The Law Of The Sabbath From The Mishnah And The Jerusalem Talmud安息日 法

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(From Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah(从生活和时代的耶稣弥赛亚
by Alfred Edersheim, 1886, Appendix XVII)由阿尔弗雷德爱德生,1886年,附录XVII)

The terribly exaggerated views of the Rabbis, and their endless, burdensome rules about the Sabbath may best be learned from a brief analysis of the Mishnah, as further explained and enlarged in the Jerusalem Talmud.在拉比非常夸张的意见,他们的层出不穷,对繁琐的规则,最好安息日教训从该mishnah简要分析,为进一步解释和在耶路撒冷犹太法典扩大。 [The Jerusalem Talmud is not only the older and the shorter of the two Gemaras, but would represent most fully the Palestinian ideas.] For this purpose a brief analysis of what is, confessedly, one of the most difficult tractates may here be given. [耶路撒冷犹太法典不仅是老的和两个Gemaras短,但将代表最充分的巴勒斯坦ideas。]对于此目的是什么,明白地,对可能会在这里给最困难的tractates一简要分析。

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The Mishnic tractate Sabbath stands at the head of 12 tractates which together form the second of the 6 sections into which the Mishnah is divided, and which treats of Festive Seasons (Seder Moed).安息日的Mishnic短文矗立在头12 tractates它们共同构成了6段第二到其中的米示拿分,并把节日季节(塞德Moed)。Properly to understand the Sabbath regulations, it is, however, necessary also to take into account the second tractate in that section, which treats of what are called 'commixtures' or 'connections' (Erubin).正确理解安息日的规定,它是,但是,还有必要考虑到在这一节中,这所谓的'commixtures'或'连接'(Erubin)对待第二短文。 Its object is to make the Sabbath Laws more bearable.其目的是使法律安息日更惬意。For this purpose, it is explained how places, beyond which it would otherwise have been unlawful to carry things, may be connected together, so as, by a legal fiction, to convert them into a sort of private dwelling.为此目的,它是如何解释的地方,除了它,否则是不合法携带的东西,可能是连接在一起,从而,由法律拟制,将其转换成私人住宅它们进行排序。

Thus, supposing a number of small private houses to open into a common court, it would have been unlawful on the Sabbath to carry anthing from one of these houses into the other.因此,假设一个小型私人住宅开成一个共同的法庭数目,那将是非法的安息日进行从其他进入这些房子一anthing。This difficulty is removed if all the families deposit before the Sabbath sone food in the common court, when 'a connection' is established between the various houses, which makes them one dwelling.这种困难,如果所有被删除之前在普通法院安息日曾根食品,当'连接'之间建立的各种房屋,使其中一人居住的家庭存款。 This was called the 'Erubh of Courts.'这就是所谓的'法院Erubh。'Similarly, an extension of what was allowed as a 'Sabbath journey' might be secured by another 'commixture,' the 'Erubh' or 'connection of boundaries.'同样,对什么是作为'安息日的旅程可能会允许延长担保另一个'commixture,'的'Erubh'或'边界连接。' An ordinary Sabbath day's journey extended 2,000 cubits beyond one's dwelling.一个普通的安息日的旅程延长到一个人的住宅2000肘。[On the Sabbath journey, and the reason for fixing it at a distance of 2,000 cubits, see Kitto's Cyclop.在安息日的旅程[,并固定在2000肘距离它的理由,见Kitto的Cyclop。(last ed.) 'Sabbath way,' and 'The Temple and its Services,' p.(最后版。)'安息日的方式,'和'庙和服务,'页148.]148。]

But if at the boundary of that 'journey' a man deposited on the Friday food for two meals, he thereby constituted it his dwelling, and hence might go on for another 2,000 cubits.但是,如果在该'旅程'一个人在星期五粮食存入两餐边界,他从而构成了他的住所,并因此可能去另​​一个2000肘。 Lastly, there was another 'Erubh,' when narrow streets or blind alleys were connected into 'a private dwelling' by laying a beam over the entrance, or extending a wire or rope along such streets and allwys.最后,还有一个'Erubh,'当狭窄的街道或死胡同被连接到'一私人住宅,通过铺设在入口处的光束,或延长线或沿着这些街道和allwys绳。 This, by a legal fiction, made them 'a private dwelling,' so that everything was lawful there which a man might do on the Sabbath in his own house.这一点,由法律拟制,使他们'的私人住宅,因此,现在一切都合法,可能有一名男子在他做自己的房子安息日。

Without discussing the possible and impossible questions about these Erubin raised by the most ingenious casuistry, let us see how Rabbinism taught Israel to observe its Sabbath.没有讨论这些Erubin最巧妙的诡辩所提出的可能和不可能的问题,让我们看看如何教Rabbinism以色列遵守其安息日。 In not less than 24 chapters, [In the Jerusalem Talmud a Gemara is attached only to the first 20 chapters of the Mishnic tractate Shabbath; in the Babylon Talmud to all the 24 chapters.] matters are seriously discussed as of vital religious importance, which one would scarcely imagine a sane intellect would seriously entertain.在不少于24章,[在耶路撒冷犹太法典一革马拉连接只有第一个20 Mishnic短文Shabbath章节;。巴比伦犹太法典中的所有24个章节]事项正在认​​真讨论,作为重要的宗教的重要性,这几乎没有人会想象一个理智的智慧将认真受理。 Through 64.5 folio columns in the Jerusalem, and 156 double pages of folio in the Babylon Talmud does the enumeration and discussion of possible cases, drag on, almost unrelieved even by Haggadah.通过64.5开本列在耶路撒冷,和156巴比伦犹太法典中的双页对开是否列举和讨论可能的情况下,拖延,甚至几乎长此以往由哈加达。 [I have counted about 33 Haggadic pieces in the tractate.][我已数约33件,在阿haggadic短文。]

The Talmud itself bears witness to this, when it speaks (no doubt exaggeratedly) of a certain Rabbi who had spent no less than two and a half years in the study of only one of those 24 chapters!犹太法典本身证明了这一点,当它说话(毫无疑问夸张)某拉比谁花了不少于两年在短短的24个章节的一项研究半! And it further bears testimony to the unprofitableness of these endless discussions and determinations.并进一步见证了这些无休止的讨论和决定unprofitableness。The occasion of this is so curious and characteristic, that it might here find mention.这个场合是如此的好奇和特点,它可能在这里找到一提。The discussion was concerning a beast of burden.这次讨论是关于一个牛马。An ass might not be led out on the road with its covering on, unless such had been put on the animal previous to the Sabbath, but it was lawful to lead the animal about in this fashion in one's courtyard.驴子可能没有领导出来的,其内容涵盖道路,除非这些动物已就先前提出的安息日,但它是在一本有关的庭院,引领时尚的合法动物。 [In the former case it might be a burden or be lead to work, while in the latter case the covering was presumably for warmth.] The same rule applied to a packsaddle, provided it were not fastened on by girth and backstrap. [在前一种情况下它可能是一种负担,或将导致工作,而在后一种情况下,覆盖大概是用来保暖。]同样的规则适用于一驮鞍,只要它没有固定的周长和backstrap上。

Upon this one of the Rabbis is reported as bursting into the declaration that this formed part of those Sabbath Laws (comp. Chag. i. 8) which were like mountains suspended by a hair' (Jer. Shabb. 7b).当这个拉比之一是将申报报告为爆破,这一法律的安息日(可比Chag。一八)暂停了头发像'(耶Shabb。7B项)山脉形成的一部分。 And yet in all these wearisome details there is not a single trace of anything spiritual, not a word even to suggest higher thoughts of God's holy day and its observance,然而在所有这些令人厌烦的细节还没有一个单一的痕迹什么精神,而不是一个单词,即使提出神的圣日和遵守更高的想法,

The tractate on the Sabbath begins with regulations extending its provisions to the close of the Friday afternoon, so as to prevent the possiblity of infringing on the Sabbath itself, which commenced on the Friday evening.关于安息日开始短文法规的规定扩大到星期五下午关闭,以防止在安息日本身,它在星期五晚上开始侵权的方法可行。As the most common kind of labour would be that of carrying, this is the first point discussed.作为劳动力最常见的一种将是携带,这是第一点讨论。The Biblical Law forbade such labour in simple terms (Ex. 36:6; comp. Jer. 17:22).圣经中的法律禁止这种简单的劳动(出36:6;。比赛耶17:22)。。But Rabbinism developed the prohibition into 8 special ordinances, by first dividing 'the bearing of a burden' into two separate acts, lifting it up and putting it down, and then arguing that it might be lifted up or put down from two different places, from a public into a private, or from a private into a public place.但是Rabbinism发展到8大特别条例禁止,首先分成两个单独的行为'的负担轴承,提起并把它放下,然后他们认为这可能被取消注册或从两个不同的地方放了下来,从一到一私人公开,或从私人到公共场所。

Here, of course, there are discussions as to what constituted a 'private place' and 'a public place'; 'a wide space,' which belongs neither to a special individual or to a community, such as the sea, a deep wide valley, or else the corner of a property leading out on the road or fields, and, lastly, a 'legally free place.'在这里,当然,也有以什么构成一个'私人地方'和'公共场所的讨论;'了广阔的空间,'这既不属于一个特殊的个人或一个如海,深宽社区,山谷,否则属性的角落领先的道路上或领域相关的事情,最后,一个'合法自由的地方。' [Such a free place must cover less than four square cubits, for ex., a pillar would be such. [这样一个自由的地方必须覆盖不到四方形肘前,。,将是这样一个支柱。To this no legal determination would apply.在这方面没有法律上确定将适用。The 'wide space' is called Karmelith.在'广阔的空间,被称为Karmelith。The Mishnah, however, expressly mentions only the 'private' and the 'public' place (or 'enclosed' and 'open'), although the Karmeilth was in certain circumstances treated as 'public,' in others as 'private' property.该mishnah,然而,只有明确提到的'私营'和'公'的地方(或'封闭'和'开放'),虽然Karmeilth在某些情况下,作为治疗是'公'作为私人的财产等。 The explanation of the terms and legal definitions is in Jer.该条款与法律定义的解释是在哲。Shabb.Shabb。12d; 13a; Shabb.12D型; 13A条; Shabb。6a, b; Toseft.6a中,B组; Toseft。Shabb.Shabb。1.] Again, a 'burden' meant, as the lowest standard of it, the weight of 'a dried fig.' 1。]同样,一个'包袱'的含义是它的最低标准,重量,'一个干无花果。'

But if 'half a fig' were carried at two different times, lifted or deposited from a private into a public place, or vice versa, were these two actions to be combined into one so as to constitute the sin of Sabbath desecration?但是,如果'半图'进行的两个不同的时间,解除或进入公共场所,或反之亦然从私人存款,被这两个行动将合并成一个,从而构成了安息日的亵渎罪? And if so, under what conditions as to state of mind, locality, etc.?如果是的话,在什么是对心灵,地点,条件等状况?And, lastly, how many different sins might one such act involve?而且,最后,有多少不同的罪过或许有这种行为涉及?

To give an instance of the kind of questions that were generally discussed: the standard measure for forbidden food was the size of an olive, just as that for carrying burdens was the weight of a fig.为了让一对讨论的问题是一种普遍的实例:对禁止食品标准的措施是一个橄榄大小,就像当年携带的负担是重的无花果。If a man swallowed forbidden food of the size of half an olive, rejected it, and again eaten of the size of half an olive, he would be guilty, because the palate had altogether tasted food to the size of a whole olive; but if one had deposited in another locality a burden of the weight of a half a fig, and removed it again, it involved no guilt, becuause the burden was altogether only of half a fig, nor even if the first half fig's burden had been burnt and then a second half fig introduced.如果吞食禁的一半大小的橄榄食品的人,拒绝它,并再次的一半大小的橄榄吃了,他会内疚,因为腭已完全尝到食物的大小整个橄榄油,但如果一人存放在另一个地方是一个半重的无花果的负担,并取消它再次,它涉及没有罪恶感,becuause负担只有半年的无花果完全,甚至也不如上半年无花果的负担已被烧毁,然后介绍了下半年的无花果。 Similarly, if an object that was intended to be worn or carried in front had slipped behind it involved no guilt, but if it had been intended to be worn or carried behind, and it slipped forward, this involved guilt, as involving labor.同样,如果原打算反对穿戴或携带已在前面落后于它涉及没有罪恶感,但如果它已打算将穿着或携带落后了,因此下滑前进,因为这涉及内疚,涉及劳动。

Similar difficulties were discussed as to the reverse.类似的困难进行了讨论,以相反。 Whether, if an object were thrown from a private into a public place, or the reverse.无论是,如果一个对象是从一个私人扔进公共场所,或相反。Whether, if an object was thrown into the air with the left, and caught again in the right hand, this involved sin, was a nice question, though there could be no doubt a man incurred guilt if he caught it with the same hand which it had been thrown, but he was not guilty if he caught it in his mouth, since, after being eaten, the object no longer existed, and hence catching with the mouth was as if it had been done by a second person.无论是,如果一个物体被抛到空中用左,抓住了右手,这涉及罪再次,是一个有趣的问题,虽然不可能有任何疑问,如果一个男人发生guilt他赶上了同样的手里的它已被抛出,但他不认罪,如果他看见在他的嘴里,因为被吃掉后,该对象不再存在,因此用口捕仿佛它已被第二个人做了。

Again, if it rained, and the water which fell from the sky were carried, there was no sin in it; but if the rain had run down from a wall it would involve sin.再次,如果下雨,水是从天上掉下获得通过,也没有什么害处,但如果雨已经运行从墙上将涉及罪了。If a person were in one place, and his hand filled with fruit, he would have to drop the fruit, since if he withdrew his full hand from one locality into another, he would be carrying a burden on the Sabbath.如果一个人在一个地方,他的手充满了水果,他就不得不辍学的果实,因为如果他撤回从一个地方到另一个他完全相反,他将继承安息日的负担。 It is needless to continue the analysis of this casuistry.这是不用继续这种诡辩分析。All discussions to which we have referred turn only on the first of the legal canons in the tractate 'Sabbath.'所有的讨论,我们所提到打开在短文的法律大炮第一只'安息日。'

They will show what a complicated machinery of merely external ordinances traditionalism set in motion; how utterly unspritual the whole system was, and how it required no small amount of learning and ingenuity to avoid commiting grevious sin.他们将展示的只是条例外部复杂机械的传统主义运动中的设置;如何完全unspritual整个系统,以及它如何不需要学习和创造力少量以避免犯grevious罪。 In what follows we shall only attmept to indicate the leading points in the Sabbath legislation of the Rabbis.在下文中我们将只attmept显示在安息日立法的拉比领导百分点。Shortly before the commencement of the Sabbath (late on Friday afternoon) nothing new was to begun; [Here such questions are raised as what constitutes the beginning, for ex., of shaving or a bath] the tailor might no longer go out with his needle, nor the scribe with his pen; nor were clothes to be examined by lamp light.前不久的安息日(周五下午晚些时候)什么是开始新的开始; [。下面这些问题是怎样构成的前开始,募来的,刮胡子或洗澡]裁缝可能不再与他出去针,也不是用他的钢笔抄写;也没有衣服要检查灯光。A teacher might not allow his pupils to read, if he himself looked on the book.一个老师可能不会让他的学生阅读,如果他自己在看的书。 All these are pracautionary measures.所有这些都是pracautionary措施。

The tailor or scribe carrying his ordinary means of employment, might forget the advent of the holy day; the person examining a dress might kill insects, [To kill such vermin is, of course, strictly forbidden (to kill a flea is like a camel).裁缝或抄写携带他的普通就业方式,可能忘记了神圣的一天的到来;检查衣服的人可能会杀死昆虫,[要杀死这种害虫,当然是严格禁止(杀死跳蚤像骆驼)。 Rules are given how to dispose of such insects.规则给出如何处置这些昆虫。On the same occasion some curious ideas are broached as to the transformation of animals, one into another.] which is strictly forbidden on the Sabbath, and the teacher might move the lamp to see better, while the pupils were supposed to be so zealous as to also do this.在同一场合一些奇怪的想法是,以酝酿的动物,一到另一个转变。]这是严格禁止的安息日,老师可能会移动的灯,看到更好的,而学生们应该如此热心为也这样做。

These latter rules, we are reminded, were passed at a certain celebrated discussion between the schools of Hillel and Shammai, when the latter were in the majority.后面这些规则,提醒我们,在某一个获得通过之间的希勒尔和沙买,当后者在大部分学校的庆祝的讨论。On that occasion also opposition to the Gentiles was carried to its farthest length, and their food, their language, their testimony, their presence, their intercourse, in short, all connection with them denounced.在那次会议上也反对向外邦人传到了其最远的长度,他们的食物,他们的语言,他们的证词,他们的存在,他们的交往,总之,所有这些方面的谴责。 The school of Shammai also forbade to make any mixture, the ingredients of which would not be wholly dissolved and assimilated before the Sabbath.沙买的学校,也禁止做任何混合物,其中的成分不会完全溶解和吸收前的安息日。Nay, the Sabbath law was declared to apply even to lifeless objects.不仅如此,安息日法律被宣布为甚至适用于没有生命的物体。Thus, wool might not be dyed if the process was not completed before the Sabbath.因此,可能不染羊毛,如果过程没有完成之前,安息日。Nor was it even lawful to sell anything to a heathen unless the object would reach its destination before the Sabbath, nor to give to a heathen workman anything to do which might involve him in Sabbath work.它甚至也不是合法出售任何一个异教徒,除非该对象将达到其目标的安息日前,也不给任何一个异教徒工人做可能涉及他在安息日工作。

Thus, Rabbi Gamialiel was careful to send his linen to be washed three days before Sabbath.因此,拉比Gamialiel谨慎地送他的床单该洗了安息日前三天。But it was lawful to leave olives or grapes in the olive or wine press.但它是合法离开橄榄或橄榄油或榨酒葡萄。Both schools were agreed that, in roasting or baking, a crust must have been formed before the Sabbath, except in case of the Passover lamb.这两所学校获得通过,在焙烧或烘烤,一个地壳已形成一定的安息日前,除了在逾越节羔羊的情况下。The Jerusalem Talmud, however, modifies certain of these rules.耶路撒冷犹太法典,但是,这些修改某些规则。Thus the prohibition of work by a heathen only applies if they work in the house of the Jew, or at least in the same town with him.因此,工作禁令只适用于一个异教徒,如果他们在家里工作的犹太人,或至少在与他同一个镇。 The school of Shammai, however, went so far as to forbid sending a letter by a heathen, not only on a Friday or on a Thursday, but even sending it on a Wednesday, or to embark on the sea on these days.沙买的学校,然而,竟然禁止发送的一个异教徒的信不仅在周五或在一个星期四,但即使派出一个星期三,或走上这些天海。

It being assumed that the lighting of the Sabbath lamp was a law given to Moses on Mount Sinai, the Mishnah proceeds, in the second chapter of the tractate on the Sabbath, to discuss the substances of which respectively the wick and the oil may be composed, provided always that oil which feeds the wick is not put in a seperate vessel, since the removal of that vessel would cause the extinction of tha lamp, which would involve a breach of the Sabbath law.它被假定照明灯的安息日给出了在西奈山,米示拿的收益让摩西在对安息日短文第二章法律,讨论它们分别灯芯和油可组成物质,惟每次油,饲料烛芯是不是放在一个单独的容器,因为该船只的搬迁,将导致灭绝的临屋区的灯,将涉及违反法律的安息日。 But if the light were extinguished from fear of the Gentiles, of robbers, or of an evil spirit, or in order that one dangerously ill might go to sleep, it involved no guilt.但如果光线被扑灭免于恐惧的外邦人的强盗,或一个邪恶的精神,或为了使一个病危可能去睡觉,它涉及没有罪恶感。Here, many points in casuistry are discussed, such as whether twofold guilt is incurred if in blowing out a candle its flame lights another.在这里,在决疑许多问题进行了讨论,如是否有罪是双重的,如果发生在吹灭蜡烛的圣火照亮另一个。

The Mishnah here diverges to discuss the other commandments, which, like that of lighting the Sabbath lamp, specially devolve on women, on which occasion the Talmud broaches some curious statements about the heavenly Sanhedrin and Satan, such as that it is in moments of danger that the Great Enemy brings accusations against us, in order to ensure our ruin; or this, that on three occasions he specially lies in ambush: when one travel after the fast (Day of Atonement), that the Jewish proverb had it: 'When you bind your Lulabh [The Lulabh consisted of a palm with myrtle and willow branch tied on either side of it, which every worshipper carried on the Feast of Tabernacles ('Temple and its Services,' p. 238).] (at the Feast of Tabernacles) bind also your feet', as regards a sea voyage (Jer. Shabb. 5b, Ber.R 6).该mishnah这里发散讨论其他的命令,其中,像照明灯的安息日,特别是下放对妇女,上一​​次刀塔木德对天堂公会和撒旦,比如,它可以在危险的时刻,一些好奇的声明是伟大的敌人对我们带来的指控,以确保我们的绝路,或本,这三次他特别埋伏在于:当一个人的旅行后快(赎罪日),即犹太人的谚语了它:'当你绑定你Lulabh [本Lulabh包括与番石榴和柳枝任IT方面,每一个礼拜上进行的住棚节('庙和服务,'第238页)并列的手掌。](过节住棚)结合也是你的脚',至于在海上航行(耶Shabb。5B号,Ber.R 6)。

The next two chapters in the tractate on the Sabbath discuss the manner in which food may be kept warm for the Sabbath, since no fire might be lighted.接下来的两个章节对安息日短文讨论中,食物可能会保持温暖,为安息日,火灾可能是因为没有点燃的方式。If the food had been partially cooked, or was such as would improve by increased heat, there would be temptation to attend to the fire, and this must be avoided.如果食物已经半熟的,还是如将提高增加热量,将有诱惑参加的火灾,而这必须加以避免。Hence the oven immediately before the Sabbath only to be heated with straw or chaff; if otherwise, the coals were to be removed or covered with ashes.因此,只有烤箱前用稻草或谷壳加热的安息日;若否则,煤块被拆除或灰烬覆盖。Clothes ought not to be dried by the hot air of a stove.衣服不应该由一个干热空气炉。At any rate, care must be taken that neighbours do not see it.无论如何,必须注意采取的邻居看不出来。An egg may not be boiled by putting it near a hot kettle, nor in a cloth, nor sand heated by the sun.一个煮鸡蛋可能无法通过把它附近的一个热点水壶,也没有在布,沙也被太阳加热。Cold water might be poured on warm, but not the reverse (at least such was the opinion of the school of Shammai), nor was it lawful to prepare either cold or warm compresses.冷水泼在温暖的可能,但不是相反(至少这是大沙买的学校意见),也不是合法的准备压缩或冷或热。

'Nay, a Rabbi went so far as to forbid throwing hot water over one's self, for fear of spreading the vapour, or of cleaning the floor thereby! '不,一个拉比竟然禁止扔了一个人的自我,为传播的蒸气,或清洁地板,从而担心热水!A vessel might be put under a lamp to catch the falling sparks, but no water might be put into it, because it was not lawful to extinguish a light.一艘可能是一盏灯置于赶上落下的火花,但没有水可能会推迟到它,因为它是不合法的熄灭一盏灯。Nor would it have been allowed on the Sabbath to put a vessel to receive the drops of oil that might fall from the lamp.也不会被允许在安息日放油船只收到滴可能掉下来的灯。Amomg many other questions raised was this: whether a parent might take his child in his arms. Amomg许多提出的其他问题是这样的:是否有可能把他的父母在他怀里的孩子。Happily, Rabbinic literally went so far as not only to allow this, but even, in the supposed case that the child might happen to have a stone in its hands, although this would involve the labour of carrying that stone!令人高兴的是,拉比字面上竟然不仅使这一点,但即使在假定的情况下,孩子有可能发生在自己手中的石头,虽然这将涉及劳动携带的石头! Similarly, it was declared lawful to lift seats, provided they had not, as it were, four steps, when they must be considered as ladders.同样,被宣布取消合法席位,只要他们没有,因为它是,四个步骤,当他们必须作为梯子考​​虑。

But it was not allowed to draw along chairs, as this might produce a rut of cavity, although a little carriage might be moved, since the wheels would only compress the soil but not produce a cavity (comp. on the Bab. Talmud, Shabb. 22a;46; and Bets. 23b).但不是被允许吸取沿着椅子,因为这可能会产生一腔车辙,虽然有点马车也可能转移,因为车轮只会压缩土壤,而且没有产生一腔(可比的巴布。犹太法典,Shabb 。22A条,46条;和投注23B条)。。Again, the question is discussed, whether it is lawful to keep the food warm by wrapping around a vessel certain substances.同样,这个问题进行了讨论,无论是合法的,以留住某些物质的船只周围包裹食物温暖。here the general canon is, that all must be avoided which would increase the heat: since this would be to produce some outward effect, which would be equivalent to work.在这里,一般的佳能,必须避免所有这会增加热量:因为这将产生一些影响外,这将等同于工作。

In the fifth chapter of the tractate we are supposed to begin the Sabbath morning.在第五章的短文,我们都应该开始安息日早晨。Ordinarily, the first business of the morning would, of course, have been to take out the cattle.一般来说,清晨的第一笔生意,当然,已经采取了牛。Accordingly, the laws are now laid down for ensuring Sabbath rest to the animals.因此,现在的法律规定了确保安息日休息的动物。 The principle underlying these is, that only what serves as ornament, or is absolutely necessary for leading out or bringing back animals, or for safety, may be worn by them; all else is regarded as a burden.这些是基本的原则,只有什么作为装饰品,或者是绝对领先的出或带回的动物需要,或为了安全,可能被他们穿;一切都视为是一种负担。 Even such things as might be put on to prevent the rubbing of a wound, on other possible harm, or to distinguish an animal, must be left aside on the day of rest.即使这样的事情,可能投放,以防止伤口摩擦,对其他可能造成的损害,或动物区分开来,必须搁置在休息​​日。

Next, certain regulations are laid down to guide the Jew when dressing on the Sabbath morning, so as to prevent his breaking its rest.其次,某些法规定下来的指导犹太人在安息日早晨,当敷料​​,以防止他打破了休息。Hence he must be careful not to put on any dress which might become burdensome, nor to wear any ornament which be might put off and carry in his hand, for this would be a 'burden.'因此,他必须小心,不要把任何衣服可能成为负担,也没有佩戴任何饰品,可能推迟是抱在手上,因为这将是一个'负担。 A woman must not wear such headgear as would require unloosing before taking a bath, nor go out with such ornaments as could be taken off in the street, such as a frontlet, unless it is attached to the cap, nor with a gold crown, nor with a necklace or nose ring, nor with rings, nor have a pin [Literally, a needle which has not an eylet.一个女人必须不穿这样的头饰如需要在洗澡unloosing,也不去作为可采取在街下车等饰物,如额饰,出来,除非它是连接到上限,也不符合金皇冠,也不符合项链或鼻子戒指,也没有带环,也没有一针[从字面上看,一针已不是一个eylet。 Of course, it would not be lawful for a modern Jew, if he observe the Rabbinic Law, to carry a stick or a pencil on the Sabbath, to drive, or even to smoke.] in her dress.当然,它不会是合法的一个现代化的犹太人,如果他遵守拉比法律规定,携带一棒或铅笔的安息日,开车,甚至抽烟。在她的衣服]。 The reason for this prohibition of ornaments was, that in their vanity women might take them off to show them to their companions, and then, forgetful to the day, carry them, which would be a 'burden.'此禁令的原因是装饰品,在他们的虚荣心妇女可能把他们赶走向他们展示他们的同伴,然后,健忘的一天,携带它们,这将是一个负担。'

Women are also forbidden to look in the glass on the Sabbath, because they might discover a white hair and attempt to pull it out, which would be a grievous sin; but men ought not to use lookingglasses even on weekdays, because it was undignified.妇女也被禁止看在玻璃上的安息日,因为他们可能会发现一个白头发,并试图把它拉出来,这将是一个严重的罪过,但人不应该使用,即使在平日lookingglasses,因为这是有损尊严。 A woman may walk about her own court, but not in the streets, with false hair.一个女人可以步行约她自己的法庭,而不是在街头,假头发。Similarly, a man was forbidden to wear on the Sabbath wooden shoes studded with nails, or only one shoe, as this would involve labour; nor was he to wear phylacteries nor amulets, unless, indeed, they had been made by competent persons (since they might lift them off in order to show the novelty).同样,一名男子被禁止穿钉,或只有一个鞋镶嵌在安息日木鞋,因为这将涉及劳动,也不是圣物,也没有穿护身符,除非确实,他们已经由合资格人士所作(自他们可能取消其关闭,以显示新奇)。 Similarly, it was forbidden to wear any part of a suit of armour.同样,它被禁止穿任何一套盔甲的一部分。it was not lawful to scrape shoes, escept perhaps with the back of a knife, but they might be touched with oil or water.这是不合法的刮鞋,escept与一名刀背也许,但他们可能会与油或水感动。

Nor should sandals be softened with oil, because that would improve them.也不应被软化凉鞋与石油,因为这将提高他们。It was a very serious question, which led to much discussion, what should be done if the tie of a sandal had broken on the Sabbath.这是一个非常严重的问题,这导致不少讨论,应该怎样做,如果一个凉鞋绑在安息日打破。A plaster might be worn, provided its object was to prevent the wound from getting worse, not to heal it, for that would have been a work.A可能是戴石膏,只要其目的是为了防止伤口恶化,而不是医治它,因为这将是一个工作。 Ornaments which could not easily be taken off might be worn in one's courtyard.这可能不容易被取下饰品可能是穿在自己的庭院。 Similarly, a person might go about with wadding in his ear, but not with false teeth nor with a gold plug in the tooth.同样,一个人可能去在他的耳边絮胎,但与假牙,也不符合在牙齿黄金插头。If the wadding fell out of the ear, it could not be replaced.如果胎下降的耳朵,它不能被取代。Some indeed, thought that its healing virtues lay in the oil in which it had been soaked, and which had dried up, but others ascribed them to the wrath of the wadding itself.有些确实,认为其愈合美德在其中它已被浸泡,并已经干涸石油躺着,但其他人赋予他们的愤怒填料本身。In either case there was danger of healing, of doing anything for the purpose of a cure, and hence wadding might not be put into the ear on the Sabbath, although if worn before it might be continued.在这两种情况下有愈合的危险,一切为了治愈的目的,任何事情,因此填料可能不会进入耳朵的安息日放,但如果佩戴之前,它可能会继续下去。

Again, as regarded false teeth: they might fall out, and the wearee might then lift and carry them, which would be sinful on the Sabbath.同样地,把假牙:他们可能掉下来,和wearee可能然后抬起加以发扬光大,这将是罪孽深重的安息日。But anything which formed part of the ordinary dress of a person might be worn also on the Sabbath, and children whose ears were being bored might have a plug put into the hole.但是,只要是形成了一个人的普通服装的一部分也可能是穿的安息日,和儿童,他们有可能被钻孔成孔插放了耳朵。It was also allowed to go about on crutches, or with a wooden leg and children might have bells on their dresses; but it was prohibited to walk on stilts, or to carry any heathen amulet.它也可以到有关的拐杖,用木棍腿和儿童或者可能对她们的裙子钟声,但它是禁止走高跷,或进行任何异教徒的护身符。The seventh chapter of the tractate contains the most important part of the whole.在第七章的短文包含了整个最重要的部分。 It opens by laying down the principle that, if a person has either not known, or forgotten, the whole Sabbath law, all the breaches of it which he has committed during ever so many weeks are to be considered as only one error or one sin.它是由放下认为,如果一个人要么不知道或忘记了,整个安息日法律原则打开,所有的它,他有那么多的周期间违反承诺将被视为只有一个错误或一罪审议。

If he has broken the Sabbath law by mistaking the day, every Sabbath thus profaned must be atoned for; but he has broken the law because he thought that what he did was permissible, then every separate infringement constitutes a separate sin, although labors which stand related as species to the genus are regarded as only one work.如果他打破了由误认一天的安息日的法律,每安息日从而亵渎必须有血气的,但他已经触犯法律,因为他认为他的所作所为是允许的,那么每一个单独的侵权构成一种罪过,但劳动者的立场有关以属种,因为只有一个工作视为。

It follows, that guilt attaches to the state of mind rather than to the outward deed. Next, 39 chief or 'fathers' of work (Aboth) are enumerated, all of which are supposed to be forbidden in the Bible.因此,该内疚的重视,心态,而不是向外好事。 接下来,39行政或'爸爸'的工作(Aboth)列举,所有这些都应该是禁止在圣经。They are: sowing, ploughing, reaping, binding sheaves, threshing, winnowing, sifting (selecting), grinding, sifting in a seive, kneading, baking; shearing the wool, washing it, beating it, dyeing it, spinning, putting it on the weaver's beam, making a knot, undoing a knot, sewing two stitches, tearing in order to sew two stitches; catching deer, killing, skinning, salting it preparing its skin, scraping off its hair, cutting it up, writing two letters, scraping in order to write two letters; building, pulling down, extinguishing fire, lighting fire, beating with the hammer, and carrying from one possession into the other. 它们是:播种,耕耘,收获,结合捆,脱粒,风选,筛选(选择),研磨,筛选了钛硅分子筛,揉,烘烤;剪羊毛,洗它,战胜它,它染色,纺纱,把它织的光束,使一个结,解开一个结,缝纫两针,以撕裂,缝合两针,捉鹿,杀,剥皮,腌制它准备它的皮肤,刮了它的头发,切断它,写了两封信,为了刮写的两封信;大厦推倒,灭火,照明火,用锤子敲打,和其他带有从一进藏。

The number 39 is said to represent the number of times that the word 'labour' occurs in the Bibical text, and all these Aboth or 'fathers of work are supposed to be connected with some work that had been done about the Tabernacle, or to be kindred to such work. 39这个数字据说是代表了这个词的次数'劳动'的Bibical文本发生,所有这些工作Aboth或'爸爸应该是一些已被有关幕所做的工作连接,或这项工作是骨肉。 Again, each of these principal works involved the prohibition of a number of others which were derived from them, and hence called their 'descendants' (toledoth).同样,这些工程主要涉及到每一个其中来自他们,因此称他们的'后代'(toledoth)其他一些禁令。The 39 principal works have been arranged in four groups: the first (1 - 11) referring to the preparation of bread; the second (12 - 24) all connected with dress; the third (25 - 33) all connected with writing; and the last (34 - 39) to all the work necessary for a private house.在39个主要工程已安排了四组:第一(1 - 11)指的是面包的准备工作;第二(12 - 24)连接的所有衣服;第三(25 - 33)所有与写作相连;和最后(34 - 39)为所有私人住宅工作所必需的。

Another Rabbi derives the number 39 (of these Aboth) from the numerical value of the initial word in Exod.另一位拉比推导了从最初在exod数值字39号(这些Aboth)。35:1, although in so doing he has to change the last letter 'the' into 'a' to make 39). 35:1,但在这样做,他必须改变过去的信'的'到'一',使39条)。[The Rabbis contend for the lawfulness of changing 'the' into 'a' for the sake of an interpretation. [拉比争为了改变'的'到'一'为解释而合法性。Sop expressly here (Jer. Shabb. 9b) and in Jer.燮明确这里(耶Shabb。9B条),并在哲。Peah 20b into Lev.Peah 20B条进入列弗。19:24).] Further explanations must here be added.19:24)。]进一步的解释必须在这里补充。If you scatter two seeds, you have been sowing.如果你撒两个种子,你一直播种。In general, the priciple is laid down, that anything by which the ground may be benefited is to be considered a 'work' or 'labour,' even if it were to sweep away or to break up a clod of earth.一般来说,原则是规定,即由其中地面可以获益的人们,被认为是'工作'或'劳动'即使它被扫除或打破了地球土块什么。 Nay, to pluck a blade of grass was a sin.不仅如此,掐一片草叶是一种罪过。Similarly, it was sinful labour to do anything that would promote the ripening of fruits, such as to water, or even to remove a withered leaf.同样,它是有罪的劳动力做任何事情,能够促进果实成熟,比如水,或什至删除枯叶。

To pick fruit, or even to lift it from the ground, would be like reaping.要采摘水果,甚至取消它从地面,将像收获。If for example, a mushroom were cut, there would be twofold sin, since by the act of cutting, a new one would spring in its place.如果例如,蘑菇被切断,会有双重罪过,由切削行为,因为建立一个新的春天,它的位置。According to the Rabbis of Caesarea, fishing, and all that put an end to life, must be ranked with harvesting.据该撒利亚,钓鱼拉比,和所有结束生命,必须是排名收获。In connection with the conduct of the disciples in rubbing the ears of corn on the Sabbath, it is interesting to know that all work connected with food would be classed as one of the toledoth, of binding into sheaves.在与该弟子在擦在安息日麦穗进行连接,有趣的是,知道所有的工作与食品将被归类为toledoth一成捆约束力。 If a woman were to roll wheat to take away these husks, she would be guilty of sifting with a sieve.如果一个女人被推出小麦带走这些稻壳,她将用筛子筛有罪。If she were rubbing the ends of the stalks, she would be guilty of threshing.如果她被揉两端的秸秆,她将脱粒有罪。Is she were cleaning what adheres to the side of a stalk, she would be guilty of sifting.她是在清理什么,坚持以一杆的一面,她将是有罪的筛选。If she were brushing the stalk, she would be guilty fo grinding.如果她被刷柄,她将研磨有罪。If she were throwing it up in her hands, seh would be guilty of winnowing.如果她被扔在她手里了,风选的SEH将是有罪的。 Distinctions like the following are made: A radish may be dipped into salt, but not left in it too long, since this would be to make pickle.像下面作了区分:一个萝卜可浸入盐,但不是在它放得太久,因为这将是使咸菜。


A new dress might be put on, irrespective of the danger that in so doing it might be torn.新衣服可能投放,无论的危险,在这样做可能会撕裂。Mud on the dress might be crushed in the hand and shaken off, but the dress must not be rubbed (for fear of affecting the material).衣服上的泥可能被扼杀在手,动摇了,但衣服不能被抹掉(对影响材料的恐惧)。If a person took a bath, opinions are divided, whether the whole body should be dried at once, or limb after limb.如果一个人在洗澡,意见分歧,无论是全身应立即干燥后或肢体肢体。If water had fallen on the dress, some allowed the dress to be shaken but not wrung; other, to be wrung but not shaken.如果衣服上的水已经倒下,有的允许礼服动摇,但不拧干,其他的,要拧干,但并未动摇。One Rabbi allowed to spit into the handkerchief, and that although it may necessitate the compressing of what had been wetted; but there is a grave discussion whether it was lawful to spit on the ground, and then to rub it with the foot, because thereby the earth may be scratched.一位拉比允许吐到手绢,虽然它可能需要的是什么压缩已经湿润,但有一个严重的讨论,是否是合法吐在地上,然后用擦脚,因为thereby地球可能被划伤。 It may, however, be done on stones.这可能,但是,做在石头上。In the labour of grinding would be included such an act as crushing salt.在磨削工党将被列为粉碎盐等行为。

To sweep, or to water the ground, would involve the same sin as beating out the corn.扫,或水的地面,将涉及玉米作为击败了同样的罪。to lay on a plaster would be a grievous sin; to scratch out a big letter, leaving room for two small ones, would be a sin, but to write one big letter occupying the room of two small letters was no sin.以石膏躺在一将是一个严重的罪过;到了大信划伤,留下了两个小的房间,将是一种罪过,而是写一两个小字母大信占据了房间里没有罪。 To change one letter into another might imply a double sin.要改变一个字母到另一个可能意味着双重的罪恶。And so on through endless details!所以,通过无休止的细节!

The Mishnah continues to explain that, in order to involve guilt, the thing carried from one locality to another must be sufficient to be entrusted for safekeeping.该mishnah继续解释说,为了参与内疚,事情进行的从一个地方到另一个必须足以将委托保管。The quantity is regulated: as regards the food of animals, to the capacity of their mouth; as regards man, a dried fig is the standard.数量的调节:至于动物的食物,到他们口中的能力;至于男人,一个是标准的无花果干。As regards fluids, the measure is as much wine as is used for one cup, that is, the measure of the cup being a quarter of a log, and wine being mixed with water in the proportion of three parts water to one of wine, 1 / 16 of a log.至于液体,这一措施是用于一个杯子,那就是,对身为日志四分之一杯的措施,和酒被混在三部分水的比例与水一样多的葡萄酒酒之一, 1 / 16的记录。[It has been calculated by Herzfeld that a log = 0.36 of a litre; '6 hen's eggs'.] As regards milk, a mouthful; of honey, sufficient to lay on a wound; of oil, sufficient to anoint the smallest member; of water, sufficient to wet eye salve; and of all other fluids, a quarter of a log.[据计算,一个由赫兹费尔德一升日志= 0.36;。'6鸡蛋']至于牛奶,一口,蜂蜜,足以奠定一个伤口;石油,足以膏最小的成员;水,足以眼睛湿药膏,以及所有其他液体,一季度的日志。

As regarded other substances, the standard as to what constituted a burden was whether the thing could be turned to any practical use, however trifling.至于认为其他物质,以什么标准是,是否构成一种负担东西都会被打开任何实际用途,但是琐碎。Thus, two horse's hairs might be made into a birdtrap; a scrap of clean paper into a custom house notice; a small piece of paper written upon might be converted into a wrapper for a small flagon.因此,两个马的毛发可能做成一个birdtrap;通知到海关大楼的清洁纸片,一个小纸条后,可能会转换成一个包装一个小酒壶写的。 In all these cases, therefore, transport would involve sin.在所有这些情况下,因此,运输将涉及罪孽。Similarly, ink sufficient to write two letters, wax enough to fill up a small hole, even a pebble with which you might aim at a little bird, or a small piece of broken earthenware with which you might stir the coals, would be 'burdens!'同样,油墨足以写两封信,蜡足以装满一个小洞,甚至是鹅卵石与你可能瞄准一只小鸟,或一小片破碎的陶器与您可能搅拌煤,将负担!

Passing to another aspect of the subject, the Mishnah lays it down that, in order to constitute sin, a thing must have been carried from one locality into another entirely and immediately, and that it must have been done in the way in which things are ordinarily carried.传递到另一个主题方面,在mishnah规定下来,为了构成犯罪,必须有一个东西从一个地方进行到另一个完全并立即,而且它一定是在路上做的这些事是通常通过。 If an object which one person could carry is caried by two, they are not guilty.如果一个对象,其中一人可携带由两个caried,他们无罪。Finally, like all labour on the Sabbath, that of cutting one's nails or hair involves moral sin, but only if it is done in the ordinary way, otherwise only the lesser sin of the breach of the Sabbath rest.最后,像所有劳工的安息日,即剪指甲或头发涉及道德罪过,但只有当它是普通的方式做,否则仅仅是违反安息日休息的小罪。 A very interesting notice in connection with St. John 5, is that in which it is explained how it would not involve sin to carry a living person on a pallet, the pallet being regarded only as an accessory to the man; while to carry a dead body in such manner, or even the smallest part of a dead body, would involve guilt. A的圣约翰5连接非常有趣的通知,是在它解释如何将不涉及罪进行一个活生生的人一个托盘,托盘被视为是对男人的配件只,而携带在这样的方式,甚至是最小的部分尸体尸体,将涉及到内疚。

From this the Mishnah proceeds to discuss what is analogous to carrying, such as drawing or throwing.从这个收益的mishnah讨论什么是类似于携带,如绘图或投掷。Other 'labours' are similarly made the subject of inquiry, and it is shown how any approach to them involves guilt.其他'劳动'同样作出了调查对象,并证明他们的做法如何涉及任何内疚。The rule here is, that anything that might prove of lasting character must not be done on the Sabbath.这里的规则是,任何可能证明不能持久的字符必须在安息日做。The same rule applies to what might prove the beginning of work, such as letting the hammer fall on the anvil; or to anything that might contribute to improve a place, to gathering as much wood as would boil an egg, to uprooting weeds, to writing two letters of a word, in short, to anything that might be helpful in, or contribute towards, some future work.该规则同样适用于可能证明什么工作的开始,如让锤落在铁砧上,或任何可能有助于改善的地方,尽可能多木材作为将煮鸡蛋,收集,以铲除杂草,以一个字写两封信,总之,任何可能有帮助,或作出贡献,未来的一些工作。

The Mishnah next passes to such work in which not quantity, but quality, is in question, such as catching deer.到下一个通行证等工作中,米示拿不是数量,而是质量,是有问题,如捕鹿。Here it is explained that anything by which an animal might be caught is included in the prohibition.这里是解释,其中一种动物可能是被捕获在列入禁止任何东西。So far is this carried that, if a deer had run into a house, and the door were shut upon it, it would involve guilt, and this, even if, without closing the door, persons seated themselves at the entry to prevent the exit of the animal.这是迄今为止进行的,如果一只鹿遇到了一所房子,门被关闭后,它,它会涉及有罪,这样,即使没有关闭的门,人坐在自己的入口,以防止出口动物。

Passing over the other chapters, which similarly illustrate what are supposed to be Biblical prohibitions of labour as defined in the 39 Aboth and their toledoth, we come, in the 16th chapter of the tractate, to one of the most intersting parts, containing such Sabbath laws as, by their own admission, were imposed only by the Rabbis.掠过其他章节,这同样说明了什么是应该禁止劳动圣经中的39 Aboth及其toledoth定义在第16章的短文,我们来了,到最intersting部分之一,含有这类安息日因为,法律由他们自己也承认,被强加只能由拉比。 These embrace: 1.这些拥抱:1。 Things forbidden, because they might lead to a transgression of the Biblical commune; 2.事情被禁止的,因为它们可能导致的圣经公社侵2。Such as are like the kind of labour supposed to be forbidden in the Bible; 3.如想应该是在圣经禁止的那种劳动; 3。Such as are regarded as incompatible with the honour due to the Sabbath.如被视为与荣誉,由于安息日不兼容。In the first class are included a number of regulations in case of a fire: All portions of Holy Scripture, whether in the original or translated, and the case in which they are laid; the phylacteries and their case, might be rescued from the flames.在第一类是包括在发生火灾时数规定:所有部分的圣经,无论是在原始或翻译,而案件中,他们规定,在phylacteries和他们的情况,可能是从火焰中救出。

Of food or drink only what was needful for the Sabbath might be rescued; but if the food were in a cupbord or basket the whole might be carried out.食物或饮料只能是对整个安息日可能是要紧的获救,但如果食物中cupbord或篮子整个可能进行的。Similarly, all utensils needed for the Sabbath meal, but of dress only what was absolutely necessary, might be saved, it being, however, provided, that a person might put on a dress, save it, to go back and put on another, and so on.同样,在安息日餐用具,但所需的所有衣服,只有什么是绝对必要的,可能被保存,它不过,目前提供的,一个人可以穿上衣服,将它保存,回去把另一个,等等。 Again, anything in the house might be covered with skin so as to save it from the flames, or the spread of the flames might be areested by piling up vessels.再次,在家里什么可能是覆盖着皮肤,以保存它的火焰,或火焰的蔓延可能会被堆放船只areested。It was not lawful to ask a Gentile to extinguish the flame, but not duty to hinder him, if he did so.这是不合法想问一个詹蒂莱扑灭火焰,但不妨碍他的责任,如果他这样做了。It was lawful to put a vessel over a lamp, to prevent the ceiling from catching fire; similarly, to throw a vessel over a scorpion, although on that point there is doubt.它是合法的放了一盏灯的船只,以防止着火的上限;同样,要丢了一只蝎子的船只,虽然在这一点上有疑问。On the other hand, it is allowed, if a Gentile has lighted a lamp on the Sabbath, to make use of it, the fiction being, however, kept up that he did it for himself, and not for the Jew.另一方面,它是允许的,如果一个詹蒂莱已点燃的灯上的安息日,要利用它,小说不过,目前没有跟上,他对自己讲的,并为犹太人没有。 By the same fiction the cattle may be watered, or, in fact, any other use made of his services.根据同样的小说的牛可能是浇水,或在事实上,任何其他使用他的服务做。

Before passing from this, we should point out that it was directed that the Hagiographa should not be read except in the evening, since the daytime was to be devoted to more doctrinal studies.由本决议案通过之前,我们应该指出,这是指示的Hagiographa不应被理解,除了在晚上,因为白天是专门用来较浓的研究。 In the same connection it is added, that the study of the Mishnah is more important than that of the Bible, that of the Talmud being considered the most meritorious of all, as enabling one to understand all questions of right and wrong.在同一方面,它是说,该研究的mishnah比认为圣经,即犹太法典被认为是最有价值的是,使一个重要的理解的正确和错误的所有问题。 Liturgical pieces, though containing the Name of God, might not be rescued from the flames.礼仪作品,虽然含有以上帝的名义,可能无法从火焰救出。

The Gospels, and the writings of Christians, or of heretics, might not be rescued.福音,和基督徒的著作,或异教徒,可能无法救出。If it be asked what should be done with them on weekdays, the answer is, that the Names of God which they contain ought to be cut out, and then the books themselves burned.如果它被要求与他们应该怎样做平日,答案是,那神的名字,他们包含应该切断,然后自己的图书被烧毁。One of the Rabbis, however, would have had them burnt at once, indeed, he would rather have fled into an idolatrous temple than into a Christian church: 'for the idolators deny God because they have not known Him, but the apostates are worse.'的拉比之一,然而,他们将不得不马上烧毁,事实上,他宁愿到一个崇拜偶像的寺庙比上一逃离基督教教堂:'为偶像崇拜者否认上帝,因为他们不认识他,但变节者也越来越差。' To them applied Ps.对他们适用的PS。139:21, and, if it was lawful to wash out in the waters of jealousy the Divine Name in order to restore peace, much more would it be lawful to burn such books, even though they contained the Divine Name, because they led to enmity between Israel and their Heavenly Father. 139:21,而且,如果它是合法的洗出的嫉妒水域的神的名字,以便恢复和平,更会是合法的燃烧这类书籍,即使它们所包含的神的名字,因为它们导致以色列之间的敌意和他们的天父。

Another chapter of the tractate deals with the question of the various pieces of furniture, how far they may be moved and used.另一个具有的家具的各个部分,多远,他们可能会转移和使用问题交易章的短文。Thus, curtains, or a lid, may be regarded as furniture, and hence used.因此,窗帘,或盖子,可被视为家具,因此使用。More intersting is the next chapter (18), which deals with things forbidden by the Rabbis because they resemble those kinds of labour supposed to be interdicted in the Bible.更多intersting是下一个章(18),其中涉及由拉比禁止类似的事情,因为他们的劳动应该是那些在圣经停职种。 Here it is declared lawful, for example, to remove quantities of straw or corn in order to make room for guests, or for an assembly of students, but the whole barn must not be emptied, because in so doing the floor might be injured.在这里,它被宣布合法的,例如,以消除或玉米秸秆的数量,以使客人的房间,或为学生的集会,但整个谷仓绝不能倒,因为这样做可能会在地上受伤。 Again, as regards animals, some assistance might be given if an animal was about to have its young, though not to the same amount as to a woman in childbrith, for whose sake the Ssabbath might be desecrated.再次,关于动物,一些援助可考虑如果动物大约有年轻的,虽然不是同一数额在childbrith的女人,因为他的缘故Ssabbath可能是亵渎。

Lastly, all might be done on the holy day needful for circumcision.最后,所有可能做的圣日割礼要紧的。 At the same time, every preparation possible for the service should be made the day before.与此同时,每个服务的准备工作应尽可能的前一天。The Mishnah proceeds to enter here on details not necessarily connected with the Sabbath law.该mishnah收益进入这里不一定与安息日法有关的细节。

In the following chapter (20) the tractate goes on to indicate such things as are only allowed on the Sabbath on condition that they are done differently from ordinary days.在下面的一章(20)短文接着注明仅在条件安息日,他们完成从平凡的日子一样允许这样的事情。Thus, for example, certain solutions ordinarily made in water should be made in vinegar.因此,举例来说,通常在水取得了一定的解决办法应在醋。The food for horses or cattle must not be taken out of the manger, unless it is immediately given to some other animal.马或牛的食品不得带出马槽,除非是立即给予一些其他动物。The bedding straw must not be turned with hand, but with other part of the body.稻草的床上用品不得转为手,但与身体其他部位。 A press in which linen is smoothed may be opened to take out napkins, but must not be screwed down again, etc.在其中一个亚麻平滑按可打开拿出餐巾纸,但绝不能拧下来了,等

The next chapter proceeds upon the principle that, although everything is to be avoided which resembles the labours referred to in the Bible, the same prohibition does not apply to such labours as resemble those interdicted by the Rabbis.一经的原则是,虽然一切是为了避免这类似于劳动圣经中提到的下一章收益,同样的禁令并不适用于这种劳动作为类似于那些由拉比停职。 The application of this principle is not, however, of interest to general readers.这个原则不仅适用,但是,一般读者的兴趣。

In the 22nd chapter the Mishnah proceeds to show that all the precautions of the Rabbis had only this object: to prevent an ultimate breach of a Biblical prohibition.在第22章的mishnah收益,以证明所有的拉比措施只有这个对象:以防止圣经禁止的最终突破口。Hence, where such was not to be feared, an act might be done.因此,如果这些是没有什么可怕的,一个行为可能做到的。For example, a person might bathe in mineral waters, but not carry home the linen with which he had dried himself.例如,一个人可以沐浴在矿泉水,但不能带回家与他有自己的亚麻干。He might anoint and rub the body, but not to the degree of making himself tired; but he might not use any artifical remedial measures, such as taking a shower bath.他可能膏和擦身体,但不要使自己疲惫的程度,但他可能不使用任何人工补救措施,如采取淋浴。Bones might not be set, nor emetics given, nor any medical or surgical operation performed.骨头可能没有设置,也没有给予催吐剂,也没有任何医疗或外科手术。

In the last two chapter the Mishnah points out those things which are unlawful as derogatory to the dignity of the Sabbath.在过去的两年本章规定的事,为贬损的安息日尊严非法的米示拿分。Certain things are here of interest as bearing on the question of purchasing things for the feast day.有些事情是兴趣在这里购买东西的节日问题的影响。Thus, it is expressly allowed to borrow wine, or oil, or bread on the Sabbath, and to ieave one's upper garment in pledge, though one should not express it in such manner as to imply it was a loan.因此,它是明确允许借用对安息日酒,和油,饼,ieave质押自己的上衣,虽然人们不应该在这样的方式表达它暗示这是一个贷款。

Moreover, it is expressly added that if the day before the Passover falls on a Sabbath, one may in this manner purchase a Paschal lamb, and, presumably, all else that is needful for the feast.此外,还明确表示,如果前一天的逾越节安息日跌倒,有人可能会以这种方式购买了逾越节的羊羔,而且,据推测,一切是在盛宴要紧的。 This shows how Judas might have been sent on the eve of the Passover to purchase what was needful, for the law applying to a feast day was much less strict than that of the Sabbath.这表明犹大可能已根据购买的逾越节是什么要紧的适用法律和节日前夕,送到远低于安息日的严格。Again, to avoid the possibility of affecting anything written, it was forbidden to read from a tablet the names of one's guests, or the menu.同样,为了避免影响任何书面的可能性,它被禁止从片剂读一个人的客人姓名,或菜单。 It was lawful for children to cast lots for their portions at table, but not with strangers, for this might lead to a breach of the Sabbath, and to games of chance.这是合法的,为孩子们投他们的部分地段在桌上,但与陌生人,因为这可能导致违反安息日,以及对机会游戏。Similarly, it was improper on the Sabbath to engage workmen for the following week, nor should one be on the watch for the close of that day to begin one's ordinary work.同样,有人在安息日从事不当为下一周的工人,也不应该一上为结束的那一天开始自己的平凡的工作表。It was otherwise if religious obligations awaited one at the close of the Sabbath such as attending to a bride, or making preparation for a funeral.否则,如果这是期待已久的宗教义务,如参加了新娘,或为准备葬礼在安息日密切。

[It is curious as bearing upon a recent controversy, to note that on this occasion it is said that an Israelite may be buried in the coffin and grave originally destined for a Gentile, but not vice versi.] On the Sabbath itself it was lawful to do all that was absolutely necessary connected with the dead, such as to anoint or wash the body, although without moving the limbs, nor might the eyes of the dying be closed, a practice which, indeed, was generally denounced. [这是一个为轴承在最近的争议,要注意,这是说,一个以色列人可能埋在棺材和严重原先的詹蒂莱注定,但不能versi。场合好奇]在安息日本身是合法尽一切,是绝对必要的和死人,比如膏或洗身体,虽然没有连动的肢体,也可能垂死的眼睛被关闭,而事实上,普遍谴责的做法。

In the last chapter of the tractate the Mishnah returns to the discussion of punctilious details.在短文的最后一章的mishnah返回到一丝不苟的细节的讨论。Supposing a traveller to arrive in a place just as the Sabbath commenced, he must only take from his beast of burden such objects are are allowed to be handled on the Sabbath.假如一个旅客在到达的地方,就像安息日的开始,他只能从他的负担,例如对象兽是允许被处理的安息日。As for the rest, he may loosen the ropes and let them fall down of themselves.至于其余的,他可能松开绳子,让他们自己跌倒了。 Further, it is declared lawful to unloose bundles of straw, or to rub up what can only be eaten in that condition; but care must be taken that nothing is done which is not absolutely necessary.此外,现宣布合法放开捆稻草,或擦了一下,只能在这一条件吃,但必须小心,没有什么是做这完全没有必要的。On the other hand, cooking would not be allowed, in short, nothing must be done but what was absolutely necessary to satisfy the cravings of hunger or thirst.另一方面,做饭不会允许在短,没有什么必须做,但什么是绝对必要的,以满足饥渴的欲望。Finally, it was declared lawful on the Sabbath to absolve from vows, and to attend to similiar religious calls.最后,它被宣布合法的安息日免除从誓言,并参加类似的宗教要求。

Detailed as this analysis of the Sabbath law is, we have not by any means exhausted the subject.由于这安息日的法律分析的详细,我们没有以任何手段用尽的问题。Thus, one of the most curious provisions of the Sabbath law was, that on the Sabbath only such things to be touched or eaten as had been expressly prepared on a weekday with a view to the Sabbath (Bez. 2b).因此,法律的安息日最好奇的规定之一是,那在安息日只有这样的事情要触及或食用的已明确平日准备,以期安息日(Bez. 2b干扰素)。[This destination or preparation is called Hachanah.] Anything not so destined was forbidden, as the expression is 'on account of Muqtsah' ie as not having been the 'intention.' [此目的地或准备叫Hachanah。]并非如此注定被禁止的任何东西,表达是'对Muqtsah帐户即作为没有被意愿。'Jewish dogmatists enumerate nearly 50 cases in which that theological term finds its application.犹太教条主义者列举了近50例,其中发现的神学术语及其应用。

Thus, if a hen had laid on the Sabbath, the egg was forbidden, because, evidently, it could not have been destined on a weekday for eating, since it was not yet laid, and did not exist; while if the hen had been kept, not for laying but for fattening, the egg might be eaten as forming a part of the hen that had fallen off!因此,如果一只母鸡在安息日规定,鸡蛋被禁止,因为,很显然,它已经注定无法在平日的饮食,因为它是尚未奠定,根本不存在,而如果母鸡已不守铺设,但育肥,鸡蛋可能会被吃掉形成是在认为已剥落母鸡的一部分! But when the principle of Muqtsah is applied to the touching of things which are not used because they have become ugly (and hence are not in one's mind).但是,当Muqtsah原则适用于感人的事情,因为这是不使用它们已经成为丑陋的(因而是一个人的头脑不)。so that, for example, an old lamp may not be touched, or raisins during the process of drying them (because they are not eatable then), it will be seen how complicated such a law must have been.所以,举例来说,一个老灯可能没有触及,或葡萄干在干燥他们(因为他们不食用的话)的过程中,我们将看到这样的法律,多么复杂,必须有。

Chiefly from other tractates of the Talmud the following may here be added.主要是从其他tractates塔尔穆德以下可以在这里加入。It would break the Sabbath rest to climb a tree, to ride, to swim, to clap one's hands, to strike one's side, or to dance.这将打破安息日休息爬树,骑马,游泳,拍拍自己的双手,求取一个人的一侧,或跳舞。All judicial acts, vows, and tilling were also prohibited on that day (Bez. 5:2).所有的司法行为,誓言,并翻耕还禁止在这一天(Bez. 5:2)。It has already been noted that aid might be given or promised for a woman in her bed.它已经指出,援助或可考虑在她的床上女人的承诺。But the Law went further.但法律走得更远。While it prohibited the application or use on the Sabbath of any remedies that would bring improvement or cure to the sick, 'all actual danger to life,' (Yoma 7:6) superseded the Sabbath law, but nothing short of that.尽管它禁止对任何补救措施,会带来改善或治愈安息日的应用程序或使用病人,'所有实际危害生命,'(山脉7:6)取代了安息日的法律,但没有这种短。

Thus, to state an extreme case, if on the Sabbath a wall had fallen on a person, and it were doubtful whether he was under the ruins or not, whether he was alive or dead, a Jew or Gentile, it would be duty to clear away the rubbish sufficiently to find the body.因此,为了国家的一个极端的情况下,如果对安息日墙上有一个人倒下,这是令人怀疑他是否是在废墟下或没有,他是否还活着或死了,一个犹太人或外邦人,这将是责任清除垃圾,足以找到尸体。 If life were not extinct the labour would have to be continued; but if the person were dead nothing further should be done to extricate the body.如果生活没有灭绝的工党将要继续,但如果死了的人应该做任何进一步的身体中解脱出来。Similarly, a Rabbi allowed the use of remedies on the Sabbath in throat diseases, on the express ground that he regarded them as endangering life.同样,一个拉比允许在安息日使用的补救措施对咽喉疾病的明确理由,他认为他们危及生命。On a similar principle a woman with child or a sick person was allowed to break even the fast of the Day of Atonement, while one who had a maniacal attack of morbid craving for food might on that sacred day have even unlawful food (Yoma 8:5, 6).在一个类似的原则,与孩子或照顾生病的人被允许打破女子甚至是快速的赎罪日,而一个谁粮食一种病态的渴求疯狂的攻击可能会在这神圣的日子,甚至不合法的食品(山脉8: 5,6)。

Such are the leading provisions by which Rabbinism enlarged the simple Sabbath law as expressed in the Bible, [Ex.这些都是由简单的Rabbinism扩大了安息日的法律,如圣经,[例如:对领导的规定。20: 8 - 11; 23:12 - 17; 34:1 - 3; Deut.20:8 - 11; 23:12 - 17; 34:1 - 3;申。12 - 15.] and, in its anxiety to ensure its most exact observance, changed the spiritual import of its rest into a complicated code of external and burdensome ordinances.12 - 15。],并在其焦虑,以确保其最准确的遵守,变成一个由外部和繁琐复杂的代码条例其余的精神,其进口。Shall we then wonder at Christ's opposition to the Sabbath ordinances of the Synagogue, or, on the other hand, at the teaching of Christ on this subject, and that of his most learned and most advanced contemporaries?那么,我们想知道应在基督的反对的犹太教堂,安息日条例或另一方面,在这个问题上的基督的教学,以及他最了解,最先进的同时代? And whence this difference unless Christ was the 'Teacher come from God,' Who spake as never before man had spoken.这种差异,并从那里,除非基督'教师来自上帝,'谁说话的人从来没有像之前讲了话。


Author Edersheim refers to MANY reference sources in his works.作者edersheim指许多参考来源,在他的作品中。As a Bibliography resource, we have created a separate Edersheim References list.作为一个书目资源,我们创建了一个单独的edersheim参考名单。 All of his bracketed references indicate the page numbers in the works referenced.他的所有括号内的参考资料显示页号,在工程参考。


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