Lamaism喇嘛教

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Lamaism is the Tibetan religion of about 3 million Tibetans and 7 million Mongols and others.喇嘛教是约300万和700万蒙古族藏族和其他藏族的宗教。The Dalai Lama is the equivalent of the Pope for them.达赖喇嘛是对他们的教皇等价的。A secondary leader is the Teshu Lama (or Panchen Lama).次要领导是Teshu喇嘛(或班禅喇嘛)。These two are regarded as 'Living Buddhas', being reincarnations of Buddha passing from one existence to another.这两个被视为'活佛',是佛陀转世的存在从一个传递到另一个。When one dies, his successor is sought from among the baby boys born at the time the leader passed away because it is believed that the soul of the Buddha has only passed into another existence.当一个人去世,他的继任者是寻求在婴儿中去世的领导人,因为它认为,只有佛陀的灵魂存在时间的推移到另一个出生的男孩。

Lamaism is considered a corrupt form of Buddhism.喇嘛教被认为是佛教的腐败形式。It is sometimes called the Yellow Religion.它有时被称为黄河宗教。In some areas it has degenerated into a form of spirit worship.在一些地区已经堕落成为一种精神崇拜的形式。

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Lamaism - Tibetan Buddhism藏传佛教 - 藏传佛教

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Tibetan Buddhism, also called Lamaism, is a distinctive form of Buddhism that arose (7th century) in Tibet and later spread throughout the Himalayan region, including the neighboring countries of Bhutan, Nepal, and Sikkim.藏传佛教,也称为喇嘛教,是佛教独特的形式出现(公元7世纪),在西藏,后来传遍了整个喜马拉雅地区,包括不丹,尼泊尔,锡金和邻近国家。 The history of Tibetan Buddhism can be divided into three periods.藏传佛教的历史可分为三个时期。During the 7th - 9th century AD Buddhism was first introduced from India and was slowly accepted under Buddhist kings in the face of opposition by adherents of the indigenous shamanistic religion of Tibet, Bon.在7日 - 公元9世​​纪佛教从印度首次提出,并慢慢地在反对下,面对佛教国王接受了原西藏苯教萨满教的宗教信徒。Instrumental in this process were the Indian Mahayana Buddhist masters Padmasambhava and Shantarakshita.在这个进程中发挥了印度大乘佛教大师莲花生大师和Shantarakshita。During the 9th century, however, King gLang Dar Ma persecuted the new faith and effectively eclipsed it for some time.在9世纪,然而,达尔金语通天下马新的信仰迫害和有效地掩盖了一段时间。

The second period began with the reintroduction of Buddhism from India and its successive reform in the 11th century.第二个时期,从印度开始重新引入佛教及其在连续11世纪的改革。Powerful ecclesiastical organizations were established and soon began to rule the countryside in alliance with clans of nobles or the distant Mongol rulers.强大的教会组织,成立不久就开始统治联盟与遥远的蒙古贵族或统治者氏族农村。During this period the Tibetan Buddhist canon (notable for its accurate translations of now - lost Sanskrit texts and its helpful commentaries) was compiled, and some of the sects that have persisted to the present were formed.在此期间,藏传佛教经典(其准确的翻译现在的显着 - 失去梵语文本和它的有益评论)编译,以及有一些教派坚持到现在的形成。These include the Sa - skya - pa, the rNying - ma - pa (who traced their roots back to Padmasambhava), and the bKa'rgyud - pa (to which belonged the famous yogi Milarepa, or Mi - la ras - pa, 1040 - 1123).这些措施包括萨 - 章嘉 - ,每年的rNying - 马 - 巴(谁追查其根源回莲花生)和bKa'rgyud - PA的(对其中属于著名的瑜伽士密勒日巴,或MI - 拉ras基因 - 霸,1040 - 1123年)。

The third period began with the great reformer Tsong - kha - pa (1357 - 1419), who founded the dGe - lugs - pa sect - the so called Yellow Hats - to which the line of the Dalai Lamas belongs.第三个时期开始于伟大的改革者宗喀巴 - 黎 - 霸(1357年至1419年),谁创立了胃排空 - 耳 - PA的教派 - 即所谓的黄色帽子 - 对其中属于达赖灵塔线。Each of these lamas was thought to be the reincarnation of his predecessor (as well as that of the bodhisattva Avalokitesvara) and became, at least nominally, the religious and secular ruler of the country.这些喇嘛的每一个被认为是他的前任(以及作为观世音菩萨的),并成为转世,至少在名义上,该国的宗教和世俗统治者。 In 1959 the present, or 14th, Dalai Lama fled the Chinese presence in Tibet along with thousands of ordinary Tibetans and many other high incarnate lamas. 1959年至今,或14日,达赖逃离与普通藏族和其他许多高数千西藏喇嘛转世沿着中国的存在。Since then they have all been living in exile, primarily in India but also in Nepal and elsewhere.从那时起,他们都生活在流亡,主要在印度,而且在尼泊尔和其他地方。

Among the characteristic features of Tibetan Buddhism are its ready acceptance of the Buddhist Tantras as an integral and culminating part of the Buddhist way; its emphasis on the importance of the master - disciple relationship for both religious scholarship and meditation; its recognition of a huge pantheon of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, demons, and deities; its sectarianism, which resulted less from religious disputes than from the great secular powers of the rival monastic organizations; and, finally, the marked piety of both monastic and lay Tibetan Buddhists, which receives expression in their spinning of prayer wheels, their pilgrimages to and circumambulation of holy sites, prostrations and offerings, recitation of texts, and chanting of Mantras, especially the famous invocation to Avalokitesvara Om Mani Padme Hum.在藏传佛教的典型特征是其佛教密续的准备接受作为佛教的整体和部分的高潮,其重点放在主人的重要性 - 对于这两个宗教学识和冥想弟子的关系,它承认一个巨大的神殿佛,菩萨,圣人,魔鬼,与神,其宗派主义,其中少了比对手的大寺院的世俗权力机构宗教纷争导致,以及最后,这两个寺院标志着藏传佛教的虔诚和铺设,它接收表现在他们的祈祷轮,他们的朝圣和圣地,礼拜和供养,背诵课文绕旋转和的体现,特别是著名的调用到观音庵嘛呢叭咪坎。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong约瑟夫M北侧和约翰的坚强

Bibliography: 参考书目:
C Bell, The Religion of Tibet (1931); S Beyer, The Cult of Tara - Magic and Ritual in Tibet (1973); T Gyatso, The Buddhism of Tibet and and the Key to the Middle Way (1975); RA Stein, Tibetan Civilization (1972); G Tucci, The Religions of Tibet (1980); LA Waddell, Buddhism of Tibet (1939).C无料钟,西藏的宗教(1931年)中,S拜尔,德园的邪教 - 魔术与仪式在西藏(1973)和t嘉措,西藏佛教和对中东方向的关键(1975年); RA的斯坦因,西藏文明(1972)100图斯,西藏的宗教(1980年);洛杉矶沃德尔,西藏佛教(1939)。


Dalai Lama达赖喇嘛

General Information一般资料

Dalai Lama is the title of the religious leader of Tibetan Buddhism, who was also, until 1959, temporal ruler of Tibet.达赖喇嘛是藏传佛教,谁也直到1959年,西藏宗教领袖颞统治者称号。Each Dalai Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of his predecessor.每个达赖喇嘛被认为是他的前任转世。When one dies, the new incarnation is sought among newly born boys; the child is identified by his ability to pick out possessions of the former Dalai Lama from a group of similar objects.当一个人死亡,其中寻求新的化身,是新生的男孩,孩子是他的能力,挑选出从一组对象的类似达赖喇嘛的前财产鉴定。 The Dalai Lama is also regarded as an emanation of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, the Lord of Compassion.达赖喇嘛也被视为观世音菩萨的,慈悲的主气。

The first Dalai Lama was Gan - den Trup - pa (1391 - 1474), head of the dominant Ge - luk - pa (Yellow Hat) monastic sect and founder of the Tashi Lhunpo monastery.第一世达赖喇嘛甘 - 巢穴Trup - 霸(1391年至1474年),头占主导地位的锗 - 鹿 - 帕(黄帽子)寺院的教派和扎西Lhunpo修道院的创始人。He and his successor, however, did not actually bear the title Dalai, which was first bestowed on the third Dalai Lama (1543 - 88) by a Mongol prince in 1578 and applied retroactively.他和他的继任者,但是,并没有真正承担达赖的称号,这是第一次授予的第三达赖喇嘛(1543年至1588年)由蒙古亲王在1578年和追溯适用。

The 14th Dalai Lama, born Tenzin Gyatso, 1935, was installed in 1940.十四世达赖喇嘛,丹增嘉措出生,1935年,是安装在1940年。He remained in Tibet from the Chinese takeover in 1950 until 1959, when he fled to India following an abortive Tibetan revolt against Chinese Communist rule.他仍然在西藏从1950年直到1959年中收购,当他逃到印度后,在经历对中共统治西藏的起义。He established a Tibetan government - in - exile in Dharmsala, India, and has worked to preserve Tibetan arts, scriptures, and medicine.他建立了西藏政府 - - 在达兰萨拉,流亡印度,并一直在努力维护西藏的艺术,经文,医学等。In 1989 he was warded the Nobel Peace Prize for his nonviolent struggle to end Chinese domination of his homeland.1989年,他被辟为非暴力斗争,他结束他的故乡中国统治的诺贝尔和平奖。

Tibet's secondary spiritual leader is the Panchen Lama.西藏的精神领袖是次要班禅喇嘛。The 10th Panchen Lama (1939 - 89) served as nominal ruler of Tibet from 1959 until 1964.第10世班禅喇嘛(1939 - 89)从1959年担任西藏名义上的统治者,直到1964年。He was imprisoned during the Cultural Revolution but later was returned to favor.他被囚禁在文化大革命期间,但后来被退回青睐。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
J Avedon, In Exile from the Land of Snows (1984); B Burman, Religion and Politics in Tibet (1979); Dalai Lama, My Land and My People (1962), Freedom in Exile (1990), and My Tibet (1990); MH Goodman, The Last Dalai Lama (1986); R Hicks and N Chogyam, Great Ocean (1990); CB Levenson, The Dalai Lama: A Biography (1989). Ĵ埃夫登,在流放地从雪土地(1984年);乙缅语族,宗教和政治在西藏(1979年);达赖喇嘛,我的地和我的人(1962年),自由流亡(1990年),和我的西藏(1990年);氢古德曼,最后的达赖喇嘛(1986)与r希克斯和N Chogyam,大洋(1990);会CB李文森,达赖喇嘛:一本传记(1989年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Buddhism 佛教

Mahayana Buddhism大乘佛教

Theravada Buddhismtheravada佛教

Zen Buddhism

Tantra tantra


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