这似乎只是自十三世纪下自命不凡的冠军,并与虚构的索赔要求,但不是对talmudic倍的geonic和神秘传说,投机性的系统。 Such distinction and partiality, however, prevent a deeper understanding of the nature and progress of the Cabala, which, on closer observation, shows a continuous line of development from the same roots and elements.这种区分和偏袒,但是,预防的性质和Cabala,这,仔细观察,显示了发展,从同根线进度和内容不断深入的了解。

Meaning of the Word "Cabala."这个词的含义为“Cabala。”

Cabala comprised originally the entire traditional lore, in contradistinction to the written law (Torah), and therefore included the prophetic and hagiographic books of the Bible, which were supposed to have been "received" by the power of the Holy Spirit rather than as writings from God's hand (see Ta'an. ii. 1; RH 7a, 19a, and elsewhere in the Talmud; compare Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 46, 366, 415, and Taylor, "Early Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," 1899, pp. 106 et seq., 175 et seq.).原来Cabala组成的整个传统知识,对比的书面法律(圣经),因此,包括圣经,这被认为已“收到”,由圣灵的力量,而不是作为著作的先知和hagiographic书籍从上帝的手(见Ta'an二1。。湿度7A条,19A条,和其他地方的犹太法典;。比较Zunz,“颗粒”2版,第46,366,415,和泰勒,“早期熟语犹太父亲“,1899年,第106页起。,175起。)。 Each "received" doctrine was claimed as tradition from the Fathers-"masoret me-Abotenu" (Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 10, § 6; 16, § 2; Meg. 10b; Sheḳ. vi. 1)-to be traced back to the Prophets or to Moses on Sinai (compare "meḳubbalani" in Peah ii. 6; 'Eduy. viii. 7).每个“收到”理论是从传统的父亲声称,“masoret我- Abotenu”(约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十三10,§ 6。16,§ 2;梅格10B条。。。石六一)至追溯到先知摩西在西奈或(比较“meḳubbalani”在Peah二6;。'Eduy八7。。)。So the Masorah, "the fence to the Torah" (Ab. iii. 13) is, as Taylor (lcp 55) correctly states, "a correlation to Cabala."所以的Masorah,(ab.三13。)“向托拉篱笆”,正如泰勒(LCP的55)正确地指出,“一个Cabala的相关性。” The chief characteristic of the Cabala is that, unlike the Scriptures, it was entrusted only to the few elect ones; wherefore, according to IV Esdras xiv.的Cabala的主要特征是,不同的是圣经,它是委托只有少数选出的,因此,根据四埃斯德拉斯十四。5, 6, Moses, on Mount Sinai, when receiving both the Law and the knowledge of wondrous things, was told by the Lord: "These words shalt thou declare, and these shalt thou hide." 5,6,摩西在西奈山时,同时接受法律和美好事物的知识,是告诉主:“这些话你要申报,而这些你要隐瞒的。”Accordingly the rule laid down for the transmission of the cabalistic lore in the ancient Mishnah (Ḥag. ii. 1) was "not to expound the Chapter of Creation ("Ma'aseh Bereshit," Gen. i.) before more than one hearer; nor that of the Heavenly Chariot ("Merkabah," Ezek. i.; compare I Chron. xxviii. 18 and Ecclus. [Sirach] xlix. 8) to any but a man of wisdom and profound understanding"; that is to say, cosmogony and theosophy were regarded as esoteric studies (Ḥag. 13a).据此,奠定了传输的cabalistic传说下来的古代米示拿规则(ḥag.二。1)“没有阐述之前的创作超过一章听者(”Ma'aseh Bereshit,“将军岛)也不是天上的战车(“Merkaba上,”以西结书一;。。。。。比较我专栏二十八18 Ecclus [西拉奇]第四十九届8),但任何一种智慧和深刻的理解“的人,这就是说,宇宙进化论和神智被视为(Ḥag.13A条)深奥的研究。Such was the "Masoret ha-Ḥokmah" (the tradition of wisdom, handed over by Moses to Joshua (Tan., Wa'etḥanan, ed. Buber, 13); and likewise the twofold philosophyof the Essenes, "the contemplation of God's being and the origin of the universe," specified by Philo ("Quod Omnis Probus Liber," xii.). Besides these there was the eschatology-that is, the secrets of the place and time of the retribution and the future redemption (Sifre, Wezot ha-Berakah, 357); "the secret chambers of the behemoth and leviathan" (Cant. R. i. 4); the secret of the calendar ("Sod ha-'Ibbur")-that is, the mode of calculating the years with a view to the Messianic kingdom (Ket. 111a-112a; Yer. RH ii. 58b); and, finally, the knowledge and use of the Ineffable Name, also "to be transmitted only to the saintly and discreet ones" (Ẓenu'im or Essenes; Ḳid. 71a; Yer. Yoma iii. 40d; Eccl. R. iii. 11), and of the angels (Josephus, "BJ" ii. 8, § 7). All these formed the sum and substance of the Mysteries of the Torah, "Sitre or Raze Torah" (Pes. 119a; Meg. 3a; Ab. vi. 1), "the things spoken only in a whisper" (Ḥag. 14a).就是这样的“Masoret公顷Ḥokmah”(传统的智慧,交给摩西对约书亚(Tan.,Wa'etḥanan编布伯,13);。同样的双重philosophyof爱色尼,“神的正沉思和宇宙的起源“的斐洛指定(”狴Omnis普罗比斯或函“十二)。。除了这些就有了末世,也就是这个地方和报复和未来的赎回(Sifre时间的秘密, Wezot公顷Berakah,357);“的密室巨兽和利维坦”(Cant.河岛4)日历的秘密(“草公顷'Ibbur”),也就是说,计算模式以救世主的王国视图(。。;也门里亚尔相对湿度二58B条Ket. 111A章- 112A条),而几年,最后的知识和无法形容的名称,也可以使用“传送到只有圣洁和谨慎的” (Ẓenu'im或爱色尼;孩子71A条。。也门里亚尔山脉三40D条。。。传道书传译三11)(。约瑟夫,“BJ的”二8,§ 7)。,和所有的天使这些形成的总和和实质的律法之谜“,Sitre或夷平圣经”(Pes. 119A条;梅格3A条;。。。抗体六一),(Ḥag.14A条)“只有在耳语讲的东西”。

Antiquity of the Cabala.古代的Cabala。

How old the Cabala is, may be inferred from the fact that as early a writer as Ben Sira warns against it in his saying: = "Thou shalt have no business with secret things" (Ecclus. [Sirach] iii. 22; compare Ḥag. 13a; Gen. R. viii.). Cabala是多大年纪,可以推断的事实是,早一个作家作为本西拉警告不要在他的话说:。=“你不可有没有商业秘密的事情”(ecclus. [西拉奇]三22;比较女巫。13A条;将军河八)。。In fact, the apocalyptic literature belonging to the second and first pre-Christian centuries contained the chief elements of the Cabala; and as, according to Josephus (lc), such writings were in the possession of the Essenes, and were jealously guarded by them against disclosure, for which they claimed a hoary antiquity (see Philo, "De Vita Contemplativa," iii., and Hippolytus, "Refutation of all Heresies," ix. 27), the Essenes have with sufficient reason been assumed by Jellinek ("BH" ii., iii., Introductions and elsewhere), by Plessner ("Dat Mosheh wi-Yehudit," pp. iv. 47 et seq.), by Hilgenfeld ("Die Jüdische Apokalyptik," 1857, p. 257), by Eichhorn ("Einleitung in die Apoc. Schriften des Alten Testaments," 1795, pp. 434 et seq.), by Gaster ("The Sword of Moses," 1896, Introduction), by Kohler ("Test. Job," in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 266, 288 et seq.), and by others to be the originators of the Cabala.事实上,在世界末日文学属于第二和第一前基督教百年中的Cabala行政内容;因为根据约瑟夫(立法会),这些著作中占有的爱色尼,并小心翼翼地守护他们不作披露,这是他们声称一个遥远的过去(见斐洛,“德简历Contemplativa,”三。,并西波吕,“驳所有异端邪说,”九。27日),爱色尼有足够的理由被耐克假设(“波黑“二。,三。,介绍和其他地方),由普勒斯纳(”逸Mosheh的Wi - Yehudit,“页四。47起。),由Hilgenfeld(”模具Jüdische Apokalyptik,“1857年,第257页),由艾希霍恩(“导论在模具载脂蛋白C。文集万老圣经”,1795年,第434页起。)的法莫替丁(“剑的摩西”,1896年,导言),科勒(“测试。工作,”在科胡特纪念卷,第266,288起。),并通过他人为原创的Cabala。 That many such books containing secret lore were kept hidden away by the "wise" is clearly stated in IV Esdras xiv.许多此类书籍包含秘密传说一直被隐藏起来的“明智”中明确规定四埃斯德拉斯十四。45-46, where Pseudo-Ezra is told to publish the twenty-four books of the canon openly that the worthy and the unworthy may alike read, but to keep the seventy other books hidden in order to "deliver them only to such as be wise" (compare Dan. xii. 10); for in them are the spring of understanding, the fountain of wisdom, and the stream of knowledge (compare Soṭah xv. 3). 45-46,在伪以斯拉被告知要发布的佳能二十四书公开表示,值得和不值得可能都读,但为了保持隐藏的七十其他书籍“交货,如他们只被聪明的“(比较丹十二10。。),而在他们是春天的理解,智慧的源泉,而知识流(比较Soṭah十五3。)。 A study of the few still existing apocryphal books discloses the fact, ignored by most modern writers on the Cabala and Essenism, that "the mystic lore" occasionally alluded to in the Talmudic or Midrashic literature (compare Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 172 et seq.; Joël, "Religionsphilosophie des Sohar," pp. 45-54) is not only much more systematically presented in these older writings, but gives ample evidence of a continuous cabalistic tradition; inasmuch as the mystic literature of the geonic period is only a fragmentary reproduction of the ancient apocalyptic writings, and the saints and sages of the tannaic period take in the former the place occupied by the Biblical protoplasts, patriarchs, and scribes in the latter.一个仍然存在的一些猜测读书披露的事实,依靠的Cabala和Essenism最现代作家忽视,即“神秘传说”偶尔提到在talmudic或Midrashic文学到(比较Zunz,“颗粒”2版。,第172页起。乔尔,“Religionsphilosophie德苏哈尔,”页45-54)不仅是更系统地在这些年纪较大的著作,但所提供的连续cabalistic传统充足的证据;因为作为神秘主义文学geonic期间只是一种古老的世界末日的著作残缺不全的复制,而圣人和先贤的tannaic期间参加前者的地方了圣经的原生质体,始祖,并在后者文士占领。

Cabalistic Elements in the Apocrypha.在伪经的cabalistic元素。

So, also, does the older Enoch book, parts of which have been preserved in the geonic mystic literature (see Jellinek, lc, and "ZDMG" 1853, p. 249), by its angelology, demonology, and cosmology, give a fuller insight into the "Merkabah" and "Bereshit" lore of the ancients than the "Hekalot," which present but fragments, while the central figure of the Cabala, Meṭaṭron-Enoch, is seen in ch.所以,也没有老年人伊诺克书,已在geonic神秘的文学保存的部分(见耐克,立法会,以及“ZDMG”1853年,第249页),由它的天使,魔鬼,和宇宙学,给予充分洞察“Merkaba上”和“Bereshit”的比古人的“Hekalot”的存在,但片段,而的Cabala,梅塔特隆,伊诺克,核心人物是在CH看到传说。 lxx.-lxxi.lxx. - lxxi。 in a process of transformation.处于转型的过程。The cosmogony of the Slavonic Enoch, a product of the first pre-Christian century (Charles, "The Book of the Secrets of Enoch," 1896, p. xxv.), showing an advanced stage compared with the older Enoch book, casts a flood of light upon the rabbinical cosmogony by its realistic description of the process of creation (compare ch. xxv.-xxx. and Ḥag. 12a et seq.; Yer. Ḥag. ii. 77a et seq.; Gen. R. i.-x.).该斯拉夫伊,一首前基督教世纪产品(查尔斯,他说:“以诺秘密之书”,1896年,页二十五。),表现出比较先进的阶段,与老伊诺克书,宇宙起源蒙上了洪水后,根据其犹太教宇宙起源的创作(总过程比较真实描述xxv. - xxx和女巫12A条及以下;。。。。。。也门里亚尔女巫二77A条起。。将军河岛- X的。)。Here are found the primal elements, "the stones of fire" out of which "the Throne of Glory" is made, and from which the angels emanate; "the glassy sea" (), beneath which the seven heavens, formed of fire and water (), are stretched out, and the founding of the world upon the abyss (); the preexistence of human souls (Plato, "Timæus," 36; Yeb. 63b; Nid. 30b), and the formation of man by the Creative Wisdom out of seven substances (see Charles, note to ch. xxvi. 5 and xxx. 8, who refers to Philo and the Stoics for analogies); the ten classes of angels (ch. xx.); and, in ch.这里被发现的原始分子,“石头的火”,其中“王位的荣耀”是由,并从其中的天使散发;“玻海”(),下面这七天,火形成水(),拖长了,和后的深渊(世界创始),而人类灵魂的前世(柏拉图,“提玛友斯,”36; Yeb 63B条。安居30B条。)和人类的形成创新智慧出七个物质(见查尔斯,注意要和XXX 5章二十六8,谁是指斐洛和坚忍的类比。。。)的10个类别的天使(章第xx。),以及在CH。xxii., version A, ten heavens instead of seven, and an advanced chiliastic calendar system (ch. xv.-xvi., xxxii.; see Millennium).二十二,版本A,十天,而不是7岁,和一个先进的chiliastic日历系统(章xv. -十六,三十二。。看到千年)。。Its cabalistic character is shown by references to the writings of Adam, Seth, Cainan, Mahalalel, and Jared (ch. xxxiii. 10, and elsewhere).它的特点是表现出的cabalistic的亚当,塞思,彩南,玛勒列的著作引用,和Jared(章三十三。10,和其他地方)。

A Continuous Tradition.一个连续的传统。

More instructive still for the study of the development of cabalistic lore is the Book of Jubilees written under King John Hyrcanus (see Charles, "The Book of Jubilees," 1902, Introduction, pp. lviii. et seq.)-which also refers to the writings of Jared, Cainan, and Noah, and presents Abraham as the renewer, and Levi as the permanent guardian, of these ancient writings (ch. iv. 18, viii. 3, x. 13; compare Jellinek, "BH" iii. 155, xii. 27, xxi. 10, xlv. 16)-because it offers, as early as a thousand years prior to the supposed date of the "Sefer Yeẓirah," a cosmogony based upon the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and connected with Jewish chronology and Messianology, while at the same time insisting upon the heptad as the holy number rather than upon the decadic system adopted by the later haggadists and the "Sefer Yeẓirah" (ch. ii. 23; compare Midr. Tadshe vi. and Charles's note, vi. 29 et seq.; Epstein, in "Rev. Et. Juives," xxii. 11; and regarding the number seven compare Ethiopic Enoch, lxxvii. 4 et seq. [see Charles's note]; Lev. R. xxix.; Philo, "De Opificios Mundi," 80-43, and Ab. v. 1-3; Ḥag. 12a).更有启发了对发展研究cabalistic传说仍是根据国王约翰hyrcanus书面书jubilees(见查尔斯“的书jubilees,”1902年,导言,第lviii。起。),也指的贾里德,彩南,诺亚著作,并提出作为renewer亚伯拉罕,利维作为永久监护人,这些古文字(章四十八,八3,十13;。。比较耶利内克,“波黑”三。155,十二。27,21。十,四十五。16),因为它提供了,像1000年之前的“Yeẓirah之书”后的希伯来文二十二个字母为基础的宇宙起源假定日期早字母,与犹太年表和Messianology,而在同一时间后,作为神圣的数字七肽而不是以decadic制度,后来haggadists和“Yeẓirah之书”,通过坚持(章二23连接。比较Midr。 Tadshe第六和查尔斯的注意,六29起。。。爱泼斯坦在“。牧师等Juives,”二十二11;。以及有关排名第七的比较埃塞俄比亚伊诺克,lxxvii 4起[见查尔斯的说明]。。; 。列夫河二十九。斐洛,“德Opificios曼迪,”80-43和AB诉1-3;。女巫12A条)。。The Pythagorean idea of the creative powers of numbers and letters, upon which the "Sefer Yeẓirah" is founded, and which was known in tannaitic times-compare Rab's saying:"Bezalel knew how to combine [] the letters by which heaven and earth were created" (Ber. 55a), and the saying of R. Judah b.对数字和字母,当其中的“Yeẓirah之书”是有道理的,而且它的创造力毕达哥拉斯的想法是已知的tannaitic时代,比较拉布的话说:“比撒列知道如何结合[]的信件,其中天地人创建“(Ber.第55A),和犹大说湾河 Ilai (Men. 29b), quoted, with similar sayings of Rab, in Bacher, "Ag. Bab. Amor."Ilai(Men. 29B条),引用类似的格言饶在巴切尔,“银。巴布。奥马尔。”pp. 18, 19-is here proved to be an old cabalistic conception.第18,19在这里被证明是一个老cabalistic的概念。In fact, the belief in the magic power of the letters of the Tetragrammaton and other names of the Deity (compare Enoch, lxi. 3 et seq.; Prayer of Manasses; Ḳid. 71a; Eccl. R. iii. 11; Yer. Ḥag. ii. 77c) seems to have originated in Chaldea (see Lenormant, "Chaldean Magic," pp. 29, 43).事实上,在对Tetragrammaton和其他的神的名字的字母的神奇力量的信念(比较伊诺克,LXI的3起。。祷告玛拿西;孩子71A条。。传道书传译三11;。也门里亚尔。女巫。二。77c)似乎已在迦勒底的起源(见Lenormant,“迦勒魔术”,第29,43)。 Whatever, then, the theurgic Cabala was, which, under the name of "Sefer (or "Hilkot" Yeẓirah," induced Babylonian rabbis of the fourth century to "create a calf by magic" (Sanh. 65b, 67b; Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., p. 174, by a false rationalism ignores or fails to account for a simple though strange fact!), an ancient tradition seems to have coupled the name of this theurgic "Sefer Yeẓirah" with the name of Abraham as one accredited with the possession of esoteric wisdom and theurgic powers (see Abraham, Apocalypse of, and Abraham, Testament of; Beer, "Das Leben Abrahams," pp. 207 et seq.; and especially Testament of Abraham, Recension B, vi., xviii.; compare Kohler, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." vii. 584, note). As stated by Jellinek ("Beiträge zur Kabbalah," i. 3), the very fact that Abraham, and not a Talmudical hero like Akiba, is introduced in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," at the close, as possessor of the Wisdom of the Alphabet, indicates an old tradition, if not the antiquity of the book itself.不管,那么,theurgic Cabala是,它在“之书(或”Hilkot“书”,引起巴比伦的第四个世纪以“创造一个神奇的小牛”拉比(sanh. 65 B条,67b名称;聪茨,“货车“2版。,第174页,由一个虚假的理性,忽视或没有考虑到一个简单但奇怪的事实!),一个古老的传统似乎已经加上了这theurgic名”与亚伯拉罕的名称Yeẓirah之书“一认可与深奥的智慧和(见亚伯拉罕启示,和亚伯拉罕,全书的theurgic权力占有,啤酒,“达斯酸奶亚伯拉罕,”第207页起。特别是亚伯拉罕,修改本乙,六约。 ,十八;。比较科勒,在“犹太人Quart的牧师。。”,七584,注)由耐克表示(“Beiträge楚卡巴拉,”一,三),这一事实本身亚伯拉罕,而不是一个Talmudical英雄。。如秋叶,介绍了在“Yeẓirah之书”,截至收盘,作为拥有智慧的字母,表示一个古老的传统,如果不是书本身古物。

The "wonders of the Creative Wisdom" can also be traced from the "Sefer Yeẓirah," back to Ben Sira, lc; Enoch, xlii.在“奇迹的创造智慧”,也可以追溯从“Yeẓirah之书,”回本西拉,立法会;伊诺克,四十二。1, xlviii.一,48。1, lxxxii.1,捌拾。2, xcii.2,xcii。1; Slavonic Enoch, xxx. 1,斯拉夫伊,三十。8, xxxiii. 8,三十三。3 (see Charles's note for further parallels); IV Esdras xiv. 3(见查尔斯的注意进一步平行线);四埃斯德拉斯十四。46; Soṭah xv.46;soṭah十五。 3; and the Merkabah-travels to Test.3;和的Merkabah,前往测试。Abraham, x.; Test.亚伯拉罕,十;试验。Job, xi.作业,十一。(see Kohler, in Kohut Memorial Volume, pp. 282-288); and the Baruch Apocalypse throughout, and even II Macc. (见科勒,在科胡特纪念卷,第282-288),以及整个巴鲁克启示,甚至二排雷。vii.七。22, 28, betray cabalistic traditions and terminologies.22,28,背叛cabalistic传统和术语。

Gnosticism and Cabala.诺斯替主义和Cabala。

But especially does Gnosticism testify to the antiquity of the Cabala.但是,尤其是不诺斯替主义证明了古代的Cabala。Of Chaldean origin, as suggested by Kessler (see "Mandæans," in Herzog-Hauck, "Real-Encyc.") and definitively shown by Anz ("Die Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnostizismus," 1879), Gnosticism was Jewish in character long before it became Christian (see Joël, "Blicke in die Religionsgeschichte," etc., 1880, i. 203; Hönig, "Die Ophiten," 1889; Friedländer, "Der Vorchristliche Jüdische Gnostizismus," 1898; idem, "Der Antichrist," 1901).原产地的迦勒建议的那样,凯斯勒(见“曼德安,”在赫尔佐格,克,“实时encyc。”)和明确的安茨显示(“模具Frage胆碱德国马克Ursprung德Gnostizismus,”1879年),诺斯替主义是犹太人在性格早在它成为基督教(见乔尔,“在模具Religionsgeschichte Blicke”等,1880年,岛203;霍尼格,“模具Ophiten,”1889年;德兰德,“明镜Vorchristliche Jüdische文学Gnostizismus,”1898年,同上,“明镜箴“,1901年)。Gnosticism-that is, the cabalistic "Ḥokmah" (wisdom), translated into "Madda' " (Aramaic, "Manda' " = knowledge of things divine)-seems to have been the first attempt on the part of the Jewish sages to give the empirical mystic lore, with the help of Platonic and Pythagorean or Stoic ideas, a speculative turn; hence the danger of heresy from which Akiba and Ben Zoma strove to extricate themselves, and of which the systems of Philo, an adept in Cabala (see "De Cherubim," 14; "De Sacrificiis Abelis et Caini," 15; "De Eo Quod Deterius Potiori Insidiatur," 48; "Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," 22), and of Paul (see Matter, "History of Gnosticism," ii.), show many pitfalls (see Gnosticism, Minim).诺斯替主义,也就是说,在cabalistic“Ḥokmah”(智慧),分为“Madda'”(阿拉姆语,“曼达”=知识的神圣的东西),翻译,似乎已对部分犹太圣人的第一次尝试给实证神秘传说与柏拉图和毕达哥拉斯或斯多葛思想,投机反过来帮助,因此,该从哪些危险的异端秋叶和本Zoma力图自拔,而其中的斐洛系统是一种善于Cabala(见“德革鲁宾,”14,“德Sacrificiis Abeli​​s等彩妮,”15;“德御狴Deterius Potiori Insidiatur,”48“; Quis Rerum Divinarum下面有坐”22)和保罗(见事“,诺斯替主义的历史,“二。),显示很多陷阱(见诺斯替主义,微量)。It was the ancient Cabala which, while allegorizing the Song of Songs, spoke of Adam Ḳadmon, or the God-man, of the "Bride of God," and hence of "the mystery of the union of powers" in God (see Conybeare, "Philo's Contemplative Life," p. 304), before Philo, Paul, the Christian Gnostics, and the medieval Cabala did.这是古代Cabala其中,而宋寓言的歌曲,亚当始祖发言,或神人,“上帝的新娘”和“对工会的权力之谜”因此,在神(见科尼比尔,“哲学的思惟生活”,第304页),然后斐罗,保罗,基督教Gnostics,以及中世纪Cabala一样。 Speculative Cabala of old (IV Esd. iii. 21; Wisdom ii. 24) spoke of "the germ of poison from the serpent transmitted from Adam to all generations" ( ) before Paul and R. Johanan ('Ab. Zarah 22b) referred to it.投机Cabala老(四公共服务电子化三21。。。智慧二24)以“传播从亚当的蛇的毒液胚芽所有世代”的之前,保罗和R.约哈难(。'抗体Zarah 22B款)()称为它。And while the Gnostic classification of souls into pneumatic, psychic, and hylic ones can be traced back to Plato (see Joël, lcp 132), Paul was not the first (or only one) to adopt it in his system (see Ḥag. 14b;-Cant. R. i. 3, quoted by Joël, compare Gen. R. xiv., where the five names for the soul are dwelt upon).虽然诺斯底的灵魂到气动,心理,和物质的分类可以追溯到柏拉图(见乔尔,LCP的132),保罗并不是第一个(或只有一个)通过它在他的系统(见女巫。14B条。- Cant河岛3,由Joel引述,比较将军河十四,那里的灵魂是住在五个名字)。。

Cabalistic Dualism.cabalistic的二元论。

The whole dualistic system of good and of evil powers, which goes back to Zoroastrianism and ultimately to old Chaldea, can be traced through Gnosticism; having influenced the cosmology of the ancient Cabala before it reached the medieval one.整个二元体系和良好的邪恶力量,它可以追溯到拜火教,并最终老迦勒底,可追溯到通过诺斯替主义,既影响了古代Cabala达成之前,宇宙的中世纪之一。 So is the conception underlying the cabalistic tree, of the right side being the source of light and purity, and the left the source of darkness and impurity ("siṭra yemina we siṭra aḥara), found among the Gnostics (see Irenæus, "Adversus Hæreses," i. 5, § 1; 11, § 2; ii. 24, § 6; Epiphanius, "Hæres," xxxii. 1, 2; "Clementine Homilies," vii. 3; compare Cant. R. i. 9; Matt. xxv. 33; Plutarch, "De Isiḳe," 48; Anz, lc 111). The fact also that the "Ḳelippot" (the scalings of impurity), which are so prominent in the medieval Cabala, are found in the old Babylonian incantations (see Sayce, "Hibbert Lectures," 1887, p. 472; Delitzsch, "Assyrisches Wörterbuch," sv ), is evidence in favor of the antiquity of most of the cabalistic material.那么,概念背后的cabalistic树权作为光源端和纯洁性,并离开了黑暗和杂质源(“锡特拉yemina我们锡特拉aḥara),其中发现的Gnostics(见依,”相反Hæreses ,“一,五,§ 1,11,§ 2,二24,§ 6。埃皮法尼乌斯,”Hæres,“三十二1,2;。”克莱门汀讲道词,“七三。比较斜面河岛9。 ;马特二十五33;。。普鲁塔克,“德Isiḳe,”第48条;澳新银行,液晶111)事实上也认为,“Ḳelippot”(杂质换算比例),这是所以在中世纪Cabala突出,在找到的。老巴比伦咒语(见塞斯,“希伯特讲座”,1887年,第472页;德里,“Assyrisches Wörterbuch,”希沃特),是在对古代的cabalistic最有利的证据材料。

It stands to reason that the secrets of the theurgic Cabala are not lightly divulged; and yet the Testament of Solomon recently brought to light the whole system of conjuration of angels and demons, by which the evil spirits were exorcised; even the magic sign or seal of King Solomon, known to the medieval Jew as the Magen Dawid, has been resurrected (see Conybeare, in "Jew. Quart. Rev." xi. 1-45; also Exorcism).按理说,该theurgic Cabala的秘密是不会轻易泄露;,但所罗门的遗嘱最近揭示的天使和恶魔,其中被驱除邪灵咒语整个系统,甚至连魔法签名或盖章所罗门王为已知的Magen Dawid中世纪的犹太人,已经复活(见科尼比尔在西1-45“犹太人Quart的牧师。。。”;也驱魔)。

To the same class belongs the "Sefer Refu'ot" (The Book of Healing), containing the prescriptions against all the diseases inflicted by demons, which Noah wrote according to the instructions given by the angel Raphael and handed over to his son Shem (Book of Jubilees, x. 1-14; Jellinek, "BH" iii. 155-160; Introduction, p. xxx.).用于同一类别属于“Refu'ot之书”(书愈合),其中对所有的恶魔造成的疾病,诺亚说根据天使拉斐尔的指示,并交给他的儿子闪(处方易经jubilees,十1-14。耶利内克,“波黑”三155-160,导言,第三十)。。 It was identified with the "Sefer Refu'ot" in possession of King Solomon and hidden afterward by King Hezekiah (see Pes. iv. 9, 56a; "BH" lcp 160; Josephus, "Ant." viii. 2, § 5; compare idem, "BJ" ii. 8, § 6, and the extensive literature in Schürer, "Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 3d ed., iii. 2, 99 et seq.), whereas the secret of the black art, or of healing by demonic powers, was transmitted to heathen tribes, to "the sons of Keṭurah" (Sanh. 91a) or the Amorites (compare Enoch, x. 7).So striking is the resemblance between the Shi'ur Ḳomah and the anthropomorphic description of the Deity by the Gnostics (see Irenæus, lci 14, § 3) and the letters of the alphabet laid across the body in Atbash (), or Alpha and Omega order, forming the limbs of the Macrocosmos, that the one casts light upon the other, as Gaster (in "Monatsschrift," 1893, p. 221) has shown.这是确定的“Refu'ot之书”的所罗门王占有和隐藏的国王希西家后(见狗四9,56A条。。“波黑”LCP的160;约瑟夫“。蚂蚁”八2,§ 5。 ,比较同上,“BJ的”二8,§ 6,在Schürer,大量文献的“Gesch德Volkes以色列。”三维版,三二,99起),而黑艺术的秘密。。。。 ,或由恶魔权力愈合,被转交给异教徒部落,到“基土拉的儿子”(Sanh. 91a)或亚摩利人(比较伊诺克,十7)。所以引人注目的是之间的Shi'urḲomah和相似之处拟由拟人化的描述神的Gnostics(见爱任纽,国际狮子总会14,§ 3),英文字母在人体中规定Atbash(),或亚尔发和奥米加秩序,构成该Macrocosmos四肢,即一转换后,其他光,如法莫替丁(在“月刊”,1893年,第221页)显示。 But so have "the garments of light," "the male and the female nature," "the double face," the eye, hair, arm, head, and crown of "the King of Glory," taken from the Song of Solomon, I Chron.但这样有“服装之光”,“男性和女性的自然”,“双脸”的眼睛,头发,手臂,头,冠“国王的荣耀”,从采取的雅歌我专栏。 xxix.二十九。11; Ps.11;诗。lxviii.lxviii。18, and other familiar texts, even "the endless" (En-Sof = ' Agr;πέραντος), their parallels in ancient Gnostic writings (see Schmidt, "Gnostische Schriften in Koptischer Sprache," 1892, pp. 278, 293, 310, and elsewhere). 18日,和其他熟悉的文字,甚至是“永无止境”(恩特种部队='地带;πέραντος),在古代诺斯底著作的相似之处(见施密特,“Gnostische文集在Koptischer Sprache,”1892年,第278,293,310和其他地方)。On the other hand, both the mystic Cross ("Staurus" = X = the letter tav of old; see Jewish Encyclopedia, i. 612b; Irenæus, lci 2, § 3; Justin, "Apology," i. 40; and Joël, lcp 147) and the enigmatic primal "Ḳav laḳav," or "Ḳavḳkav," taken from Isa.另一方面,无论是神秘的交叉(“Staurus”= X的=旧信艺术村,见犹太百科全书岛612b,爱任纽,国际狮子总会2,§ 3;贾斯汀,“道歉”,一40;和乔尔,LCP的147)和神秘的原始“Ḳavlaḳav”或“Ḳavḳkav,”从伊萨采取的。xxviii.二十八。10, receive strange light from the ancient cabalistic cosmogony, which, based upon Job xxxviii. 10,接收来自古代cabalistic宇宙进化论,其中,经工作三十八的奇怪的光。4 et seq., spoke of "the measuring-line"-Ḳav, the (Isa. xxxiv. 11; compare , Gen. R. i. after Ezek. xl. 3)-drawn "crosswise"- (see Midr. ha-Gadol, ed. Schechter, 11; compare , Ḥag. xii. 1, and Joël, lc), and consequently applied also the term (Ḳav le-ḳav), taken from Isa.。4起,谈到“测线”,Ḳav的;绘制的“横向” - (见Midr公顷(赛三十四11比较,以西结书后xl的将军河岛3。。。)。 - Gadol,海关谢克特,11人;。。。比较,女巫第十二1,乔尔,立法会),并因此也适用于乐ḳav任期(Ḳav),采取由伊萨。xxviii.二十八。10, to the prime motive power of creation (see Irenæus, lci 24, §§ 5, 6; Schmidt, lcp 215; compare Matter, "Gnosticism," ii. 58; Joël, lcp 141).10,创造的首要动力(见爱任纽,国际狮子总会24日§ § 5,6;施密特,LCP的215;比较问题,“诺斯替主义,”二58;。乔尔,LCP的141)。This was to express the divine power that measured matter while setting it in motion; whereas the idea of God setting to the created world its boundary was found expressed in the name ("the Almighty"), who says to the world "(This sufficeth").这是为了表达了神圣的权力,衡量问题而设置的议案它,而上帝的想法设置创造世界的边界被发现的名称(“万能”),说谁对世界表示,“(这知足“)。

With the scanty materials at the disposal of the student of Gnosticism, it seems premature and hazardous at present to assert with certainty the close relationship existing between it and the ancient Cabala, as Matter, in his "History of Gnosticism," 1828 (German translation, 1833 and 1844), and Gfroerer, in his voluminous and painstaking work, "Gesch. des Urchristenthums," 1838, i.由于在处理学生的诺斯替主义仅存的材料,似乎为时过早,目前断言肯定有害的密切关系,它与古代Cabala,因为此事,他的“诺斯替主义的历史,”1828年(现有德语翻译,1833年和1844年),和Gfroerer,在他的大量细致的工作,的“Gesch。德Urchristenthums,”1838年,岛 and ii., have done.及ii。所作的那样。Nevertheless it may be stated without hesitation that the investigations of Grätz ("Gnosticism und Judenthum," 1846), of Joël ("Religionsphilosophie des Sohar," 1849), and of other writers on the subject must be resumed on a new basis.尽管如此,它可能会毫不迟疑地说,该调查的格拉茨(“诺斯替主义有限公司Judenthum”,1846年),乔尔(“Religionsphilosophie德苏哈尔”,1849年),以及关于这一问题的其他作家必须在新的基础上得到恢复。 It is also certain that the similarities, pointed out by Siegfried ("Philo von Alexandria," pp. 289-299), between the doctrines of Philo and those of the Zohar and the Cabala in general, are due to intrinsic relation rather than to mere copying.这也是肯定的相似性,指出了由齐格弗里德(“斐洛冯亚历山德里亚,”页289-299)之间的斐洛的教义和佐哈尔和Cabala那些在一般情况下,是由于内在联系,而不是仅仅复制。

As a rule, all that is empiric rather than speculative, and that strikes one as grossly anthropomorphic and mythological in the Cabala or Haggadah, such as the descriptions of the Deity as contained in the "Sifra de Zeni'uta" and "Iddra Zuṭṭa" of the Zohar, and similar passages in "Sefer Aẓilut" and "Raziel," belongs to a prerationalistic period, when no Simon ben Yoḥai lived to curse the teacher who represented the sons of God as having sexual organs and committing fornication (see Gen. R. xxvi.; compare Vita Adæ et Evæ, iii. 4, with Enoch, vii. 1 et seq.; also compare Test. Patr., Reuben, 5; Book of Jubilees, v. 1, and particularly xv. 27).作为一项规则,所有这些都是经验,而不是投机,而且作为一个严重打击,并拟在Cabala或哈加达,神话等作为神灵的描述,包含在“Sifra德Zeni'uta”和“IddraZuṭṭa”该佐哈尔,并在“之书Aẓilut”和“拉赛尔,”类似的段落属于prerationalistic时期,没有西蒙本Yoḥai活到骂人的老师谁代表为有犯奸淫性器官和神的儿子(见创河二十六。比较维塔Adæ等Evæ,三与伊诺克4,七1起。。。也比较试验Patr,鲁本,5。。书jubilees,诉一,特别是十五27)。 。Such matter may with a high degree of probability be claimed as ancient lore or Cabala (= "old tradition").这样的事情可能与一个高度的概率是属于古代的传说或Cabala(=“老传统”)。

And as to speculative Cabala, it was not Persia with her tenth-century Sufism, but Alexandria of the first century or earlier, with her strange commingling of Egyptian, Chaldean, Judean, and Greek culture, that furnished the soil and the seeds for that mystic philosophy which knew how to blend the wisdom and the folly of the ages and to lend to every superstitious belief or practise a profound meaning.而以投机Cabala,这不是她的波斯十世纪苏菲,但亚历山大的第一个世纪或更早与她奇怪的混杂的埃及,迦勒,朱迪亚和希腊文化,即提供了土壤和的种子,神秘主义哲学,知道如何结合的智慧和愚蠢的年龄,并借钱给每一个迷信或实践的深刻含义。 There sprang up that magic literature which showed the name of the Jewish God () and of the Patriarchs placed alongside of pagan deities and demons, and the Hermes books ( , as copyists wrote for -not "Homeros"-see Kohler, "Jew. Quart. Rev." v. 415, note), which, claiming an equal rank with the Biblical writings, enticed also Jewish thinkers.有兴起,神奇的文献显示,犹太神(名称),旁边的异教神和魔鬼放置的始祖,并爱马仕书籍(作为抄写写,而不是“Homeros”,见科勒,“犹太人。夸脱。牧师“诉415注),其中,声称具有同等级别的圣经著作,诱惑也犹太​​思想家。 But above all it was Neoplatonism which produced that state of enthusiasm and entrancement that made people "fly in the air" by "the wagon of the soul" () and achieve all kinds of miracles by way of hallucinations and visions.但最重要的是产生这种柏拉图主义的热情和entrancement让人们“在空中飞”的(“灵魂的马车”的状态),并实现梦想的幻觉和各种方式的奇迹。 It gave rise to those Gnostic songs (; Ḥag. 15b; Grätz, lcp 16) which flooded also Syria and Palestine (see Gruppe, "Die Griechischen Culte und Mysterien," i. 1886, pp. 329, 443, 494, 497, 659; Von Harless, "Das Buch von den Ægyptischen Mysterien," 1858, pp. 13-20, 53-66, 75, and Dieterich, "Abraxas," 1891).这引起了那些诺斯底歌曲(;。女巫15B条,格拉茨,LCP的16),其中还充斥叙利亚和巴勒斯坦(见Gruppe,“模具Griechischen Culte有限公司Mysterien,”一,1886年,第329,443,494,497, 659;冯哈利斯,“达斯布赫冯登Ægyptischen Mysterien,”1858年,第13-20,53-66,75和迪特里希,“卫矛尺,”1891年)。The whole principle of emanation, with its idea of evil inherent in matter as the dross () is found there (see Von Harless, lcp 20), and the entire theurgic Cabala () is in all its detail developed there; even the spirit-rapping and table-turning done in the seventeenth century by German cabalists by means of "shemot" (magic incantations; for the literature see Von Harless, lc pp. 130-132) have there their prototypes (Von Harless, lcp 107).整个原则,气作为其思想的糟粕问题固有的邪恶(,)被发现有(见冯哈利斯,LCP的20),整个theurgic Cabala()的所有细​​节是有发展,甚至连精神,说唱和表转折由德国cabalists通过“shemot”是指十七世纪完成(魔术咒语,为文学见冯哈利斯,立法会页130-132),有他们的原型(冯哈利斯,LCP的107)。

-History and System:程与制度:

This remarkable product of Jewish intellectual activity can not be satisfactorily estimated as a whole unless the religioethical side of the Cabala is more strongly emphasized than has been the case heretofore.这种卓越的产品犹太人的智力活动不能得到令人满意的估计作为一个整体,除非一方的Cabala religioethical更强烈比迄今为止一直如此强调。It constantly falls back upon Scripture for its origin and authenticity, and for its speculative-pantheistic and anthropomorphic-prophetic tendencies.它不断地回落后,经文,为它的来源和真实性,并为其投机性pantheistic和拟人,预言的倾向。While mysticism in general is the expression of the intensest religious feeling, where reason lies dormant, Jewish mysticism is essentially an attempt to harmonize universal reason with the Scriptures; and the allegorical interpretation of the Biblical writings by the Alexandrians as well as by the Palestinians (see Allegorical Interpretation) may justly be regarded as its starting-point.虽然在一般的神秘主义是intensest宗教感情,而原因在于休眠状态的表达,犹太神秘主义本质上是一个试图调和与圣经普遍的原因,以及由亚历山大的寓言解释圣经的著作,以及由巴勒斯坦人(看寓言解读)可以理直气壮地被视为它的起点。 These interpretations had their origin in the conviction that the truths of Greek philosophy were already contained in Scripture, although it was given only to the select few to lift the veil and to discern them beneath the letter of the Bible.这些解释了他们在希腊哲学中的真理已经在圣经中被定罪的起源,但它是只选择少数解除面纱,并辨别下方的信他们的圣经。

Mystic Doctrines in Talmudic Times.在塔木德时代的神秘教义。

In Talmudic times the terms "Ma'aseh Bereshit" (History of Creation) and "Ma'aseh Merkabah"(History of the Divine Throne = Chariot; Ḥag. ii. 1; Tosef., ib.) clearly indicate the Midrashic nature of these speculations; they are really based upon Gen. i.在塔木德时代的术语“Ma'aseh Bereshit”(创造历史)和“Ma'aseh Merkaba上”(历史的神圣王座=战车。。女巫二1。。Tosef,兴业)清楚地表明Midrashic性质这些猜测,他们是真正基于将军岛 and Ezek.和以西结书。i.4-28; while the names "Sitre Torah" (Ḥag. 13a) and "Raze Torah" (Ab. vi. 1) indicate their character as secret lore.4-28,而冠以“Sitre圣经”(Ḥag.13A条)和“夷平圣经”(。Ab.六一)表明其作为秘密传说人物。In contrast to the explicit statement of Scripture that God created not only the world, but also the matter out of which it was made, the opinion is expressed in very early times that God created the world from matter He found ready at hand-an opinion probably due to the influence of the Platonic-Stoic cosmogony (compare Philo, "De Opificiis Mundi," ii., who states this as a doctrine of Moses; see Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," p. 230).与此相反的明确声明的经文,上帝不仅创造了世界,而且此事,其中有人提出,认为是体现在非常早的时期,上帝创造了在手的意见,从物质世界,他发现准备可能是由于柏拉图,斯多葛宇宙进化论的影响(。比较斐洛,“德Opificiis曼迪,”二,谁规定摩西的学说作为本见齐格弗里德,“斐洛冯亚历山德里亚,”第230页)。 Eminent Palestinian teachers hold the doctrine of the preexistence of matter (Gen. R. i. 5, iv. 6), in spite of the protest of Gamaliel II.巴勒斯坦知名人士举行教师在第二抗议加马利亚尽管该物质的前世(将军河一,五,四。6),教义。(ib. i. 9).(ib.一9)。

The Six Elements.六大要素。

A Palestinian Midrash of the fourth century (see Epstein, in "Rev. Etudes Juives," xxix. 77) asserts that three of the elements-namely, water, air, and fire-existed before the creation of the world; that water then produced the darkness, fire produced light, and air produced wisdom ( = "air" = "wisdom"), and the whole world thereupon was made by the combination of these six elements (Ex. R. xv. 22).阿四世纪巴勒斯坦米德拉士(见爱泼斯坦在“启示录研究Juives,”二十九77。)声称,有三个要素,即水,空气和火前创造的世界存在,这水,然后公司生产的黑暗,火灾产生的光,和空气产生智慧(=“空气”=“智慧”),于是,整个世界是由这六个要素的组合(例如:河十五。22)制成。 The gradual condensation of a primal substance into visible matter, a fundamental doctrine of the Cabala, is already to be found in Yer.一个原始物质转化为可见光的问题,一个根本的Cabala学说,逐渐凝结在也门里亚尔已经被找到。 Ḥag.女巫。ii.二。77a, where it is said that the first water which existed was condensed into snow; and out of this the earth was made.77A条,它是说,第一次水的存在是浓缩到大雪;和本该是人造地球了。This is the ancient Semitic conception of the "primal ocean," known to the Babylonians as "Apsu" (compare Jastrow, "Religion of Babylonia"), and called by the Gnostics βύθος = (Anz, "Die Frage nach dem Ursprung des Gnostizismus," p. 98).这是古代闪族的概念的“原始海洋”,被称为“Apsu”(比较贾斯特罗,“宗教的巴比伦”)的巴比伦人,以及的Gnosticsβύθος=(澳新银行,“叫模具Frage胆碱德国马克Ursprung德Gnostizismus ,“第98条)。Rab's enumeration of the ten objects created on the first day-namely, heaven, earth, tohu, bohu, light, darkness, wind, water, day, and night (Ḥag. 12a) [the Book of Jubilees (ii. 2) has seven.-K.]-shows the conception of "primal substances" held by the rabbis of the third century.饶的第一天,即天,地,tohu,博湖,光,黑暗,风,水,天,昨晚(Ḥag.12A条)[书的jubilees(白介素2)创建的10个物体枚举有seven. - K表。],显示了由第三世纪的拉比举行的“原始物质”的概念。It was an attempt to Judaize the un-Jewish conception of primal substances by representing them also as having been created.这是一个企图将耶路撒冷犹太化的代表他们也为已创造了原始物质非犹太人的概念。Compare the teaching: "God created worlds after worlds, and destroyed them, until He finally made one of which He could say, 'This one pleases Me, but the others did not please Me' " (Gen. R. ix. 2).比较教学:“上帝创造世界后的世界,并摧毁他们,直到他完成其中之一,他可以说,这人我高兴,但其他人并没有请我'”(创传译九2)。 。See also "Agadat Shir ha-Shirim," ed.又见“Agadat事儿公顷Shirim,”版。Schechter, p.谢克特,第6, line 58.6,第58行。

So, also, was the doctrine of the origin of light made a matter of mystical speculation, as instanced by a haggadist of the third century, who communicated to his friend "in a whisper" the doctrine that "God wrapped Himself in a garment of light, with which He illuminates the earth from one end to the other" (Gen. R. iii. 4; see Abraham, Apocalypse of; compare Ex. R. xv. 22: "After He had clothed Himself in light, He created the world").所以,也就是光的起源学说提出了一些神秘的猜测的问题,如通过的第三个世纪,谁沟通“在耳语”的学说对他的朋友haggadist实例化,“上帝包裹在自己的服装面料光,与他照亮地球的一端向其他“。。。(创传译三4;见亚伯拉罕启示;比较前河十五22:”后,他曾穿着光芒,他创造世界“)。 Closely related to this view is the statement made by R. Meïr, "that the infinite God limited or contracted Himself [] in order to reveal Himself" (Gen. R. iv. 4; Ex. R. xxxiv. 1).与此密切相关的观点是由R.梅尔所作的声明“认为,有限或无限的上帝自己承包[],以显示自己”(将军河四四。。惠河三十四1。)。 This is the germ of the Cabala doctrine of the "Ẓimẓum," in idea as well as in terminology.这是的Cabala学说“Ẓimẓum,”在思想胚芽以及术语。

God in the Theosophy of the Talmud.上帝在神智学的犹太法典。

In dwelling upon the nature of God and the universe, the mystics of the Talmudic period asserted, in contrast to Biblical transcendentalism, that "God is the dwelling-place of the universe; but the universe is not the dwelling-place of God" (Gen. R. lxviii. 9; Midr. Teh. xc.; Ex. xxiv. 11, LXX.) Possibly the designation ("place") for God, so frequently found in Talmudic-Midrashic literature, is due to this conception, just as Philo, in commenting on Gen. xxviii.在对神的自然和宇宙的住所,在塔木德期间的神秘主义者断言,而相比之下,圣经的先验论,即“上帝是居住,在宇宙中的位置,但宇宙是不是该住宅的上帝的地方”(将军河lxviii 9;。Midr的XC。。。。。。前四条11,LXX的)可能是上帝的指定(“地方”),所以经常在talmudic - Midrashic文学发现,是由于这个概念,正如斐洛,在上将军二十八评论。11 (compare Gen. R. lc) says, "God is called 'ha maḳom' [place] because He encloses the universe, but is Himself not enclosed by anything" ("De Somniis," i. 11). 11(比较将军河星期三)说,“上帝是所谓'公顷maḳom'[地点]包围,因为他的宇宙,但他自己没有任何封闭的”(“德Somniis,”岛11)。 Spinoza may have had this passage in mind when he said that the ancient Jews did not separate God from the world.斯宾诺莎可能有这种想法时,他说,通过古老的犹太人没有从世界上没有单独的上帝。This conception of God is not only pantheistic, but also highly mystical, since it postulates the union of man with God (compare Creseas, "Or Adonai," i.); and both these ideas were further developed in the later Cabala.这上帝的概念不仅是pantheistic,而且还高度神秘的,因为它假设了与神人联盟(比较Creseas“或阿多奈,”岛),以及这些思想都得到了进一步发展,在后来Cabala。 Even in very early times Palestinian as well as Alexandrian theology recognized the two attributes of God, "middat hadin," the attribute of justice, and "middat ha-raḥamim," the attribute of mercy (Sifre, Deut. 27; Philo, "De Opificiis Mundi," 60); and so is the contrast between justice and mercy a fundamental doctrine of the Cabala.即使是在很早就倍巴勒斯坦以及亚历山大神学承认神的两个属性,“middat hadin,”司法属性,以及“middat公顷raḥamim”的慈悲属性(Sifre,申命记27;。斐洛,“德Opificiis芒迪,“60)等是正义和怜悯的基本教义的Cabala对比。 Even the hypostasization of these attributes is ancient, as may be seen in the remark of a tanna of the beginning of the second century CE (Ḥag. 14a).即使是这些属性hypostasization是古老的,可能在一个第二个世纪的行政长官(Ḥag.14A条)开始出现Tanna的说法。 Other hypostasizations are represented by the ten agencies through which God created the world; namely, wisdom, insight, cognition, strength, power, inexorableness, justice, right, love, and mercy (Ḥag. 12a; Ab. RN xxxvii. counts only seven, while Ab. RN, version B, ed. Schechter, xliii., counts ten, not entirely identical with those of the Talmud).其他hypostasizations为代表的10个机构,通过它上帝创造了世界,即智慧,洞察力,认知,肌力,爆发力,难以挽回,正义,权利,爱情和怜悯(Ḥag.12A条。。抗体护士三十七罪状只有7 ,而抗体。护士,版本B,编辑。谢克特,四十三。,数十年,不完全的犹太法典的)相同。While the Sefirot are based on these ten creative potentialities, it is especially the personification of wisdom () which, in Philo, represents the totality of these primal ideas; and the Targ.虽然Sefirot是创造性的潜力在这十大基础上,尤其是人格化的智慧(),其中,在斐洛,代表了这些原始的总体思路,以及塔尔格。 Yer.也门里亚尔。i., agreeing with him, translates the first verse of the Bible as follows: "By wisdom God created the heaven and the earth."一,同意他,翻译圣经的第一个诗如下:“通过智慧上帝创造了天地。”So, also, the figure of Meṭaṭron passed into the Cabala from the Talmud, where it played the rôle of the demiurgos (see Gnosticism), being expressly mentioned as God (Sanh. 38b; compare Antinomianism, note 1).所以,同时,数字的Meṭaṭron传递到从犹太法典,它起到的demiurgos(见诺斯替主义),被明确提到的,因为神的作用Cabala(Sanh. 38B条,比较反律法主义,注1)。Mention may also be made of the seven preexisting things enumerated in an old Baraita; namely, the Torah (="Ḥokmah"), repentance (= mercy), paradise and hell (= justice), the throne of God, the (heavenly) Temple, and the name of the Messiah (Pes. 54a).还可以提到由七个既存baraita的列举在一个古老的东西,即圣经(=“Ḥokmah”),忏悔(=怜悯之),天堂与地狱(=正义),神的宝座,(天)寺,以及弥赛亚(Pes. 54A条)的名称。Although the origin of this doctrine must be sought probably in certain mythological ideas, the Platonic doctrine of preexistence has modified the older, simpler conception, and the preexistence of the seven must therefore be understood as an "ideal" preexistence (see Ginzberg, "Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern," etc., pp. 2-10), a conception that was later more fully developed in the Cabala.虽然这一学说的起源必须寻求在某些神话思想或许,柏拉图学说的前世已经修改了年龄的增长,简单的概念,以及七个前世因此必须被视为“理想的”前世的理解(见金兹伯格,“模具Haggada北书斋Kirchenvätern“等,页2-10),一个概念,后来更充分地开发的Cabala。

The attempts of the mystics to bridge the gulfbetween God and the world are especially evident in the doctrine of the preexistence of the soul [compare Slavonic Enoch, xxiii.的神秘主义者试图弥合gulfbetween上帝和世界正处于灵魂[前世学说尤为明显比较斯拉夫伊,二十三。5, and Charles's note.-K.] and of its close relation to God before it enters the human body-a doctrine taught by the Hellenistic sages (Wisdom viii. 19) as well as by the Palestinian rabbis (Ḥag. 12b; 'Ab. Zarah 5a, etc.). 5,和查尔斯的note.-K.]和其密切的关系之前,向上帝进入人体,一个由古希腊先哲的教义教以及由(Ḥag.12B条巴勒斯坦拉比(智慧八19。);'抗体。Zarah 5A条等)。

The Pious.虔诚的。

Closely connected herewith is the doctrine that the pious are enabled to ascend toward God even in this life, if they know how to free themselves from the trammels that bind the soul to the body (see Ascension).兹是紧密相连的理论,虔诚的启用提升对上帝即使在​​这种生活,如果他们知道如何摆脱束缚的灵魂绑定自己的身体(见阿森松岛)。 Thus were the first mystics enabled to disclose the mysteries of the world beyond.因此,启用了世界上透露的奥秘超出第一神秘主义者。According to Anz, lc, and Bousset, "Die Himmelreise der Seele," in "Archiv für Religionswissenschaft," iv.据澳新银行,LC和Bousset,“模具Himmelreise明镜Seele”,在“档案馆献给Religionswissenschaft,”四。 136 et seq., the central doctrine of Gnosticism-a movement closely connected with Jewish mysticism-was nothing else than the attempt to liberate the soul and unite it with God. 136起。时,诺斯替主义,运动中心学说与犹太神秘主义紧密相连,是没有别的比试图解放,团结的灵魂与上帝的。This conception explains the great prominence of angels and spirits in both the earlier and the later Jewish mysticism.这个概念解释了天使和精神都在大突出早,后来犹太神秘主义。Through the employment of mysteries, incantations, names of angels, etc., the mystic assures for himself the passage to God, and learns the holy words and formulas with which he overpowers the evil spirits that try to thwart and destroy him.通过就业的奥秘,咒语,天使等名称,神秘保证自己对上帝的通道,学习神圣的文字和公式,使他压倒这个试图阻挠和破坏他的邪灵。 Gaining thereby the mastery over them, he naturally wishes to exercise it even while still on earth, and tries to make the spirits serviceable to him.从而赢得了他们的掌握,他自然希望能够行使大地甚至仍然,并试图使他的精神维修。So, too, were the Essenes familiar with the idea of the journey to heaven (see Bousset, lcp 143, explaining Josephus, "Ant." xviii. 1, § 5); and they were also masters of angelology.因此,也同是爱色尼的旅程想法天堂熟悉(见Bousset,LCP的143,解释约瑟夫,“蚂蚁。”十八1,§ 5。);,他们也是天使的主人。The practise of magic and incantation, the angelology and demonology, were borrowed from Babylonia, Persia, and Egypt; but these foreign elements were Judaized in the process, and took the form of the mystical adoration of the name of God and of speculations regarding the mysterious power of the Hebrew alphabet (see Ber. 55a; compare Pesiḳ. R. 21 [ed. Friedmann, p. 109a], "the name of God creates and destroys worlds"), to become, finally, foundations of the philosophy of the "Sefer Yeẓirah."对魔法和咒语的天使和魔鬼的做法,是借东风,波斯,埃及,但这些外国势力在这个过程中Judaized,并采取了对上帝的名义形式的神秘崇拜和猜测就希伯来文字母表神秘的力量(见苏贝第55A;。。比较Pesiḳ命令第21条[。教育署弗里德曼,第109A条],“以上帝的名义创建和破坏世界”),成为最后,在哲学基础“Yeẓirah之书。”

The Syzygies.该Syzygies。

Another pagan conception which, in refined form, passed into the Cabala through the Talmud, was the so-called ("the mystery of sex").另一个异教的概念将在精制而成,通过塔木德Cabala通过的,是所谓的(“的性别之谜”)。[Compare Eph.[对比弗。v. 33, and Bride, and Joel, lc, pp. 158 et seq.-K.] Possibly this old conception underlies the Talmudical passages referring to the mystery of marriage, such as "the Shekinah dwells between man and woman" (Soṭah 17a).五,33岁,和新娘,和Joel,立法会,第158等seq.-K.]可能是这个旧观念的基础指的是婚姻的神秘,如“舍吉拿男人和女人之间的居住”(SoṭahTalmudical通道17A条)。 An old Semitic view (see Ba'al) regards the upper waters compare Slavonic Book of Enoch, iii.; Test.一个老犹太人的看法(见Ba'al)视上层水域比较斯拉夫书,三诺。测试。Patr., Levi, 2; Abraham, Testament of) as masculine, and the lower waters as feminine, their union fructifying the earth (Gen. R. xiii.; Wertheimer, "Batte Midrashot," i. 6. Compare the passage, "Everything that exists has a mate []: Israel is the mate of the Sabbath; while the other days pair among themselves," Gen. R. xi. 8). Patr,列维,2。亚伯拉罕,全书的)为男性,和女性,他们的工会结实地(创传译十三较低的水域。。韦特海默,“巴特Midrashot,”岛6比较通行, “一切都存在有一个队友[]:以色列是队友的安息日,而其他日子互相配对,”将军河十一8)。。Thus the Gnostic theory of syzygies (pairs) was adopted by the Talmud, and later was developed into a system by the Cabala.因此,syzygies诺斯底理论(对)通过了犹太法典,后来又开发了系统的Cabala。The doctrine of emanation, also, common to both Gnosticism and the Cabala, is represented by a tanna of the middle of the second century CE (Gen. R. iv. 4; R. Meïr, "Parable of the Spring"). ,气,同时,以双方共同的诺斯替主义和Cabala,学说为代表的第二个世纪的行政长官中坦纳(将军河四四。河梅尔,“寓言的春天”)。The idea that "the pious actions of the just increase the heavenly power" (Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, xxvi. 166b); that "the impious rely on their gods," but that "the just are the support of God" (Gen. R. lxix. 3), gave rise to the later cabalistic doctrine of man's influence on the course of nature, inasmuch as the good and the evil actions of man reenforce respectively the good or the evil powers of life.有观点认为,“虔诚的行动,只是增加天上的力量”(pesiḳ.二,海关布伯,26 166b。。)说,“不虔诚依靠他们的神”,但“正义是上帝的支持”(将军河lxix。3),引起了对人的影响以后的cabalistic对自然过程的理论,因为好的和人的罪恶行动,增援分别是好还是生活中的邪恶力量。

The heterogeneous elements of this Talmudic mysticism are as yet unfused; the Platonic-Alexandrian, Oriental-theosophic, and Judæo-allegorical ingredients being still easily recognizable and not yet elaborated into the system of the Cabala.此塔木德神秘主义的异质元素是尚未unfused,柏拉图,亚历山大,东方theosophic,和犹太-寓言成分仍然很容易被辨认和尚未进入系统的Cabala阐述。 Jewish monotheism was still transcendentalism.犹太一神教还是先验论。But as mysticism attempted to solve the problems of creation and world government by introducing sundry intermediary personages, creative potentialities such as Meṭaṭron, Shekinah, and so on, the more necessary it became to exalt God in order to prevent His reduction to a mere shadow; this exaltation being rendered possible by the introduction of the pantheistic doctrine of emanation, which taught that in reality nothing existed outside of God.但随着神秘主义试图通过引入中介人士杂货,创造性的潜力,如梅塔特隆,希金等,创造和世界政府的问题,更要成为发扬上帝,以防止他的减少只是一种阴影;这个被提升提供尽可能在泛神论的气学说,它告诉我们,在现实中没有存在的上帝以外的介绍。 Yet, if God is "the place of the world" and everything exists in Him, it must be the chief task of life to feel in union with God-a condition which the Merkabah-travelers, or, as the Talmud calls them, "the frequenters of paradise," strove to attain.然而,如果上帝是“世界上的地位”,一切都在他而存在,它必须是人生的主要任务感到神的结合,在条件的Merkabah,旅行者,或如塔木德呼吁他们,“在天堂的常客,“力求达到的。 Here is the point where speculation gives place to imagination.这是投机的地步,给地方的想象力。The visions which these mystics beheld in their ecstasies were considered as real, giving rise within the pale of Judaism to an anthropomorphic mysticism, which took its place beside that of the pantheists.这些神秘的异象中看见他们的狂喜被视为真正的,让苍白的犹太教内产生的拟人化的神秘主义,历时旁边的泛神论,它的位置。 Although Talmudic-Midrashic literature has left few traces of this movement (compare, eg, Ber. 7a, Sanh. 95b), the Rabbis opposing such extravagances, yet the writings of the church fathers bear evidence of many Judaizing Gnostics who were disciples of anthropomorphism (Origen, "De Principiis," i.; compare Clementina, Elcesaites, Minim).虽然塔木德,Midrashic文学留下了这一运动的痕迹(比较,例如,误码率。7A条,葬身。95B章),拉比反对这类奢侈品,但教会的父亲著作承担许多犹太化的诺斯替主义证据谁是弟子的拟(渊源,“德Principiis,”岛,比较克莱门蒂娜,Elcesaites,微量)。

Different Groups of Mystic Literature.志怪文学的不同群体。

The mystical literature of the geonic period forms the link between the mystic speculations of the Talmud and the system of the Cabala; originating in the one and reaching completion in the other.在一个和其他达到完成原产;的形式geonic时期之间的犹太法典神秘的猜测和系统的Cabala链接神秘的文学。It is extremely difficult to summarize the contents and object of this literature, which has been handed down in more or less fragmentary form.这是非常难以概括的内容和这种文学,一直流传在或多或少零碎表上的对象。It may perhaps be most conveniently divided into three groups: (1) theosophic; (2) cosmogenetic; (3) theurgic.这或许是最方便分为三组:(1)theosophic;(2)cosmogenetic(3)theurgic。 In regard to its literary form, the Midrashic-haggadic style may be distinguished from the liturgic-poetic style, both occurring contemporaneously.关于它的文学形式,Midrashic -阿haggadic风格可从礼拜式,诗歌风格区分,这两发生contemporaneously。The theosophical speculations deal chiefly with the person of Meṭaṭron-Enoch, the son of Jared turned into a fiery angel, a minor Yhwh-a conception with which, as mentioned before, many mystics of the Talmudic age were occupied.在神智揣测处理梅塔特隆-伊诺克的人主要是,儿子的贾里德变成了火热的天使,一个小耶和华,同一个概念,正如前面提到,许多同龄的神秘的塔木德被占用。 Probably a large number of these Enoch books, claiming to contain the visions of Enoch, existed, of which, however, only fragments remain (see "Monatsschrift," viii. 68 et seq., and Enoch, Book of).可能是这些伊诺克大量图书,声称含有的伊诺克的愿景,存在,其中,然而,只有碎片留(见“月刊,”八。68起。,以诺,书)。

"Meṭaṭron-Enoch." “梅塔特隆-诺。”

Curiously enough, the anthropomorphic description of God (see Shi'ur Ḳomah) was brought into connection with Meṭaṭron-Enoch in the geonic mysticism.奇怪的是,上帝的拟人化的描述(见Shi'urḲomah)被纳入与梅塔特隆-伊诺克连接在geonic神秘主义带来的。 This vexatious piece of Jewish theosophy, which afforded to Christians as well as to Karaites (compare Agobard; Solomon b. Jeroham) a welcome opportunity for an attack upon rabbinical Judaism, existed as a separate work at the time of the Geonim.这个犹太神智学,其中给予基督徒以及卡拉无理取闹一块(比较Agobard;索罗门湾耶罗罕)为一攻击犹太教犹太教值得欢迎的机会,不存在作为一个在单独的工作的时候,Geonim。 Judging from the fragments of "Shi'ur Ḳomah" (in Jellinek, "BH" iii. 91; ii. 41; in Wertheimer, "Hekalot," ch. xi.), it represented God as a being of gigantic dimensions, with limbs, arms, hands, feet, etc. The "Shi'ur Ḳomah" must have been held in high regard by the Jews, since Saadia tried to explain it allegorically-though he doubted that the tanna Ishmael could have been the author of the work (as quoted by Judah b. Barzilai in his commentary on "Sefer Yeẓirah," pp. 20-21)-and Hai Gaon, in spite of his emphatic repudiation of all anthropomorphism, defended it ("Teshubot ha-Geonim," Lick, p. 12a).看从“Shi'urḲomah”的片段(在耶利内克,“波黑”三91。二41;。。。在韦特海默,的“Hekalot,”胆固醇十一),它表现为一个存在的巨大尺寸,与神四肢,胳膊,手,脚等“Shi'urḲomah”必须在已举行的犹太人高度重视,因为Saadia试图解释它寓意,虽然他怀疑塔纳伊斯梅尔本来作者的工作(如犹太湾巴尔齐莱引述他的关于“Yeẓirah之书”,第20-21页的评注)和海Gaon,在他所有的拟人化的有力否定,尽管它辩护(“Teshubot公顷,Geonim,”舔,第12A条)。 The book probably originated at a time when the anthropomorphic conception of God was current-that is, in the age of Gnosticism, receiving its literary form only in the time of the Geonim.这本书很可能起源于一次当上帝的拟人化的概念是当前,也就是说,在诺斯替主义的年龄,只有在接收的时候,Geonim它的文学形式。 The Clementine writings, also, expressly teach that God is a body, with members of gigantic proportions; and so did Marcion.在克莱门汀的著作,还明确告诉我们,上帝是一个机构,庞大的比例成员;马吉安也一样。Adam Ḳadmon, the "primal man" of the Elcesaites, was also, according to the conception of these Jewish Gnostics, of huge dimensions; viz., ninety-six miles in height and ninety-four miles in breadth; being originally androgynous, and then cleft in two, the masculine part becoming the Messiah, and the feminine part the Holy Ghost (Epiphanius, "Hæres." xxx. 4, 16, 17; liii. 1).始祖亚当的“原始人类”的Elcesaites,还根据这些犹太诺斯替派的巨大尺寸的概念;即,九十六英里的高度和广度九四英里。被原雌雄同体,和然后在二裂,部分男性成为救世主,和女性的部分圣灵(埃皮法尼乌斯,“Hæres。的”XXX 4,16,17;。liii 1。)。

"Shi'ur Ḳomah."“Shi'urḲomah。”

According to Marcion, God Himself is beyond bodily measurements and limitations, and as a spirit can not even be conceived; but in order to hold intercourse with man, He created a being with form and dimensions, who ranks above the highest angels.据马吉安,上帝是超越身体测量和限制,并作为一种精神甚至不能设想,但为了保持与人交往中,他创造了一个与形状和尺寸,谁是高于最高排名是天使。 It was, presumably, this being whose shape and stature were represented in the "Shi'ur Ḳomah," which even the strict followers of Rabbinism might accept, as may be learned from the "Kerub ha-Meyuḥad" in the German Cabala, which will be discussed later in this article.据推测,这是其形状和地位的人代表的“Shi'urḲomah”,即使是严格的追随者的Rabbinism可以接受,因为可能会吸取“Kerub公顷,Meyuḥad”在德国Cabala,这将在本文后面讨论。

The Heavenly Halls.天梦大厅。

The descriptions of the heavenly halls ("Hekalot") in treatises held in high esteem at the time of the Geonim, and which have come down in rather incomplete and obscure fragments, originated, according to Hai Gaon, with those mystagogues of the Merkabah (), "who brought themselves into a state of entranced vision by fasting, asceticism, and prayer, and who imagined that they saw the seven halls and all that is therein with their own eyes, while passing from one hall into another (compare Ascension, and for a similar description of the Montanist ecstasy, Tertullian, "De Exhortatione Castitatis," x.). Although these Hekalot visions were to some extent productive of a kind of religious ecstasy, and were certainly of great service in the development of the liturgical poetry as shown in the Ḳedushah piyyuṭim, they contributed little to the development of speculative mysticism. This element became effective only in combination with the figure of Meṭaṭron or Meṭaṭron-Enoch, the leader of the Merkabah-travelers on their celestial journeys, who were initiated by him into the secrets of heaven, of the stars, of the winds, of the water, and of the earth, [see Meṭaṭron, and compare Mithras as driver of the Heavenly Chariot in "Dio Chrysostomus," ii. 60, ed. Dindorf; Windischmann, "Zoroastrische Studien," 1863, pp. 309-312; and Kohler, "Test.属天的大厅,在崇高的敬意举行的时候,Geonim论文(的“Hekalot”)的描述,并已回落在相当不完整的和模糊的碎片,起源,根据海Gaon与那些mystagogues的的Merkabah( ),“谁带进了一个理想的状态出神自己的斋戒,禁欲主义,并祈祷,谁想到,他们看到了七个大厅和其中所有的都用自己的眼睛,而从一个大厅传递到另一个(比较阿森松岛,并为在Montanist摇头丸,良类似的描述,“德Exhortatione Castitatis,”十)。虽然这些Hekalot愿景是在一定程度上那种忘我的宗教生产力,并具有一定的服务礼仪中的发展诗如Ḳedushahpiyyuṭim显示,他们的贡献不大,投机性的神秘主义的发展。这个元素才成为在与Metatron或梅塔特隆-伊诺克,的Merkabah,旅行者在他们的天体之旅,谁是领袖人物的组合更有效启动他进入天堂秘密风,星星,水,和地球,[见梅塔特隆,比较作为天上的战车司机在“迪欧Chrysostomus,”二。60,编密特拉。丁多夫; Windischmann“Zoroastrische Studien与”1863年,第309-312和科勒,“测试。of Job," p. 292.-K.]. Hence, many cosmological doctrines originally contained in the books of Enoch were appropriated, and the transition from theosophy to pure cosmology was made possible. Thus, in the Midr. Konen (Jellinek, "BH" ii. 23, 27), which is closely related to the "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit" (in Wertheimer, "Botte Midrashot," i. 18), the Torah, identical with the "Wisdom" of the Alexandrians, is represented as primeval and as the creative principle of the world, which produced the three primal elements, water, fire, and light, and these, in their turn, when commingled, produced the universe.的工作,“第292.-K.]。因此,许多宇宙学说原载于以诺书被挪用,以及从神智过渡到纯宇宙之所以成为可能。因此,在Midr。Konen(耐克, “波黑”二。23,27),这是密切相关的韦特海默,到“塞德Rabba二- Bereshit”(“Botte Midrashot,”岛18),圣经,与“智慧”的亚历山大相同,代表作为原始和世界,产生了三个原始内容,水,火,光,而这些,在轮到他们时,混合,产生了宇宙的创作原则。

Cosmological Theories.宇宙学理论。

In the description of the "six days of creation," in the Midrash in question, the important statement is made that the water disobeyed God's command-an old mythological doctrine of God's contest with matter (here represented by water), which in the later Cabala serves to account for the presence of evil in the world.在介绍“六​​创造天,”在有关米德拉士,最重要的说明是,水不服从与物质的神的命令一老神的比赛神话学说(这里水为代表),这在后来的Cabala旨在占了邪恶的世界的存在。 In "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit," however, the contest is between the masculine and feminine waters which strove to unite themselves, but which God separated in order to prevent the destruction of the world by water; placing the masculine waters in the heavens, and the feminine waters on the earth (lcp 6).在“塞德Rabba二- Bereshit,”不过,比赛是男性和女性之间的水域,力图团结起来,但上帝分开,以防止水世界毁灭,放置在天上的男性水域,和地球上的(液晶6)女性水域。 Independently of the creation, the "Baraita de-Middot ha-'Olam" and the "Ma'aseh Bereshit" describe the regions of the world with paradise in the east and the nether world in the west.独立的创造中,“baraita的去Middot公顷'Olam”和“Ma'aseh Bereshit”描述的天堂在东部和西部的阴间世界的地区。All these descriptions-some of them found as early as the second pre-Christian century, in the Test.所有这些说明,其中一些人发现,早在第二次前基督教世纪,在测试中。of Abraham and in Enoch; and, later on, in the Christian apocalyptic literature-are obviously remnants of ancient Essene cosmology.亚伯拉罕和诺,以及后来在基督教世界末日的文学,显然是古代遗留厄色尼宇宙学。

Theurgic Cabala.Theurgic Cabala。

The mysticism of this time had a practical as well as a theoretical side.神秘主义的这个时候有一个实际和理论的一面。Any one knowing the names and functions of the angels could control all nature and all its powers (compare, for example, Lam. R. ii. 8; and Hananeel in Rabbinical Literature).任何一个知道的名称和职能的天使可以控制所有的性质和其所有的权力(比较,例如,林河二8;。。和Hananeel在犹太教文学)。 Probably entrusted formerly only to oral tradition, the ancient names were written down by the mystics of the geonic period; and so Hai Gaon (in Eliezer Ashkenazi's collection, "Ta'am Zeḳenim," p. 56b) mentions a large number of such works as existing in his time: the "Sefer ha-Yashar," "Ḥarba de-Mosheh," "Raza Rabbah," "Sod Torah," "Hekalot Rabbati," "Hekalot Zuṭrati."也许以前只委托口头传统,古老的名字被写下来由geonic期间的神秘,等等海Gaon(在埃利泽德系的收集,“Ta'amZeḳenim,”第56B条),提到了大量有关工程因为现有在他那个时代:。“之书公顷亚沙尔”,“Ḥarba去Mosheh”,“拉扎拉巴”,“草圣经”的“Hekalot Rabbati”的“HekalotZuṭrati”Of all these works, aside from the Hekalot, only the "Ḥarba de-Mosheh" has recently been published by Gaster ("The Sword of Moses," in "Jour. Royal Asiatic Soc." 1896; also printed separately).所有这些作品,除了Hekalot,只有“Ḥarba去Mosheh”近日已出版法莫替丁(在“剑的摩西”,1896年“季刊皇家亚洲学会。。”;还印制另发)。 This book consists almost entirely of mystical names by means of which man may guard himself against sickness,enemies, and other ills, and may subjugate nature.这本书组成,几乎完全是神秘的名字通过这一手段的人可以防止疾病,敌人,自己和其他疾病,并可能征服自然。These and other works later on formed the basis of the theurgic Cabala.这些和其他工程后来形成了theurgic Cabala的基础。 The amplifications upon paradise and hell, with their divisions, occupy a totally independent and somewhat peculiar position in the geonic mysticism.在天堂与地狱,他们的师,扩增,占据了完全独立的geonic神秘,有点特殊的地位。They are ascribed for the greater part to the amora Joshua b.他们是认定的较大部分的阿莫拉约书亚湾Levi; but, in addition to this hero of the Haggadah, Moses himself is alleged to have been the author of the work "Ma'ayan Ḥokmah" (compare Soṭah ix. 15, which gives an account of heaven and the angels).列维,但是,除了这个英雄哈加达,摩西本人被指控一直是工​​作“马阿延Ḥokmah”的作者(比较Soṭah九十五,这给了天堂和天使帐户。)。

Mystical Literature in Geonic Times.神秘的文学若尼克时代。

Aside from the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which occupies a position of its own, the following is nearly a complete list of the mystic literature of the time of the Geonim, as far as it is preserved and known to-day: (1) "Alfa Beta de Rabbi Akiba," in two versions (Jellinek, "BH" iii.); (2) "Gan 'Eden," in different versions (Jellinek, lc ii., iii., v.); (3) "[Maseket] Gehinnom" (Jellinek, lci); (4) "Ḥarba de-Mosheh," ed.除了“Yeẓirah之书”,其中占有自己的位置,以下是近一个的时间神秘的Geonim文学的完整清单,就因为它是保存和已知的日常:(1)“阿尔法拉比秋叶贝塔德“,在两个版本(耐克,”波黑“三。)(2)”甘'伊甸园“,在不同的版本(耐克,立法会二,三,五。。)(3)” [Maseket] Gehinnom“(耐克,国际狮子总会),(4)”Ḥarba去Mosheh,“版。Gaster, 1896, reprinted from "Jour. Royal Asiatic Soc," 1896; (5) "Ḥibbuṭ ha-Ḳeber" (Jellinek, lci); (6) "Hekalot," in several recensions (Jellinek, lc ii., iii.; Wertheimer, "Jerusalem," 1889, the text varying considerably from that of Jellinek: the Book of Enoch is likewise a version of "Hekalot"); (7) "Haggadot Shema' Yisrael" (Jellinek, lcv; also belonging probably to the time of the Geonim); (8) "[Midrash] Konen" (printed several times; also in Jellinek, lci); (9) "Ma'aseh Merkabah" (in Wertheimer, "Botte Midrashot," ii.; a very ancient "Hekalot" version); (10) "Ma'aseh de Rabbi Joshua b. Levi," in different recensions (compare Apocalyptic Literature, Neo-Hebraic, No. 5); (11) "Ma'ayan Ḥokmah" (Jellinek, lci); (12) "Seder Rabba di-Bereshit," in Wertheimer, lci); (13) "Shimmusha Rabba we-Shimmusha Zuṭṭa" (Jellinek, lc vi.).法莫替丁,1896年,从重印“季刊皇家亚洲学会。”1896年(5)“Ḥibbuṭ公顷Ḳeber”(耐克,国际狮子总会),(6)的“Hekalot,”在几个recensions(耐克,立法会二,三。。 ;韦特海默,“耶路撒冷”,1889年,该文本从耶利内克的变化很大:以诺书是同样的的“Hekalot”版);(7)“haggadot的架构'Yisrael”(耐克,轻型商用车,大概也属于的Geonim时间),(8)“[米德拉士] Konen”(印几次;也耶利内克,国际狮子总会),(9)“Ma'aseh Merkaba上”(在韦特海默,“Botte Midrashot,”二。一很古老的“Hekalot”版本),在不同的recensions(10)“Ma'aseh德拉比​​约书亚乙利维”(世界末日比较文学,理学希伯来,第5号),(11)“马阿延Ḥokmah”(耶利内克,国际狮子总会),(12)“塞德Rabba二- Bereshit,”在韦特海默,国际狮子总会),(13)“Shimmusha Rabba我们- ShimmushaZuṭṭa”(耐克,立法会六)。。Mystical fragments, have been preserved in Pirḳe R. El., Num.神秘的碎片,一直保存在pirḳe传译下午。,序号。R., and Midr.R.和Midr。 Tadshe; also in the "Book of Raziel," which, though composed by a German cabalist of the thirteenth century, contains important elements of the geonic mysticism. Tadshe;亦在“拉赛尔书”,虽然由十三世纪德国cabalist组成,包含了geonic神秘的重要内容。

Origin of the Speculative Cabala.原产地的投机Cabala。

Eleazar of Worms' statement that a Babylonian scholar, Aaron b.埃莱亚萨虫'的声明说,巴比伦学者,阿龙湾 Samuel by name, brought the mystic doctrine from Babylonia to Italy about the middle of the ninth century, has been found to be actually true.按名称塞缪尔带来从巴比伦王国的神秘主义有关的第九世纪中叶到意大利,一直被认为是真的。Indeed, the doctrines of the "Kerub ha-Meyuḥad," of the mysterious power of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and of the great importance of the angels, are all found in the geonic mystic lore.事实上,该主义“Kerub公顷,Meyuḥad”的希伯来文字母表中的字母神秘的力量,以及非常重要的天使,都发现在geonic神秘的传说。 Even those elements that seem later developments may have been transmitted orally, or may have formed parts of the lost works of the old mystics.即使是那些要素,似乎后来的事态发展可能已转交口头,或可能已经形成的老神秘主义者的作品的部分损失。If, now, the German Cabala of the thirteenth century is to be regarded as merely a continuation of geonic mysticism, it follows that the speculative Cabala arising simultaneously in France and Spain must have had a similar genesis.如果,现在,在十三世纪德国Cabala是被视为仅仅是一个继续geonic神秘认为,因此而产生的投机Cabala在法国和西班牙同时必须有一个类似的起源。 It is the Sefer Yeẓirah which thus forms the link between the Cabala and the geonic mystics.这是书Yeẓirah因而才形式之间的Cabala和神秘主义的geonic链接。The date as well as the origin of this singular book are still moot points, many scholars even assigning it to the Talmudic period.的日期以及本奇异的书仍然没有实际意义的起源点,甚至将其分配给塔木德期间,许多学者。It is certain, however, that at the beginning of the ninth century the work enjoyed so great a reputation that no less a man than Saadia wrote a commentary on it.这是肯定的,但是,在九世纪初的工作享有如此巨大的声誉,不亚于Saadia人写了一篇关于它的评论。The question of the relation between God and the world is discussed in this book, the oldest philosophical work in the Hebrew language.作者:神与世界的关系问题是讨论这本书,最古老的希伯来文的语言哲学著作。

The "Sefer Yeẓirah."“Yeẓirah之书。”

The basic doctrines of the "Sefer Yeẓirah" are as follows: The fundamentals of all existence are the ten Sefirot.在“Yeẓirah之书”的基本教义如下:所有存在的基础是10个Sefirot。These are the ten principles that mediate between God and the universe.这是10个原则,调解之间的上帝和宇宙。They include the three primal emanations proceeding from the Spirit of God: (1) (literally, "air" or "spirit," probably to be rendered "spiritual air"), which produced (2) "primal water," which, in turn, was condensed into (3) "fire."它们包括三个原始emanations从上帝的精神:(1)(字面上看,“空气”或“精神”,大概要提供“精神气”),它生产的(2)“原水”,在反过来,被成(3)浓缩“火”。 Six others are the three dimensions in both directions (left and right); these nine, together with the Spirit of God, form the ten Sefirot.六人是在两个方向(左,右)的三个方面,这九个,加上精神的上帝,形成了十个Sefirot。 They are eternal, since in them is revealed the dominion of God.他们是永恒的,因为他们是揭示了上帝的统治。The first three preexisted ideally as the prototypes of creation proper, which became possible when infinite space, represented by the six other Sefirot, was produced.前三preexisted作为创造适当的理想,这成为可能时,无限空间,为其他六个个Sefirot代表,制作的原型。 The Spirit of God, however, is not only the begining but is also the end of the universe; for the Sefirot are closely connected with one another, "and their end is in their origin, as the flame is in the coal."上帝的精神,但是,是不是仅仅是一个开始,也是宇宙的尽头;为Sefirot是彼此密切联系,“他们到底是在其原产地,由于煤炭是火焰。”

While the three primal elements constitute the substance of things, the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet constitute the form.而原始的三个要素构成物质的东西,在希伯来文字母表的第二十二个字母构成的形式。The letters hover, as it were, on the boundary-line between the spiritual and the physical world; for the real existence of things is cognizable only by means of language, ie, the human capacity for conceiving thought.悬停的信件,因为它是关于边界之间的精神和物质世界线;为事物的真实存在认知的只有通过语言,即人力资源能力为构思思想的手段。 As the letters resolve the contrast between the substance and the form of things, they represent the solvent activity of God; for everything that is exists by means of contrasts, which find their solution in God, as, for instance, among the three primal elements, the contrasts of fire and water are resolved into ("air" or "spirit").至于解决的字母之间的实质内容和形式的东西相反,他们代表上帝的溶剂活动;的一切,它通过对比的方法,其中找到自己在神的解决办法,例如,之间存在着原始的三个要素,火,水是分解成对比(“空气”或“精神”)。

Mysticism of Jewish Heretics.犹太神秘主义的异端。

The importance of this book for the later Cabala, overestimated formerly, has been underestimated in modern times.此为后Cabala本书的重要性,高估前身,被低估了的现代倍。The emanations here are not the same as those posited by the cabalists; for no graduated scale of distance from the primal emanations is assumed, nor are the Sefirot here identical with those enumerated in the later Cabala.该emanations这里是不一样的cabalists相同的假定,因为没有从原始emanations距离刻度尺假设,也不是这里的Sefirot在后来Cabala列举的相同。 But the agreement in essential points between the later Cabala and the "Sefer Yeẓirah" must not be overlooked.但在与后来Cabala和“Yeẓirah之书”协议的基本点是不容忽视的。Both posit mediate beings in place of immediate creation out of nothing; and these mediate beings were not created, like those posited in the various cosmogonies, but are emanations.这两个假定的调解没有直接创造出生命的地方,而这些人并没有创造调解,像那些在各个cosmogonies假定,但放射物。 The three primal elements in the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which at first existed only ideally and then became manifest in form, are essentially identical with the worlds of Aẓilut and Beriah of the later Cabala.原始的三个要素在“Yeẓirah之书”,其中第一只存在理想,然后成为体现在形式上,基本上与Aẓilut和后Cabala比利亚的世界一样。 In connection with the "Sefer Yeẓirah" the mystical speculations of certain Jewish sects must be mentioned, which, toward the year 800, began to spread doctrines that for centuries had been known only to a few initiated ones.按照“Yeẓirah之书”连接某些犹太神秘教派的猜测必须提到,其中,对800年,开始蔓延,几百年来一直只知道几个发起的学说。 Thus the Maghariyites taught that God, who is too exalted to have any attributes ascribed to Him in Scripture, created an angel to be the real ruler of the world [compare the and Meṭaṭron in the Talmud.-K.]; and to this angel everything must be referred that Scripture recounts of God (Ḳirḳisani, extracts from his manuscript quoted by Harkavy in Rabbinowicz's Hebrew translation of Grätz's "Gesch. der Juden," iii. 496; separately under the title "Le-Ḳorot ha-Kittot be-Yisrael").因此,Maghariyites告诉我们,上帝,谁是太崇高有任何属性归因于他的经文,创造了一个天使是世界真正的统治者[比较在Talmud. - K的和梅塔特隆。]和这个天使一切都必须提到的圣经叙述上帝(Ḳirḳisani,由Harkavy引述Rabbinowicz的希伯来格拉茨的翻译他的手稿中提取三496的“Gesch德国犹太人。”;。分开,题目是“乐Ḳorot公顷Kittot的BE - Yisrael “)。This Jewish form of the Gnostic Demiurge, which was also known to the Samaritans (Baneth, "Marquah, on the twenty two Letters of the Alphabet," pp. 52-54), was accepted with slight modifications by the Karaites (Judah Hadassi, "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 25c, 26b) as well as by the German cabalists, as will be shown further on.这对诺斯底造物主,这也是众所周知的撒玛利亚(鲍奈特,“Marquah上的字母二十两封信,”页52-54),是由在卡拉(犹大hadassi接受犹太形式稍作修改, “埃什科尔夏- Kofer,”25℃,26B条,以及由德国cabalists),也将进一步显示。Benjamin Nahawendi seems to have known of other emanations in addition to this Demiurge (see Harkavy, lcv 16).本杰明Nahawendi似乎已经知道其他emanations除了这个造物主(见Harkavy,轻型商用车16)。These, of course, were not new theories originating at this time, but an awakening of Jewish Gnosticism, that had been suppressed for centuries by the increasing preponderance of Rabbinism, and now reappeared not by chance, at a time when Sadduceeism, the old enemy of Rabbinism, also reappeared, under the name of Karaism.这些,当然,并没有在这个时候发起新的理论,而是一个犹太诺斯替主义,已被压抑了几百年的Rabbinism增加优势,并以现在的时间又出现不是偶然的,觉醒的时候Sadduceeism,旧的敌人的Rabbinism,也重新出现,下Karaism名称。 But while the latter, as appealing to the masses, was energetically and even bitterly attacked by the representatives of Rabbinism, they made allowance for a revival of Gnosticism.但是,尽管作为吸引群众后者,是积极,甚至强烈的攻击的Rabbinism的代表,他们提出了复兴的诺斯替主义津贴。 For, although the cabalistic treatises ascribed to certain geonim were probably fabricated in later times, it is certain that numbers of the geonim, even many who were closely connected with the academies, were ardent disciples of mystic lore.因为,尽管归因于某些geonim的cabalistic论文很可能在稍后的时间制作,可以肯定的是数字的Geonim,甚至许多谁是密切相连的院校,都是神秘的传说殷切的弟子。 The father of the German Cabala was, as is now known, a Babylonian (see Aaron b. Samuel ha-Nasi), who emigrated to Italy in the first half of the ninth century, whence the Kalonymides later carried their teachings to Germany, where in the thirteenth century an esoteric doctrine, essentially identical with that which prevailed in Babylon about 800, is accordingly found.作者的父亲是德国Cabala,因为现在已经知道,一个巴比伦(见阿龙湾塞缪尔公顷,纳西),谁移民到意大利的第九世纪上半叶,何时开展他们的教诲Kalonymides后来到德国,在那里在13世纪的一个深奥的理论,本质上是相同的盛行在巴比伦约800人,是据此找到。

Influence of Greco-Arabic Philosophy.影响希腊阿拉伯哲学。

While the branch of the Cabala transplanted to Italy remained untouched by foreign influences, the reaction of Greco-Arabic philosoph yon Jewish mysticism became apparent in the Arabic-speaking countries.虽然分公司的Cabala移植到意大利仍是外国势力不动,在希腊阿拉伯犹太神秘主义哲学理论的延亨默在反应成为讲阿拉伯语的国家明显。 The following doctrines of Arab philosophy especially influenced and modified Jewish mysticism, on account of the close relationship between the two.阿拉伯哲学的理论,特别是影响和下面的修改对两者之间的密切关系帐户犹太神秘主义。The "Faithful Brothers of Basra," as well as the Neoplatonic Aristotelians of the ninth century, have left their marks on the Cabala. “忠实巴士拉兄弟”,以及第九届世纪的新柏拉图亚里士多德,都留下了他们的商标上的Cabala。The brotherhood taught, similarly to early Gnosticism, that God, the highest Being, exalted above all differences and contrasts, also surpassed everything corporeal and spiritual; hence, the world could only be explained by means of emanations.教的兄弟情谊,同样对早期诺斯替主义,上帝,最高的存在,上述一切分歧和反差崇高,也超越一切肉体和精神,因此,世界上只能被解释的放射物的手段。 The graduated scale of emanations was as follows: (1) the creating spirit (νοῦς); (2) the directing spirit, or the world-soul; (3) primal matter; (4) active nature, a power proceeding from the world-soul; (5) the abstract body, also called secondary matter; (6) the world of the spheres; (7) the elements of the sublunary world; and (8) the world of minerals, plants, and animals composed of these elements.毕业的放射物规模如下:(1)创造精神(νοῦς),(二)指导精神,或世界灵魂;(3)原始物质;(四)积极性,从世界大国进行灵魂乐(5)抽象的身体,也称为次要的问题;(6)该领域的世界;(7)sublunary世界的元素;及(8)的矿物,植物世界,动物组成的这些元素。 These eight form, together with God, the absolute One, who is in and with everything, the scale of the nine primal substances, corresponding to the nine primary numbers and the nine spheres.这八个表格,连同神,绝对的,谁在与万事大吉,对九原始物质的规模,相当于九原号码和九个领域。These nine numbers of the "Faithful Brothers" (compare De Boer, "Gesch. der Philosophie im Islam," p. 84; Dieterici, "Die Sogenannte Theologie des Aristoteles," p. 38; idem, "Weltseele," p. 15) have been changed by a Jewish philosopher of the middle of the eleventh century into ten, by counting the four elements not as a unit, but as two ("Torat ha-Nefesh," ed. Isaac Broydé, pp. 70, 75; compare, also, Guttmann, in "Monatsschrift," xlii. 450).“忠诚兄弟”这9个号码(比较德波尔,的“Gesch明镜哲学的即时伊斯兰教。”第84页; Dieterici,“模具Sogenannte德亚里士多德神学”,第38页;同上,“Weltseele”,第15页)已经改变了一个第十一届世纪中叶犹太哲学家为十个,不是作为一个计数单位的四个要素,但作为两个(“Torat公顷,诉愿,”版艾萨克Broydé,第70,75。比较,同时,古特曼在“月刊,”四十二。450)。

Gabirol's, Influence upon the Cabala.盖比鲁勒的,影响后的Cabala。

Solomon ibn Gabirol's doctrines influenced the development of the Cabala more than any other philosophical system; and his views on the will of God and on the intermediate beings between God and the creation were especially weighty.所罗门伊本盖比鲁勒的学说影响的Cabala比其他任何哲学体系更加发展,对上帝的意志和创造之间的上帝和人中间,特别是他的意见举足轻重。 Gabirol considers God as an absolute unity, in whom form and substance are identical; hence, no attributes can be ascribed to God, and man can comprehend God only by means of the beings emanating from Him.盖比鲁勒认为上帝是绝对的统一的,就是形式和内容是相同的,因此,没有属性可以归因于上帝,而人可以理解的,只有从他所产生的神人的手段。 Since God is the beginning of all things, and composite substance the last of all created things, there must be intermediate links between God and the universe; for there is necessarily a distance between the beginning and the end, which otherwise would be identical.因为上帝是万物的开始,复合物质上的一切创造的东西最后,必须有上帝和宇宙之间的中间环节,不过是必然之间的开始和结束,否则将是相同的距离。

The first intermediate link is the will of God, the hypostasis of all things created; Gabirol meaning by will the creative power of God manifested at a certain point of time, and then proceeding in conformity with the laws of the emanations.第一个中间环节是上帝,所有东西的创造本质的意志;盖比鲁勒含义将上帝的创造力在某一时点显现出来,然后按照法律程序与放射物的法律。 As this will unites two contrasts-namely, God, the actor, and substance, the thing acted upon-it must necessarily partake of the nature of both, being factor and factum at the same time.由于这将团结两个反差,即上帝,演员,和实质,采取行动的事情,它必须在两者性质,即因子和factum参加在同一时间。 The will of God is immanent in everything; and from it have proceeded the two forms of being, "materia universalis" (ὕλη) and "forma universalis."上帝的意志是一切内在的,并从它已开始被“本草纲目普遍主义”(ὕλη)和两个形式的“形式上的普遍主义。” But only God is "creator ex nihilo": all intermediary beings create by means of the graduated emanation of what is contained in them potentially.但是,只有上帝是“创造无中生有”:所有通过中介的人对什么是其中含有可能毕业气手段创造。Hence, Gabirol assumes five intermediary beings () between God and matter; namely: (1) will; (2) matter in general and form; (3) the universal spirit (); (4) the three souls, namely, vegetative, animal, and thinking soul; and (5) the nature, the motive power, of bodies.因此,盖比鲁勒假设五中介的人()与上帝的事,即:(1)将(2)物质和一般形式;(3)普遍的精神()(4)三个灵魂,即营养,动物,和思想灵魂;及(5)的性质,动力的机构。 Gabirol (quoted by Ibn Ezra, commentary on Isa. xliii. 7) also mentions the three cabalistic worlds, Beriah, Yeẓirah, and 'Asiyah; while he considers Aẓilut to be identical with the will.盖比鲁勒(。。伊本以斯拉,评伊萨引述四十三7)也提到三个cabalistic世界,比利亚,Yeẓirah,和'Asiyah,而他认为Aẓilut要与将完全相同。 The theory of the concentration of God, by which the Cabala tries to explain the creation of the finite out of the infinite, is found in mystical form in Gabirol also (see Munk, "Mélanges," pp. 284, 285).在神的浓度,其中的Cabala试图解释的有限出无限的创作,理论是神秘的形式中找到在盖比鲁勒也(见芒克,“混杂”,第284,285)。

Still, however great the influence which Gabirol exercised on the development of the Cabala, it would be incorrect to say that the latter is derived chiefly from him.尽管如此,但是大的这盖比鲁勒的发展Cabala行使影响力,这将是不正确的说,后者主要是来自他。The fact is that when Jewish mystic lore came in contact with Arabic-Jewish philosophy, it appropriated those elements that appealed to it; this being especially the case with Gabirol's philosophy on account of its mystical character.事实是,当犹太神秘的传说与阿拉伯语的犹太哲学接触过,它拨出这些元素,呼吁它,这是特别与盖比鲁勒的关于其神秘人物帐户哲学案件。 But other philosophical systems, from Saadia to Maimonides, were also laid under contribution.但是其他的哲学体系,从Saadia迈蒙尼德,也奠定下的贡献。Thus the important German cabalist Eleazar of Worms was strongly influenced by Saadia; while Ibn Ezra's views found acceptance among the Germanas well as the Spanish cabalists.因此,重要的德国秘术埃莱亚萨虫是强烈影响Saadia,而伊本以斯拉的看法以及发现其中Germanas西班牙cabalists验收。 Possibly even Maimonides, the greatest representative of rationalism among the Jews of the Middle Ages, contributed to the cabalistic doctrine of the "En-Sof" by his teaching that no attributes could be ascribed to God [unless it be of Pythagorean origin (see Bloch, in Winter and Wünsche, "Jüdische Literatur," iii. 241, note 3).-.甚至可能迈蒙尼德,最大的理性之间的中世纪犹太人的代表,促成了“恩特种部队”由他的教学cabalistic学说,没有属性可以归因于上帝[除非它是毕达哥拉斯起源(见布洛赫在冬季和Wünsche,“Jüdische文学Literatur,”三。241,注3).-.

The German Cabala.德国Cabala。

The esoteric doctrines of the Talmud, the mysticism of the period of the Geonim, and Arabic Neo-platonic philosophy are thus the three chief constituents of the Cabala proper as it is found in the thirteenth century.犹太法典,对神秘主义时期的Geonim和阿拉伯语新柏拉图主义哲学的深奥的理论是这样三个主要的Cabala适当的,因为它是在十三世纪发现成分。 These heterogeneous elements also explain the strange fact that the Cabala appeared at the same time in two different centers of culture, under different social and political conditions, each form being entirely different in character from the other.这些异质元素也解释了奇怪的事实,即Cabala出现在两种不同文化的中心,同时,在不同的社会和政治条件,每种形式是完全不同的其他字符。 The German Cabala is a direct continuation of geonic mysticism.德国Cabala是直接继续geonic神秘。Its first representative is Judah the Pious (died 1217), whose pupil, Eleazar of Worms, is its most important literary exponent.它的第一个代表是犹太的虔诚(死于1217年),他的学生,以利亚撒的蠕虫,是其最重要的文学指数。Abraham Abulafia was its last representative, half a century later.亚伯拉罕Abulafia是其最后的代表,半个世纪以后。 The correctness of Eleazar's statement (in Del Medigo's "Maẓref la-Ḥokmah," ed. 1890, pp. 64, 65), to the effect that the Kalonymides carried the esoteric doctrines with them from Italy to Germany about 917, has been satisfactorily established.以利亚撒的声明的正确性(在德尔Medigo的“Maẓref腊Ḥokmah,”版。1890年,第64,65岁),其大意是Kalonymides通过与他们从意大利,深奥的理论约917到德国,已得到令人满意的建立。 Till the time of Eleazar these doctrines were in a certain sense the private property of the Kalonymides, and were kept secret until Judah the Pious, himself a member of this family, commissioned his pupil Eleazar to introduce the oral and written esoteric doctrine into a larger circle.直到时间埃莱亚萨这些理论在一定意义上Kalonymides私有财产,并保持到犹大秘密的虔诚,自己是这个家庭的成员,委托他的瞳孔埃莱亚萨引入较大的口头和书面深奥的理论圈。

Christian and Jewish Mysticism.基督教和犹太教的神秘主义。

The essential doctrines of this school are as follows: God is too exalted for mortal mind to comprehend, since not even the angels can form an idea of Him.这所学校的基本教义是:上帝是太崇高精神为凡人理解,因为即使天使,可以形成一个他的看法。In order to be visible to angels as well as to men, God created out of divine fire His ("majesty"), also called which has size and shape and sits on a throne in the east, as the actual representative of God.为了能看到天使,以及男人,上帝创造了他的神圣的火(“陛下”),也称为它的大小和形状以及在东部坐在宝座是上帝的实际代表。 His throne is separated by a curtain () on the east, south, and north from the world of angels; the side on the west being uncovered [compare, however, God's Shekinah dwelling in the east ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 57).-K.], so that the light of God, who is in the west, may illuminate it.他的宝座是分隔的帷幕(在东,南,北,从世界的天使),关于西侧被发现[比较,但是,神的希金住在东(“使徒宪法,”二57。 ).-光],使光明神,谁是在西部,可以照亮。All the anthropomorphic statements of Scripture refer to this "majesty" (), not to God Himself, but to His representative.所有拟人化报表的经文是指这个“陛下”(),而不是上帝,而是他的代表。Corresponding to the different worlds of the Spanish cabalists, the German cabalists also assume four (sometimes five) worlds; namely: (1) the world of the "glory" () just mentioned; (2) the world of angels; (3) the world of the animal soul; and (4) the world of the intellectual soul.对应于不同的世界西班牙cabalists,德国cabalists还承担四个(有时5)世界,即:(1)的“荣耀”(刚才提到的)世界,(2)世界的天使(3)动物的心灵世界,(4)智慧的灵魂世界。 It is easy to discern that this curious theosophy is not a product of the age in which the German cabalists lived, but is made up of ancient doctrines, which, as stated above, originated in the Talmudic period.这是很容易辨别,这种奇怪的神智是不是时代,因为德国cabalists生活的产物,而是由古老的学说,其中,如上所述,在塔木德期间的起源,注册。 The Germans, lacking in philosophical training, exerted all the greater influence on the practical Cabala as well as on ecstatic mysticism.德国,缺乏哲学训练,施加了实际Cabala以及​​对欣喜若狂的神秘主义的所有较大的影响。 Just as in Spain about this time the deeply religious mind of the Jews rose in revolt against the cold Aristotelian rationalism that had begun to dominate the Jewish world through the influence of Maimonides, so the German Jews, partly influenced by a similar movement within Christianity, began to rise against the traditional ritualism.正如在西班牙就在这个时候的犹太人起义深刻的宗教的心中,在寒冷的奋起反抗亚里士多德理性主义已经开始主宰通过对迈蒙尼德的影响,所以德国犹太人的犹太世界部分是由一个类似的运动在基督教的影响,开始回升,对传统形式主义。 Judah the Pious (Introduction to "Sefer Ḥasidim") reproaches the Talmudists with "poring too much over the Talmud without reaching any results."犹太的虔诚(介绍“之书的ḥasidim”)与责备的Talmudists“竟能没有达成任何结果过份的塔木德了。” Hence, the German mystics attempted to satisfy their religious needs in their own way; namely, by contemplation and meditation.因此,德国神秘主义者试图用自己的方式满足他们的宗教需要,即通过沉思和冥想。Like the Christian mystics (Preger, "Gesch. der Deutschen Mystik," p. 91), who symbolized the close connection between the soul and God by the figure of marriage, the Jewish mystics described the highest degree of love of man for God in sensuous forms in terms taken from marital life.像基督教神秘主义者(Preger,的“Gesch。德意志Mystik明镜”,第91页),象征着谁的灵魂和神之间的密切联系的婚姻图,犹太神秘主义者描述了神对人爱的最高学位在感性形式方面采取从婚姻生活。 While study of the Law was to the Talmudists the very acme of piety, the mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress toward God, demanding a state of ecstasy.虽然对法律研究的Talmudists是非常极致的虔诚,神秘主义者所给予的第一个地方祈祷,这被认为是一个神秘的进展,对上帝,要求一种忘我的状态。 It was the chief task of the practical Cabala to produce this ecstatic mysticism, already met with among the Merkabah-travelers of the time of the Talmud and the Geonim; hence, this mental state was especially favored and fostered by the Germans.这是实际Cabala的首要任务产生这种欣喜若狂的神秘主义,已经见过其中的Merkabah,对塔木德和与旅客的时候,Geonim,因此,这种心理状态,尤其是由德国人青睐和培育。 Alphabetical and numeral mysticism constitutes the greater part of Eleazar's works, and is to be regarded simply as means to an end; namely, to reach a state of ecstasy by the proper employment of the names of God and of angels, "a state in which every wall is removed from the spiritual eye" (Moses of Tachau, in "Oẓar Neḥmad," iii. 84; compare Güdemann, "Gesch. des Erziehungswesens," i. 159 et seq.).字母和数字神秘主义构成了埃莱亚萨的作品更大的一部分,是被视为仅仅作为目的的手段,就是要达到对上帝的名字正确的就业和天使“的状态,其中一个忘我的状态墙垣都将从精神眼“(摩西Tachau,在”OẓarNeḥmad,“三84;。比较Güdemann,的”Gesch德Erziehungswesens,“岛159起。。)。

The point of view represented by the anonymous book "Keter Shem-Ṭob" (ed. Jellinek, 1853), ascribed to Abraham of Cologne and certainly a product of the school of Eleazar of Worms, represents the fusion of this German Cabala with the Provençal-Spanish mysticism.的角度来看,由无名书“Keter闪,尖”(编辑耶利内克,1853年)归属于科隆亚伯拉罕,肯定是对产品的学校埃莱亚萨虫为代表,代表了这个普罗旺斯德国Cabala融合和西班牙的神秘主义。 According to this work, the act of creation was brought about by a primal power emanating from the simple will of God.根据这项工作,创造的行为所带来的是从神的原始简单的将产生的力量。This eternal, unchangeable power transformed the potentially existing universe into the actual world by means of graduated emanations.这永恒的,不可改变的力量转化为现实世界的手段,毕业于放射物可能存在的宇宙。These conceptions, originating in the school of Azriel, are herein combined with Eleazar's theories on the meaning of the Hebrew letters according to their forms and numerical values.这些概念,在原学校Azriel,此处结合本希伯来根据其形式和数值字母的含义利亚撒的理论。The central doctrine of this work refers to the Tetragrammaton; the author assuming that the four letters yod, he, vaw, and he () were chosen by God for His name because they were peculiarly distinguished from all other letters.这项工作的中心学说是指Tetragrammaton,笔者假设四个字母yod,他,妇女的暴力行为,他()被选定为他的名字,上帝,因为他们独有的所有其他字母区分。 Thus yod, considered graphically, appears as the mathematical point from which objects were developed, and therefore symbolizes the spirituality of God to which nothing can be equal.因此yod,审议生动,表现为数学点从被开发的对象,因此,象征着上帝的灵性而没有任何东西可以是平等的。As its numerical value equals ten, the highest number, so there are ten classes of angels, and correspondingly the seven spheres with the two elements-fire cohering with air, and water with earth, respectively-and the One who directs them all, making together ten powers; and finally the ten Sefirot.由于其数值等于10,最高的数字,所以有十个班级的天使,以及相应的七个两个要素火与空气凝聚领域,用土和水,分别和一个谁指使他们,使聚在一起的十国,最后的十个Sefirot。 In this way the four letters of the Tetragrammaton are explained in detail.A generation later a movement in opposition to the tendencies of this book arose in Spain; aiming to supplant speculative Cabala by a prophetic visionary one.在这样的Tetragrammaton的四个字母都detail.A代反对这本书后,一个运动的倾向解释出现在西班牙,旨在取代一个有远见的预言之一投机Cabala。 Abraham Abulafia denied the doctrines of emanations and the Sefirot, and, going back to the German mystics, asserted that the true Cabala consisted in letter and number mysticism, which system, rightly understood, brings man into direct and close relations with the "ratio activa" (), the active intelligence of the universe, thus endowing him with the power of prophecy.亚伯拉罕Abulafia否认emanations和sefirot的教义,并回到德国神秘主义者断言,真正的Cabala在字母和数字神秘主义,它的系统,正确地理解,带来直接和密切的关系与“人比活化“(),宇宙活动的情报,从而赋予他权力的预言。 In a certain sense Joseph b.在一定意义上约瑟夫BAbraham Gikatilla, a cabalist eight years younger than Abulafia, may also be included in the German school, since he developed the letter and vowel mysticism, thereby introducing the practical Cabala into many circles.亚伯拉罕Gikatilla,一个秘术8岁的Abulafia年轻,也可能被包括在德国学校,因为他开发的文字和元音神秘主义,从而引入到实际Cabala许多圈子。 Yet Gikatilla, like his contemporary Tobias Abulafia, still hesitates between the abstract speculative Cabala of the Provençal-Spanish Jews and the concrete letter symbolism of the Germans.然而Gikatilla,喜欢他的当代托比亚斯Abulafia,仍徘徊于投机Cabala抽象的普罗旺斯和西班牙犹太人和德国人的具体信的象征。 These two main movements are finally combined in the Zoharistic books, wherein, as Jellinek rightly says, "the syncretism of the philosophical and cabalistic ideas of the century appears complete and finished."这两个主要的变动最终结合在Zoharistic书籍,其中,作为耶利内克正确地说,“本世纪的哲学和cabalistic的想法似乎完全融合和成品。”

The Cabala in Provence.在普罗旺斯Cabala。

While the German mystics could refer to authentic traditions, the cabalists of Spain and southern France were obliged to admit that they could trace their doctrines, which they designated as "the tradition" ("Ḳabbalah"; thus an Oriental scholar as early as 1223; compare Harkavy, Hebrew transl. of Grätz's "Gesch. der Juden," v. 47), to authorities no older than the twelfth century.虽然德国神秘主义者可以指真正的传统,西班牙和法国南部的cabalists不得不承认,他们就可以追查他们的学说,他们认为“传统”(“卡巴拉”指定,因此像1223年初的东方学者;比较Harkavy,希伯来文译的格拉茨的。的“Gesch。德国犹太人,”诉47),当局没有比12世纪老。 The modern historian has greater difficulties in determining the origin of the Cabala in Provence than the cabalists themselves had; for they agreed that the esoteric doctrines had been revealed by the prophet Elijah, in the beginning of the twelfth century, to Jacob ha-Nazir, who initiated Abraham b.现代历史学家在确定普罗旺斯比cabalists自己有更大的Cabala来源困难,因为他们一致认为,深奥的理论,已透露的先知以利亚在十二世纪初,雅各布公顷纳齐尔,是谁发起亚伯拉罕湾 David of Posquières, whose son, Isaac the Blind, transmitted them further.对Posquières,他的儿子,以撒盲人,他们进一步传播大卫。But Isaac the Blind can not possibly be credited with being the originator of the speculative Cabala, for it is far too complicated to be the work of one man, as is evident by the writings of Azriel (born about 1160), the alleged pupil of Isaac.但艾萨克盲人不可能记入作为鼻祖的投机Cabala,因为它太复杂,是一个人的工作,这是显而易见的著作的Azriel(约1160年出生),被指控的瞳孔以撒。 Azriel, moreover, speaks of the Sefirot, of the En-Sof, and of the cabalists of Spain (in Sachs's "Ha-Paliṭ," p. 45); and it is absolutely impossible that Isaac the Blind, who was not much older than Azriel (his father Abraham b. David died in 1198), could have founded a school so quickly that Spanish scholars would be able to speak of the contrast between cabalists and philosophers as Azriel does.阿兹列尔,而且,谈到了恩特种部队个Sefirot,并在西班牙cabalists的(在高盛的“哈,同德,”第45页),它是绝对不可能的艾萨克盲人,谁没有老多比阿兹列尔(他的父亲亚伯拉罕湾大卫在1198年去世),可以成立一所学校如此之快,西班牙学者将能说话之间cabalists的哲学家和不作为Azriel对比。 If there be any truth in this tradition of the cabalists, it can only mean that the relation of Isaac the Blind to the speculative Cabala was the same as that of his contemporary Eleazar of Worms to German mysticism; namely, that just as the latter made the esoteric doctrines-which were for centuries in the possession of one family, or at any rate of a very small circle-common property, so Isaac introduced the doctrines of the speculative Cabala for the first time into larger circles.如果有任何在这个传统的cabalists真理,它只能意味着艾萨克盲人的投机Cabala关系是一样的,他的当代埃莱亚萨的蠕虫德国神秘主义,即仅仅因为后者提出,深奥的理论,这是在一个家庭拥有数百年,或在任何一个很小的圈子,共同财产的速度,使艾萨克介绍了第一次到更大的圈子的投机理论Cabala。 It may furthermore be assumed that the speculative philosophy of Provence, like German mysticism, originated in Babylon: Neoplatonism, reaching there its highest development in the eighth and ninth centuries, could not but influence Jewish thought.它可能还假定思辨哲学的普罗旺斯,像德国神秘主义在巴比伦起源:柏拉图,有其深远的最高在第八和第九世纪的发展,不能不影响犹太思想。 Gabirol, as well as the author of "Torat ha-Nefesh," bears evidence of this influence on Jewish philosophy; while the Cabala took up the mystic elements of Neoplatonism.盖比鲁勒,以及作者的“Torat公顷,诉愿,”熊本关于犹太哲学影响的证据,而接手的Cabala的柏拉图主义的神秘元素。 The Cabala, however, is not a genuine product of the Provençal Jews; for just those circles in which it is found were averse to the study of philosophy.该Cabala,但是,是不是一个真正的产品普罗旺斯犹太人;的只是那些圈子中发现的,它是厌恶学习哲学。 The essential portions of the Cabala must, on the contrary, have been carried to Provence from Babylon; being known only to a small circle until Aristotelianism began to prevail, when the adherents of the speculative Cabala were forced to make their doctrine public.的基本部分的Cabala必须与此相反,已进行到普罗旺斯从巴比伦;目前已知唯一的一个小圆圈,直到亚里士多德开始占上风,当信徒的投机Cabala被迫使他们的学说公开。

The Treatise on Emanation.对射气的论文。

The earliest literary product of the speculative Cabala is the work "Masseket Aẓilut," which contains the doctrine of the four graduated worlds as well as that of the concentration of the Divine Being.最早的文学产品的投机Cabala是工作“MasseketAẓilut”,其中包含四个毕业于世界学说以及相关的神圣浓度存在。 The form in which the rudiments of the Cabala are presented here, as well as the emphasis laid on keeping the doctrine secret and on the compulsory piety of the learners, is evidence of the early date of the work.在其中的雏形的Cabala这里给出的形式,以及对保持秘密的学说和学习者的义务教育奠定了虔诚的重视,是这项工作的早日证据。 At the time when "Masseket Aẓilut" was written the Cabala had not yet become a subject of general study, but was still confined to a few of the elect.当时当“MasseketAẓilut”写的Cabala尚未成为一个普遍研究的主题,但仍局限于少数的选举。The treatment is on the whole the same as that found in the mystical writings of the time of the Geonim, with which the work has much in common; hence, there is no reason for not regarding it as a product of that time.治疗总体上是相同的,在时间的Geonim,与该工作有许多共同之处,发现了神秘的著作,因此,没有一个不把这个时间作为产品的原因。 The doctrines of Meṭaṭron, and of angelology especially, are identical with those of the Geonim, and the idea of the Sefirot is presented so simply and unphilosophically that one is hardly justified in assuming that it was influenced directly by any philosophical system.作者:梅塔特隆的教义,特别是和天使,都与那些相同的Geonim和想法的Sefirot是如此简单和unphilosophically,一个是很难的假设,它是任何哲学体系的影响,直接理由。

"Bahir." “算术珍本”。

Just as in the "Masseket Aẓilut" the doctrine of the ten Sefirot is based on the "Sefer Yeẓirah" (ed. Jellinek, p. 6, below), so the book Bahir, which, according to some scholars, was composed by Isaac the Blind, and which in any case originated in his school, starts from the doctrines of the "Sefer Yeẓirah," which it explains and enlarges.正如在“MasseketAẓilut”的十个Sefirot学说是基于“之书Yeẓirah”(编辑耶利内克,第6页,以下),因此该书巴赫达尔,而根据一些学者,组成由艾萨克盲人,并在他的学校所发出的情况下,从“Yeẓirah之书”,它扩大了理论解释和开始。 This book was of fundamental importance in more than one way for the development of the speculative Cabala.这本书是具有根本的重要性,在一个以上的投机Cabala发展之路。The Sefirot are here divided into the three chief ones-primal light, wisdom, and reason-and the seven secondary ones that have different names. Sefirot是这里分为三个主要的,原始的轻,智慧和理性,以及七个具有不同的名称次要。This division of the Sefirot, which goes through the entire Cabala, is found as early as Pirḳe R. Eliezer III., from which the "Bahir" largely borrowed; but here for the first time the doctrine of the emanation of the Sefirot is clearly enunciated.这种分工的Sefirot,它贯穿了整个Cabala去,发现只要Pirḳe河埃利泽三早,从其中的“算术珍本”主要是借来的。但在这里,第一次的气学说的Sefirot显然阐述。 They are conceived as the intelligible primal principles of the universe, the primary emanations of the Divine Being, that together constitute the (τὸ πᾶν = "the universe").他们被视为宇宙的理解原始原则设想,神圣的主要放射物的存在,一起构成了(τὸπᾶν=“宇宙”)。The emanation is regarded, not as having taken place once, but as continuous and permanent; and the author has such an imperfect conception of the import of this idea that he regards the emanation as taking place all at once, and not in graduated series.被视为射气析出,而不是有发生一次,但持续和永久的;和作者有这样一个这一思想观念,进口不完善他认为服用一次所有的地方,而不是在毕业系列的化身。 But this assumption annihilates the whole theory of emanation, which attempts to explain the gradual transitionfrom the infinite to the finite, comprehensible only in the form of a graduated series.但这个假设被歼灭,气,它试图解释逐步transitionfrom上唯一的一个毕业级数形式无限到有限,理解整个理论。

Opposition to Aristotelianism.反对亚里士多德。

On the whole, the contents of the book-which seems to be a compilation of loosely connected thoughts-justify the assumption that it is not the work of one man or the product of one school, but the first serious attempt to collect the esoteric doctrines that for centuries had circulated orally in certain circles of Provence, and to present them to a larger audience.整体而言,书的内容,这似乎是一个松散的联系思想的汇编,足以认定它是不是一个人的工作或产品的一所学校,但第一次认真的尝试,以收集,深奥的理论这几个世纪以来流传于口头的某些圈子普罗旺斯,并提交给更多的观众。 The work is important because it gave to those scholars who would have nothing to do with the philosophy then current-namely, Aristotelianism-the first incentive to a thorough study of metaphysics.这项工作很重要,因为它给这些学者谁也无关,与当时的哲学,即亚里士多德,第一动力的深入研究形而上学。 The first attempt to place the cabalistic doctrine of the Sefirot on a dialectic basis could have been made only by a Spanish Jew, as the Provençal Jews were not sufficiently familiar with philosophy, and the few among them that devoted themselves to this science were pronounced Aristotelians who looked with contempt upon the speculations of the cabalists.第一次尝试把一个辩证的基础上的Sefirot cabalistic学说本来只能由一名西班牙犹太人,因为犹太人普罗旺斯与哲学不够熟悉,它们之间的少数投身这一科学宣判亚里士多德看着谁后的猜测的cabalists蔑视。

Azriel.阿兹列尔。

It was Azriel (1160-1238), a Spaniard with philosophical training, who undertook to explain the doctrines of the Cabala to philosophers and to make it acceptable to them.这是阿兹列尔(1160年至1238年),西班牙人与哲学训练,谁承诺,解释理论Cabala以哲学家,并使其接受。It should be noted particularly that Azriel (in Sachs, "Ha-Paliṭ," p. 45) expressly says that philosophical dialectics is for him only the means for explaining the doctrines of Jewish mysticism, in order that "those also who do not believe, but ask to have everything proved, may convince themselves of the truth of the Cabala."特别应该指出的是阿兹列尔(在高盛,“哈,同德,”第45页)明确指出,哲学辩证法是只为他解释犹太神秘主义的教条手段,为了使“那些还谁不相信,但要求把一切证明,可说服的Cabala真理本身。“ True disciples of the Cabala were satisfied with its doctrines as they were, and without philosophical additions.真正的门徒的Cabala满意,它的教义,因为他们成功了,而没有哲学的补充。Hence the actual form of the Cabala as presented by Azriel must not be regarded as absolutely identical with its original one.因此,作为由阿兹列尔实际的形式提出的Cabala不能被视为绝对的,其原有的一相同。Starting from the doctrine of the merely negative attributes of God, as taught by the Jewish philosophy of the time (see Attributes), Azriel calls God the "En-Sof" (), the absolutely Infinite, that can be comprehended only as the negation of all negation.从神的学说只是消极的属性所的时间(见属性)犹太哲学教授,起动,阿兹列尔呼吁上帝“恩特种部队”(),绝对是无限的,这只能理解为否定所有的否定。 From this definition of the En-Sof, Azriel deduces the potential eternity of the world-the world with all its manifold manifestations was potentially contained within the En-Sof; and this potentially existing universe became a reality in the act of creation.从这个恩特种部队的定义,阿兹列尔推导出世界与所有其多方面的表现永远是世界的潜在可能属于恩特种部队中的人,这有可能成为现有的宇宙中的一个创造行为的现实。 The transition from the potential to the actual is a free act of God: but it can not be called creation; since a "creatio ex nihilo" is logically unthinkable, and nothing out of which the world could be formed exists outside of God, the En-Sof.从潜在过渡到实际是神的自由的行为:但它不能被称为创造,因为“创造无中生有”在逻辑上是不可想象的,并没有什么世界,其中存在着可形成神外部,恩特种部队。 Hence, it is not correct to say that God creates, but that He irradiates; for as the sun irradiates warmth and light without diminishing its bulk, so the En-Sof irradiates the elements of the universe without diminishing His power.因此,它是不正确的说,上帝创造的,但他照射,因为,正如太阳照射的温暖和轻而不削弱其批量,因此恩特种部队照射而不削弱他的力量是宇宙中的元素。 These elements of the universe are the Sefirot, which Azriel tries to define in their relation to the En-Sof as well as to one another.这些元素的宇宙是个Sefirot,其中阿兹列尔试图界定其有关恩特种部队以及彼此。Although there are contradictions and gaps in Azriel's system, he was the first to gather the scattered elements of the cabalistic doctrines and combine them into an organic whole.虽然有矛盾和阿兹列尔的系统的空白,他是第一个以收集的cabalistic学说的稀散元素,并结合成一个有机的整体。 Casting aside the haggadic-mystic form of the cabalistic works preceding him, Azriel adopted a style that was equal and at times superior to that of the philosophic writers of the time.抛开他与前阿haggadic cabalistic作品,神秘的形式,阿兹列尔通过了风格,是平等的,有时甚至优于当时的哲学作家的。

Asher ben David, a nephew and pupil of Isaac the Blind, a cabalistic contemporary of Azriel, and probably influenced by him, added little to the development of the Cabala, judging from the few fragments by him that have been preserved.舍本大卫,侄子和以撒盲人,一个cabalistic当代的Azriel,并可能影响他的学生,将小到发展Cabala,他从那些被保存下来几个片段来看。 On the other hand, Isaac ben Sheshet of Gerona, in his "Sha'ar ha-Shamayim," made noteworthy additions to the theoretical part of Azriel's system.另一方面,伊萨克本Sheshet的赫罗纳,在他的“Sha'ar公顷,Shamayim”,取得了显着增加的的Azriel的系统理论的一部分。 The author of "Ha-Emunah we-ha-Biṭṭaḥon," erroneously ascribed to Naḥmanides, must also be included in the school of Azriel; but, desirous only to give a popular presentation of Azriel's doctrines, with a strong admixture of German mysticism, he contributed little to their development.笔者在“哈Emunah我们-公顷Biṭṭaḥon,”错误地归因于Naḥmanides,还必须包括在学校Azriel,但是,渴望只给了阿兹列尔的学说流行展示上的德国神秘主义强外加剂,他以自己的发展贡献不大。 More important is "Sefer ha-'Iyyun" (the Book of Intuition), ascribed to the gaon R. Ḥamai, but really originating in the school of Azriel.更重要的是“之书公顷'Iyyun”(这是直觉书),归因于gaon的河滨井,但真正在学校的Azriel起源。

Naḥmanides.Naḥmanides。

The cabalists themselves consider Naḥmanides as the most important pupil of Azriel-a statement not supported by Naḥmanides' works; for his commentary on the Pentateuch, although permeated by mysticism, has little that pertains to the speculative Cabala as developed by Azriel.该cabalists自己考虑作为阿兹列尔,一个不被Naḥmanides的作品最重要的声明支持学生Naḥmanides因为他的评论对五,虽然充满神秘主义,几乎没有到属于投机Cabala由阿兹列尔发展。 Naḥmanides, on the contrary, emphasizes the doctrine of the "creatio ex nihilo," and also insists that attributes can be ascribed to God; while Azriel's En-Sof is the result of the assumption that God is without attributes. Naḥmanides,相反,强调了该学说“创造无中生有”,并坚持认为,属性可以归因于上帝,而阿兹列尔的恩特种部队是在假设的结果,上帝没有属性的。 Yet Naḥmanides' importance for the development of the Cabala must be recognized.然而Naḥmanides'为发展Cabala的重要性必须得到承认。The greatest Talmudic authority of his time, and possessing a large following of disciples, his leaning toward the Cabala was transmitted to his pupils, among whom David ha-Kohen, R. Sheshet, and Abner are especially mentioned.最大的塔木德权威的时间,并拥有一个大以下的弟子,他的倾向Cabala转交给他的学生,其中大卫公顷Kohen,河Sheshet,押尼珥特别提及。 The brothers Isaac b.这对兄弟艾萨克湾Jacob and Jacob b.雅各和雅各湾 Jacob ha-Kohen also seem to have belonged to the circle of Naḥmanides.雅各布公顷Kohen似乎也有属于对Naḥmanides循环。His most important pupil, however, and his successor, was Solomon ben Abraham ibn Adret, the great teacher of the Talmud, who also had a strong leaning toward the Cabala, but apparently gave little time to its study.他最重要的学生,然而,他的继任者,是所罗门本亚伯拉罕本Adret,该塔木德伟大的老师,谁也有强烈的倾向Cabala,但显然了很少的时间来研究。 Among his pupils were the cabalists Shem-Ṭob b.在他的学生们的cabalists闪,尖湾Abraham Gaon, Isaac of Acre, and Baḥya b.亚伯拉罕gaon的,阿克里,和巴希耶伊艾萨克湾Asher, the last named of whom, by his commentary on the Pentateuch, contributed much to the spread of the Cabala.舍,最后命名,其中由他的评注五,贡献良多的Cabala蔓延。

Ibn Latif.伊本拉蒂夫。

Isaac ibn Latif, who flourished about the middle of the thirteenth century, occupies a peculiar and independent position in the history of the Cabala, owing to his attempt to introduce Aristotelianism.艾萨克伊本拉蒂夫,谁对中间的13世纪蓬勃发展,占据了一个特殊的Cabala历史和独立的立场,由于他企图引入亚里士多德。 Although he founded no school, and although the genuine cabalists did not even consider him as belonging to their group, many of his opinions found entrance into the Cabala.虽然他没有学校成立,虽然真正的cabalists的甚至没有考虑到他们的团体是属于他,他的许多意见发现到的Cabala入口。 With Maimonides he upheld the principle of the beginning of the world; his statement, God has no will because He is will, is borrowed from Gabirol; and in addition he teaches the principle of the emanation of the Sefirot.随着迈蒙尼德他坚持的原则开始的世界,他的发言,神并没有因为他将是意志,是从盖比鲁勒借来此外,他教的原则,气的Sefirot。 He conceives of the first immediate divine emanation as the "first created" (), a godlike, absolutely simple Being, the all-containing substance and condition of everything that is.他设想的第一个为“首次建立”(立即神圣的化身),一个神圣的,绝对简单目前,所有含内容和一切,这是条件。The other Sefirot proceeded from this in gradual serial emanation, growingmore coarse and material as their distance increased from their purely spiritual, divine origin.另个Sefirot从这个渐进的进行串行气,growingmore粗糙,材料作为他们的距离从纯粹的精神,神圣的起源增加。 The relation between the "first created" and all that has since come into existence is like that between the simple geometrical point and the complicated geometrical figure.之间的“创造第一”的关系,所有自成来就像之间存在简单的几何点和复杂的几何图形的。The point grows to a line, the line to a plane or superficies, and this into a solid; and just as the point is still present as a fundamental element in all geometrical figures, so the "first created" continues to act as the primal, fundamental element in all emanations.这一点长到线,线到面或外面,到了一个坚实的这话,只是作为一个点仍是在所有几何图形的基本要素,因此,目前“首次建立”继续作为原始,基本要素,在所有的放射物。 This conception of the first Sefirah as a point, or numeral unit, within the universe reappears with special frequency in the presentations of the later cabalists.这个概念作为一个点的第一Sefirah,或数词单位,在宇宙,重新出现在后来cabalists的介绍特殊频率。

"Sefer ha-Temunah."“之​​书公顷Temunah。”

The real continuation of Azriel's doctrines, however, is to be found in a number of pseudepigraphic works of the second half of the thirteenth century.该阿兹列尔的学说真正的延续,不过,是要在一个对十三世纪下半叶发现一些pseudepigraphic工程。Although this literature has been preserved only fragmentarily, and has not yet been critically edited to any extent, its trend nevertheless may be clearly discerned.虽然这种文学一直保持只有零星,并尚未严格编辑,以任何程度,但其发展趋势可以清楚地看出端倪。Such works represent the attempt to put the doctrines of "Bahir" and of Azriel into dogmatic form, to shape and determine the old cabalistic teachings, and not to bring forward new ones.这些作品代表了试图把“算术珍本”与阿兹列尔的学说成为教条式的形式,塑造和确定老cabalistic教义,而不是提出新的问题。 Among the important products of this dogmatic Cabala is, in the first place, the little work "Sefer ha-Temunah" (Book of Form), which endeavors to illustrate the principle of emanation by means of the forms of the Hebrew letters.在这个重要产品教条Cabala是摆在首位,小工作“之书公顷Temunah”(表格书),这说明通过努力的希伯来字母的形式是指气的原则。 Here for the first time the conception of the Sefirot is laid down in definite formulæ in place of the uncertain statement that they were to be considered as powers () or as tools () of God.这里为首次的Sefirot概念在一定的公式是奠定了在不确定的声明,他们将被视为权力的(),或作为工具(神)的地方。 The Sefirot, according to this book, are powers inhering in God, and are related to the En-Sof as, for instance, the limbs are to the human body.的Sefirot,根据这本书,是在神的继承权,并关系到恩特种部队因为,例如,四肢是人体。They are, so to speak, organically connected with God, forming one indivisible whole.他们是,这么说吧,有机地与上帝相连,形成一个不可分割的整体。The question that long occupied the cabalists-namely, how the expression or transmission of the will may be explained in the act of emanation-is here solved in a simple way; for all the Sefirot, being organically connected with the En-Sof, have but one common will.的议题是长期占据的cabalists,即如何表达或变速箱将可能是在气,是一种简单的方法解决此行为的解释;所有的Sefirot,被有机地与恩特种部队相连,有但一个共同的意愿。 Just as man does not communicate his will to his arm when he wants to move it, so an expression of the will of the En-Sof is not necessary in the act of emanation.正如男人不沟通,他将他的手臂时,他想移动它,这样一个对恩特种部队意志的表现是不是在气行为必要的。Another important principle, which is much in evidence from the Zohar down to the latest cabalistic works, is likewise clearly expressed for the first time in the "Sefer ha-Temunah"; namely, the doctrine of the double emanation, the positive and negative one.另一个重要的原则,多从佐哈尔下降到最新的cabalistic作品的证据,也同样明确表示,在“之书公顷Temunah”第一时间,即双重气学说,正,负。 This explains the origin of evil; for as the one, the positive emanation, produced all that is good and beautiful, so the other, the negative, produced all that is bad, ugly, and unclean.这就解释了邪恶的起源;对视了一眼,正气,产生的一切是善,美的,所以另一方面,否定,产生的一切是坏的,丑陋,不洁。 The final form was given to Azriel's Cabala by the work "Ma'areket ha-Elohut" in which Azriel's system is presented more clearly and definitely than in any other cabalistic work.最后的形式给予阿兹列尔的Cabala的工作“Ma'areket公顷Elohut”,其中阿兹列尔的系统是更明确地,肯定比任何其他cabalistic工作。 The fundamental principle of the Cabala herein is the potential eternity of the world; hence the dynamic character of the emanations is especially emphasized.的Cabala的基本原则本是潜在的永恒世界,因此对动态特性的emanations是特别强调。The treatment of the Sefirot is also more thorough and extended than in Azriel.在治疗的Sefirot也更加透彻和比阿兹列尔延长。They are identified with God; the first Sefirah, ("crown"), containing in potentia all of the subsequent nine emanations.他们确定了与神,第一Sefirah(“皇冠”),在势的含放射物的所有后续九。The doctrine of double emanations, positive and negative, is taught in "Ma'areket," as well as in "Sefer ha-Temunah," but in such a way that the contrast, which corresponds exactly with the syzygy theory of the Gnostics, appears only in the third Sefirah, Binah (="intelligence").该学说的双重emanations,积极和消极的,是教“Ma'areket”以及“之书公顷Temunah,”但在这样一种方式的对比,这完全符合了理论的gnostics朔望,仅出现在第三Sefirah,Bi​​nah(=“情报”)。 The author of the "Ma-'areket" proceeds as the "Bahir" in the separation of the three superior from the seven inferior Sefirot, but in a much clearer way: he regards only the former as being of divine nature, since they emanate immediately from God; while the seven lower ones, which were all produced by the third Sefirah, are less divine, since they produce immediately the lower world-matter.而“马'areket”收益的“算术珍本”在从七下个Sefirot笔者分离的三个优势,但在一个更清晰的方式:他认为只有前作为神圣​​的性质,因为它们发出立即从上帝,而七下的,这些都是由第三Sefirah生产,较少神圣的,因为它们产生立即降低世界的问题。 A contrast which rules the world can therefore begin only with the third Sefirah; for such contrast can not obtain in the purely spiritual realm.对比这世界的规则才开始,因此可以与第三Sefirah;这种反差不能获得在纯粹的精神境界。

This point is an instructive illustration of the activity of the cabalists from the time of the "Bahir" (end of the twelfth century) to the beginning of the fourteenth century.这一点是对的cabalists从“算术珍本”活动时间启发性的例子(第十二届世纪末)到的14世纪初。Within this period the disjointed mystico-gnostic conceptions of the "Bahir" were gradually and untiringly woven into a connected, comprehensive system.在此期间,脱节mystico -诺斯底的“算术珍本”概念逐渐和不懈地编织成一个连接,全面系统。Side by side with this speculative and theoretical school, taking for its problem metaphysics in the strict sense of the word-namely, the nature of God and His relation to the world-another mystical movement was developed, more religio-ethical in nature, which, as Grätz rightly says, considered "the ritual, or the practical side, to call it so, as the more important, and as the one to which the theosophical side served merely as an introduction."通过与这种投机和理论学校肩并肩,形而上学的问题,为企业在字即上帝和他的关系到世界另一个神秘的运动的性质,开发了更多的宗教伦理的性质严格意义上说,这作为格拉茨正确地说,认为“礼,或实用的方面,要求它这样,因为更重要的是,作为一个神智其中一方担任介绍只是和”。 Both these movements had their common starting-point in the geonic mysticism, which introduced important speculative elements into practical mysticism proper.这两项运动有在geonic神秘主义,它引入到现实的神秘主义正确的重要投机因素的共同出发点。But they also had this in common, that both endeavored to come into closer relationship with God than the transcendentalism of Jewish philosophy permitted, colored as it was by Aristotelianism.但是他们也有一个共同点,即都努力来与上帝的关系更为密切比超验的犹太哲学许可,有色因为它是由亚里士多德了。 Practical mysticism endeavored to make this union possible for every-day life; while speculative thinkers occupied themselves in reaching out toward a monistic construction of the universe, in which the transcendence of the primal Being might be preserved without placing Him outside of the universe.现实的神秘主义努力使每一个日常生活这个联盟可能的,而投机性的思想家,在实现对被占领的宇宙,在其中的原始存在超越可能没有把他的宇宙之外的建筑保留了自己的一元论。 Both of these movements, with a common end in view, were ultimately bound to converge, and this actually occurred with the appearance of the book called Zohar ( = "Splendor"), after Dan.这些运动都与一个共同的目的,最终必将收敛,这实际上与一种叫做佐哈尔(=“辉煌”)书丹后,外观发生。xii.十二。3, (= "The wise shall be resplendent as the splendor of the firmament"), showing that it had the "Bahir" (= Bright) for its model.3,(=“智者应被看作是辉煌灿烂的天空”),这表明它有“算术珍本”,其模型(=亮)。It is in the main a commentary on the Pentateuch, and R. Simon ben Yoḥai is introduced as the inspired teacher who expounds the theosophic doctrines to the circle of his saintly hearers.这是主要一对五的评论,和R.西蒙本Yoḥai是作为教师的启发谁阐述了theosophic学说到他的圣洁的听众介绍了一圈。 It first appeared therefore under the title of Midrash R. Simon ben Yoḥai.因此,它最早出现米德拉士河下的西蒙本Yoḥai称号。 The correspondence to the order of the Scripture is very loose, even more so than is often the case in the writings of the Midrashic literature.到的经文顺序对应的是很宽松,甚至比往往是在Midrashic文学著作的案件。 The Zohar is in many instances a mere aggregate of heterogeneous parts.该佐哈尔的异构部件仅仅聚集在许多情况下。Apart from the Zohar proper, it containsa dozen mystic pieces of various derivations and different dates that crop up suddenly, thus entirely undoing the otherwise loose texture of the Zohar.除了佐哈尔适当的,它神秘containsa十几件不同的推导,不同作物的日期突然,因此完全解开的佐哈尔否则质地疏松。

Distinct mention is made in the Zohar of excerpts from the following writings: (1) "Idra Rabba"; (2) "Idra Zuṭṭa"; (3) "Matnitin"; (4) "Midrash ha-Ne'elam"; (5) "Ra'aya Mehemna"; (6) "Saba" (the Old); (7) "Raze de-Razin"; (8) "Sefer Hekalot"; (9) "Sifra de-Ẓeni'uta"; (10) "Sitre Torah"; (11) "Tosefta"; (12) and lastly, "Yanuḳa."独特提的是,在从以下的摘录著作佐哈尔:(1)“Idra Rabba”;(2)“IdraZuṭṭa”;(3)“Matnitin”;(4)“米德拉士公顷Ne'elam”;( 5)“Ra'aya Mehemna”;(6)“沙巴”(老),(7)“夷平去拉津”;(8)“之书Hekalot”;(9)“Sifra去Ẓeni'uta”; (10)“Sitre圣经”;(11)“陀瑟他”;“。Yanuḳa”(12),最后,Besides the Zohar proper, there are also a "Zohar Ḥadash" (New Zohar), Zohar to Cant., and "Tiḳḳunim," both new and old, which bear a close relation to the Zohar proper.除了佐哈尔适当的,也有一个“佐哈尔Ḥadash”(新佐哈尔),佐哈尔,以斜面。,和“Tiḳḳunim,”新的和旧的,它承担了密切的关系佐哈尔适当的。

The Zohar Literature.佐哈尔文学。

For centuries, and in general even to-day, the doctrines contained in the Zohar are taken to be the Cabala, although this book represents only the union of the two movements mentioned above.数百年来,和一般甚至天,在佐哈尔所载的学说被视作的Cabala,虽然这本书仅代表上述两个运动联盟。 The Zohar is both the complete guide of the different cabalistic theories and the canonical book of the cabalists.佐哈尔既是完整的不同的cabalistic理论指南和规范的cabalists书。After the Zohar, which must be dated about the beginning of the fourteenth century, and which received its present shape largely from the hand of Moses de Leon, a period of pause ensued in the development of the Cabala, which lasted for more than two centuries and a half.佐哈尔后,必须注明日期,有关的14世纪初,并接受主要是由手摩西德莱昂其目前的形状,随后的暂停期间在Cabala,这两个多世纪以来持续发展半。 Among the contemporaries of Moses de Leon must be mentioned the Italian Menahem Recanati, whose cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch is really a commentary on the Zohar.之间摩西德莱昂同时代必须提到意大利梅纳海姆雷卡纳蒂,其cabalistic评注五确实是一个在佐哈尔评论。Joseph b.约瑟夫BAbraham ibn Waḳar was an opponent of the Zohar; his Introduction to the Cabala, which exists in manuscript only, is considered by Steinschneider as the best.亚伯拉罕本Waḳar是对手的佐哈尔,他介绍Cabala,这仅是由Steinschneider认为是最好的手稿存在。 It was some time before the Zohar was recognized in Spain.这是前一段佐哈尔承认在西班牙的时间。Abraham b.亚伯拉罕湾Isaac of Granada speaks in his work "Berit Menuḥah" (The Covenant of Rest) of "the words of R. Simon b. Yoḥai," meaning the Zohar.格拉纳达以撒谈到他的工作“贝里特Menuḥah”的(休息公约)“西蒙乙yoḥai的河的话”,意思是佐哈尔。In the fifteenth century the authority of the Cabala, comprising also that of the Zohar, was so well recognized in Spain that Shem-Ṭob ben Joseph ibn Shem-Ṭob (died 1430) made a bitter attack on Maimonides from the standpoint of the Zohar.在15世纪的Cabala的权威,还包括了佐哈尔,是如此良好,西班牙承认,闪,尖本约瑟夫本闪,尖(死于1430年)作了关于从佐哈尔立场迈蒙尼德苦攻击。 Moses Botarel tried to serve the Cabala by his alleged discoveries of fictitious authors and works; while the pseudonymous author of the Ḳanah attacked Talmudism under cover of the Cabala about 1415.摩西Botarel试图为虚构的作家和作品的Cabala发现他的指控,而该Ḳanah笔名撰文攻击下的约1415 Cabala盖Talmudism。Isaac Arama and Isaac Abravanel were followers of the Cabala in the second half of the fifteenth century, but without contributing anything to its development.艾萨克阿拉马和Isaac阿布拉瓦内尔追随者的Cabala是在十五世纪下半叶,但没有任何东西,它的发展作出贡献。 Nor does the cabalistic commentary on the Pentateuch of Menahem Zioni b.也没有对梅纳海姆Zioni cabalistic评注五湾 Meïr contribute any new matter to the system, although it is the most important cabalistic work of the fifteenth century.梅尔贡献任何新事项的制度​​,虽然它是最重要的十五世纪的cabalistic工作。Judah Ḥayyaṭ and Abraham Saba are the only noteworthy cabalists of the end of that century.犹大Ḥayyaṭ和亚伯拉罕沙巴是在这个世纪结束时唯一值得注意的cabalists的。

The happy remark of Baur, that a great national crisis furnishes a favorable soil for mysticism among the people in question, is exemplified in the history of the Cabala.鲍尔高兴的一句话,一个伟大的民族危机提供了神秘主义之间的问题的人一个良好的土壤,是体现在对历史的Cabala。 The great misfortune that befell the Jews of the Pyrenean peninsula at the end of the fifteenth century revivified the Cabala.在巨大的不幸降临在15世纪末的比利牛斯半岛犹太人revivified的Cabala。Among the fugitives that settled in Palestine Meïr b.其中逃犯,在解决巴勒斯坦梅尔湾Ezekiel ibn Gabbai wrote cabalistic works evincing an acute insight into the speculative Cabala.以西结书表明放弃一本Gabbai说成投机Cabala敏锐的洞察力cabalistic作品。A Sicilian cabalist, Joseph Saragoza, is regarded as the teacher of David ibn Zimra, who was especially active in developing the Cabala in Egypt.西西里人的秘术,约瑟夫萨拉戈萨,被看作是伊本Zimra大卫,谁是在发展中国家,特别是埃及的Cabala活跃的老师。 Solomon Molcho and Joseph della Reina (the history of his life is distorted by many legends) represent the reviving mysticism.所罗门Molcho和约瑟夫德拉雷纳(是他一生的历史是由许多传说扭曲)代表复苏的神秘主义。Deliverance from national suffering was the object of their search, which they thought to effect by means of the Cabala.从民族苦难拯救了他们的搜索,他们认为通过的Cabala手段效果对象。Solomon Alḳabiẓ and Joseph Caro, who gradually gathered a large circle of cabalistic dreamers about them, endeavored to attain a state of ecstasy by fasting, weeping, and all manner of stringent asceticism, by which means they thought to behold angels and obtain heavenly revelations.所罗门Alḳabiẓ和约瑟夫卡罗,谁逐渐聚集了对他们的cabalistic梦想家大圈,努力实现由禁食,哭泣了忘我的状态,严格的禁欲主义和各种方式,由这意味着他们认为看见天上的天使,并获得启示。 Of their number, too, was Moses Cordovero, rightly designated as the last representative of the early cabalists, and, next to Azriel, the most important speculative thinker among them.他们的号码,也被摩西Cordovero,正确地作为早期cabalists最后指定的代表,而且旁边Azriel的,其中最重要的投机性的思想家。

Luria's Cabala.卢里亚的Cabala。

The modern cabalistic school begins theoretically as well as practically with Isaac Luria (1533-72).现代cabalistic学校开始在理论上和实际上与艾萨克卢里亚(1533年至1572年)。In the first place, its doctrine of appearance, according to which all that exists is composed of substance and appearance, is most important, rendering Luria's Cabala extremely subjective by teaching that there is no such thing as objective cognition.首先,它的外观学说,根据所有存在的物质组成和外观,最重要的是,渲染卢里亚的Cabala非常的教学,有没有这样的东西为客观的主观认知。 The theoretical doctrines of Luria's Cabala were later on taken up by the Ḥasidim and organized into a system.卢里亚的Cabala的理论学说,后来就采取了由的Ḥasidim和组织成一个系统。Luria's influence was first evident in certain mystical and fanciful religious exercises, by means of which, he held, one could become master of the terrestrial world.卢里亚的影响首先体现在某些神秘和幻想的宗教演习的手段,其中,他认为,一个可能成为世界上陆地的主人。The writing of amulets, conjuration of devils, mystic jugglery with numbers and letters, increased as the influence of this school spread.符咒的书写,魔鬼,与数字和字母咒语神秘的把戏,因为这所学校传播的影响力增加。Among Luria's pupils Hayyim Vital and Israel Saruḳ deserve especial mention, both of them being very active as teachers and propagandists of the new school.在卢里亚的学生Hayyim生命和以色列Saruḳ值得特别一提,他们都被非常的教师和新的学校宣传活动。Saruḳ succeeded in winning over the rich Menahem Azariah of Fano.Saruḳ成功了丰富的梅纳海姆亚撒利雅法诺取胜。Thus, a large cabalistic school was founded in the sixteenth century in Italy, where even to-day scattered disciples of the Cabala may be met.因此,一个大cabalistic学校始建于在意大利,甚至日常分散弟子的Cabala可能得到满足16世纪。Herrera, another pupil of Saruḳ, tried to spread the Cabala among Christians by his "Introduction," written in Spanish.埃雷拉,另一个Saruḳ瞳孔,试图分散他的基督教徒之间的Cabala“导言”,在西班牙语写的。Moses Zacuto, Spinoza's fellow-pupil, wrote several cabalistic works strongly tinged with asceticism, which were not without influence on the Italian Jews.摩西Zacuto,斯宾诺莎的同胞学生,写几个强烈的禁欲主义,这是在意大利犹太人没有影响力,色彩cabalistic作品。 In Italy, however, there appeared also the first antagonists of the Cabala, at a time when it seemed to be carrying everything before it.在意大利,然而,也出现在这个时候,它似乎首先拮抗剂的Cabala,携之前,它的一切。 Nothing is known of Mordecai Corcos' work against the Cabala, a work that was never printed, owing to the opposition of the Italian rabbis.没有人知道的莫德Corcos'反对的Cabala,一个从来没有印刷,由于反对派的意大利拉比工作的工作。Joseph del Medigo's wavering attitude toward the Cabala injured rather than helped it.约瑟夫删除Medigo的摇摆不定的态度的Cabala受伤,而不是帮助它。Judah de Modena attacked it ruthlessly in his work "Sha'agat Aryeh" (The Lion's Roar); while an enthusiastic and clever advocate appeared, a century later, in the person of Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto.摩德纳攻击犹大德在他的作品“Sha'agat Aryeh”(狮子的怒吼)无情;而热情和聪明的主张出现了,一个世纪之后,在摩西Ḥayyim卢扎托人。A century later still, Samuel David Luzzatto attacked the Cabala with the weapons of modern criticism.一个世纪后仍塞缪尔大卫卢扎托攻击与现代批评的武器的Cabala。But in the East, Luria's Cabala remained undisturbed.但是在东方,卢里亚的Cabala保持原状。

In the Orient.在世界的东方。

After Vital's death and that of the immigrant Shlumiel of Moravia, who by his somewhat vociferousmethods contributed much to the spreading of Luria's doctrines, it was especially Samuel Vital, Ḥayyim Vital's son, together with Jacob Ẓemaḥ, and Abraham Azulai, who endeavored to spread the mode of life () and the mystical meditations for prayer () advocated by Luria.经过生命的死亡,而在摩拉维亚移民Shlumiel,谁对他有点vociferousmethods贡献良多的卢里亚的理论传播,使人感到特别塞缪尔命门,Ḥayyim生命的儿子,连同雅各布Ẓemaḥ,和亚伯拉罕Azulai,谁致力于传播模式的生活()和神秘的冥想祈祷()的卢里亚提倡。 Frequent bathing (), vigils on certain nights, as well as at midnight (see Ḥaẓot), penance for sins, and similar disciplines, were introduced by this aftergrowth of the school of Luria.经常洗澡(),守夜的某些夜晚,以及在午夜(见Ḥaẓot),忏悔的罪孽,和类似的学科,是由这个学校二期农作物卢里亚介绍。 It must be noted in their favor that they laid great emphasis on a pure life, philanthropy, brotherly love toward all, and friendship.必须指出的对他们有利,他们放在一个纯粹的生活非常重视,慈善事业,对所有友爱和友谊。 The belief that such actions would hasten the Messianic time grew until it took concrete form in the appearance of Shabbethai Ẓebi, about 1665.认为这种行动将加快弥赛亚时间长了,直到它发生在沙比太Ẓebi出现约1665年,具体的形式。Shabbethaism induced many scholars to study the speculative Cabala more thoroughly; and, indeed, the Shabbethaian Nehemia Ḥayyun showed in his heretical cabalistic works a more thorough acquaintance with the Cabala than his opponents, the great Talmudists, who were zealous followers of the Cabala without comprehending its speculative side.Shabbethaism引起许多学者研究的投机Cabala更彻底;和,实际上,Shabbethaian NehemiaḤayyun显示,在他的异端邪说cabalistic作品一与Cabala更透彻的认识比他的对手,伟大的Talmudists,谁不理解热心追随者的Cabala其投机性的一面。 Shabbethaism, however, did not in the least compromise the Cabala in the eyes of the Oriental Jews, the majority of whom even to-day esteem it holy and believe in it. Shabbethaism,但是,并没有在最不妥协的东方犹太人眼中的Cabala,其中大部分甚至天圣自尊和相信这一点。

In Germany and Poland.在德国和波兰。

While the Cabala in its different forms spread east and west within a few centuries, Germany, which seemed a promising field for mysticism in the beginning of the thirteenth century, was soon left behind.虽然在不同形式Cabala几个世纪内蔓延东部和西部,德国,这似乎在十三世纪初的神秘主义有前途的领域,很快就被抛在后面。 There is no cabalistic literature proper among the German Jews, aside from the school of Eleazar of Worms.没有cabalistic文学之间的德国犹太人适当的,除了学校的利亚撒的蠕虫。Lippman Mühlhausen, about 1400, was acquainted with some features of the Cabala; but there were no real cabalists in Germany until the eighteenth century, when Polish scholars invaded the country.利普曼米尔豪森,约1400,是熟悉的Cabala一些功能,但在德国有没有真正cabalists的,直到十八世纪,当波兰学者入侵该国。 In Poland the Cabala was first studied about the beginning of the sixteenth century, but not without opposition from the Talmudic authorities, as, for instance, Solomon b.在波兰的Cabala是首次研究对十六世纪初,但并非没有从塔木德当局的反对,因为,例如,索罗门湾Jehiel Luria, who, himself a devout disciple of the Cabala, wished to have its study confined to a small circle of the elect.耶歇卢里亚,谁,自己是一个虔诚的信徒的Cabala,希望有其研究局限于一个小圈子的选举。His friend Isserles gives proof of wide reading in cabalistic literature and of insight into its speculative part; and the same may be said of Isserles' pupil Mordecai Jaffe.他的朋友伊塞莱斯给出了广泛阅读的证明cabalistic文学和投机性的一部分纳入其洞察力,以及同样可能是伊塞莱斯'学生末底改贾菲说。 But it is perhaps not a mere chance that the first cabalistic work written in Poland was composed by Mattathias Delacrut (1570), of south European descent, as his name indicates.但是,也许不是一个单纯的机会,第一次在波兰的书面工作卡巴拉组成由玛他提亚Delacrut(1570),南部欧洲后裔,因为他的名字表示。 Asher or Anschel of Cracow at the beginning of the sixteenth century is named as a great cabalist, but the nature of his doctrine can not be ascertained.舍或克拉科夫Anschel在十六世纪初被命名为一个伟大秘术,但他的学说的性质不能确定。In the seventeenth century, however, the Cabala spread all over Poland, so that it was considered a matter of course that all rabbis must have a cabalistic training.在十七世纪,然而,在Cabala遍及波兰所有,因此,它被认为是当然,所有的拉比必须有一个cabalistic培训的问题。 Nathan Spiro, Isaiah Horowitz, and Naphtali b.弥敦道斯皮罗,以赛亚霍洛维茨,拿弗他利湾Jacob Elhanan were the chief contributors to the spread of Luria's Cabala in Poland, and thence into Germany.雅各布Elhanan是在波兰的传播卢里亚的Cabala,并从那里进入德国的主要贡献者。Yet, with the exception of Horwitz's work "Shene Luḥot ha-Berit" (The Two Tablets of the Covenant), there is hardly one among the many cabalistic works originating in Poland that rises in any way above mediocrity.然而,随着霍维茨的工作“SheneLuḥot公顷,贝里特”异常(该公约的两片),几乎没有跻身于波兰,在上述任何方式上升源于许多平庸的cabalistic作品之一。 In the following century, however, certain important works appeared on the Cabala by Eybeschütz and Emden, but from different standpoints.在下面的世纪,然而,一些重要的作品出现在由Eybeschütz和埃姆登,Cabala但是从不同的角度。 The former contributed a monumental work to the speculative Cabala in his "Shem 'Olam" (Everlasting Name); the latter became the father of modern Cabala criticism by his penetrating literary scrutiny of the Zohar.前者贡献的丰碑投机Cabala在他的“闪'Olam”(永远的姓名),后者成为现代Cabala批评他的穿透性佐哈尔文学审议的父亲。

Ḥasidism. Ḥasidism。

The real continuation of the Cabala is to be found in Ḥasidism, which in its different forms includes both the mystical and speculative sides.真正的Cabala的继续,是在Ḥasidism,在其不同的形式既包括双方发现神秘和投机性。While the doctrines of the ḤaBaD have shown that the Lurianic Cabala is something more than a senseless playing with letters, other forms of Ḥasidism, also derived from the Cabala, represent the acme of systematized cant and irrational talk.虽然ḤaBaD的理论表明,Lurianic Cabala是一些毫无意义的字母比一打以上,其他形式的Ḥasidism,也从派生的Cabala,代表和非理性的系统化不能谈极致。Elijah of Wilna's attacks on Hasidism chiefly brought it about that those circles in Russia and Poland which oppose Ḥasidism also avoid the Cabala, as the real domain of the Ḥasidim.的Wilna的攻击主要以利亚Hasidism带来的是关于在俄罗斯和波兰各界的反对Ḥasidism也避免作为域的Ḥasidim真正的Cabala。 Although Elijah of Wilna himself was a follower of the Cabala, his notes to the Zohar and other cabalistic products show that he denied the authority of many of the works of the Lurianic writers: his school produced only Talmudists, not cabalists.虽然以利亚的Wilna自己是一个追随者的Cabala,他注意到在佐哈尔和其他cabalistic产品展示,他否认了对作家的作品的Lurianic许多权威:他的学校只生产的Talmudists,而不是cabalists的。 Although "Nefesh ha-Ḥayyim" (The Soul of Life), the work of his pupil Ḥayyim of Volozhin, has a cabalistic coloring, it is chiefly ethical in spirit.虽然“诉愿公顷Ḥayyim”(生命的灵魂),他的瞳孔ḤayyimVolozhin工作,有cabalistic着色,它主要是在精神道德。 Ḥayyim's pupil, Isaac Ḥaber, however, evinces in his works much insight into the older Cabala. Ḥayyim的瞳孔,以撒哈伯,然而,在他的作品中老Cabala很大的启示证明政府。The latter also wrote a defense of the Cabala against the attacks of Modena.后者还写了对摩德纳的袭击防御的Cabala。The non-Ḥasidic circles of Russia in modern times, though they hold the Cabala in reverence, do not study it.俄罗斯的非圆哈西德派在近代,虽然他们持有崇敬的Cabala,不研究它。

Critical Treatment of the Cabala.临界处理的Cabala。

The critical treatment of the Zohar, begun by Emden, was continued toward the middle of the nineteenth century by a large group of modern scholars, and much was contributed in the course of the following period toward a better understanding of the Cabala, although more still remains obscure.由埃姆登开始的佐哈尔,治疗的关键是继续朝着十九世纪中叶由现代学者大组,大部分是在朝着更好的Cabala下一期课程的理解作出了贡献,但更多的还是仍不清楚。 The names of Adolf Franck, MH Landauer, H. Joël, Jellinek, Steinschneider, Ignatz Stern, and Solomon Munk, who paved the way for the scientific treatment of the Cabala, may be noted.阿道夫弗兰克,氢兰,阁下乔尔,耐克,S​​teinschneider,纳兹斯特恩和所罗门群岛芒克,谁铺平的Cabala科学的治疗方式,其姓名可以加以说明。 Many obscurities will probably become clear as soon as more is known about Gnosticism in its different forms, and Oriental theosophy.许多obscurities可能会变得清晰,尽快更多的是关于各种不同形式的诺斯替主义已知的,与东方神智。

The Cabala in the Christian World.在基督教世界Cabala。

This historical survey of the development of the Cabala would not be complete if no mention were made of its relation to the Christian world.这种对历史的发展Cabala的调查将是不完整的,如果没有提到是它关系到了基督教世界。The first Christian scholar who gave proof of his acquaintance with the Cabala was Raymond Lulli (born about 1225; died June 30, 1315), called "doctor illuminatus" on account of his great learning.第一位信仰基督教的学者是谁给他的熟人与Cabala证明是雷蒙德Lulli(约1225年出生;死于1315年6月30日)在学习他伟大的帐户所谓的“医生启示录”。 The Cabala furnished him with material for his "Ars Magna," by which he thought to bring about an entire revolution in the methods of scientific investigation, his means being none other than letter and number mysticism in its different varieties.该Cabala配有材料他为他的“大艺术”,其中他认为,使一个在科学调查的方法整个革命,他的意思无非是文字和神秘主义的不同品种数量等。 The identity between God and nature found in Lulli's works shows that he was also influenced by the speculative Cabala.上帝与自然之间的身份发现Lulli的作品表明,他还受投机Cabala的影响。But it was Pico di Mirandola (1463-94) who introduced the Cabala into the Christian world.但是,微微地米兰多拉(1463年至1494年),谁介绍到基督教世界的Cabala。The Cabala is, for him, the sum of those revealed religious doctrines of the Jews which were not originally written down, but were transmitted by oral tradition.该Cabala是,对他来说,这些款项透露了这原本不是写下来的犹太人宗教教义,但被口头传播的传统。At the instance of Ezra they were written down during his time so that they might not be lost (compare II Esdras xiv. 45).在以斯拉实例他们写下来,在他的时间,他们可能不会丢失(比较二埃斯德拉斯十四。45)。Pico, of course, holds that the Cabala contains all the doctrines of Christianity, so that "the Jews can be refuted by their own books" ("De Hom. Dignit." pp. 329 et seq.).微微的,当然,持有,即Cabala包含所有的基督教教义,因此,“犹太人可以反驳自己的书”(“德坎。尊严的。”页329起。)。 He therefore made free use of cabalistic ideas in his philosophy, or, rather, his philosophy consists of Neoplatonic-cabalistic doctrines in Christian garb.因此,他在他的哲学思想的自由使用cabalistic的,或者说,他的哲学在基督教外衣柏拉图- cabalistic理论组成。Through Reuchlin (1455-1522) the Cabala became an important factor in leavening the religious movements of the time of the Reformation.通过Reuchlin(1455年至1522年)的Cabala在膨松成为了时间的改革的宗教运动的重要因素。

Reuchlin. Reuchlin。

The aversion to scholasticism that increased especially in the German countries, found a positive support in the Cabala; for those that were hostile to scholasticism could confront it with another system.到士林厌恶,增加国家,特别是在德国,发现在Cabala积极支持,为那些敌视士林与另一个系统可以对付它。Mysticism also hoped to confirm its position by means of the Cabala, and to leave the limits to which it had been confined by ecclesiastical dogma.神秘主义也希望以确认手段Cabala其立场,并给它的限制已经被教会教条的限制。Reuchlin, the first important representative of this movement in Germany, distinguished between cabalistic doctrines, cabalistic art, and cabalistic perception. Reuchlin,第一次在德国这个运动的重要代表,区分cabalistic理论,cabalistic艺术,和卡巴拉的看法。Its central doctrine, for him, was the Messianology, around which all its other doctrines grouped themselves.其核心学说,对他来说是Messianology,围绕着它所有的其他学说分为自己。And as the cabalistic doctrine originated in divine revelation, so was the art cabalistic derived immediately from divine illumination.而作为起源于神的启示cabalistic学说,所以是最先进的照明来自神圣立即cabalistic培训。 By means of this illumination man is enabled to get insight into the contents of the cabalistic doctrine through the symbolic interpretation of the letters, words, and contents of Scripture; hence the Cabala is symbolical theology.通过这种手段是使光照人度过的字母,单词解释成象征性的cabalistic学说的内容洞察力,和圣经内容,因此Cabala是象征性的神学。 Whoever would become an adept in the cabalistic art, and thereby penetrate the cabalistic secrets, must have divine illumination and inspiration.谁将会成为一个善于cabalistic艺术,从而穿透cabalistic机密,必须有神圣启发和鼓舞。 The cabalist must therefore first of all purify his soul from sin, and order his life in accord with the precepts of virtue and morality.该cabalist因此必须首先净化自己从罪恶的灵魂,为了与仁义道德戒律符合他的生命。

Reuchlin's whole philosophical system, the doctrine of God, cognition, etc., is entirely cabalistic, as he freely admits. Reuchlin的整个哲学体系,是神,认知等学说,是完全cabalistic,因为他坦承。Reuchlin's contemporary, Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim (1487-1535), holds the same views, with this difference, that he pays especial attention to the practical side of the Cabala-namely, magic-which he endeavors to develop and explain thoroughly. Reuchlin当代,海因里希科尼利厄斯阿格里帕的Nettesheim(1487年至1535年),持有相同的看法与此不同,他自付特殊注意在实际方面的Cabala,即魔,他致力于开发和解释透彻。 In his chief work, "De Occulta Philosophia," Paris, 1528, he deals principally with the doctrines of God, the Sefirot (entirely after the fashion of the cabalists), and the three worlds.在他的主要工作,“德隐性睿哲,”巴黎,1528年,他主要涉及与神的Sefirot(后完全时尚的cabalists),理论和三个世界。 The last-named point, the division of the universe into three distinct worlds-(1) that of the elements; (2) the heavenly world; and (3) the intelligible world-is Agrippa's own conception but shaped upon cabalistic patterns, by which he also tries to explain the meaning of magic.最后命名来看,宇宙划分为三个不同的世界,(1)元素(2)天国世界,(3)理解世界是阿格里帕自己的概念,但后cabalistic模式成型,他还试图解释魔术的意义。 These worlds are always intimately connected with one another; the higher ever influencing the lower, and the latter attracting the influence of the former.这些世界总是密切联系在一起彼此;较高的影响越来越低,而后者吸引了前者的影响。

Natural Philosophy.自然哲学。

Mention must also be made of Francesco Zorzi (1460-1540), whose theosophy is cabalistic, and who refers to the "Hebræi" ("De Harmonia Mundi," cantus iii. 1, ch. iii.).还必须提及由弗朗切斯科Zorzi(1460年至1540年),其神智是cabalistic,谁指的是“Hebræi”(“德异色世界之”旋律三。1,甲烷。三。)。 His doctrine of the threefold soul is especially characteristic, as he uses even the Hebrew terms "Nefesh, "Ruaḥ," and "Neshamah." Natural philosophy in combination with the Christian Cabala is found in the works of the German Theophrastus Paracelsus (1493-1541), of the Italian Hieronymus Cardanus (1501-76), of the Hollander Johann Baptist von Helmont (1577-1644), and of the Englishman Robert Fludd (1574-1637). Natural science was just about to cast off its swaddling-clothes-a crisis that could not be passed through at one bound, but necessitated a number of intermediate steps. Not yet having attained to independence and being bound up more or less with purely speculative principles, it sought support in the Cabala, which enjoyed a great reputation. Among the above-mentioned representatives of this peculiar syncretism, the Englishman Fludd is especially noteworthy on account of his knowledge of the Cabala. Almost all of his metaphysical ideas are found in the Lurianic Cabala, which may be explained by the fact that he formed connections with Jewish cabalists during his many travels in Germany, France, and Italy.他的灵魂的三个原则是特别的特性,甚至为他用希伯来语条款“诉愿”,Ruaḥ“和”Neshamah“自然哲学的结合与基督教Cabala是在德国泰奥弗拉斯帕拉塞尔苏斯(1493年的著作中找到。 - 1541),在意大利希罗尼穆斯Cardanus(1501至1576年),约翰施洗的霍兰德冯海尔蒙特(1577年至1644年),以及英国人罗伯特弗拉德(1574年至1637年)。自然科学只是要摆脱它的襁褓,衣服的一个无法通过在一个方向,但需要一些中间步骤。危机尚未达到独立和约束了在Cabala,其中享有或多或少与纯粹的投机性原则,它要求支持盛名在这一特殊融合上述代表。,弗拉德是英国人,特别是对他的知识帐户值得注意的Cabala。几乎他的形而上学的思想都是在Lurianic Cabala,这可能会被发现的事实来解释形成于他在德国,法国和意大利的许多旅游与犹太cabalists的连接。

Cabalistic ideas continued to exert their influence even after a large section of Christianity broke with the traditions of the Church. cabalistic的想法继续施加其影响力甚至大过了一段与基督教教会的传统断了。Many conceptions derived from the Cabala may be found in the dogmatics of Protestantism as taught by its first representatives, Luther and Melanchthon.从派生的Cabala许多观念可能会在新教教义教发现其作为第一个代表,路德和梅兰希。This is still more the case with the German mystics Valentin Weigel (1533-88) and Jacob Böhme (1575-1624).这仍然是更多的情况与德国神秘主义者的情况瓦伦丁威格尔(1533年至1588年)和雅各伯梅(1575年至1624年)。 Although owing nothing directly to the literature of the cabalists, yet cabalistic ideas pervaded the whole period to such an extent that even men of limited literary attainments, like Böhme, for instance, could not remain uninfluenced.虽然由于没有任何直接的cabalists文学,但cabalistic的想法弥漫在整个期间到这样的程度,如有限的文学造诣伯梅,甚至是男人,例如,不能不受影响不受影响。 In addition to these Christian thinkers, who took up the doctrines of the Cabala and essayed to work them over in their own way, Joseph de Voisin (1610-85), Athanasius Kircher (1602-84), and Knorr Baron vonRosenroth endeavored to spread the Cabala among the Christians by translating cabalistic works, which they regarded as most ancient wisdom.除了这些基督教思想家,谁负责的Cabala的教义和杂文化工作在他们自己的方式结束了,约瑟夫德佛伊辛(1610至1685年),亚他那修斯珂(1602年至1684年)和家乐男爵vonRosenroth致力于传播之间的翻译cabalistic作品,其中最​​古老的智慧,他们认为作为基督徒Cabala。 Most of them also held the absurd idea that the Cabala contained proofs of the truth of Christianity.他们中的大多数还举行了荒唐的想法,即Cabala载有真理的基督教证明。In modern times Christian scholars have contributed little to the scientific investigation of cabalistic literature.基督教在近代学者们贡献不大的cabalistic文学科学调查。Molitor, Kleuker, and Tholuk may be mentioned, although their critical treatment leaves much to be desired.莫利托,Kleuker和Tholuk可能会提到,但其关键的治疗极不理想。

-Teachings:-教训:

The name "Cabala" characterizes the theosophic teachings of its followers as an ancient sacred "tradition" instead of being a product of human wisdom.该名称为“Cabala”的特点及其追随者作为一个古老神圣的“传统”theosophic教义,而不是被人类智慧的产物。 This claim, however, did not prevent them from differing with one another even on its most important doctrines, each one interpreting the "tradition" in his own way.这种说法,但是,并没有阻止一个即使在其最重要的理论,每一个他自己的方式诠释了“传统”,他们的不同。A systematic review of the Cabala would therefore have to take into account these numerous different interpretations.一个系统的审查的Cabala因此必须考虑到这些众多不同的解释。Only one system can, however, be considered here; namely, that which has most consistently carried out the basic doctrines of the Cabala.只有一个系统可以,不过,被视为这里,即拥有最一贯进行的Cabala的基本教义。 Leaving Ḥasidism aside, therefore, the Zoharistic systemas interpreted by Moses Cordovero and Isaac Luria, has most consistently developed these doctrines, and it will be treated here as the cabalistic system par excellence.离开Ḥasidism一边,因此,Zoharistic的摩西Cordovero和艾萨克卢里亚解释systemas,有最发达一贯这些理论,它会被视为cabalistic系统卓越这里。 The literary and historical value of its main works will be discussed in special articles.其主要作品的文学和历史价值将讨论在特殊物品。

The Cabala, by which speculative Cabala ( ) is essentially meant, was in its origin merely a system of metaphysics; but in the course of its development it included many tenets of dogmatics, divine worship, and ethics.该Cabala,其中投机Cabala()从本质的意思,只是在其原产地是一种形而上学的,但在其发展它包括许多信条教义学,神圣的崇拜和伦理课程。 God, the world, creation, man, revelation, the Messiah, law, sin, atonement, etc.-such are the varied subjects it discusses and describes.上帝,面向世界,创造人,启示,弥赛亚,法律,罪,赎罪等,这些都是论述,并介绍不同主题。

God.神。

The doctrine of the En-Sof is the starting-point of all cabalistic speculation.本恩特种部队学说是出发点的所有cabalistic的猜测。God is the infinite, unlimited being, to whom one neither can nor may ascribe any attributes whatever; who can, therefore, be designated merely as En-Sof ( = "without end," "the Infinite").上帝是无限的,无限的存在,以其中一人既不能也不可以归咎于任何属性什么,谁可以,因此,被指定为恩特种部队仅仅是(=“没有结束”,“无限”)。 Hence, the idea of God can be postulated merely negatively: it is known what God is not, but not what He is.因此,上帝的想法可以假设仅仅是消极的:它是不知道什么是上帝,但不是他的。All positive ascriptions are finite, or as Spinoza later phrased it, in harmony with the Cabala, "omnis determinatio est negatio."所有阳性ascriptions是有限的,或斯宾诺莎后措辞与Cabala和谐,协调,“omnis租赁property美国东部时间negatio。” One can not predicate of God either will or intention or word or thought or deed (Azriel, in Meïr ibn Gabbai's "Derek Emunah," ed. Berlin, p. 4a).人们不能上游上帝或将要或打算或词或思想或契据(阿兹列尔,在梅尔本Gabbai的“德里克Emunah,”版。柏林,第4A条)。 Nor can one ascribe to Him any change or alteration; for He is nothing that is finite: He is the negation of all negation, the absolutely infinite, the En-Sof.一个也不能归于他的任何改动或改建,因为他是没有什么是有限的:他是所有否定之否定,绝对是无限的,恩,特种部队。

Creation.创作。

In connection with this idea of God there arises the difficult question of the creation, the principal problem of the Cabala and a much-discussed point in Jewish religious philosophy.在这样的想法上帝的连接也存在着的创造,的Cabala的主要问题,并在犹太宗教哲学讨论甚多点困难的问题。 If God be the En-Sof-that is, if nothing exists outside of God-then the question arises, How may the universe be explained?如果上帝的恩特种部队,也就是说,如果没有神的存在,那么由此产生的问题,怎么可能解释宇宙之外?This can not have preexisted as a reality or as primal substance; for nothing exists outside of God: the creation of the world at a definite time presupposes a change of mind on the part of God, leading Him from non-creating to creating.这不能有preexisted作为一个现实,还是作为原始物质;为神之外什么都不存在:在一定时间内创造了世界的先决条件是心灵对上帝的一部分变化,导致非创造创造他。 But a change of any kind in the En-Sof is, as stated, unthinkable; and all the more unthinkable is a change of mind on His part, which could have taken place only because of newly developed or recognized reasons influencing His will, a situation impossible in the case of God.但任何一种在EN -特种部队的变化是,如上所述,不可思议,一切更不可思议的是他的一部分改变主意,这可能仅仅是因为采取了新开发的地方或认可的原因影响他的意志,形势在神案不可能的。 This, however, is not the only question to be answered in order to comprehend the relation between God and the world.然而,这并不是唯一要回答的问题,以便理解上帝和世界之间的关系。God, as an infinite, eternal, necessary being, must, of course, be purely spiritual, simple, elemental.上帝,作为一个无限的,永恒的,必​​要的,必须的,当然,是纯粹的精神,简单的元素。How was it possible then that He created the corporeal, compounded world without being affected by coming in contact with it?这怎么可能那么,他创造了有形的,而不会被复杂的影响与它接触的世界?In other words, how could the corporeal world come into existence, if a part of God was not therein incorporated?换言之,如何能进入有形世界的存在,如果上帝的一部分没有纳入其中?

In addition to these two questions on creation and a corporeal world, the idea of divine rulership of the world, Providence, is incomprehensible.除了对有形世界的创造和这两个问题,对世界,普罗维登斯,神圣的统治思想是不可理解的。The order and law observable in the world presuppose a conscious divine government.在观察世界秩序和法律的神圣政府有意识的先决条件。The idea of Providence presupposes a knower; and a knower presupposes a connection between the known and the knower.普罗维登斯的想法的前提是认识者,以及一个能知的先决条件之间的了解和认识者的连接。But what connection can there be between absolute spirituality and simplicity on the one side, and the material, composite objects of the world on the other?但连接之间才会有绝对的灵性和简单的一方,和材料,复合材料,世界上的其他对象?

World.世界。

No less puzzling than Providence is the existence of evil in the world, which, like everything else, exists through God.静宜不少于令人费解的是,邪恶的世界,它像其他事物一样,通过上帝存在的存在。 How can God, who is absolutely perfect, be the cause of evil?怎样才能神,谁是绝对完美的,是邪恶的原因是什么?The Cabala endeavors to answer all these questions by the following assumption:该Cabala努力回答以下假设所有这些问题:

The Primal Will.的原始意志。

Aristotle, who is followed by the Arabian and Jewish philosophers, taught (see Munk's note to his translation of the "Moreh Nebukim," i. 68) that in God, thinker, thinking, and the object thought of are absolutely united.亚里士多德,谁是阿拉伯和犹太哲学家,教导(见芒克的纸条给他翻译的“Moreh Nebukim,”岛68)在上帝,思想家,这种想法,对象是绝对团结的思想。The cabalists adopted this philosophic tenet in all its significance, and even went a step further by positing an essential difference between God's mode of thinking and man's.该cabalists通过了这一哲学原理其所有的意义,甚至上升positing神之间的思维方式和人的本质的区别了一步。 With man the object thought of remains abstract, a mere form of the object, which has only a subjective existence in the mind of man, and not an objective existence outside of him.与男子对象思想仍然是抽象的,只是形式的对象,它在人的心中只有一个主观的存在,而不是外界对他的客观存在。God's thought, on the other hand, assumes at once a concrete spiritual existence.上帝的思想,另一方面,假设在一次具体的精神存在。The mere form even is at once a substance, purely spiritual, simple, and unconfined, of course, but still concrete; since the difference between subject and object does not apply to the First Cause, and no abstraction can be assumed.甚至仅仅是一次形成的一种物质,纯粹的精神,简单,潜水,当然,但仍混凝土,自主体与客体之间的差异并不适用于第一个原因,没有抽象可以假设。 This substance is the first product of the First Cause, emanating immediately from Wisdom, which is identical with God, being His thought; hence, like Wisdom, it is eternal, inferior to it only in degree, but not in time; and through it, the primal will (), everything was produced and everything is continuously arranged (Azriel, lc 3a; this point is discussed in detail in Eybeschütz, "Shem 'Olam," pp. 50 et seq.).这种物质是第一个产品的第一个原因,产生的智慧,这与神立即相同,即他的思想,因此,像智慧,它是永恒的,只是在程度较差,但不及时执行;并通过,原始会(),一切生产和一切是不断安排(Azriel,立法会第3A,这点是详细讨论Eybeschütz,“闪'奥兰,”页50起。)。 The Zohar expresses this thought in its own way in the words: "Come and see! Thought is the beginning of everything that is; but as such it is contained within itself and unknown. . . . The real [divine] thought is connected with the [the "Not"; in the Zohar = " En-Sof "], and never separates from it. This is the meaning of the words (Zech. xiv. 9) 'God is one, and His name is one'" (Zohar, Wayeḥi, i. 246b).佐哈尔表示这个字以自己的方式想:“快来看思想是一切的开始,但因为如此,它是包含在本身和未知,真正的[神]认为是与!。。。。在[“不”,在佐哈尔=“恩特种部队”],永不分离,这是从它的字意思是'上帝只有一个,他的名字是一个人。“(亚十四9)。 (佐哈尔,Wayeḥi岛246b)。

Its Wisdom.它的智慧。

The Zohar, as may be seen here, uses the expression "thought" where other cabalists use "primal will"; but the difference of terminology does not imply a difference of conception.该佐哈尔,可能在这里看到,使用了“思想”在其他cabalists的使用“原始意志”,但不同的术语,并不意味着不同的概念。 The designation "will" is meant to express here merely a negation; namely, that the universe was not produced unintentionally by the First Cause, as some philosophers hold, but through the intention-ie, the wisdom-of the First Cause.指定的“将”是指在此表示仅仅是一个否定,即宇宙不是所产生的第一个原因无意,一些哲学家持有,而是通过意向,即智慧,第一个原因。 The first necessary and eternal, existing cause is, as its definition "En-Sof" indicates, the most complete, infinite, all-inclusive, and ever actually thinking Wisdom.第一个必要的和永恒的,现有的原因是,因为它的定义“恩特种部队”表示,最完整的,无限的,包容各方,智慧和不断的思想实际。 But it can not be even approached in discussion.但它不能在讨论甚至接近。The object of its thought, which is also eternal and identified with it, is, as it were, the plan of the universe, in its entire existence and its duration in space and in time.其思想,这也是永恒的,并认同它,对象,因为它是宇宙的计划,在其整个存在及其在空间和持续时间。That is to say, this plan contains not only the outline of the construction of the intellectual and material world, but also the determination of the time of its cominginto being, of the powers operating to that end in it; of the order and regulation according to fixed norms of the successive events, vicissitudes, deviations, originations, and extinctions to take place in it.这就是说,这一计划不仅包含大纲的智力和物质世界的建设,也是其cominginto时间的测定它的经营,为此权力;的命令和规例according以固定规范的连续事件,沧桑,偏差,发放,和灭绝采取在其中的位置。 The Cabala sought to answer the above-mentioned questions regarding the creation and Providence by thus positing a primal will.该Cabala设法回答这样一个原始positing将上述疑问,建立和普罗维登斯。The creation of the world occasioned no change in the First Cause; for the transition from potentiality to reality was contained in the primal will already.世界的创造引起的第一个原因没有变化,为从潜力转变为现实的是在原始将已经包含。

Providence.普罗维登斯。

The primal will contains thus within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of space and time, being for that reason eo ipso Providence, and is omniscient concerning all its innumerable details.这样的原始将包含在其自身内部空间和时间整个无限宇宙的计划,因为这个原因被雇佣IPSO的普罗维登斯,是无所不知涉及所有的无数细节。 Although the First Cause is the sole source of all knowledge, this knowledge is only of the most general and simple nature.虽然第一个原因是一切知识的唯一来源,这方面的知识只是最普通和简单的性质。The omniscience of the First Cause does not limit the freedom of man because it does not occupy itself with details; the omniscience of the primal will, again, is only of a hypothetical and conditional character and leaves free rein to the human will.第一个原因无所不知并不限制人的自由,因为它不占用细节本身,对原始无所不知会,再次,只有一个假设的和有条件的特点是,叶自由发挥人的意志。 The act of creation was thus brought about by means of the Primal Will, also called the Infinite Light ().创造的行为是因此,有关的原始意志所带来的手段,也被称为无限轻()。But the question still remains unanswered: How is it possible that out of that which is absolute, simple, and indeterminate-it being identical with the "First Cause"-namely, the "Primal Will"-there should emerge determinate, composite beings, such as exist in the universe?但问题仍然没有答案:这怎么可能是那哪个是绝对的,简单的和不确定的,它正与“第一原因”相同,即“原始意志”,应该出现确定,复合物,如存在于宇宙? The cabalists endeavor to explain the transition from the infinite to the finite by the theory of the Ẓimẓum; ie, contraction.该cabalists努力来解释无限的过渡由Ẓimẓum理论到有限,即收缩。The phenomenon, that which appears, is a limitation of what is originally infinite and, therefore, in itself invisible and imperceptible, because the undefined is insensible to touch and sight.这种现象,认为这似乎是一个无限的东西本来就是限制,因此,本身无形的,潜移默化的,因为不确定是愚蠢的去触摸和视线。 "The En-Sof," says the Cabala, "contracted Himself in order to leave an empty space in the world." “在恩软,说:”在Cabala,“自己承包,以在世界上留下空白。”In other words, the infinite totality had to become manifold in order to appear and become visible in definite things.换句话说,在无限的整体已成为多方面才能出现,并成为在一定事物可见。The power of God is unlimited: it is not limited to the infinite, but includes also the finite (Azriel, lcp 2a).上帝的力量是无限的:它不局限于到无限,但也包括有限的(阿兹列尔,LCP的2A)条。Or, as the later cabalists phrase it, the plan of the world lies within the First Cause; but the idea of the world includes the phenomenon, which must, therefore, be made possible.或者,正如后来cabalists词组了,这世界上计划内的第一个原因在于,包括但世界理念的现象,因此,必须成为可能。 This power contained in the First Cause the cabalists called "the line" () [compare the Gnostic "Ḳaw la-Ḳaw" mentioned above.-K.]; it runs through the whole universe and gives it form and being.在第一个原因所载这种权力的cabalists所谓的“线”()[比较诺斯底“Ḳaw腊Ḳaw”中提到above. - K表。],它贯穿于整个宇宙,并赋予它形式与存在。

Identity of Substance and Form.身份的内容和形式。

But another danger arises here.但另一个危险出现在这里。If God is immanent in the universe, the individual objects-or, as Spinoza terms them, the "modi"-may easily come to be considered as a part of the substance.如果上帝是内在的宇宙,单个对象,或者像斯宾诺莎条款,其中“作案”,可能很容易来被视为对这种物质的一部分。 In order to solve this difficulty, the cabalists point out, in the first place, that one perceives in the accidental things of the universe not only their existence, but also an organic life, which is the unity in the plurality, the general aim and end of the individual things that exist only for their individual aims and ends.为了解决这一困难,cabalists指出,在第一位置,即一个宇宙的偶然的事情看待,不仅存在,而且也是一个有机的生命,这是在多元化,团结和总体目标月底的存在为他们的个人目标和目的只有个别的东西。 This appropriate interconnection of things, harmonizing as it does with supreme wisdom, is not inherent in the things themselves, but can only originate in the perfect wisdom of God.这适当的互连的东西,因为它与统一最高智慧,是不是固有的东西本身,而只能来自于神完美的智慧。From this follows the close connection between the infinite and the finite, the spiritual and the corporeal, the latter being contained in the former.从这个如下之间的无限和有限的,精神和肉体的密切联系,后者包含在前者。 According to this assumption it would be justifiable to deduce the spiritual and infinite from the corporeal and finite, which are related to each other as the prototype to its copy.根据这一假设,这将是合理的推断的精神,从有形的和有限的,这是有关对方为原型到其复制其他无限。It is known that everything that is finite consists of substance and form; hence, it is concluded that the Infinite Being also has a form in absolute unity with it, which is infinite, surely spiritual, and general.据了解,一切是有限的内容和形式组成,因此,它的结论是无限的存在也有它的绝对团结,这是无限的,肯定的精神,和一般形式。 While one can not form any conception of the En-Sof, the pure substance, one can yet draw conclusions from the "Or En-Sof" (The Infinite Light), which in part may be cognized by rational thought; that is, from the appearance of the substance one may infer its nature.虽然不能形成任何的恩软,纯物质概念,还可以吸取“或EN -特种部队”的结论(无限轻),其中部分可能会被认定的理性思考,即从物质的一个外观可能推断其性质。The appearance of God is, of course, differentiated from that of all other things; for, while all else may be cognized only as a phenomenon, God may be conceived as real without phenomenon, but the phenomenon may not be conceived without Him (Cordovero, "Pardes," xxv., "Sha'ar ha-Temurot").神的外观,当然,从所有其他的东西,有区别的,因为,而所有其他可能被认定只作为一种现象,上帝可能是因为没有真正设想的现象,但这种现象可能无法设想没有他(Cordovero “Pardes,”二十五。“Sha'ar公顷,Temurot”)。Although it must be admitted that the First Cause is entirely uncognizable, the definition of it includes the admission that it contains within it all reality, since without that it would not be the general First Cause.但必须承认,第一个原因是完全uncognizable,它的定义包括承认,它在它包含了所有的现实,因为没有它不会成为一般第一个原因。 The infinite transcends the finite, but does not exclude it, because the concept of infinite and unlimited can not be combined with the concept of exclusion.超越有限的无限,但不排除它,因为无限和无限的概念不能与排斥的概念结合起来。The finite, moreover, can not exist if excluded, because it has no existence of its own.有限的,而且不能存在,如果排除在外,因为它没有自己的存在。The fact that the finite is rooted in the infinite constitutes the-beginnings of the phenomenon which the cabalists designate as ("the light in the test of creation"), indicating thereby that it does not constitute or complete the nature of God, but is merely a reflection of it.认为有限的无限植根事实上构成了现象的cabalists指定为(“中创造的测试灯”),从而表明它并不构成或完成上帝的性质,-开端,但它仅仅是一种反思。 The First Cause, in order to correspond to its concept as containing all realities, even those that are finite has, as it were, retired into its own nature, has limited and concealed itself, in order that the phenomenon might become possible, or, according to cabalistic terminology, that the first concentration () might take place.第一个原因,以符合其概念包含了所有的现实,即使是那些有限的,因为它是,退休到它自己的性质,限制和隐藏在秩序本身,这种现象可能会成为可能,或者,根据cabalistic术语,第一次浓度()可能发生。 This concentration, however, does not represent the transition from potentiality to actuality, from the infinite to the finite; for it took place within the infinite itself in order to produce the.这种集中,但是,这并不代表从无限潜力过渡到现实,对有限的,因为它发生在秩序中的地位在无限本身产生。infinite light.无限的光。 Hence this concentration is also designated as ("cleavage"), which means that no.因此,这种集中也被指定为(“分裂”),这意味着没有。change really took place within the infinite, just as we may look into an object through a fissure in its surface while no change has taken place within the object itself.变化真的发生在无限的地方,就像我们看一下在它的表面裂缝成一个对象,而不会改变已经发生的对象本身。It is only after the infinite light has been produced by this concentration, ie-after the First Cause has become a phenomenon-that a beginning is made for the transition to the finite and determinate, which is then brought about by a second concentration.这是只有在无限的光被这一集中生产,IE浏览器后,第一个原因已经成为一种现象,即一开始是为向有限和确定,然后被带到了第二次集中提出关于过渡。

Concentration.浓度的影响。

The finite in itself has no existence, and the infinite as such can not be perceived: only through the light of the infinite-does the finite appear as existent; just as by virtue of the finite the infinite becomes perceptible.有限的本身已不存在,并且因此不能被视为无限的:只有通过无限是否存在有限的光出现,就像用有限的无限美德变得明显。 Hence, the Cabala teaches that the infinite light contracted and retired its infinityin order that the finite might become existent; or, in other words, the infinite appears as the sum of finite things.因此,在Cabala教导我们无限的光承包和退休的infinityin为了使有限的存在成为可能,或者,换句话说,无限为有限的东西的总和出现。 The first as well as the second concentration takes place only within the confines of mere being; and in order that the infinite realities, which form an absolute unity, may appear in their diversity, dynamic tools or forms must be conceived, which produce the gradations and differences and the essential distinguishing qualities of finite things.在第一代以及第二浓度只需要在纯粹存在局限的地方,及令无限的现实,形成一个绝对的统一,可能会出现在他们的多样性,动态的工具或表格必须设想,产生了等级分歧和区别的基本素质有限的东西。

The Sefirot.的Sefirot。

This leads to the doctrine of the Sefirot, which is perhaps the most important doctrine of the Cabala.这导致的Sefirot,这也许是最重要的Cabala主义学说。Notwithstanding its importance, it is presented very differently in different works.尽管它的重要性,提出了非常不同,在不同的作品。While some cabalists take the Sefirot to be identical, in their totality, with the Divine Being-ie, each Sefirah representing only a different view of the infinite, which is comprehended in this way (compare "Ma'areket," p. 8b, below)-others look upon the Sefirot merely as tools of the Divine power, superior creatures, that are, however, totally different from the Primal Being (Recanati, "Ṭa'ame Miẓwot," passim).虽然有些cabalists采取相同的Sefirot是在他们的整体,与神的存在,也就是说,仅相当于一个无限的,这是这种方式(比较“Ma​​'areket,”第8B条每个Sefirah理解不同的看法,以下),其他人看待的Sefirot作为神圣的权力,优越的生物工具,即是,但是,完全从原始不同仅仅做到(雷卡纳蒂,“Ṭa'ameMiẓwot,”各处)。 The following definition of the Sefirot, in agreement with Cordovero and Luria, may, however, be regarded asa logically correct one:在下面的定义的Sefirot与Cordovero和卢里亚,协议,5月,然而,被视为阿萨逻辑正确的:

God is immanent in the Sefirot, but He is Himself more than may be perceived in these forms of idea and being.上帝是内在的Sefirot,但他比自己更可能会在这些形式的想法和被察觉。Just as, according to Spinoza, the primal substance has infinite attributes, but manifests itself only in two of these-namely, extent and thought-so also is, according to the conception of the Cabala, the relation of the Sefirot to the En-Sof.正如,根据斯宾诺莎的原始物质具有无限的属性,但表现出来的这些只有两个,即,程度和思想也是这样,根据的Cabala,对到EN个Sefirot关系的概念,索夫。 The Sefirot themselves, in and through which all changes take place in the universe, are composite in so far as two natures may be distinguished in them; namely, (1) that in and through which all change takes place, and (2) that which is unchangeable, the light or the Divine power.的Sefirot自己,并通过所有变化发生在宇宙中的位置,是在迄今为止的两个性质,可能会在他们杰出的复合材料;即:(1)中,并通过这一切变化发生,以及(2)这是不可改变的,光或神圣的权力。 The cabalists call these two different natures of the Sefirot "Light" and "Vessels" ().该cabalists呼吁这两个的Sefirot“轻”和“船舶”()的不同性质。For, as vessels of different color reflect the light of the sun differently without producing any change in it, so the divine light manifested in the Sefirot is not changed by their seeming differences (Cordovero, lc "Sha'ar 'Aẓamot we-Kelim," iv.).因为,正如不同的颜色反映不同的船只不产生任何改变太阳的光,所以神圣的光表现的Sefirot不改变其表面上的差异(Cordovero,立法会“Sha'ar'Aẓamot我们,凯利姆, “四。)。The first Sefirah, Keter ( = "crown," or = "exalted height"), is identical with the primal will () of God, and is differentiated from the En-Sof, as explained above, only as being the first effect, while the En-Sof is the first cause.第一Sefirah,科特(=“皇冠”,或=“崇高的高度”),是与原始意志(上帝)相同,并从恩特种部队有区别的,正如上文所述只是作为第一起,而恩特种部队是第一个原因。 This first Sefirah contained within itself the plan of the universe in its entire infinity of time and space.包含在这第一Sefirah本身,在其全部的时间和空间无限宇宙的计划。Many cabalists, therefore, do not include the Keter among the Sefirot, as it is not an actual emanation of the En-Sof; but most of them place it at the head of the Sefirot.许多cabalists,因此,不包括Keter之间的Sefirot,因为它不是一本恩特种部队的实际化身,但其中大多数人都在头上的Sefirot。 From this Keter, which is an absolute unity, differentiated from everything manifold and from every relative unity, proceed two parallel principles that are apparently opposed, but in reality are inseparable: the one masculine, active, called Ḥokmah ( = "wisdom"); the other feminine, passive, called Binah ( = "intellect").从这个科特,这是一个绝对的统一,从一切多方面的,从每一个相对统一的分化,进行两个显然的,但实际上不是平行的原则是分不开的:一个男性化的,积极的,称为Ḥokmah(=“智慧”);其他女性,被动的,称为Binah(=“智力”)。 The union of Ḥokmah and Binah produces Da'at ( = "reason"); that is, the contrast between subjectivity and objectivity finds its solution in reason, by which cognition or knowledge becomes possible.该Ḥokmah工会和Binah生产Da'at(=“原因”),这就是主观和客观之间的对比中找到它的解决方案的原因,其中认知或知识成为可能。 Those cabalists who do not include Keter among the Sefirot, take Da'at as the third Sefirah; but the majority consider it merely as a combination of Ḥokmah and Binah and not as an independent Sefirah.这些cabalists谁不包括Keter之间的Sefirot,以此作为第三Sefirah Da'at,但多数人认为它仅仅作为一种Ḥokmah和Binah结合,作为一个独立的Sefirah没有。

The First Three Sefirot.前三个Sefirot。

The first three Sefirot, Keter, Ḥokmah, and Binah, form a unity among themselves; that is, knowledge, the knower, and the known are in God identical, and thus the world is only the expression of the ideas or the absolute forms of intelligence.前三个个Sefirot,科特,Ḥokmah,并Binah,形成彼此间的团结,这就是知识,能知,与已知的神是完全相同的,因此,世界上只有理念或绝对的形式表达情报。 Thus the identity of thinking and being, or of the real and ideal, is taught in the Cabala in the same way as in Hegel.因此,思维和存在的,或实际和理想的身份,是教中的Cabala在黑格尔一样。Thought in its threefold manifestation again produces contrasting principles; namely, Ḥesed ( = "mercy"), the masculine, active principle, and Din ( = "justice"), the feminine, passive principle, also called Paḥad ( = "awe") and Geburah ( = "might"), which combine in a common principle, Tif'eret (= "beauty").其表现在三个方面再次产生截然不同的思想原则,即Ḥesed(=“怜悯”),男性,主动的原则和DIN(=“正义”),女性,被动的原则,也称为帕哈德(=“敬畏”)和Geburah(=“可能”),在一个共同的原则结合起来,Tif'eret(=“美”)。 The concepts justice and mercy, however, must not be taken in their literal sense, but as symbolical designations forexpansion and contraction of the will; the sum of both, the moral order, appears as beauty.正义与慈悲的概念,但是,绝不能采取在其字面意义,但作为象征性的名称forexpansion和意志收缩;两者的总和,道德秩序,为美出现。 The last-named trinity of the Sefirot represents dynamic nature, namely, the masculine Neẓaḥ ( = "triumph"); and the feminine Hod ( = "glory"); the former standing for increase, and the latter for the force from which proceed all the forces produced in the universe.作者的Sefirot最后命名代表三位一体的动态性质,即男性Neẓaḥ(=“胜利”),以及女性荷德(=“荣耀”),而前站立增加,以及该部队出发后从哪个所有的力量产生于宇宙。 Neẓaḥ and Hod unite to produce Yesod ( = "foundation"), the reproductive element, the root of all existence. Neẓaḥ和荷德团结起来,产生Yesod(=“基金会”),生殖元素,所有存在的根源。

These three trinities of the Sefirot are also designated as follows: The first three Sefirot form the intelligible world (, or , as Azriel [lcp 3b] calls it, corresponding to the κόσμο1ς νοητός of the Neoplatonists), representing, as we have seen, the absolute identity of being and thinking.的Sefirot这三个trinities也被指定为如下:前三个个Sefirot形成了理解世界(或,作为Azriel [LCP的第3B]所说的那样,对应的柏拉图κόσμο1ςνοητός),代表,正如我们所看到的,因为,作为一个绝对的身份和思维。The second triad of the Sefirot is moral in character; hence Azriel (lc) calls it the "soul-world," and later cabalists ("the sensible world"); while the third triad constitutes the natural world (, or, as in Azriel [lc], , and in the terminology of Spinoza "natura naturata").对第二个黑社会的Sefirot是道德性质,因此阿兹列尔(立法会)称之为“灵魂世界”,后来cabalists(“明智的世界”),而第三个黑社会构成了自然世界(或,如阿兹列尔[立法会],并在斯宾诺莎的“自然naturata”的术语)。 The tenth Sefirah is Malkut ( = "dominion"), that in which the will, the plan, and the active forces become manifest, the sum of the permanent and immanent activity of all Sefirot.第十届Sefirah是Malkut(=“统治”),即在该会的计划,并积极力量变得明显,对所有个Sefirot永久和内在活动的总和。 The Sefirot on their first appearance are not yet the dynamic tools proper, as it were, constructing and regulating the world of phenomena, but merely the prototypes of them.在他们的第一次亮相Sefirot是没有适当的动态工具,因为它是,建设和规范世界的现象,而仅仅是他们的原型。

The Four Worlds.四个世界。

In their own realm, called ("realm of emanation"; see Aẓilut), or sometimes Adam Ḳadmon, because the figure of man is employed in symbolic representation of the Sefirot, the Sefirot are conceived merely as conditions of the finite that is to be; for their activity only begins in the other so-called three worlds; namely, (1) the world of creative ideas (), (2) the world of creative formations (), and (3) the world of creative matter ().在自己的领域,所谓的(“境界的气”,见Aẓilut),或有时亚当始祖,因为人的数字是在符号表示的Sefirot就业,Sefirot是设想为有限的条件只不过是要因为她们的活动仅开始于其他所谓的三个世界,即(1)(创意世界),(2)()创意形成的世界,和(3)创造性的物质(世界) 。The earliest description of these four worlds is found in the "Masseket Aẓilut."这四个世界上最早发现的描述是“MasseketAẓilut。”The first Aẓilutic world contains the Sefirot ( in this passage = , as Azriel, lc 5a, says), and in the Beriatic () world are the souls of the pious, the divine throne, and the divine halls.世界第一Aẓilutic包含的Sefirot(在此通过=,作为Azriel,立法会5A型,说),并在Beriatic()世界是虔诚的,神圣的宝座灵魂,神圣的殿堂。 The Yeẓiratic () world is the seat of the ten classes of angels with their chiefs, presided over by Meṭaṭron, who was changed into fire; and there are also the spirits of men.该Yeẓiratic()世界是与他们的首领天使的10个类别的座位,主持梅塔特隆,谁是进入火灾;也有男人的精神。In the 'Asiyyatic () world are the ofanim, the angels that receive the prayers and control the actions of men, and wage war against evil or Samael ("Masseket Aẓilut," in Jellinek, "Ginze Ḥokmat ha-Ḳabbalah," pp. 3-4).在'Asiyyatic()世界是ofanim,天使的祈祷接收和控制人的行为,并发动战争的罪恶或萨麦尔(“MasseketAẓilut,”在耐克,“GinzeḤokmat公顷,卡巴拉,”页3-4)。 Although there is no doubt that these four worlds were originally conceived as real, thus occasioning the many fantastic descriptions of them in the early Cabala, they were subsequently interpreted as being purely idealistic.虽然没有迹象表明这四个世界最初设想为真实,因此致了许多精彩的描述,他们在早期Cabala疑问,他们随后被解释为纯粹的理想化。

The later Cabala assumes three powers in nature, the mechanical, the organic, and the teleological, which are connected together as the result of a general, independent, purely spiritual, principal idea.They are symbolized by the four worlds.在后来Cabala假定三个权力的性质,机械,有机和目的论,这是连接为一个一般的,独立的,纯粹的精神,主要由四idea.They象征世界共同的结果。 The corporeal world () is perceived as a world subjected to mechanism.有形世界()被认为是世界上遭受机制。As this can not be derived from a body or corporeality, the Cabala attempts to find the basis for it in the noncorporeal; for even the 'Asiyyatic world has its Sefirot; ie, non-corporeal powers that are closely related to the monads of Leibnitz.由于这不能由一个机构或肉体派生的Cabala试图找到它在noncorporeal的依据;即使是'Asiyyatic世界有个Sefirot,即非有形的是密切相关的莱布尼茨the单子的权力。 This assumption, however, explains only inorganic nature; while organic, formative, developing bodies must proceed from a power that operates from within and not from without.这种假设,但是,只解释无机性质,而有机,形成,发展机构必须从权力的运行范围内,而不是从外面。These inner powers that form the organism from within, represent the Yeẓiratic world, the realm of creation.这些从内部形成有机体,代表Yeẓiratic世界,创造的领域内的权力。As there is found in nature not activity merely, but also wise activity, the cabalists call this intelligence manifested in nature the realm of creative ideas.由于在本质上是不只是活动,而且还明智活动中发现,该cabalists呼吁性质体现了这一情报的创意领域。Since, however, the intelligent ideas which are manifested in nature proceed from eternal truths that are independent of existing nature, there must necessarily exist the realm of these eternal truths, the Aẓilutic world.然而,由于分别在每年的性质体现智能的想法是要从现有的独立性质的永恒的真理,因此必然存在对这些永恒的真理,Aẓilutic世界的境界。 Hence the different worlds are essentially one, related to one another as prototype and copy.因此,不同的世界基本上是一个,关系到一个人的原型和复制另一个。All that is contained in the lower world is found in higher archetypal form in the next higher world.所有这一切都在较低的世界中被发现在较高的下一个更高的世界原型形式。Thus, the universe forms a large unified whole, a living, undivided being, that consists of three parts enveloping one another successively; and over them soars, as the highest archetypal seal, the world of Aẓilut.因此,宇宙形成了一个大统一的整体,一个活生生,不可分割的是,这三个包络彼此先后部分组成,并在他们迅猛增长,作为最高原型密封,Aẓilut世界。

Man.男子。

The psychology of the Cabala is closely connected with its metaphysical doctrines.心理学的Cabala是紧密联系在一起的形而上学的教条。As in the Talmud, so in the Cabala man is represented as the sum and the highest product of creation.正如在犹太法典,在Cabala男人如此表示为总结和创造最高的产品。The very organs of his body are constructed according to the mysteries of the highest wisdom: but man proper is the soul; for the body is only the garment, the covering in which the true inner man appears.他的身体非常器官构造根据最高智慧的奥秘:正确的,但人是灵魂;为身体只是服装,覆盖在其中的真正内在的人出现。 The soul is threefold, being composed of Nefesh, Ruaḥ, and Neshamah; Nefesh () corresponds to the 'Asiyyatic world, Ruaḥ () to the Yeẓiratic, and Neshamah () to the Beriatic.灵魂有三个方面,即对诉愿,Ruaḥ,并Neshamah组成;诉愿()对应的'Asiyyatic世界,Ruaḥ()的Yeẓiratic,并Neshamah()的Beriatic。 Nefesh is the animal, sensitive principle in man, and as such is in immediate touch with the body.诉愿是动物,在人敏感的原则,因此在与人体直接接触的。Ruaḥ represents the moral nature; being the seat of good and evil, of good and evil desires, according as it turns toward Neshamah or Nefesh. Ruaḥ代表的道德性质;正在所在地的善良与邪恶,善良与邪恶的欲望,根据它向Neshamah或诉愿圈。Neshamah is pure intelligence, pure spirit, incapable of good or evil: it is pure divine light, the climax of soul-life.Neshamah是纯粹的情报,纯粹的精神,良好的或邪恶的能力:它是纯粹的神圣的光,灵魂生活的高潮。The genesis of these three powers of the soul is of course different.作者的灵魂这三大势力的成因,当然是不同的。Neshamah proceeds directly from divine Wisdom, Ruaḥ from the Sefirah Tif'eret ("Beauty"), and Nefesh from the Sefirah Malkut ("Dominion").Neshamah收益直接来自神的智慧,从Sefirah Tif'eret(“美”),并诉愿从Sefirah Malkut(“统治”)Ruaḥ。Aside from this trinity of the soul there is also the individual principle; that is, the idea of the body with the traits belonging to each person individually, and the spirit of life that has its seat in the heart.除了这个三位一体的灵魂也有个别的原则,那就是,与属于每个人单独和生命的精神,有其在心脏座位性状机构的想法。But as these last two elements no longer form part of the spiritual nature of man, they are not included in the divisions of the soul.但由于这些最后两个因素没有对人的精神本质更长的一部分,他们是不包括在灵魂的分歧。 The cabalists explain the connection between soul and body as follows: All souls exist before the formation of the body in the suprasensible world (compare Preexistence), being united in the course of time with their respective bodies.该cabalists解释之间的灵魂和身体的连接如下:所有的灵魂存在之前的身体suprasensible世界(比较的前身)的形成,即在与各自机构的时间过程统一​​起来。 The descent of the soul into the body is necessitated by the finite nature of the former: it is bound to unite with the body in order to take its part in the universe, to contemplate the spectacle of creation, to become conscious of itself and its origin, and, finally, to return, after having completed its tasks in life, to the inexhaustible fountain of light and life-God.对进入体内血统的灵魂,是必要的前有限性:它是必然要与身体团结,以在宇宙的一部分,考虑创造的奇观,成为其本身和意识起源,并最终返回,完成后,在生活的任务,给光明和生命神取之不尽,用之不竭的源泉。

Immortality.不朽。

While Neshamah ascends to God, Ruaḥ enters Eden to enjoy the pleasures of paradise, and Nefesh remains in peace on earth.虽然Neshamah上升到上帝,Ruaḥ进入伊甸园,享受天堂的乐趣,并诉愿仍然在地球上的和平。This statement, however, applies only to the just.这一声明,但是,只适用于刚。At the death of the godless, Neshamah, being stained with sins, encounters obstacles that make it difficult for it to return to its source; and until it has returned, Ruaḥ may not enter Eden, and Nefesh finds no peace on earth.在不信神,Neshamah被染色的罪孽,死亡,遇到的障碍,使得它难以返​​回其来源;,直到它已经回来了,Ruaḥ不得进入伊甸园,并诉愿没有发现地球上的和平。 Closely connected with this view is the doctrine of the transmigration of the soul (see Metempsychosis), on which the Cabala lays great stress.紧密相连,与这种观点是对的灵魂(见转生),对其中的Cabala轮回学说奠定了巨大的压力。In order that the soul may return to its source, it must previously have reached full development of all its perfections in terrestrial life.为了使灵魂可以返回其来源,它必须以前已达到其所有地球生命成全的全面发展。If it has not fulfilled this condition in the course of one life, it must begin all over again in another body, continuing until it has completed its task.如没有履行这一个生命过程的条件下,必须重新开始所有在另一个机构,继续,直到它已完成其任务。The Lurianic Cabala added to metempsychosis proper the theory of the impregnation () of souls; that is, if two souls do not feel equal to their tasks God unites both in one body, so that they may support and complete each oṭher, as, for instance, a lame man and a blind one may conjointly do (compare the parable in Sanh. 91a, b).该Lurianic Cabala添加到恰当的轮回理论的浸渍()的灵魂,也就是说,如果两个灵魂不觉得他们的任务等于一体的神都在团结,使他们可以互相支持和完整的,因为,例如,一个跛脚男子及一名盲人可以conjointly做(比较在sanh的比喻。91a,b)项。 If one of the two souls needs aid, the other becomes, as it were, its mother, bearing it in its lap and nourishing it with its own substance.如果这两个灵魂的需要的援助,其他变成,因为它是,它的母亲,同时在其大腿和滋养它与它自己的实质。

Love, the Highest Relation to God.爱的最高神的关系。

In regard to the proper relation of the soul to God, as the final object of its being, the cabalists distinguish, both in cognition and in will, a twofold gradation therein.在关于正确关系的灵魂向上帝作为其福祉,cabalists的区别,无论是在认知和意愿,其中有两个层次的最后对象。 As regards the will, we may fear God and also love Him.至于会,我们可能会担心上帝,也爱他。Fear is justified as it leads to love.恐惧是有道理的,因为它导致爱。"In love is found the secret of divine unity: it is love that unites the higher and lower stages,and that lifts everything to that stage where all must be one" (Zohar, wa-Yaḳhel, ii. 216a). “在爱中找到了神圣的统一的秘密:它是爱,团结的更高和更低的阶段,而且电梯的阶段,一切都必须是一个”(佐哈尔,桦Yaḳhel,二216a。)。 In the same way human knowledge may be either reflected or intuitive, the latter again being evidently the higher.以同样的方式人类的知识可以是反映或直观的,后者再次受到明显较高。The soul must rise to these higher planes of knowledge and will, to the contemplation and love of God; and in this way it returns to its source.灵魂必须上升到知识和意愿,在沉思和上帝的爱这些较高的飞机,并以这种方式返回其来源。The life beyond is a life of complete contemplation and complete love.这种超越生命是一个完整的沉思和完整的爱情生活。The relation between the soul and God is represented in the figurative language of the Zoharistic Cabala as follows: "The soul, Neshamah [which proceeds from the Sefirah Binah, as mentioned above], comes into the world through the union of the king with the matrona-'king' meaning the Sefirah Tiferet and 'matrona' the Sefirah Malkut-and the return of the soul to God is symbolized by the union of the matrona with the king."之间的灵魂和神的关系是在Zoharistic Cabala形象化的语言表示如下:“灵魂,Neshamah [这从Sefirah Binah收益,如上面提到的],到世上来通过与工会王马特罗娜- 'king'的含义Sefirah Tiferet和'马特罗娜'的Sefirah Malkut和灵魂回归上帝的象征由工会与国王马特罗娜。“Similarly, the merciful blessing that God accords to the world is symbolized by the first figure; and by the second, the spiritualizing and ennobling of what is material and common through man's fulfilment of his duty.同样的,仁慈的上帝的祝福符合世界是由第一个象征人物,以及由二,spiritualizing及是什么材料,并通过人的共同履行其职责的崇高。

Ethics of the Cabala.伦理的Cabala。

It is seen hereby that ethics is the highest aim of the Cabala; it can be shown, indeed, that metaphysics is made subservient to it.它被认为是在此,道德是最高目标的Cabala,它可以证明,事实上,形而上学是屈从于它。The cabalists of course regard the ethical question as a part of the religious one, their theory of influence characterizing their attitude toward ethics as well as law.当然该cabalists认为这是宗教的伦理问题的一部分,他们的特征,他们的态度以及对伦理理论法学的影响。"The terrestrial world is connected with the heavenly world, as the heavenly world is connected with the terrestrial one," is a doctrine frequently recurring in the Zohar (Noaḥ, i. 70b). “世界是连接陆地与天上的世界,因为天国世界是一个与地面相连,”是一种学说经常反复出现在佐哈尔(诺亚岛70B条)。The later cabalists formulate this thought thus: The Sefirot impart as much as they receive.后来cabalists制定本以为这样的:传递的Sefirot尽可能多的接受。Although the terrestrial world is the copy of the heavenly ideal world, the latter manifests its activity according to the impulse that the former has received.虽然地面世界是天上的理想世界的副本,后者表现它的活动按照其已收到的冲动。The connection between the real and the ideal world is brought about by man, whose soul belongs to heaven, while his body is earthy.之间的实际和理想世界的联系是所带来的男子,他们的灵魂属于天国,而他的身体是泥土。Man connects the two worlds by means of his love for God, which, as explained above, unites him with God.男子连接由他为神,其中,因为爱就是上面解释的两个世界,团结与上帝他。

The Doctrine of Influence.该学说的影响。

The knowledge of the law in its ethical as well as religious aspects is also a means toward influencing the higher regions; for the study of the law means the union of man with divine wisdom.该法在其道德以及宗教方面的知识也是一个较高的地区,对影响手段,对法律的研究手段与神的智慧的人的联盟。Of course, the revealed doctrine must be taken in its true sense; ie, the hidden meaning of Scripture must be sought out (see Jew. Encyc. i. 409, sv Allegorical Interpretation).当然,显示理论必须考虑其真正意义,即隐藏的含义的经文,必须寻求出(见犹太人Encyc岛409,希沃特寓言的解读。。)。 The ritual also has a deeper mystical meaning, as it serves to preserve the universe and to secure blessings for it.这个仪式也有更深的神秘意义,因为它可以维护宇宙,并争取为它祝福。Formerly this was the object of the ritual sacrifices in the Temple; but now their place is taken by prayer.以前这是仪式的对象,在庙牺牲,但现在取而代之的是采取的祈祷。Devout worship, during which the soul is so exalted that it seems desirous of leaving the body in order to be united with its source, agitates the heavenly soul; that is, the Sefirah Binah.虔诚崇拜,在其中的灵魂是如此崇高,它似乎离开身体,以符合其来源渴望统一,搅动天上的灵魂,即Sefirah Binah。 This stimulus occasions a secret movement among the Sefirot of all the worlds, so that all approach more or less to their source until the full bliss of the En-Sof reaches the last Sefirah, Malkut, when all the worlds become conscious of a beneficent influence.这刺激场合中的所有世界个Sefirot秘密运动,使所有的办法或多或少的来源,直到恩- Sof完整幸福到达最后Sefirah,Malkut,当所有的世界成为一个有益的影响意识。Similarly, just as the good deeds of man exert a beneficent influence on all the worlds, so his evil actions injure them.同样,就像人的善行所有的世界上发挥有益的影响,所以他的罪恶行动伤害他们。

The question as to what constitutes evil and what good, the cabalists answer as follows:作为对问题什么是邪恶,什么好,cabalists的答复如下:

The Problem of Evil.这个问题的邪恶。

In discussing the problem of evil, a distinction must be made between evil itself, and evil in human nature.在讨论这个问题的邪恶,必须区分邪恶之间作出本身,人性中恶的。Evil is the reverse of the divine V03p477001.jpg [the left side, while the good is the right side-a Gnostic idea (see above).-K.].邪恶的神圣V03p477001.jpg扭转[左侧,而右侧是好的,一个诺斯底思想(见上文).-光]。 As the divine has true being, evil is that which has no being, the unreal or the seeming thing, the thing as it appears.因为神已经真正正,邪恶是,它没有存在,虚幻的或表面的东西,事情,因为它出现。And here again distinction must be made, between the thing which appears to be but is not-ie, the appearance of a thing which is unreal-and the appearance of a thing which is what it appears to be-ie, as a being of its own, having an original type of existence of its own.而这里又必须加以区别,之间的东西,但似乎未也就是说,一个事情是虚幻的外观和一个东西是什么这似乎是- IE的外观,作为一个幸福自己,有一个自身存在的原始类型。This "appearance of an appearance" or semblance of the phenomenon is manifested in the very beginnings of the finite and the multiform, because these beginnings include the boundaries of the divine nature; and the boundaries of the divine constitute the godless, the evil.这或类似的现象“的出现出现”是表现在各种形式的有限和非常开端,因为这些开端包括神性的界限,以及神圣的边界构成了不信神的,邪恶的。 In other words, evil is the finite.换言之,邪恶是有限的。As the finite includes not only the world of matter, but, as has been shown above, also its idea, the cabalists speak of the Beriatic, Yeẓiratic, and 'Asiyyatic worlds of evil, as these worlds contain the beginnings of the finite.由于有限的,不仅包括世界上的事,但是,正如已经以上,其理念也显示,cabalists的发言的邪恶Beriatic,Yeẓiratic,和'Asiyyatic世界,因为这些世界包含了有限的开端。 Only the world of the immediate emanations (V03p477002.jpg), where the finite is conceived as without existence and seeking existence, is free from evil.只有眼前的放射物(V03p477002.jpg),其中不存在有限的构想,并为求生存,世界正从邪恶的自由。Evil in relation to man is manifested in that he takes semblance for substance, and tries to get away from the divine primal source instead of striving after union with it.在关系到人的恶是体现在他把物质的假象,并试图从神圣的,而不是与它联盟的努力后的原始来源了。

The Fall of Man.人类的堕落。

Most of the post-Zoharic cabalistic works combine with this theory of evil a doctrine on the fall of man resembling the Christian tenet.对后Zoharic cabalistic作品大多与此相结合的邪恶学说对人类类似的基督教宗旨下降的理论。Connecting with the ancient view of Adam's corporeal and spiritual excellence before the Fall (see Adam in Rabbinical Literature), the later cabalists assert that originally all souls were combined into one, forming the soul of Adam.与亚当的肉体和精神的秋季之前古代鉴于卓越连接(见犹太教文学亚当),后来cabalists断言,原来所有的灵魂被合并成一个,形成了亚当的灵魂。 Man in his original state, therefore, was still a general being, not endowed with the empirical individuality with which he now appears in the world; and together with man the whole lower creation was in a spiritual, glorified state.男子在他的原始状态,因此,仍然是一个普通存在,不与经验的个性,使他现在出现在世界赋予,以及与人齐了全是在一个较低的创造精神,歌颂状态。 But the venom of the serpent entered into man, poisoning him and all nature, which then became susceptible to the influence of evil.但蛇的毒液进入到人,中毒他和所有的性质,然后成为容易受到不良影响。Then human nature was darkened and made coarse, and man received a corporeal body; at the same time the whole 'Asiyyatic world, of which man had been the lord and master, was condensed and coarsened.那么人类的本性是黑暗,使粗,人获得了有形的身体,在同一时间整个'Asiyyatic世界,其中男子一直是主人和主人,是凝聚和粗化。 The Beriatic and Yeẓiratic worlds were also affected; influenced by man, they sank like the 'Asiyatic world, and were also condensed in a proportionately superior degree.该Beriatic和Yeẓiratic世界也受到影响;由人的影响,他们喜欢的'Asiyatic世界沉没,也处于一个浓缩成比例的优越程度。 By this theory the cabalists explain the origin of physical and moral evil in the world.根据这一理论解释的cabalists的身体和精神在世界上万恶之源。Yet the Cabala by no means considers man as lost after the Fall.然而,决不Cabala视为堕落后失去的人。The greatest sinner, they hold, may attract the higher heavenly power by penitence, thus counteracting the poison of the serpent working in him.最大的罪人,他们持有,可能会吸引更高的忏悔神圣权力,从而抵消了毒药的蛇在他的工作。The warfare between man and the satanic power will only ceasewhen man is again elevated into the center of divine light, and once more is in actual contact with it.人与撒旦力量只会ceasewhen人战再次进入中心的神的光升高,并再次与它实际的接触。This original glory and spirituality of man and of the world will be restored in the Messianic age, when heaven and earth will be renewed, and even Satan will renounce his wickedness.这种原始的荣耀,人与世界的灵性将恢复在弥赛亚时代,天地将延长,甚至撒旦将放弃他的邪恶。This last point has a somewhat Christian tinge, as indeed other Christian ideas are also found in the Cabala, as, eg, the trinity of the Sefirot, and especially of the first triad.最后这一点已经有点基督教色彩,事实上其他基督教思想还发现在Cabala,因为,例如,三位一体的Sefirot,尤其是第一个黑社会。 [But on three powers in the one God compare Philo, "De Sacrificio Abelis et Caini," xv.; iaem, "Quæstio in Genes."[但比较三,在一个神权斐洛,“德Sacrificio Abeli​​s等彩妮,”十五。iaem,“Quæstio的基因。”iv.四。2; and F. Conybeare, "Philo's Contemplative Life," 1895, p.2,和F.科尼​​比尔,“哲学的思惟生活”,1895年,第304.-K.] But although the Cabala accepted various foreign elements, actual Christian elements can not be definitely pointed out. 304.-K.]但是,尽管在Cabala接受国外的各种因素,实际基督教元素不能明确指出。Much that appears Christian is in fact nothing but the logical development of certain ancient esoteric doctrines, which were incorporated into Christianity and contributed much to its development, and which are also found in Talmudic works and in Talmudic Judaism.许多基督教的出现,其实没有什么,但对某些古老深奥的理论,这是纳入基督教和它的发展贡献良多,而这亦是塔木德作品和发现在塔木德犹太教合乎逻辑的发展。

Opinions on the Value of the Cabala.论新时期的Cabala价值。

In forming an opinion upon the Cabala one must not be prejudiced by the general impression made on the modern mind by the cabalistic writings, especially the often repulsive Zoharistic Cabala.在形成后的Cabala一种意见认为不应受到损害由现代精神作出的cabalistic著作,特别是经常排斥Zoharistic Cabala的一般印象。In former centuries the Cabala was looked upon as a divine revelation; modern critics are inclined to condemn it entirely owing to the fantastic dress in which most cabalists clothe their doctrines, which gives the latter an entirely un-Jewish appearance.在以往的Cabala被看作为一个神圣的启示世纪,现代批评家倾向于谴责它完全由于裙子很漂亮,其中最cabalists衣食他们的学说,从而使后者完全取消犹太外观。 If the Cabala were really as un-Jewish as it is alleged to be, its hold upon thousands of Jewish minds would be a psychological enigma defying all process of reasoning.如果联合国的Cabala作为犹太人真的,因为它是据称,及其对数以千计的犹太人心中的心理之谜将是一个不畏一切的推理过程。 For while the attempt, inaugurated by Saadia, to harmonize Talmudic Judaism with Aristotelianism failed in spite of the brilliant achievements of Maimonides and his school, the Cabala succeeded in being merged so entirely in Talmudic Judaism that for half a century the two were almost identical.因为尽管尝试,成立由Saadia,协调犹太教塔木德与亚里士多德的迈蒙尼德和他的学校取得的辉煌成就,尽管失败了,成功的Cabala被犹太教塔木德合并,以便完全是半世纪,两人几乎一模一样。 Although some cabalists, such as Abulafia and the pseudonymous author of "Kanah," were not favorably disposed toward Talmudism, yet this exception only proves the rule that the cabalists were not conscious of any opposition to Talmudic Judaism, as is sufficiently clear from the fact that men like Naḥmanides, Solomon ibn Adret, Joseph Caro, Moses Isserles, and Elijah b.尽管诸如Abulafia和匿名的作者有些cabalists,“Kanah,”不看好Talmudism处理,然而,这只能证明例外的规则的cabalists不属于任何反对犹太教塔木德意识,因为是十分清楚的事实像Naḥmanides男子,所罗门本Adret,约瑟夫卡罗,摩西伊塞莱斯,以利亚湾 Solomon of Wilna were not only supporters of the Cabala, but even contributed largely to its development.所罗门的Wilna不只是支持者的Cabala,但即使在很​​大程度上促进其发展。

The Cabala and the Talmud.该Cabala和塔木德。

As these men were the actual representatives of true Talmudic Judaism, there must have been something in the Cabala that attracted them.由于这些人的真正的塔木德犹太教的实际代表,一定有在Cabala,吸引他们的东西。It can not have been its metaphysics; for Talmudic Judaism was not greatly interested in such speculations.它不能被其形而上学;的塔木德犹太教是在这样的揣测不大感兴趣。It must be, then, that the psychology of the Cabala, in which a very high position is assigned to man, appealed to the Jewish mind.它必须是,那么,的Cabala,其中一个很高的位置被分配到人,心理学呼吁犹太人心目中。While Maimonides and his followers regarded philosophical speculation as the highest duty of man, and even made the immortality of the soul dependent on it; or, speaking more correctly, while immortality meant for them only the highest development of "active intellect" () in man, to which only a few attained, the Cabalists taught not only that every man may expect a great deal in the future world, according to his good and pious actions, but even that he is the most important factor in nature in this world.虽然迈蒙尼德和他的追随者视为投机哲学的最高责任人,甚至作出了依赖于它的灵魂不朽,或者说更正确,而只是为他们不朽的“积极的智慧”()中的最高发展意味着人,其中只有少数达到后,cabalists的教导不仅每个人可以期待在未来的世界了不少,根据他的良好的和虔诚的行动,但即使这样,他是在这个世界上自然界中最重要的因素。 Not man's intelligence, but his moral nature, determines what he is.不是人的智力,但他的道德性质,确定他是什么。Nor is he merely a spoke in the wheel, a small, unimportant fragment of the universe, but the center around which everything moves.也不是他只是在车轮,一个小,不重要的宇宙碎片发言,但围绕这一切的动作。Here the Jewish Cabala, in contrast to alien philosophy, tried to present the true Jewish view of life, and one that appealed to Talmudic Judaism.在这里,犹太人Cabala,相反,外来理念,试图呈现真实生活中的犹太人的看法,一个呼吁塔木德犹太教。

The Cabala and Philosophy.该Cabala和哲学。

The Jew as well as the man was recognized in the Cabala.在犹太人以及该名男子被确认的Cabala。 Notwithstanding the strongly pantheistic coloring of its metaphysics, the Cabala never attempted to belittle the importance of historic Judaism, but, on the contrary, emphasized it.虽有强烈pantheistic着色的形而上学,在Cabala从来没有试图贬低犹太教历史的重要性,但与此相反,强调这一点。 Like the school of Maimonides, the cabalists also interpreted Scripture allegorically; yet there is an essential difference between the two.像迈蒙尼德学校,cabalists还解释圣经寓言,然而有两个之间的本质区别。 Abraham and most of the Patriarchs are, for both, the symbols of certain virtues, but with this difference; namely, that the Cabala regarded the lives of the Patriarchs, filled with good and pious actions, as incarnations of certain virtues-eg, the life of Abraham as the incarnation of love-while allegorical philosophy sought for exclusively abstract ideas in the narratives of Scripture.亚伯拉罕和大部分的始祖为,符号的某些优点,但这种差异,即,即Cabala视良好的和虔诚的行动充满了始祖,生活的某些优点,例如化身,是亚伯拉罕生命的爱的化身,而​​寓言理念,为寻求完全抽象的概念在圣经的叙述。 If the Talmudists looked with horror upon the allegories of the philosophical school, which, if carried out logically-and there have always been logical thinkers among the Jews-would deprive Judaism of every historical basis, they did not object to the cabalistic interpretation of Scripture, which here also identified ideality with reality.如果的Talmudists期待与恐惧后的哲学学校,其中,如果进行的寓言逻辑和一直存在的逻辑思想家之间的犹太人,将剥夺每一个犹太教历史的基础上,他们并不反对cabalistic解释的经文,在这里还发现理想与现实。

The same holds good in regard to the Law.同样持有良好的法律方面。The cabalists have been reproved for carrying to the extreme the allegorization of the ritual part of the Law.该cabalists已责备携带到极端的该法的仪式的一部分allegorization。But the great importance of the Cabala for rabbinical Judaism lies in the fact that it prevented the latter from becoming fossilized.但是,为犹太教犹太教的Cabala重视就在于,它阻止后者成为化石。It was the Cabala that raised prayer to the position it occupied for centuries among the Jews, as a means of transcending earthly affairs for a time and of feeling oneself in union with God.这是作为超越世俗事务的时间和感觉自己在联盟与上帝的一种手段引发的Cabala祈祷它的立场世纪的犹太人占领。And the Cabala achieved this at a period when prayer was gradually becoming a merely external religious exercise, a service of the lips and not of the heart.和Cabala实现在祈祷时,此期间逐渐成为一个纯粹的外来宗教活动,是服务的嘴唇和听不见。And just as prayer was ennobled by the influence of the Cabala, so did most ritual actions cast aside their formalism, to become spiritualized and purified.而且,正如祈祷被美化了的Cabala的影响,所以没有最礼仪行动抛开形式主义,成为spiritualized和纯化。 The Cabala thus rendered two great services to the development of Judaism: it repressed both Aristotelianism and Talmudic formalism.该Cabala从而呈现两大服务的发展,犹太教:它压抑都亚里士多德和塔木德形式主义。

Noxious Influences.有害影响。

These beneficial influences of the Cabala are, however, counterbalanced by several most pernicious ones.这些有益的Cabala影响,然而,几个最有害的平衡。From the metaphysical axiom, that there is nothing in the world without spiritual life, the cabalists developed a Jewish Magic.从形而上学的公理,没有在世界上没有什么不精神生活,开发出的cabalists犹太人魔术。They taught that the elements are the abode of beings which are the dregs or remnants of the lowest spiritual life, and which are divided into four classes; namely, elemental beings of fire, air, water, and earth; the first two being invisible, while the last two may easily be perceived by the senses.他们告诉我们,该元素是众生其中的糟粕或残余的最低精神生活,并分为四个类别划分的住所;即,火,空气,水,土元素存在;前两个被无形的,而近两年可能很容易被感知的感觉。 While the latter are generally malicious imps who vex and mock man, the former are well disposed and helpful.而后者则是一般人谁烦恼和模拟,前者是好感和有益的恶意小鬼。Demonology, therefore, occupies an important position in the works of many cabalists; for the imps are related to those beings that are generally designated as demons (), being endowed with various supernatural powers and with insight into the hidden realms of lower nature, and even occasionally into the future and the higher spiritual world.恶魔学​​识,因此,许多中占有重要地位的作品cabalists的;为小鬼都与那些通常指定为魔()人,被各种超自然赋予的权力和有识之士到较低的性质隐藏境界,即使偶尔到未来和更高的精神世界。 Magic () may be practised with the help of these beings, the cabalists meaning white magic in contrast to ("the black art").魔术()可实行与这些人的帮助下,在对比意义的cabalists白魔(“黑色艺术”)。

Natural magic depends largely on man himself; for, according to the Cabala, all men are endowed with insight and magical powers which they may develop.天然神奇在很大程度上取决于人类自己,因为,根据的Cabala,所有男人与洞察力和神奇的权力,赋予他们可能发展。 The means especially mentioned are: "Kawwanah" () = intense meditation, in order to attract the higher spiritual influence; a strong will exclusively directed toward its object; and a vivid imagination, in order that the impressions from the spiritual world may enter profoundly into the soul and be retained there.特别提到的手段是:“Kawwanah”()=激烈的冥想,以吸引更高的精神的影响,一个专门针对其对象将定向强;为了和丰富的想像力,即从精神世界的深刻印象可能进入进入灵魂和保留那里。 From these principles many cabalists developed their theories on casting of lots, Necromancy, Exorcism, and many other superstitions.从这些原则许多cabalists开发的地段,招魂,驱魔,以及其他许多迷信铸造自己的理论。 Bibliomancy and the mysticism of numbers and letters were developed into complete systems. Bibliomancy和神秘的数字和字母被开发成完整的系统。

Cabalistic Superstition.cabalistic的迷信。

The metaphysical conception of the identity of the real with the ideal gave rise to the mystical conception that everything beheld by our senses has a mystical meaning; that the phenomena may instruct man as to what takes place in the divine idea or in the human intellect.作者的真实身份与理想形而上的概念产生了神秘的观念,我们的感官看到任何事物都有一个神秘的含义,这现象可能指示,以什么发生在神圣的想法或在人类智慧的地方的人。 Hence the cabalistic doctrine of the heavenly alphabet, whose signs are the constellations and stars.因此,在天上的字母,其标志是星座和恒星cabalistic学说。Thus Astrology was legitimized, and bibliomancy found its justification in the assumption that the sacred Hebrew letters are not merely signs for things, but implements of divine powers by means of which nature may be subjugated.因此,占星术是合法的,并bibliomancy发现,在假设其理由,因为这种神圣的希伯来字母不只是事情的迹象,但实现的神圣权力,这自然可以被征服的手段。 It is easy to see that all these views were most pernicious in their influence on the intellect and soul of the Jew.这是很容易看到,所有这些意见十分在其关于犹太人的智慧和灵魂的有害影响。But it is equally true that these things did not originate in the Cabala, but gravitated toward it.但同样真实的,这些事情并不起源在Cabala,但向它吸引住。In a word, its works represent that movement in Judaism which attempted to Judaize all the foreign elements in it, a process through which healthy and abnormal views were introduced together.总之,其作品代表,在犹太教的运动,企图将耶路撒冷犹太化所有的外国元素,通过这些健康的和不正常的看法,介绍了一起的过程。 Compare Adam Ḳadmon, Allegorical Interpretation, Amulets, Ascension, Aẓilut, Creation, Emanation, Metempsychosis, Sefirot, Syzygies, Zohar; and, on the relation of the Cabala to non-Jewish religions, Gnosticism.比较亚当Ḳadmon,寓言解释,护身符,阿森松岛,Aẓilut,创作,气,转生,个Sefirot,Syzygies,佐哈尔,并在有关的Cabala非犹太人的宗教,诺斯替主义。

Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg考夫曼科勒,路易金兹伯格
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Only those cabalistic works are mentioned here that systematically discuss the Cabala or that are recognized as standard authorities in reference to it.只有那些cabalistic工程是有系统地讨论这里提到的Cabala,或者是在它的参考标准当局确认。The catalogue of Oppenheimer's library, Ḳohelet David, Hamburg, 1826, contains the names of most of the cabalistic works that had appeared up to the first third of the eighteenth century.在奥本海默的图书馆,Ḳohelet大卫,汉堡,1826年,目录包含的已经出现到了18世纪的前三分之一cabalistic作品大部分的名字。 Neubauer's catalogue of the Hebrew books in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and Steinschneider's of the Munich Library, give information on the most important manuscripts of the Cabala.纽鲍尔的在慕尼黑图书馆伯德雷恩图书馆,牛津大学,Steinschneider的希伯来文图书目录,提供有关的Cabala最重要的手稿资料。 The following are the most important cabalistic works that have appeared: Azriel, Perush 'Eser Sefirot, Berlin, 1850, in Meïr ibn Gabbai.以下是最重要的cabalistic作品,已经出现:阿兹列尔,Perush'埃泽尔个Sefirot,柏林,1850年,在梅尔本Gabbai。 Derek Emunah; Eleazar of Worms, commentary on the Sefer Yeẓirah, Przemysl, 1889; Keter Shem-Ṭob (anonymous), in Jellinek, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik, Leipsic, 1853; Abraham Abulafia, Sheba' Netibot ha-Torah, in Jellinek, Philosophie und Kabbala, ib.德里克Emunah;利亚撒的蠕虫,在书Yeẓirah,普热梅希尔,1889年的评注; Keter闪,尖(匿名),在耐克,Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik,普西克,1853年,亚伯拉罕Abulafia,巴'Netibot公顷诵读经文,在耶利内克,哲学卡巴拉有限公司,兴业。1854; Isaac ibn Latif, Ginze ha-Melek, in Kokbe Yiẓḥaḳ, xxviii.; Ẓurat ha-'Olam, Vienna, 1862; Rab Pe'alim, Lemberg, 1885; Ma'areket ha-Elahut (alleged author, Pharez), Ferrara, 1557; Joseph b. 1854年是以撒伊本拉蒂夫,Ginze公顷Melek在KokbeYiẓḥaḳ,二十八。Ẓurat公顷'Olam,维也纳,1862年,饶Pe'alim,伦贝尔,1885年; Ma'areket公顷Elahut(所谓的作者,法勒斯)费拉拉,1557;约瑟夫BAbraham Gikatilla, Sha'are Orah, Mantua, 1561; Moses b.亚伯拉罕Gikatilla,Sha'are Orah,曼图亚,1561;摩西湾 Shem-Ṭob de Leon, Sefer Nefesh ha-Ḥakamah, Basel, 1608; Zohar, alleged author, Simon b.闪,尖德,之书诉愿公顷Ḥakamah,巴塞尔,1608莱昂;佐哈尔,据称作者,西蒙湾Yoḥai, Mantua, 1558-60; Cremona,1558; Shem-Ṭob ben Shem-Ṭob, Sefer ha-Emunot, Ferrara, 1556; Meïr ben Ezekiel ibn Gabbai, Derek Emunah, Padua, 1562; Moses b. Yoḥai,曼图亚,1558年至1560年,克雷莫纳,1558;闪,尖本闪,尖,之书公顷Emunot,费拉拉,1556年,梅尔本基尔本Gabbai,德里克Emunah,帕多瓦,1562年;摩西湾 Jacob Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim, Cracow and Novydvor, 1591, the best and most profound treatise upon the Cabala by a cabalist.雅各布Cordovero,Pardes Rimmonim,克拉科夫和Novydvor,1591,最好的Cabala后最深刻的秘术的论文。Isaac b.艾萨克湾Solomon Luria's doctrines are discussed in the works of his pupils, especially in Ḥayyim Vital, Eẓ Ḥayyim, Korez, 1784; Abraham Herrera, Sha'ar ha-Shamayim, Amsterdam, 1665; also in Latin, Porta Cœlorum, Sulzbach, 1678; Isaiah b.所罗门卢里亚的学说讨论了他的学生作品,尤其是在Ḥayyim重要的EZḤayyim,Korez,1784;亚伯拉罕埃雷拉,Sha'ar公顷,Shamayim,阿姆斯特丹,1665年,在拉美也,门Cœlorum,苏尔茨巴赫,1678;以赛亚湾 Abraham Horwitz, Shene Luḥot ha-Berit, Amsterdam, 1649; Joseph Ergas, Shomer Emunim, Amsterdam, 1736, a readable discussion of important cabalistic doctrines, Moses Ḥayyim Luzzatto, Ḥoker u-Meḳabbel, Shklov, 1785; German transl.亚伯拉罕霍维茨,SheneLuḥot公顷,贝里特,阿姆斯特丹,1649年,约瑟Ergas,朔默Emunim,阿姆斯特丹,1736年,一个重要的cabalistic理论,摩西Ḥayyim卢扎托,ḤokerU型Meḳabbel,Shklov,1785可读的讨论,德国译。 by Freystadt, Königsberg, 1840; Sefer Pitḥe Ḥokmah, Korez, 1785, the last and best introduction to the Cabala by a cabalist; Jonathan Eybeschütz, Shem'Olam, Vienna, 1891, on the geonic mystical literature, (see page 463 of the Jew. Encycl., vol. ii.).由Freystadt,康尼斯堡,1840年;之书PitḥeḤokmah,最后和最好的介绍给由cabalist的Cabala Korez,1785年,乔纳森Eybeschütz,She​​m'Olam,维也纳,1891年,就在geonic神秘的文学,(见页463犹太人。Encycl。,第一卷。二。)。 Sources: A. Adler, in Nowack, Jahrbücher der Philosophie, 1846-47; Bernfeld, Da'at Elohim, pp. 335-399; Sam.来源:一,阿德勒,在nowack,Jahrbücher明镜哲学的,1846年至1847年; Bernfeld,Da'at莹,第335-399;山姆。A. Binion, The Kabbalah, in Library of the World's Best Literature, ed.答:宾宁,卡巴拉,在世界最佳文学图书馆,教育署。CD Warner, pp. 8425-8442; Bloch, Die jüdische Mystik und Kabbala, in Winter and Wünsche, Jüdische Literatur, iii., also separately; Buddeus, Introductio ad Historiam Philosophiœ Hebrœorum, Halle, 1702, 1721; Ehrenpreis, Entwickelung der Emanationslehre, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1895; A. Epstein, Leḳorot ha-Ḳabbalah ha-Ashkenazit, in Ha-Ḥoker, ii.光盘华纳,第8425-8442;布洛赫,模具Jüdische Mystik有限公司卡巴拉冬季和Wünsche,Jüdische文学Literatur,三,,还分别。Buddeus,引广告Historiam Philosophiœ Hebrœorum,哈雷,1702,1721; Ehrenpreis,Entwickelung明镜Emanationslehre ,法兰克福发表了主,1895年的A.爱泼斯坦,Leḳorot公顷,卡巴拉公顷Ashkenazit在哈Ḥoker,,二。1-11, 38-48; A. Franck, La Kabbale, Paris, 1843; 2d ed.1-11,38-48的A.弗兰克,拉Kabbale,巴黎,1843年; 2版。ib.兴业。1889; German transl. 1889年,德国译。by Ad.按广告。Gelinek (= Jellinek), Leipsic, 1844; Freystadt, Philosophia Cabbalistica, Königsberg, 1832; idem, Kabbalismus und Pantheismus, ib.; Ginsburg, The Ḳabbalah, London, 1865; Grätz, Gesch.Gelinek(=耶利内克),普西克,1844年; Freystadt,睿哲Cabbalistica,康尼斯堡,1832年,同上,Kabbalismus有限公司Pantheismus,兴业。金斯伯格,卡巴拉,伦敦,1865年,格拉茨,Gesch。 der Juden, vii.; compare also the notes by Harkavy to the Hebrew transl.德国犹太人,七。比较,也Harkavy票据的希伯来文译。of Grätz in vol.在第一卷格拉茨。 v.; Hamburger, Die, Hohe Bedeutung .五,汉堡,模具,的Hohe Bedeutung。..der Kabbalah, 1844; Jellinek, Beiträge zur Gesch.明镜卡巴拉,1844年,耐克,Beiträge楚Gesch。der Kabbala, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1852; idem, Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik.明镜卡巴拉,第2卷,普西克,1852年。同上,Auswahl Kabbalistischer Mystik。ib.兴业。1853; idem, Philosophie und Kabbala, ib.1853年,同上,哲学有限公司卡巴拉,兴业。1854; DH Joël, Midrash ha-Zohar, die Religionsphilosphie des Zohar, ib. 1854年,卫生署乔尔,米德拉士公顷佐哈尔,模具Religionsphilosphie德佐哈尔,兴业。1849; Jost, Gesch. 1849年,乔斯特,Gesch。des Judenthums und Seiner Sekten, ii., iii., see Index; Kleuker, Ueber die Natur .。。德Judenthums有限公司高阶Steine​​r Sekten,二,三,见指数; Kleuker,Ueber死Natur。..der Emanationslehre bei den Kabbalisten, Riga, 1786; Karppe, Etude sur les Origines .北德Emanationslehre巢穴Kabbalisten,里加,1786年; Karppe,练习曲河畔莱Origines。 ..du Zohar, Paris, 1901; Hamburger, RBT sv Geheimlehre, Kabbala, and Mystik; Flügel, Philosophie, Qabbala, und Vedanta, Baltimore, 1902; Kiesewetter, Der Occultismus der Hebräer, in Der Occultismus des Alterthums, Leipsic, no date; Landauer, in Orient Lit.杜佐哈尔,巴黎,1901年,汉堡,仙踪林希沃特Geheimlehre,卡巴拉,并Mystik;佛鲁吉尔,哲学,Qabbala,韦丹塔有限公司,巴尔的摩,1902年;基塞韦特,明镜Occultismus明镜Hebräer,在明镜Occultismus德Alterthums,普西克,无日期;兰在东方,点燃。 vi., vii., several articles of great value as pioneer work; Eliphaz Levi (pseudonym for L'abbé AL Constant), La Clef des Grands Mysteres, Paris, 1861; idem, Le Livre des Splendeurs, ib.六,七,一些条款为先驱的工作很有价值。。以利法列维(美联恒为欧莱雅神甫化名),香格里拉谱号德大奖赛Mysteres,巴黎,1861年,同上,乐利夫雷德Splendeurs,兴业。 1894; SD Luzzatto, Wikkuah 'al Ḥokmat ha-Ḳabbalah, Göritz, 1852; I. Misses, Ẓofnat Pa'aneaḥ (Germah), 2 vols., Cracow, 1862-63; Molitor, Philosophie der Gesch. 1894年,SD卡卢扎托,Wikkuah'基地Ḥokmat公顷,卡巴拉,Göritz,1852年;。一小姐,ẒofnatPa'aneaḥ(Germah),第2卷,克拉科夫,1862年至1863年,黄粉虫,哲学明镜Gesch。 oder über die Tradition, 4 vols., Frankfort and Münster, 1827-53; Isaac Myer, Qabbalah, Philadelphia, 1888; Steinschneider, Ḳabbalah, in Jewish Literature, xiii.; Rosner, Yad Binyamin, Vienna, 1882; Tedeschi, La Cabbala, Triest, 1900; Zunz, GV 2d ed., pp. 415 et seq.; Rubin, Heidentum, und Kabbala, in Hebrew, Vienna, 1888; in German, ib.奥德黚死传统,4卷,法兰克福和明斯特,1827年至1853年。艾萨克迈尔,Qabbalah,费城,1888年; Steinschneider,卡巴拉,在犹太文学,十三。罗斯纳,亚德瓦本雅明,维也纳,1882年;特德斯奇,香格里拉Cabbala ,的里雅斯特,1900年;聪茨,货车2版,第415页起。。鲁宾,Heidentum,在希伯来文有限公司卡巴拉,维也纳,1888年,在德国,兴业。 1893; idem, Kabbala und Agada, Vienna, 1895; Stöckl, Gesch.1893年,同上,卡巴拉有限公司Agada,维也纳,1895年;克尔,Gesch。 der Philosophie, des Mittelalters, ii.明镜哲学的,德Mittelalters,二。232-251, Mayence, 1865, with an account of the influence of the Cabala on the Reformation; Tennemann, Gesch. 232-251,马扬斯,1865年,任何一个对关于改革Cabala影响帐户; Tennemann,Gesch。der Philosophic, ix.明镜哲学,九。167-185, Leipsic, 1814.KLG 167-185,普西克,1814.KLG



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