Saint Mary圣玛丽

Virgin Mary圣母玛利亚

General Information一般资料

Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, has been accorded a special place of devotion especially in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. The New Testament records that she was the cousin of Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, and that she was betrothed and, later, married to Joseph. 玛丽的母亲基督耶稣,一直给予天主教东正教教堂和东方的奉献一个特别的地方,特别是在罗马。新的未婚妻和她的圣经记载,是表妹伊丽莎白,施洗约翰的母亲,而她后来,嫁给了约瑟。 After giving birth to Jesus in a stable at Bethlehem, where she had gone with Joseph to register for a government census, Mary returned to Nazareth to live quietly and humbly with her family (Luke 2:1-20).后给予在伯利恒,在那里她与约瑟夫去注册一个稳定政府的人口普查出生耶稣,玛丽回到拿撒勒到她的家人住在一起(路加福音2:1-20)低三下四地。 At his crucifixion Jesus asked his beloved disciple, John, to look after his mother.在他的受难耶稣问他心爱的弟子,约翰,要照顾他的母亲。Little is known about Mary after this, although Acts 1:14, the last reference to her in the New Testament, places her among the disciples.知之甚少玛丽在此之后,虽然徒1:14,最后提到在新约她,她的弟子之间的地方。

The New Testament states that Mary conceived Jesus by the Holy Spirit and thus without losing her virginity (Matt. 1:18, 20; Luke 1:35).新约所设想的国家,玛丽,耶稣和圣灵从而不失她的贞操(太1:18,20;路加福音1:35)。Despite biblical references to Jesus' "brothers," the idea of Mary's perpetual virginity appeared in the early church.尽管耶稣的圣经中提及的“兄弟”的玛丽的永久童贞的想法出现在早期教堂。Saint Athanasius used the term "ever virgin" to refer to Mary, and this view was apparently accepted by the Fathers of the Church from the 5th century on.圣亚他那修用了“有史以来处女”来指玛丽,这种观点显然是由从公元5世纪的教堂的神父接受。It was formally established as a doctrine at the church's Lateran Council in 649.它正式成立,在教会的拉特兰安理会649教义。Although the Virgin Birth is a tenet of virtually all Christian churches, modern biblical criticism has questioned the authenticity of the accounts in Matthew and Luke.虽然美属维尔京诞生是一个几乎所有的基督教教堂的宗旨,现代圣经批评质疑在马修和卢克账目的真实性。The doctrine of Mary's perpetual virginity is taught principally by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches.玛丽的永久童贞讲授教义主要由罗马天主教和东正教教堂。

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Marian teachings received considerable impetus at the councils of Ephesus (431) and Chalcedon (451), both of which upheld the title theotokos ("God-bearer," or Mother of God) as descriptive of Mary.玛丽安教义收到的以弗所(431)和迦克墩(451),这两个坚持,作为描述性的标题圣母玛利亚(“上帝旗手”,或上帝之母)议会很大的推动。 The doctrine of Mary's bodily assumption into heaven can be traced to apocryphal documents dating from the 4th century, but this doctrine was not officially formulated and defined for Roman Catholics until 1950 (see Assumption of Mary).玛丽的身体假设到天堂学说可以追溯到4世纪约会猜测的文件,但这一理论没有正式制订和罗马天主教徒的定义,直到1950年(见圣母升天)。 The doctrine of Mary's Immaculate Conception was a matter of dispute throughout the Middle Ages.玛丽的圣母无染原罪教义是整个中世纪争议。In 1854, however, Pope Pius IX declared that Mary was freed from original sin by a special act of grace the moment she was conceived in the womb of Saint Anne. 1854年,但是,教宗比约九宣布玛丽所释放的原罪,她的宽限期是在圣安妮胎时刻特别法案。(Tradition names Saint Anne and Saint Joachim as Mary's parents.)(传统的名字圣安妮和小丽的父母圣乔基姆。)

Pope Pius XII strongly promoted Marian piety during his reign (1939-58).教宗比约十二在位期间大力推广(1939年至58年)玛丽安虔诚。Because Roman Catholic teaching holds that Mary is deserving of the "highest veneration," the church observes 17 Marian festivals each year, 5 of which are major: Immaculate Conception, Dec. 8; Purification, Feb. 2; Annunciation, Mar. 25; Assumption, Aug. 15; and Birth, Sept. 8.由于罗马天主教教学认为,玛丽是值得的“最高崇拜,”教会指出,每年17玛丽安节日,其中5个是主要的:圣母无原罪,12月8日,纯化,2月2日,报喜,3月25日;假设,8月15日和出生,9月8日。 The Rosary contains 50 Ave Marias ("hail Marys"), and devotion to the "immaculate heart" of Mary is popular in some circles.玫瑰经有50个阿夫马里亚斯(“万福玛丽亚”),并奉献给“完美无暇的心脏”玛丽是流行在某些圈子。

Protestant bodies have always reacted strongly against excessive devotion to Mary.新教机构一直反应强烈反对过度奉献给玛丽。In recent years, however, Protestant, Anglican, and Roman Catholic scholars have held discussions in which substantive agreements regarding the place of Mary in Christian theology and practice have been reached.近年来,然而,新教,英国圣公会,罗马天主教学者举行了其中关于玛丽在基督教神学与实践,已达成实质性协议的讨论。 The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) included a chapter on Mary in the Constitution of the Church that emphasizes Mary's complete dependence on her Son.第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965)包括一个关于玛丽在宪法的教会,强调玛丽对她的儿子完全依赖篇章。

Harold W. Rast哈罗德瓦特拉什特

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Brown, Raymond E., The Birth of the Messiah (1977); Brown, Raymond E., et al., eds., Mary in the New Testament (1978); Graef, Hilda C., Mary: A History of Doctrine and Devotion, 2 vols.。布朗,雷蒙德大肠杆菌,弥赛亚的诞生(1977年),布朗,雷蒙德大肠杆菌等合编,玛丽在新约(1978年); Graef,希尔达角,玛丽:。一个理论的历史与敬业,第2卷。(1963-65); McHugh, John, The Mother of Jesus in the New Testament (1975); Miegge, Giovanni, The Virgin Mary: The Roman Catholic Marian Doctrine, trans.(1963-65);休,约翰,在新约中耶稣的母亲(1975年); Miegge,乔万尼,圣母玛利亚:罗马天主教圣母主义,跨。by W. Smith (1955); Ruether, Rosemary R., Mary--The Feminine Face of the Church (1977); Warner, Marina, Alone of All Her Sex: The Myth and the Cult of the Virgin Mary (1976).由W.史密斯(1955年); Ruether,迷迭香河,玛丽 - 的教会(1977)女性的脸,华纳,码头,孤独的她所有的性别:神话与圣母玛利亚(1976)崇拜。


Mary玛丽

General Information一般资料

Introduction简介

Mary, also the Virgin Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, has been venerated by Christians since apostolic times (1st century).玛丽,也圣母玛利亚,耶稣的母亲,一直崇敬的,因为(1世纪)使徒时代的基督徒。The Gospels give only a fragmentary account of Mary's life, mentioning her chiefly in connection with the beginning and the end of Jesus' life.福音书只给了玛丽的生活零碎帐户,提同的开始,也是耶稣的生命就结束了她为主。 Matthew speaks of Mary as Joseph's wife, who was "with child of the Holy Spirit" before they "came together" as husband and wife (Matthew 1:18).马修玛丽约瑟夫的妻子,谁是“圣灵与孩子”说话之前,他们“走到一起”作为丈夫和妻子(马太1:18)。After the birth of Jesus, she was present at the visit of the Magi (Matthew 2:11), fled with Joseph to Egypt (Matthew 2:14), and returned to Nazareth (Matthew 2:23).耶稣诞生后,她在贤士(马太2:11)与约瑟夫逃跑,访问埃及(马太2:14)现在,回到拿撒勒(马太2:23)。Mark simply refers to Jesus as the son of Mary (Mark 6:3).马克仅仅指的是耶稣,玛丽(马可福音6:3)的儿子。Luke's narrative of the nativity includes the angel Gabriel's announcement to Mary foretelling the birth of Jesus (Luke 1:27-38); her visit to her kinswoman Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist, and Mary's hymn, the Magnificat (Luke 1:39-56); and the shepherds' visit to the manger (Luke 2:1-20).路加叙述耶稣诞生的包括天使加布里埃尔宣布玛丽预言)出生的耶稣(路加福音1:27-38,她的访问,她的骨肉之亲伊丽莎白,施洗约翰的母亲,和玛丽的赞歌, Magnificat(路加福音1:39 -56),以及牧羊人访问马槽(路加福音2:1-20)。Luke also tells of Mary's perplexity at finding Jesus in the Temple questioning the teachers when he was 12 years old.卢克还告诉善于发现耶稣在圣殿的教师提问时,他12岁的玛丽的困惑。The Gospel of John contains no infancy narrative, nor does it mention Mary's name; she is referred to as "the mother of Jesus" (John 2:1-5; 19:25-27).在约翰福音中没有婴儿的叙述,也没有提及玛丽的名字,她被称为“耶稣的母亲”(约2:1-5; 19:25-27)来。 According to John, she was present at the first of Jesus' miracles at the wedding feast of Cana and at his death.据约翰,她在耶稣的神迹,在婚宴的迦南第一,在他死的。Mary is also mentioned as being present in the upper room at Olivet with the apostles and with Jesus' brothers before Pentecost (Acts 1:14).玛丽也被提到在科特与使徒和前圣灵降临节(徒1:14)耶稣的兄弟上面的房间中。

The Early Church早期教会

As early as the 2nd century, Christians venerated Mary by calling her Mother of God, a title that primarily stresses the divinity of Jesus.早在2世纪初,基督徒崇敬的神叫她妈妈,一个标题,主要强调了耶稣的神性玛丽。During the controversies of the 4th century concerning the divine and human natures of Jesus, the Greek title theotókos (Mother of God) came to be used for Mary in devotional and theological writing.在上帝)的争议,对有关的神和人的天性的耶稣4世纪,希腊(冠军圣母玛利亚的母亲后来被用于在灵修和神学写作。 Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople (present-day Ýstanbul), contested this usage, insisting that Mary was mother of Christ, not of God.涅斯,君士坦丁堡(今Ýstanbul)族长,这一有争议的使用,坚持认为玛丽的母亲是基督,不是出于神。In 431, the Council of Ephesus condemned Nestorianism and solemnly affirmed that Mary is to be called theotókos, a title that has been used since that time in the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches.在431,谴责安理会的以弗所景教,并郑重申明,玛丽是被称为圣母,一个以来,在东正教和罗马天主教教堂时使用的标题。

Closely related to the title Mother of God is the title Virgin Mary, affirming the virginal conception of Jesus (Luke 1:35).密切相关的标题天主之母圣母玛利亚的标题是,肯定了耶稣(路1:35)处女的概念。Initially, this title stressed the belief that God, not Joseph, was the true father of Jesus.起初,这个称号强调,相信上帝,而不是约瑟,是耶稣真正的父亲。In the Marian devotion that developed in the East in the 4th century, Mary was venerated not only in the conception but also in the birth of Jesus.在玛丽安奉献,在东部发达在4世纪,玛丽崇敬不仅在观念,而且在耶稣的诞生。This conviction was expressed clearly in the 4th century, baptismal creeds of Cyprus, Syria, Palestine, and Armenia.这种信念是明确表示,在4世纪,塞浦路斯,叙利亚,巴勒斯坦和亚美尼亚洗礼信条。The title used was aieiparthenos (ever-virgin), and by the middle of the 7th century the understanding of the title came to include the conviction that Mary remained a virgin for the whole of her life.标题用的是aieiparthenos(不断处女),以及中间的信念7世纪的理解来包括所有权,玛丽仍然是一个处女,她的生活整个的。 The passages in the New Testament referring to the brothers of Jesus (for instance, Mark 6:3, which also mentions sisters; see 1 Corinthians 9:5; Galatians 1:19) have been accordingly explained as references to relatives of Jesus or to children of Joseph by a previous marriage, although there is no historical evidence for this interpretation.在新约经文指的是耶稣的兄弟(例如,马克6:3,其中还提到姐妹见哥林多前书9:5,加拉太书1:19)已据此作为参考解释耶稣的亲属或儿童的约瑟夫由以前的婚姻,虽然没有对这一解释的历史证据。

In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, various Christian writers began to express the belief that, because of her intimate union with God through the Holy Spirit in the conception of Jesus (Luke 1:35), Mary was completely free from any taint of sin.在第二和第三世纪以来,各种基督教作家开始表示相信,因为她的亲密联盟通过圣灵与神同在的耶稣(路1:35)的概念,玛丽是完全不受任何污点自由罪。 In 680 a Roman Council spoke of her as the "blessed, immaculate ever-virgin."在680罗马安理会发言的“祝福,完美无暇的不断处女。”她

In both the Eastern and Western churches, feast days in honor of the events of Mary's life came into existence between the 4th and 7th centuries.无论是在东部和西部教会,在玛丽的生命节日纪念的事件之间生效的第4和7世纪的存在。They celebrate her miraculous conception and her birth, narrated in the apocryphal "Infancy Gospel" of James (September 8); the Annunciation (March 25); her purification in the Temple (February 2); and her death (called the Dormition in the Eastern church) and bodily Assumption into heaven (August 15; see Assumption of the Virgin).他们庆祝她奇迹般的概念,她的诞生,)记述,在未经“婴幼儿的福音”的詹姆斯(9月8日,报喜(3月25日),她的净化庙(2月2日)和她的死亡(称为中的安息东部教会)和身体假设成天堂(8月15日;圣母见假设)。

The Middle Ages中世纪

During the late Middle Ages (13th century to 15th century), devotion to Mary grew dramatically.在中世纪后期(13世纪至15世纪),献身于玛丽大幅增长。One of the principal reasons was the image of Christ that developed in the missionary efforts of the early Middle Ages.的主要理由之一是基督的形象,在中世纪早期的传教努力发展。To the extent that the Goths and other tribes of central and northern Europe were Christian, they remained strongly influenced by Arianism, a teaching that denied the divinity of Christ.在某种程度上,哥特和欧洲的中部和北部其他部落是基督徒,他们仍然强烈影响阿里乌主义,一个教学,否认基督的神性。 In response, preaching and the arts of this period particularly stressed Christ's divinity, as in the Byzantine depictions of Christ as Pantokrator (universal and all-powerful ruler) and in the western images of Christ as the supreme and universal judge.作为回应,说教和这一时期的艺术特别强调基督的神性,如在基督作为Pantokrator(普遍和全能的统治者)和拜占庭描绘基督作为最高法官和普遍的西方形象。 As Christ became an awe-inspiring, judgmental figure, Mary came to be depicted as the one who interceded for sinners.正如基督成为凛然,判断数字,玛丽后来被一个谁就是罪人求情描绘。As the fear of death and the Last Judgment intensified following the Black Plague in the 14th century, Mary was increasingly venerated in popular piety as mediator of the mercy of Christ. Her prayers and pleas were seen as theagency that tempered the stern justice of Christ. Among the popular devotions that came into being at this time were the rosary (a chaplet originally consisting of 150 Hail Marys in imitation of the 150 Psalms in the psalter, later augmented by 15 interspersed Our Fathers as penance for daily sins); the angelus recited at sunrise, noon, and sunset; and litanies (invocations of Mary using such biblical titles as Mystical Rose, Tower of David, and Refuge of Sinners).随着死亡的恐惧和最后的审判后,加紧在14世纪黑死病中,玛丽越来越受欢迎的虔诚崇敬作为调解人的基督耶稣怜悯。 她的祈祷和正义认罪被视为theagency严峻的锻炼。其中这次流行的奉献被认为是念珠来到(一花冠最初玛丽斯组成的150冰雹在增强诗篇15仿制的150所psalter的后期,我们的穿插每天为父亲的罪孽忏悔),是祈祷吟诵在日出,中午,日落;和litanies(玛丽调用使用避难的罪人这样圣经种之多神秘玫瑰,塔的大卫,和)。 Hymns, psalms, and prayers were incorporated into the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin, in imitation of the longer divine office recited or chanted by monks and priests.赞美诗,圣歌,祈祷被纳入圣母小办公室,编入本不再模仿背诵神圣的办公室或僧侣高呼。

Doctrine of Immaculate Conception圣母无原罪学说

The principal theological development concerning Mary in the Middle Ages was the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception.发展有关的主要神学在中世纪玛丽是无原罪的教义。This doctrine, defended and preached by the Franciscan friars under the inspiration of the 13th-century Scottish theologian John Duns Scotus, maintains that Mary was conceived without original sin.这一学说,捍卫和下的13世纪的苏格兰神学家约翰邓司各脱灵感济修士鼓吹,主张玛丽没有原罪怀孕。Dominican teachers and preachers vigorously opposed the doctrine, maintaining that it detracted from Christ's role as universal savior.多米尼加教师和传教士大力反对学说,认为它来自基督作为救世主的角色普遍减损。 Pope Sixtus IV, a Franciscan, defended it, establishing in 1477 a feast of the Immaculate Conception with a proper mass and office to be celebrated on December 8.西斯四,一个方济,维护它,在1477年建立的圣母无原罪以适当的质量和办公室盛宴将于12月8日庆祝。This feast was extended to the whole Western church by Pope Clement XI in 1708.这节日是扩大到整个西方的教皇克莱门特十一教堂于1708年。In 1854 Pope Pius IX issued a solemn decree defining the Immaculate Conception for all Roman Catholics, but the doctrine has not been accepted by Protestants or by the Orthodox churches.1854年,教皇庇护九发表严正法令界定为所有罗马天主教徒圣母无原罪,但该学说并没有受到新教徒或由东正教教堂接受。 In 1950 Pope Pius XII solemnly defined as an article of faith for all Roman Catholics the doctrine of the bodily assumption of Mary into heaven.在1950年教宗碧岳十二庄严地界定为对所有罗马天主教徒的圣母升天身体假设主义信仰的文章。

Shrines神社

Marian shrines and places of pilgrimage are found throughout the world.玛丽安圣地和朝圣的地方是遍布世界各地。At Montserrat in Spain the Black Virgin has been venerated since the 12th century.在蒙特塞拉特西班牙黑圣母一直崇敬自12世纪。The icon of Our Lady of Czêstochowa has been venerated in Poland since the early 14th century.琴斯托霍瓦图标的圣母一直崇敬在波兰14世纪初以来。The picture of Our Lady of Guadalupe commemorates an alleged apparition of Mary to Native American Juan Diego in Mexico in 1531.图片的瓜达卢佩圣母的纪念在1531年的胡安迭戈据称幻影玛丽印第安人在墨西哥。In the 19th century a number of apparitions of Mary were reported that inspired the development of shrines, devotions, and pilgrimages - for instance, in Paris (1830, Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal ); Lourdes (1858, Our Lady of Lourdes ); Knock, in Ireland (1879, Our Lady of Knock ); and Fatima, in Portugal (1917, Our Lady of Fatima ).在19世纪的玛丽人数为幻影报道,鼓舞发展的心血和汗水的圣地,,和朝圣-例如,在巴黎(1830年, 我们的夫人的神奇勋章 );卢尔德(1858年, 露德圣母 );敲,在爱尔兰(1879年, 我们的夫人爆震 )和法蒂玛,葡萄牙(1917年, 我们的法蒂玛圣母 )。


Mary, the Blessed Virgin玛利亚,圣母

Advanced Information先进的信息

Except for the Gospels, the Scriptures make little explicit reference to Mary.除了福音,圣经并没有多少明确提及玛丽。Certain OT prophecies have been thought to refer to her (Gen. 3:15; Jer. 31:22; Mic. 5:2-3; and, most clearly, Isa. 7:14).某些加时赛的预言已被认为是指她的(创3:15;耶31:22。话筒5:2-3。以及最清楚,伊萨7:14。)。The symbolic drama of Rev. 12 has often been similarly interpreted.12个象征性的戏剧牧师经常被同样的解释。Paul mentions Mary specifically once (Gal. 4:4).保罗特别提到玛丽一次(加拉太书4:4)。For anything more, we must inquire of the Gospel writers.还要更多,我们必须询问的福音作家。Luke presents the most detailed portrait.卢克介绍最详细的画像。While Matthew also tells the nativity story, his references to Mary are brief, even though he strongly stresses her virginity (Matt. 1:18-25).虽然马修还讲述了耶稣诞生的故事,他在提到玛丽是短暂的,尽管他极力强调她的贞操(太1:18-25)。Luke, however, vividly describes her encounter with the angel, her visit to Elizabeth, her beautiful "Magnificat," the birth of Jesus, and her trips to Jerusalem with the infant and the twelve-year-old Jesus (Luke 1:26-2:51).卢克,然而,生动地描述了她遇到的天使,她的访问伊丽莎白,她的美丽“尊,”耶稣的诞生,她的旅行,把婴儿送到耶路撒冷和十二岁的耶稣(路加福音1:26 - 2:51)。Mary appears humbly obedient in the face of her great task (Luke 1:38), yet deeply thoughtful and somewhat perplexed as to its significance (Luke 1:29; 2:29, 35, 50-51).玛丽似乎谦虚地顺从了她的伟大任务(路加福音1:38),但深周到,有些困惑,它的意义(路加福音1:29,2:29,35,50-51)的脸。

According to an episode recounted by Matthew, Mark, and Luke, Jesus' mother and his "brothers" stand outside the early circle of disciples (Matt. 12:46-50; Mark 3:19b-21, 31-35; Luke 8:19-21; cf. Luke 11:27-28).据马太,马克,路加,耶稣的母亲和他的讲述一个小插曲“兄弟”的立场外早期的弟子圆(马太福音12:46-50,马可福音3:19的B - 21,31-35;卢克8 :19 - 21;比照路加福音11:27-28)。。Elsewhere Jesus complains that he is not without honor save "among his own kin, and in his own house" (Mark 6:4; cf. Matt. 13:53-58; Luke 4: 16-30).耶稣抱怨说,他在其他地方是没有不受尊敬的拯救“他自己的亲属,并在他自己的房子”(马克6:4;比照马特13:53-58,路加福音4:。。16-30)。 John apparently recounts some misunderstanding between Jesus and Mary at the wedding feast in Cana (John 2:1-12).约翰显然讲述一些误解,耶稣和玛丽之间在在迦南(约翰2:1-12)婚宴。Yet John pictures Mary remaining faithful beside the cross, while Jesus commends her to his "beloved disciple's" care (John 19:25-27).然而,约翰的照片旁边的交叉玛丽其余忠实,而耶稣称赞她自己的“心爱的弟子的”照顾(约19:25-27)。

Finally, Luke lists Mary among the earliest post-Easter Christians (Acts 1:14). Traditionally, Catholics have venerated Mary as entirely sinless and as the most glorious of God's creatures. Feeling that this detracts from the centrality of Christ, Protestants have often neglected her unduly.最后,卢克列出)玛丽是最早后复活节基督徒(徒1:14。 传统上,天主教徒敬仰玛丽完全无罪的基督和最 ​​光荣的上帝的造物。感觉是,这会给中心的,新教徒常常忽略了她过分。Radical biblical criticism in doubting the infancy narratives' historicity often furthered this neglect.自由基怀疑婴儿叙述'历史性圣经批评往往加剧了这种忽视。However, the increasing importance of women's issues has spurred new interests in Mary among both Protestants and Catholics alike.然而,对妇女问题的日益重要促使新教徒和天主教徒之间都都在玛丽新的兴趣。

TN Finger TN的手指
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
RE Brown et al., eds., Mary in the NT; RE Brown, "The Meaning of Modern NT Studies for an Ecumenical Understanding of Mary," in Biblical Reflection on Crises Facing the Church; WJ Cole, "Scripture and the Current Understanding of Mary among American Protestants," Maria in Sacra Scriptura, VI; A. Greeley, The Mary Myth; JG Machen, The Virgin Birth of Christ; J. McHugh, The Mother of Jesus in the NT; HA Oberman, The Virgin Mary in Evangelical Perspective; R. Ruether, Mary: The Feminine Face of the Church. 。稀土布朗等人合编,玛丽在新台币;。稀土布朗在教会所面临危机的思考圣经“对基督教的认识玛丽,这意味着现代新台币研究”,温家宝科尔,“圣经和目前的了解美国新教徒之间的玛丽,“玛丽亚在萨克拉圣经,六;答格里利,玛丽神话; JG麦,维尔京基督诞生的J. McHugh说,在NT母亲耶稣;医管局奥伯曼,圣母玛利亚在福音派观点;河Ruether,玛丽:女性的脸教会。


Mary玛丽

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Mary, Hebrew Miriam.玛丽,希伯来文仪。

(1.) The wife of Joseph, the mother of Jesus, called the "Virgin Mary," though never so designated in Scripture (Matt. 2:11; Acts 1:14).(1。) 的,妻子约瑟,耶稣的母亲被称为“圣母玛利亚”,但从来没有这样指定的经文(太2:11,徒1:14)。Little is known of her personal history.几乎没有人知道她的个人历史。Her genealogy is given in Luke 3.她的家谱是由于在路加福音3。She was of the tribe of Judah and the lineage of David (Ps. 132:11; Luke 1:32).她的犹太部落和宗族的大卫(诗篇132:11;路加福音1:32)。She was connected by marriage with Elisabeth, who was of the lineage of Aaron (Luke 1:36).她是连接与伊丽莎白结婚,谁的亚伦(路加福音1:36)血统。

While she resided at Nazareth with her parents, before she became the wife of Joseph, the angel Gabriel announced to her that she was to be the mother of the promised Messiah (Luke 1:35).虽然她居住在拿撒勒与她的父母,在她成为约瑟夫的妻子,天使加布里埃尔宣布她,她是为了在所承诺的弥赛亚(路1:35)的母亲。 After this she went to visit her cousin Elisabeth, who was living with her husband Zacharias (probably at Juttah, Josh. 15:55; 21:16, in the neighbourhood of Maon), at a considerable distance, about 100 miles, from Nazareth.在此之后,她去看望她表姐伊丽莎白,谁是她的丈夫生活在一起撒迦利亚,在相当大的距离(可能在淤他,乔什15:55。在玛云邻里21:16),约100英里,从拿撒勒。 Immediately on entering the house she was saluted by Elisabeth as the mother of her Lord, and then forthwith gave utterance to her hymn of thanksgiving (Luke 1:46-56; comp. 1 Sam. 2: 1-10).立即进入房子,她赞扬了伊丽莎白为她的主的母亲,然后立即给她赞美的话语,以感恩节(路加福音1:46-56;赛1萨姆2:1-10。。)。

After three months Mary returned to Nazareth to her own home.三个月后玛丽回到拿撒勒到她自己的家。Joseph was supernaturally made aware (Matt. 1: 18-25) of her condition, and took her to his own home.约瑟夫是超自然提出知道(玛特泰1:18-25)对她的病情,并把她接到自己家里。Soon after this the decree of Augustus (Luke 2:1) required that they should proceed to Bethlehem (Micah 5:2), some 80 or 90 miles from Nazareth; and while they were there they found shelter in the inn or khan provided for strangers (Luke 2:6, 7).不久之后,这种奥古斯都(路2:1),要求他们应该着手伯利恒(弥5:2),约80或90英里从拿撒勒法令,以及他们在那里他们发现在旅店或提供庇护的汗陌生人(路加福音2时06分,7)。 But as the inn was crowded, Mary had to retire to a place among the cattle, and there she brought forth her son, who was called Jesus (Matt. 1:21), because he was to save his people from their sins.但是,随着旅店拥挤,玛丽不得不退牛之间的一个地方,在那里,她带来了她的儿子,谁被称为耶稣(太1:21),因为他是为了救他的人从他们的罪孽。

This was followed by the presentation in the temple, the flight into Egypt, and their return in the following year and residence at Nazareth (Matt. 2). There for thirty years Mary, the wife of Joseph the carpenter, resides, filling her own humble sphere, and pondering over the strange things that had happened to her.其次是在寺庙介绍,飞行到埃及,他们的年回报以下和居住在拿撒勒(太2)。 三十年有圣母玛利亚,约瑟夫的妻子的木匠,居住,填充自己谦虚的领域,与思考对她的奇怪的事情发生了。

During these years only one event in the history of Jesus is recorded, viz., his going up to Jerusalem when twelve years of age, and his being found among the doctors in the temple (Luke 2:41-52). 在这些年里只有一个耶稣的历史事件记录,即。,他上耶路撒冷去的时候12年的年龄,他被发现在 2:41-52) 医生在寺庙 (路加福音。Probably also during this period Joseph died, for he is not again mentioned.在此期间也可能约瑟死了,因为他是不会再次提及。

After the commencement of our Lord's public ministry little notice is taken of Mary.之后,我们的上帝的公共事务部通知开始采取小玛丽。She was present at the marriage in Cana.她是在出席在迦南婚姻。A year and a half after this we find her at Capernaum (Matt. 12:46, 48, 49), where Christ uttered the memorable words, "Who is my mother? and who are my brethren? And he stretched forth his hand toward his disciples, and said, Behold my mother and my brethren!"一年之后,我们发现在迦百农(太12:46,48,49),在基督说出了令人难忘的话她的一半,“谁是我的母亲,谁是我的弟兄吗,他伸手向他的门徒说,看哪,我母亲和我的弟兄!“

The next time we find her is at the cross along with her sister Mary, and Mary Magdalene, and Salome, and other women (John 19:26).下一次我们发现她在与她的妹妹一起过玛丽,和马利亚,和莎乐美,和其他妇女(约19:26)。From that hour John took her to his own abode.从那个时刻约翰把她带到自己的住处。She was with the little company in the upper room after the Ascension (Acts 1:14).她与小公司在以后的阿森松岛(使徒1:14)上的空间。From this time she wholly disappears from public notice.从这个时候,她完全消失,从公告。The time and manner of her death are unknown.她的时间和死亡的方式不明。

(2.) Mary Magdalene, ie, Mary of Magdala, a town on the western shore of the Lake of Tiberias.(2)。 马利亚,即抹大拉的玛丽,一个太巴列湖上镇的西部靠岸。She is for the first time noticed in Luke 8:3 as one of the women who "ministered to Christ of their substance."她是“。服侍他们的物质基督”在卢克的女性之一8:3谁首次发现Their motive was that of gratitude for deliverances he had wrought for them.他们的动机是,感谢deliverances他为他们而行。

Out of Mary were cast seven demons.玛丽共投出七个恶魔。Gratitude to her great Deliverer prompted her to become his follower.感谢她的伟大投递促使她成为他的追随者。These women accompanied him also on his last journey to Jerusalem (Matt. 27:55; Mark 15:41; Luke 23:55).这些妇女陪同他也是最后旅程耶路撒冷(太27:55,马可福音15:41,路加福音23:55)。They stood near the cross.他们站在附近的十字架。There Mary remained till all was over, and the body was taken down and laid in Joseph's tomb.玛丽仍然存在,直到一切都结束了,尸体被取下来,并在约瑟夫的坟墓奠定。

Again, in the earliest dawn of the first day of the week she, with Salome and Mary the mother of James (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16:2), came to the sepulchre, bringing with them sweet spices, that they might anoint the body of Jesus.同样,在一周的第一天,她最早的黎明与莎乐美和雅各的母亲马利亚,(28:1;马克16时02分),来到了坟墓,使他们甜香料,他们可能膏耶稣的身体。 They found the sepulchre empty, but saw the "vision of angels" (Matt. 28:5).他们发现坟墓空,但看到了“天使的远景”(太28:5)。 She hastens to tell Peter and John, who were probably living together at this time (John 20:1, 2), and again immediately returns to the sepulchre.她赶忙告诉彼得和约翰,谁在这个很可能是生活在一起的时间(约20:1,2),并再次立即向坟墓的回报。There she lingers thoughtfully, weeping at the door of the tomb.她在那里徘徊沉思,在墓门口哭泣。The risen Lord appears to her, but at first she knows him not.复活的主似乎她,但她知道,他起初不。His utterance of her name "Mary" recalls her to consciousness, and she utters the joyful, reverent cry, "Rabboni."他的话语她的名字“玛丽回忆说:”她的意识,她吐出的喜悦,虔诚的哭泣,“Rabboni。”

She would fain cling to him, but he forbids her, saying, "Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father."她会欣然抱住他,但他禁止她,说:“不要摸我。因为我还没有升上我的父亲”This is the last record regarding Mary of Magdala, who now returned to Jerusalem. The idea that this Mary was "the woman who was a sinner," or that she was unchaste, is altogether groundless.这是最后的记录就抹大拉的玛丽,谁现在回到耶路撒冷。 玛丽的想法,这是“女人谁是罪人”,或者说她是淫荡,是完全没有根据的。

(3.) Mary the sister of Lazarus is brought to our notice in connection with the visits of our Lord to Bethany.(3。) 拉撒路的姐姐玛丽的是带给我们的通知,在伯大尼访问的连接与我们的主。 She is contrasted with her sister Martha, who was "cumbered about many things" while Jesus was their guest, while Mary had chosen "the good part."她与她的妹妹玛莎对比,谁是“忙乱,对很多事情”,而耶稣是他们的客人,而玛丽选择了“良好的一部分。”Her character also appears in connection with the death of her brother (John 11:20,31,33).她的性格也出现在与她的哥哥去世(约翰11:20,31,33)连接。On the occasion of our Lord's last visit to Bethany, Mary brought "a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus" as he reclined at table in the house of one Simon, who had been a leper (Matt.26:6; Mark 14:3; John 12:2,3).在我们的主上次访问到伯大尼之际,玛丽带来了“的斯皮克纳德软膏一斤,非常昂贵,抹耶稣的脚”,因为他在坐席于一体的西门,谁曾是麻风病人(马特家.26:6,马可福音14:3,约翰12:2,3)。 This was an evidence of her overflowing love to the Lord.这是她满溢的爱主的证据。Nothing is known of her subsequent history.没有人知道她以后的历史。It would appear from this act of Mary's, and from the circumstance that they possessed a family vault (11:38), and that a large number of Jews from Jerusalem came to condole with them on the death of Lazarus (11:19), that this family at Bethany belonged to the wealthier class of the people.这样看来,从这个玛丽的行为,并从他们拥有一个家庭的墓穴(11:38)的情况下,而且从耶路撒冷的犹太人大批前来慰问,与他们对拉撒路(11:19)死亡,这家属于在伯大尼人民的富裕阶层。

(4.) Mary the wife of Cleopas is mentioned (John 19:25) as standing at the cross in company with Mary of Magdala and Mary the mother of Jesus.(4)。 玛丽革流巴的妻子提到(约翰19:25)作为站在十字架和玛丽抹大拉的公司与耶稣的母亲玛利亚的。By comparing Matt.通过比较马特。 27:56 and Mark 15:40, we find that this Mary and "Mary the mother of James the little" are one and the same person, and that she was the sister of our Lord's mother. 27:56和马克15:40,我们发现,这个玛丽和“玛丽的母亲詹姆斯小”是同一个人,她是我们的主的母亲的妹妹。She was that "other Mary" who was present with Mary of Magdala at the burial of our Lord (Matt. 27:61; Mark 15:47); and she was one of those who went early in the morning of the first day of the week to anoint the body, and thus became one of the first witnesses of the resurrection (Matt. 28:1; Mark 16: 1; Luke 24:1).她说,“其他玛丽”谁是与抹大拉的玛丽出席葬礼,我们的主(太27:61,马可福音15:47),而她是那种谁去了第一天的早晨一一周膏身体,从而成为第一的复活证人之一(28:1,马可福音16:1;路加福音24:1)。

(5.) Mary the mother of John Mark was one of the earliest of our Lord's disciples. (5)。 马克的母亲玛丽约翰的门徒之一的最早的我们的主。She was the sister of Barnabas (Col. 4:10), and joined with him in disposing of their land and giving the proceeds of the sale into the treasury of the Church (Acts 4:37; 12:12).她是巴拿巴(上校4:10)的妹妹,和他一起参加了处置其土地,并给予入国库的教会(徒4:37,12:12)的销售收入。 Her house in Jerusalem was the common meeting-place for the disciples there.她在耶路撒冷的房子是最常用的会议上对弟子的居所。

(6.) A Christian at Rome who treated Paul with special kindness (Rom. 16:6). (6)。 基督徒在罗马谁处理好意保罗与特殊(罗马书16:6)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


The Blessed Virgin Mary圣母

Catholic Information天主教新闻

The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God.圣母玛利亚是耶稣基督,上帝的母亲的母亲。In general, the theology and history of Mary the Mother of God follow the chronological order of their respective sources, ie the Old Testament, the New Testament, the early Christian and Jewish witnesses.一般来说,神学和历史上的玛丽天主之母遵循各自的来源按时间顺序,即旧约,新约,早期基督教和犹太教的证人。

I. MARY PROPHESIED IN THE OLD TESTAMENT一,玛丽在旧约预言

The Old Testament refers to Our Blessed Lady both in its prophecies and its types or figures.旧约是指我们的祝福夫人在其预言及其类型或数字两种。

Genesis 3:15创世记3:15

The first prophecy referring to Mary is found in the very opening chapters of the Book of Genesis (3:15): "I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed; she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel."第一个预言提及玛丽发现在非常开放的创世记(3:15)章:“我会把你和女人之间,你的仇恨种子,她的种子,她应粉碎你的头,你必在于等待她的脚跟。“ This rendering appears to differ in two respects from the original Hebrew text:这似乎呈现不同的两个从原来的希伯来文方面:

(1) First, the Hebrew text employs the same verb for the two renderings "she shall crush" and "thou shalt lie in wait"; the Septuagint renders the verb both times by terein, to lie in wait; Aquila, Symmachus, the Syriac and the Samaritan translators, interpret the Hebrew verb by expressions which mean to crush, to bruise; the Itala renders the terein employed in the Septuagint by the Latin "servare", to guard; St. Jerome [1] maintains that the Hebrew verb has the meaning of "crushing" or "bruising" rather than of "lying in wait", "guarding". (1)首先,希伯来文采用两个相同的动词翻译中的“她应粉碎”和“等待你要的谎言”;七十使动词terein两次都,在于等待;雕,Symmachus的叙利亚和撒玛利亚的翻译,解释了表达,这意味着粉碎,以挫伤希伯来文动词;的伊泰莱呈现terein受聘于七十由​​拉丁语“servare”,以防范;圣杰罗姆[1]坚持认为,希伯来文动词有“粉碎”或“擦伤”,而不是“埋伏”,“守护”的意思。 Still in his own work, which became the Latin Vulgate, the saint employs the verb "to crush" (conterere) in the first place, and "to lie in wait" (insidiari) in the second.还在他自己的工作,成为拉丁语武加大,圣采用​​了动词“粉碎”摆在首位(conterere)和“在于等待”中的第二个(insidiari)。 Hence the punishment inflicted on the serpent and the serpent's retaliation are expressed by the same verb: but the wound of the serpent is mortal, since it affects his head, while the wound inflicted by the serpent is not mortal, being inflicted on the heel.因此,惩罚造成的蛇和蛇的报复是由相同的动词表示:但毒蛇伤是致命的,因为它影响到他的头上,而由蛇造成的伤口不是致命的,而在脚跟造成的。

(2) The second point of difference between the Hebrew text and our version concerns the agent who is to inflict the mortal wound on the serpent: our version agrees with the present Vulgate text in reading "she" (ipsa) which refers to the woman, while the Hebrew text reads hu' (autos, ipse) which refers to the seed of the woman. (2)之间的希伯来文版本的关注和我们的代理谁是造成致命伤的蛇差第二点:我们的版本与目前在读的“她”(国际专业保安协会)武加大文本同意它指的是女人,而希伯来文读胡锦涛(汽车,ipse),它指的是种子的女子。 According to our version, and the Vulgate reading, the woman herself will win the victory; according to the Hebrew text, she will be victorious through her seed.根据我们的版本,以及拉丁文圣经读,妇女本人将赢得胜利;根据希伯来文,她将通过她的种子胜利。In this sense does the Bull "Ineffabilis" ascribe the victory to Our Blessed Lady.在这个意义上是否公牛“Ineffabilis”赋予了我们的祝福夫人的胜利。The reading "she" (ipsa) is neither an intentional corruption of the original text, nor is it an accidental error; it is rather an explanatory version expressing explicitly the fact of Our Lady's part in the victory over the serpent, which is contained implicitly in the Hebrew original.阅读“她”(国际专业保安协会)既不是原来的案文故意贪污,也不是一个偶然的错误,而更是一个解释性版本表示明确的,我们的夫人在胜利的一部分对蛇,它载隐含的事实在原来的希伯来文。 The strength of the Christian tradition as to Mary's share in this victory may be inferred from the retention of "she" in St. Jerome's version in spite of his acquaintance with the original text and with the reading "he" (ipse) in the old Latin version.的基督教传统,在这场胜利,以玛丽的市场份额的实力可以推断,从“她”在圣杰罗姆在他与原文熟人,尽管版本和阅读“他”(ipse)保留在旧拉丁美洲版本。

As it is quite commonly admitted that the Divine judgment is directed not so much against the serpent as against the originator of sin, the seed of the serpent denotes the followers of the serpent, the "brood of vipers", the "generation of vipers", those whose father is the Devil, the children of evil, imitando, non nascendo (Augustine).因为它是相当普遍承认,神圣的判决是针对蛇不能太过分,反对罪恶的发端,是指种子的蛇的蛇,有“毒蛇的种类”的追随者,“毒蛇一代” ,那些父亲是魔鬼,邪恶,imitando,非nascendo(奥古斯丁)的儿童。[2] One may be tempted to understand the seed of the woman in a similar collective sense, embracing all who are born of God.[2]有人可能会受到诱惑,了解类似的集体意义上的女人的后裔,包括所有谁是神生的。But seed not only may denote a particular person, but has such a meaning usually, if the context allows it.但是,种子不仅可以指一个特定的人,但通常有这样一个意思,如果上下文允许的话。St. Paul (Galatians 3:16) gives this explanation of the word "seed" as it occurs in the patriarchal promises: "To Abraham were the promises made and to his seed. He saith not, and to his seeds, as of many; but as of one, and to his seed, which is Christ".圣保罗(加拉太书3:16)给出这个词的“种子”的解释,因为它发生在重男轻女的诺言:“。亚伯拉罕和他进行了种子的承诺,他说没有,他的种子,因为许多但作为一个和他的种子,这是基督“。 Finally the expression "the woman" in the clause "I will put enmities between thee and the woman" is a literal version of the Hebrew text.最后,在该条文中的表达“的女人”,“我会把你和女人之间的敌意”是希伯来文文字版本。The Hebrew Grammar of Gesenius-Kautzsch [3] establishes the rule: Peculiar to the Hebrew is the use of the article in order to indicate a person or thing, not yet known and not yet to be more clearly described, either as present or as to be taken into account under the contextual conditions.对格泽纽斯-的Kautzsch [3]希伯来文文法建立了规则:奇特的希伯来文是文章的使用,以表明某人或某事,还不知道,还没有更清楚地说明,无论是作为目前或要考虑语境下的条件。 Since our indefinite article serves this purpose, we may translate: "I will put enmities between you and a woman".由于我们的不定冠词服务于这个目的,我们可以翻译:“我会把你和一个女人之间的仇恨。”Hence the prophecy promises a woman, Our Blessed Lady, who will be the enemy of the serpent to a marked degree; besides, the same woman will be victorious over the Devil, at least through her offspring.因此,预言一个女人的承诺,我们的祝福夫人,谁将会是一个显着的程度对蛇的敌人,此外,同一个女人将战胜魔鬼至少通过她的后代。 The completeness of the victory is emphasized by the contextual phrase "earth shall thou eat", which is according to Winckler [4] a common old-oriental expression denoting the deepest humiliation [5].胜利的完整性是强调上下文语“地球应你吃”,这是根据Winckler [4]一个共同的古老东方的表达,意指最深切的耻辱[5]。

Isaias 7:1-17伊萨亚斯7:1-17

The second prophecy referring to Mary is found in Isaias 7:1-17.第二个预言提及玛丽发现伊萨亚7:1-17。Critics have endeavoured to represent this passage as a combination of occurrences and sayings from the life of the prophet written down by an unknown hand [6].批评者一直在努力为代表的发生和谚语从一个不知名的手工书写下来的先知生活结合这篇文章[6]。The credibility of the contents is not necessarily affected by this theory, since prophetic traditions may be recorded by any writer without losing their credibility.信誉的内容不一定是受这一理论,因为传统的预言可能会被记录任何作家没有失去其信誉。But even Duhm considers the theory as an apparent attempt on the part of the critics to find out what the readers are willing to bear patiently; he believes it is a real misfortune for criticism itself that it has found a mere compilation in a passage which so graphically describes the birth-hour of faith.但是,即使Duhm认为,作为对这些批评,找出读者愿意承担一部分,显然是企图耐心理论,他认为这是一个真正不幸的批评本身,它已经发现了这样一个通道,其中只是汇编生动地描述了信仰出生小时。

According to 2 Kings 16:1-4, and 2 Chronicles 27:1-8, Achaz, who began his reign 736 BC, openly professed idolatry, so that God gave him into the hands of the kings of Syria and Israel.据2国王16:1-4,和历代志下27:1-8,Achaz,谁开始了他的统治736年,公开宣称的偶像崇拜,所以,上帝给了到叙利亚和以色列的国王,他手中。 It appears that an alliance had been concluded between Phacee, King of Israel, and Rasin, King of Damascus, for the purpose of opposing a barrier to the Assyrian aggressions.看来,联盟之间已经Phacee,以色列王,和拉津,大马士革国王,结束了反对亚述的障碍侵略的目的。Achaz, who cherished Assyrian proclivities, did not join the coalition; the allies invaded his territory, intending to substitute for Achaz a more subservient ruler, a certain son of Tabeel.阿哈茨,谁珍惜,亚述人倾向不加入联合政府;盟国入侵他的领土,企图为阿哈茨替代更屈从统治者,一个Tabeel一定的儿子。 While Rasin was occupied in reconquering the maritime city Elath, Phacee alone proceeded against Juda, "but they could not prevail".虽然拉津在收复被占领的沿海城市,以拉他,Phacee单独起诉犹大“,但他们不会得逞。”After Elath had fallen, Rasin joined his forces with those of Phacee; "Syria hath rested upon Ephraim", whereupon "his (Achaz') heart was moved, and the heart of his people, as the trees of the woods are moved with the wind".经过以拉他降临,拉津联同Phacee这些,他的部队,“叙利亚赐给以法莲休息”,于是“他(阿哈茨')的心被感动了,他的人的心,因为林中的树被感动风“。 Immediate preparations must be made for a protracted siege, and Achaz is busily engaged near the upper pool from which the city received the greater part of its water supply.立即筹备工作必须作出一个长期的围困,并阿哈茨正忙于附近的上池从该城市收到了其大部分从事供水。Hence the Lord says to Isaias: "Go forth to meet Achaz. . .at the end of the conduit of the upper pool".因此,主要伊萨亚斯说:“勇往直前,迎接亚哈斯在对上池的水沟结束。。。”。The prophet's commission is of an extremely consoling nature: "See thou be quiet; hear not, and let not thy heart be afraid of the two tails of these firebrands".先知的佣金是一个非常安慰的性质:“看你是安静,听不见,别让你的心这些火把两个尾巴害怕”。The scheme of the enemies shall not succeed: "it shall not stand, and this shall not be."该计划的敌人不会成功:“不得立场,这不得。”What is to be the particular fate of the enemies?什么是特定的敌人的命运吗?

Syria will gain nothing, it will remain as it has been in the past: "the head of Syria is Damascus, and the head of Damascus is Rasin".叙利亚将一无所获,它仍将是因为它在过去是:“头的叙利亚大马士革,大马士革的头拉津”。

Ephraim too will remain in the immediate future as it has been hitherto: "the head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria the son of Romelia"; but after sixty-five years it will be destroyed, "within threescore and five years Ephraim shall cease to be a people".埃弗拉伊姆也将继续留在不久的将来,因为它迄今已:“以法莲的首城是撒玛利亚,和撒玛利亚的首领是Romelia的儿子”,但之后六十五年它就会被破坏,六十五年之内“以法莲必不再是一个人“。

Achaz had abandoned the Lord for Moloch, and put his trust in an alliance with Assyria; hence the conditional prophecy concerning Juda, "if you will not believe, you shall not continue".阿哈茨已经放弃了火神主,并把与亚述联盟的信任,因此有条件的关于犹大的预言,“如果你不相信,你将无法继续”。 The test of belief follows immediately: "ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God, either unto the depth of hell or unto the height above".信念的考验紧随其后:“问你一个主你的神标志,无论是献给你们的地狱或以上的高度深度”。Achaz hypocritically answers: "I will not ask, and I will not tempt the Lord", thus refusing to express his belief in God, and preferring his Assyrian policy.阿哈茨假惺惺地回答:“我不会问了,我不会试探主”,因而拒绝来表达他对上帝的信仰,喜欢他的亚述人的政策。The king prefers Assyria to God, and Assyria will come: "the Lord shall bring upon thee and upon thy people, and upon the house of thy father, days that have not come since the time of the separation of Ephraim from Juda with the king of the Assyrians."国王喜欢亚述上帝,和亚述会来:“耶和华必使你和你的后人们,并呼吁你父亲的房子,天还没有来,因为对以法莲分离时间与国王犹大亚述人的。“ The house of David has been grievous not merely to men, but to God also by its unbelief; hence it "shall not continue", and, by an irony of Divine punishment, it will be destroyed by those very men whom it preferred to God.大卫的房子已被严重不仅仅是男人,但它的不信神也,因此,“不得继续”,并得到神的惩罚的讽刺,这将是摧毁了那些人,它倾向于上帝非常男女。

Still the general Messianic promises made to the house of David cannot be frustrated: "The Lord Himself shall give you a sign. Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel. He shall eat butter and honey, that he may know to refuse the evil and to choose the good. For before the child know to refuse the evil, and to choose the good, the land which thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of the face of her two kings."不过一般弥赛亚承诺向大卫的房子不能沮丧:“主自己要给你们一个兆头,看哪处女不得隐瞒,并承担一个儿子,他的名字应称为埃马纽埃尔他必吃奶油与蜂蜜。。 ,他可能知道拒绝邪恶,并选择在这孩子还不晓得弃恶的良好。,并选择好,你所憎恶的应为她的两个国王的脸被抛弃的土地。“Without answering a number of questions connected with the explanation of the prophecy, we must confine ourselves here to the bare proof that the virgin mentioned by the prophet is Mary the Mother of Christ.没有回答了与解释的预言连接的一些问题,我们必须局限于这里光秃秃的证明所提到的先知,圣母玛利亚是基督的母亲。The argument is based on the premises that the prophet's virgin is the mother of Emmanuel, and that Emmanuel is Christ.该论点所依据的前提是先知的处女是灵光母亲,那伊曼纽尔是基督。The relation of the virgin to Emmanuel is clearly expressed in the inspired words; the same indicate also the identity of Emmanuel with the Christ.美属维尔京的关系,以埃马纽埃尔是明确表达了灵感的话;同样也表明了灵光与基督的身份。

The connection of Emmanuel with the extraordinary Divine sign which was to be given to Achaz predisposes one to see in the child more than a common boy.对灵光与寻常的神圣符号连接这是必须考虑到阿哈茨容易使人一看到孩子比普通的男孩。In 8:8, the prophet ascribes to him the ownership of the land of Juda: "the stretching out of his wings shall fill the breadth of thy land, O Emmanuel".在8:8,先知赋予他的土地所有权的犹大:“他的翅膀伸展出来的,你应当填写哪,灵光广度”。In 9:6, the government of the house of David is said to be upon his shoulders, and he is described as being endowed with more than human qualities: "a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, and the government is upon his shoulders, and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, God the Mighty, the Father of the World to Come, and the Prince of Peace".在9:6时,大卫众议院政府被认为是在他的肩上,他被描述为比人的素质更赋:“孩子出生时,我们和一个儿子,是给我们,政府是在他的肩上,他的名字应称为奇妙,策士,全能的上帝,对天下的父亲而来,和平王子“。 Finally, the prophet calls Emmanuel "a rod out of the root of Jesse" endowed with "the spirit of the Lord. . .the spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge and of godliness"; his advent shall be followed by the general signs of the Messianic era, and the remnant of the chosen people shall be again the people of God (11:1-16).最后,先知所说的“耶西的根一杆出”灵光赋有“主的精神。。。智慧和谅解的精神,律师的精神和坚韧不拔的精神和知识虔诚的信徒“,他的到来所应遵循的一般弥赛亚时代的迹象,以及所选择的人的余款,应当再次神(11:1-16)人民。

Whatever obscurity or ambiguity there may be in the prophetic text itself is removed by St. Matthew (1:18-25).无论含糊或模棱两可有可能在预言文字本身就是去除马太(1:18-25)。After narrating the doubt of St. Joseph and the angel's assurance, "that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost", the Evangelist proceeds: "now all this was done that it might be fulfilled which the Lord spoke by the prophet, saying: Behold a virgin shall be with child, and bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel."经过叙述圣若瑟怀疑和天使的保证,“这是在她的圣灵的构想”,所得的传播者:“现在这一切都做,它可能要应验主借先知发言,他说:看哪处女应与儿童,并带来了一个儿子,他们给他起名叫以马内利。“ We need not repeat the exposition of the passage given by Catholic commentators who answer the exceptions raised against the obvious meaning of the Evangelist.我们没有必要重复了谁回答对的传播者明显意义天主教评论家提出的例外情况,通过给予阐述。We may infer from all this that Mary is mentioned in the prophecy of Isaias as mother of Jesus Christ; in the light of St. Matthew's reference to the prophecy, we may add that the prophecy predicted also Mary's virginity untarnished by the conception of the Emmanuel [7].我们可以推断从所有这一切,玛丽是在作为母亲的耶稣基督伊萨亚斯预言中提到,在圣马太提到的预言,我们可以补充说预言预测也玛丽的童贞由灵光概念untarnished [7]。

Micheas 5:2-3Micheas 5:2-3

A third prophecy referring to Our Blessed Lady is contained in Micah 5:2-3: "And thou, Bethlehem, Ephrata, art a little one among the thousands of Juda: out of thee shall be come forth unto me that is to be the ruler in Israel, and his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity. Therefore will he give them up till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth, and the remnant of his brethren shall be converted to the children of Israel."第三个预言提到我们的祝福夫人载于米卡5:2-3:“和你,伯利恒,埃夫拉塔,艺术之间的数以千计的犹大小一:从你那里应站出来告诉我说,是要成为在以色列的统治者,他去了从一开始,从永恒的日子。因此,直到将他的时间给他们,其中她说travaileth必将带来,和他的弟兄们的余款,应当转换为以色列人“。 Though the prophet (about 750-660 BC) was a contemporary of Isaias, his prophetic activity began a little later and ended a little earlier than that of Isaias.虽然先知(约750-660年)是当代的伊萨亚,他的预言活动开始较晚,结束了早一点比伊萨亚斯说。There can be no doubt that the Jews regarded the foregoing prediction as referring to the Messias.不可能有任何疑问,犹太人认为是指弥赛亚上述预测。According to St. Matthew (2:6) the chief priests and scribes, when asked where the Messias was to be born, answered Herod in the words of the prophecy, "And thou Bethlehem the land of Juda. . ."根据圣马太(2:6),祭司长和文士,当被问及是哪里的messias出生,回答的话的预言希律,“和你的犹大地伯利恒。。。” According to St. John (7:42), the Jewish populace gathered at Jerusalem for the celebration of the feast asked the rhetorical question: "Doth not the Scripture say that Christ cometh of the seed of David, and from Bethlehem, the town where David was?"据圣约翰(7:42),犹太民众聚集在耶路撒冷的节日庆典问反问:“你们的先生不圣经说,基督来是大卫的后裔,从伯利恒,该镇在那里大卫?“ The Chaldee paraphrase of Micah 5:2, confirms the same view: "Out of thee shall come forth unto me the Messias, that he may exercise dominion in Israel".弥迦书5:2沙尔的释义,证实了同样的看法:“你那里出来,站出来告诉我的弥赛亚,他可以行使统治以色列。”The very words of the prophecy admit of hardly any other explanation; for "his going forth is from the beginning, from the days of eternity".该预言的每一个字承认的几乎没有任何其他解释;为“他去了,是从一开始,从永恒的日子”。

But how does the prophecy refer to the Virgin Mary?但如何预言指的是圣母玛利亚?Our Blessed Lady is denoted by the phrase, "till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth".我们的祝福夫人记的词组,“到时候,其中她说travaileth必将带来。”It is true that "she that travaileth" has been referred to the Church (St. Jerome, Theodoret), or to the collection of the Gentiles united with Christ (Ribera, Mariana), or again to Babylon (Calmet); but, on the one hand, there is hardly a sufficient connection between any of these events and the promised redeemer, on the other hand, the passage ought to read "till the time wherein she that is barren shall bring forth" if any of these events were referred to by the prophet.这是事实,“她说travaileth”已被提到了教会(圣杰罗姆,Theodoret),或到与基督(里贝拉,马里亚纳群岛),或再次团结起来,巴比伦(卡尔梅特)外邦人的集合,但是,在一方面,几乎没有一间这些事件和所承诺的救赎另一方面,任何充分的联系,通过应改为“到其中的时候,她说是贫瘠必将带来”如果任何这些事件被转介由先知。 Nor can "she that travaileth" be referred to Sion: Sion is spoken of without figure before and after the present passage so that we cannot expect the prophet to lapse suddenly into figurative language.也不能“她说travaileth”被称为锡安:锡安是说话没有数字之前和之后的目前通行,我们不能指望先知成形象化的语言突然失效。 Moreover, the prophecy thus explained would not give a satisfactory sense.此外,预言从而解释不会给一个满意的感觉。The contextual phrases "the ruler in Israel", "his going forth", which in Hebrew implies birth, and "his brethren" denote an individual, not a nation; hence we infer that the bringing forth must refer to the same person.上下文相关的短语“在以色列的统治者”,“他去了”,这意味着在希伯来文的诞生,和“他的兄弟”指个人,而不是一个国家,因此我们推断,李瑞明,必须是指同一个人。 It has been shown that the person of the ruler is the Messias; hence "she that travaileth" must denote the mother of Christ, or Our Blessed Lady.它已经表明,统治者的人是弥赛亚,因此“她说travaileth”必须指基督的,或者我们的祝福夫人的母亲。Thus explained the whole passage becomes clear: the Messias must be born in Bethlehem, an insignificant village in Juda: his family must be reduced to poverty and obscurity before the time of his birth; as this cannot happen if the theocracy remains intact, if David's house continues to flourish, "therefore will he give them up till the time wherein she that travaileth shall bring forth" the Messias.因此,解释了整个通道变得清晰:该messias必须在伯利恒,在犹大微不足道村诞生了:他的家庭必须减少贫困和之前,他出生时默默无闻,因为这可能不会发生,如果在神权保持不变,如果大卫房子继续蓬勃发展,“因此将他给其中的时间,直到她说travaileth必将带来起来”的messias。 [8][8]

Jeremias 31:22赫雷米亚斯31:22

A fourth prophecy referring to Mary is found in Jeremias 31:22; "The Lord has created a new thing upon the earth: A woman shall compass a man".第四个预言提及玛丽发现的赫雷米亚斯31:22,“上帝创造了一个对新事物的地球:一个女人护卫男子。”The text of the prophet Jeremias offers no small difficulties for the scientific interpreter; we shall follow the Vulgate version of the Hebrew original.该文本的先知赫雷米亚斯提供了科学解释不小的困难,我们应当遵循原来的希伯来文拉丁文圣经版本。But even this rendering has been explained in several different ways: Rosenmuller and several conservative Protestant interpreters defend the meaning, "a woman shall protect a man"; but such a motive would hardly induce the men of Israel to return to God.但是,即使这渲染了几种不同的方式解释:Rosenmuller和一些保守的基督教口译保卫的意思,“一个女人应保护人”,但这样的动机就很难引起以色列的男人回归上帝。 The explanation "a woman shall seek a man" hardly agrees with the text; besides, such an inversion of the natural order is presented in Isaias 4:1, as a sign of the greatest calamity.的解释“一个女人应寻求一个男人”很难同文同意;此外,这种反转的自然秩序,提出了在伊萨亚4:1作为最大的灾难迹象。 Ewald's rendering, "a woman shall change into a man", is hardly faithful to the original text.埃瓦尔德的渲染,“一个女人应转变为一个人”,是难以忠实于原文。Other commentators see in the woman a type of the Synagogue or of the Church, in man the type of God, so that they explain the prophecy as meaning, "God will dwell again in the midst of the Synagogue (of the people of Israel)" or "the Church will protect the earth with its valiant men".其他评论家看到女人的犹太教堂或教堂,在人神的类型,让他们解释的意思,“上帝要住在中间的犹太教堂再次(以色列)的人士预言“或”教会将保护其“大地勇士。 But the Hebrew text hardly suggests such a meaning; besides, such an explanation renders the passage tautological: "Israel shall return to its God, for Israel will love its God".但希伯来文几乎表明这样一个意思,再说,这样的解释呈现通过同义反复:“以色列应恢复其神,以色列将喜欢它的上帝”。Some recent writers render the Hebrew original: "God creates a new thing upon the earth: the woman (wife) returns to the man (her husband)".最近的一些作家使原来的希伯来文:“上帝创造了一个对新事物的地球:女方(妻子)的人(她丈夫)的回报。”According to the old law (Deuteronomy 24:1-4; Jeremiah 3:1) the husband could not take back the wife once repudiated by him; but the Lord will do something new by allowing the faithless wife, ie the guilty nation, to return to the friendship of God.根据旧法(申命记24:1-4;耶3:1)丈夫不能收回一旦被他推翻了妻子,但上帝会允许不忠实的妻子新的东西,即罪犯的国家,以回到神的友谊。 This explanation rests upon a conjectural correction of the text; besides, it does not necessarily bear the Messianic meaning which we expect in the passage.这种解释是基于一个文本臆测改正;此外,它不一定承担救世主的意思,我们在过道里的期望。

The Greek Fathers generally follow the Septuagint version, "The Lord has created salvation in a new plantation, men shall go about in safety"; but St. Athanasius twice [9] combines Aquila's version "God has created a new thing in woman" with that of the Septuagint, saying that the new plantation is Jesus Christ, and that the new thing created in woman is the body of the Lord, conceived within the virgin without the co-operation of man.希腊教父普遍遵循的译本的版本,“上帝创造了一个新的种植园的救恩,男人应着手安全”,但两次阿塔纳修[9]​​结合阿奎拉的版本的“上帝创造了一个在女人的新事物”与是的译本,说,新的种植园是耶稣基督,而新事物创造的女人是主的身体,在处女纯洁的共同单兵作战。 St. Jerome too [10] understands the prophetic text of the virgin conceiving the Messias.圣杰罗姆也[10]理解的处女受孕的messias预言文本。This meaning of the passage satisfies the text and the context.这个话的意思满足文本和背景。As the Word Incarnate possessed from the first moment of His conception all His perfections excepting those connected with His bodily development, His mother is rightly said to "compass a man".作为肉身从第一时刻,他的观念他所有完善除拥有与发展有关的他的身体,他的母亲是正确的说是“指南针一个人”。No need to point out that such a condition of a newly conceived child is rightly called "a new thing upon earth".没有必要指出的是,这样一个新的设想是正确的儿童的状况称为“地球上的新事物”。The context of the prophecy describes after a short general introduction (30:1-3) Israel's future freedom and restoration in four stanzas: 30:4-11, 12-22; 30:23; 31:14, 15-26; the first three stanzas end with the hope of the Messianic time.的预言中描述了一个简短的一般性的介绍后(30:1-3)以色列未来的自由和恢复四个节:30:4-11,12-22; 30:23,31:14,15-26; the第一三节结束时的救世主的希望。The fourth stanza, too, must be expected to have a similar ending.第四个段落中,也必须预期也有类似的结局。Moreover, the prophecy of Jeremias, uttered about 589 BC and understood in the sense just explained, agrees with the contemporary Messianic expectations based on Isaias 7:14; 9:6; Micah 5:3.此外,赫雷米亚斯预言,说出约589 BC和刚刚在这个意义上理解的解释,与当代的救世主,与预期的同意伊萨亚斯7:14; 9:6;米卡5:3。According to Jeremias, the mother of Christ is to differ from other mothers in this, that her child, even while within her womb, shall possess all those properties which constitute real manhood [11].据赫雷米亚斯,基督的母亲是不同于其他的母亲在此,她的孩子,即使在她的子宫里,应具备所有这些特性构成真正的男子汉气概[11]。 The Old Testament refers indirectly to Mary in those prophecies which predict the Incarnation of the Word of God.旧约是指间接玛丽在这些预言,其中预测神的化身字。

II.二。OLD TESTAMENT TYPES AND FIGURES OF MARY旧约数字类型和玛丽

In order to be sure of the typical sense, it must be revealed, ie it must come down to us through Scripture or tradition.为了得到肯定的典型意义,它必须显示,即它必须通过经文或下来的传统给我们。Individual pious writers have developed copious analogies between certain data of the Old Testament and corresponding data of the New; however ingenious these developments may be, they do not prove that God really intended to convey the corresponding truths in the inspired text of the Old Testament.虔诚的作家个人发展之间的旧约和相应的某些数据的新数据丰富的类比,但是巧妙的这些事态发展可能是,他们没有证明神真的想传达的旧约文本的相应真理的启发。 On the other hand, it must be kept in mind that not all truths contained in either Scripture or tradition have been explicitly proposed to the faithful as matters of belief by the explicit definition of the Church.另一方面,必须牢记,并非所有在任或传统圣经真理中已明确提出,作为信仰的事项发表明确的定义,教会信徒。

According to the principle "Lex orandi est lex credenti" we must treat at least with reverence the numberless suggestions contained in the official prayers and liturgies of the Church.根据该原则,“法orandi东部法credenti”我们必须把至少与崇敬官方祈祷和教会liturgies所载的建议。 In this sense we must regard many of the titles bestowed on Our Blessed Lady in her litany and in the "Ave maris stella".在这个意义上,我们必须把我们的祝福夫人赐予她一连串和“大道马里斯斯特拉”的称呼,很多。The Antiphons and Responses found in the Offices recited on the various feasts of Our Blessed Lady suggest a number of types of Mary that hardly could have been brought so vividly to the notice of the Church's ministers in any other way.该antiphons和办事处发现的因应,我们的祝福夫人对各种节日背诵推荐的玛丽说,几乎可以带来如此生动地已在任何其他方式教会的部长通知类型。 The third antiphon of Lauds of the Feast of the Circumcision sees in "the bush that was not burnt" (Exodus 3:2) a figure of Mary conceiving her Son without the loss of her virginity.对割礼的盛宴第三antiphon认为,在赞扬“这不是布什烧毁”(出埃及记3:2)的构思,玛丽没有失去她的贞操,她的儿子的数字。 The second antiphon of Lauds of the same Office sees in Gideon's fleece wet with dew while all the ground beside had remained dry (Judges 6:37-38) a type of Mary receiving in her womb the Word Incarnate [12].在同一办公室的第二antiphon的赞扬,同时看到所有的地面旁边一直干(法官6:37-38)一个类型的玛丽在她的子宫里接受肉身[12]在基甸的羊毛露水打湿了。 The Office of the Blessed Virgin applies to Mary many passages concerning the spouse in the Canticle of Canticles [13] and also concerning Wisdom in the Book of Proverbs 8:22-31 [14].该厅适用于圣母玛利亚关于在颂歌[13]颂歌配偶,也涉及在箴言8:22-31 [14]图书智慧许多段落。The application to Mary of a "garden enclosed, a fountain sealed up" mentioned in Canticles 4:12 is only a particular instance of what has been said above.一个“封闭的花园,喷泉查封”的颂歌4:12提到应用玛丽只是上面已经说了什么特别的实例。[15] Besides, Sara, Debbora, Judith, and Esther are variously used as figures of Mary; the ark of the Covenant, over which the presence of God manifested itself, is used as the figure of Mary carrying God Incarnate within her womb. [15]此外,萨拉,Debbora,朱迪思,和Esther是不同的作为玛丽数字;的盟约,在神面前所表现出来的,方舟被看作是在她的子宫玛丽携带神降生图使用。 But especially Eve, the mother of all the living (Genesis 3:20), is considered as a type of Mary who is the mother of all the living in the order of grace [16].但是,尤其是除夕夜,所有的生活(创3:20)的母亲,被认为是一个类型的玛丽是谁所有的恩典[16]为了生活的母亲。

III.三。MARY IN THE GOSPELS玛丽在福音

The reader of the Gospels is at first surprised to find so little about Mary; but this obscurity of Mary in the Gospels has been studied at length by Blessed Peter Canisius [17], Auguste Nicolas [18], Cardinal Newman [19], and Very Rev. J. Spencer Northcote [20].在读者的福音起初惊讶地发现这么小玛丽,但这种默默无闻的福音玛丽一直在研究了长度祝福彼得卡尼修斯[17],奥古斯特尼古拉[18],红衣主教纽曼[19], j的斯宾塞非常牧师罗富国[20]。In the commentary on the "Magnificat", published 1518, even Luther expresses the belief that the Gospels praise Mary sufficiently by calling her (eight times) the Mother of Jesus.在关于“尊”发表评论1518年,连路德表示相信,通过调用福音赞美她(8倍),耶稣的母亲玛利亚充分。In the following paragraphs we shall briefly group together what we know of Our Blessed Lady's life before the birth of her Divine Son, during the hidden life of Our Lord, during His public life and after His resurrection.在下面的段落中,我们将简要地组合在一起我们对我们的祝福夫人的面前,她的神的儿子出生时,我们的主隐藏的生命在他的公共生活,并经过他的复活,生命知道。

Mary's Davidic ancestry玛丽的大卫的祖先

St. Luke (2:4) says that St. Joseph went from Nazareth to Bethlehem to be enrolled, "because he was of the house and family of David".圣卢克(2:4)说,圣若瑟从拿撒勒到伯利恒参加,“因为他的房子和家庭的大卫是”。As if to exclude all doubt concerning the Davidic descent of Mary, the Evangelist (1:32, 69) states that the child born of Mary without the intervention of man shall be given "the throne of David His father", and that the Lord God has "raised up a horn of salvation to us in the house of David his servant".至于如果排除所有怀疑有关玛丽,传播者(1:32,69)表示,出生的玛丽没有人类干预的儿童应给予“大卫的宝座,他的父亲”,而主国davidic后裔上帝“提出了一个角,以拯救我们在他仆人大卫家。” [21] St. Paul too testifies that Jesus Christ "was made to him [God] of the seed of David, according to the flesh" (Romans 1:3).[21]圣保禄也证明,耶稣基督“是向他提出的大卫的后裔[神],根据肉”(罗马书1:3)。If Mary were not of Davidic descent, her Son conceived by the Holy Ghost could not be said to be "of the seed of David".如果玛丽都是大卫后裔没有,她的儿子,由圣灵怀孕不能说是“大卫种子”。Hence commentators tell us that in the text "in the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God. . .to a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David" (Luke 1:26-27); the last clause "of the house of David" does not refer to Joseph, but to the virgin who is the principal person in the narrative; thus we have a direct inspired testimony to Mary's Davidic descent.因此,评论家告诉我们,在文字“,在第六个月,天使加百列从神那里差来信奉一个人的名字是约瑟夫大卫的房子,一个处女。。。”(路加福音1:26-27);最后一句“大卫家”并非指约瑟夫,但对处女谁是主要的叙述人,因此我们有直接的启发证词玛丽的大卫的后裔。 [22][22]

While commentators generally agree that the genealogy found at the beginning of the first Gospel is that of St. Joseph, Annius of Viterbo proposes the opinion, already alluded to by St. Augustine, that St. Luke's genealogy gives the pedigree of Mary.虽然评论普遍认为,家谱在第一福音开始发现的是圣若瑟的维泰博Annius提出的意见,已经提到的圣奥古斯丁,圣路加的家谱给玛丽的系谱。 The text of the third Gospel (3:23) may be explained so as to make Heli the father of Mary: "Jesus. . .being the son (as it was supposed of Joseph) of Heli", or "Jesus. . .being the son of Joseph, as it was supposed, the son of Heli" (Lightfoot, Bengel, etc.), or again "Jesus. . .being as it was supposed the son of Joseph, who was [the son-in-law] of Heli" [23].文本的第三个福音(3:23)可以解释,使直升机的玛丽父亲说:“。。。耶稣的儿子(因为它是所谓的约瑟夫)的合力”,或“耶稣。。。作为约瑟的儿子,因为它是假定,对直升机的儿子“(娜莱,​​本格尔等),或再次”耶稣。。。正因为它是假定的儿子约瑟夫,谁是[儿子合法律的合力]“[23]。 In these explanations the name of Mary is not mentioned explicitly, but it is implied; for Jesus is the Son of Heli through Mary.在这些解释的玛利亚的名字都没有提及明确的,但它是隐含的;为耶稣是通过玛丽的儿子的合力。

Her parents她的父母

Though few commentators adhere to this view of St. Luke's genealogy, the name of Mary's father, Heli, agrees with the name given to Our Lady's father in a tradition founded upon the report of the Protoevangelium of James, an apocryphal Gospel which dates from the end of the second century.虽然一些评论家坚持这一圣查看路加的家谱,就是马利亚的父亲,合力,姓名同意给予后,詹姆斯的,一个未经证实的福音,其中从日期Protoevangelium报告成立了一个传统,我们的夫人的父亲的名字结束的第二个世纪。 According to this document the parents of Mary are Joachim and Anna.根据这一文件的玛丽的父母约阿希姆和安娜。Now, the name Joachim is only a variation of Heli or Eliachim, substituting one Divine name (Yahweh) for the other (Eli, Elohim).现在,约阿希姆的名字只是一个直升机或Eliachim变化,代其他(礼,莹)一个神圣的名字(耶和华)。The tradition as to the parents of Mary, found in the Gospel of James, is reproduced by St. John Damascene [24], St. Gregory of Nyssa [25], St. Germanus of Constantinople [26], pseudo-Epiphanius [27], pseudo-Hilarius [28], and St. Fulbert of Chartres [29].作为对在詹姆斯福音找到了玛利亚,父母的传统,再现了圣约翰大马士革[24],圣格雷戈里的果树[25],圣君士坦丁堡germanus的[26],伪埃皮法尼乌斯[27 ],伪希拉里乌斯[28],圣沙特尔[29] Fulbert。Some of these writers add that the birth of Mary was obtained by the fervent prayers of Joachim and Anna in their advanced age.这些作家的一些补充的是,玛丽的诞生是由约阿希姆和安娜在他们年事已高热切祈祷获得。As Joachim belonged to the royal family of David, so Anna is supposed to have been a descendant of the priestly family of Aaron; thus Christ the Eternal King and Priest sprang from both a royal and priestly family [30].正如约阿希姆属于王室的大卫,所以应该有安娜一直是亚伦祭司家族的后裔,因此基督永恒的国王和祭司,无论从王室和牧师家庭[30]窜出。

The hometown of Mary's parents玛丽的父母家乡

According to Luke 1:26, Mary lived in Nazareth, a city in Galilee, at the time of the Annunciation.据卢克1:26,玛丽住在拿撒勒,在加利利的一座城,在报喜的时间。A certain tradition maintains that she was conceived and born in the same house in which the Word became flesh [31].某传统坚持认为,她是在构思和在同一所房屋,其中道成了肉身[31]出生。Another tradition based on the Gospel of James regards Sephoris as the earliest home of Joachim and Anna, though they are said to have lived later on in Jerusalem, in a house called by St. Sophronius of Jerusalem [32] Probatica.论詹姆士福音的另一个传统看成是最早的约阿希姆和安娜回家Sephoris,但据说他们后来一直生活在耶路撒冷的圣耶路撒冷[32] Probatica Sophronius叫作房子。Probatica, a name probably derived from the sanctuary's nearness to the pond called Probatica or Bethsaida in John 5:2.Probatica可能是由圣殿的贴近派生池塘的名字叫约翰5:2 Probatica或贝斯赛达。It was here that Mary was born.正是在这里,玛丽出生。About a century later, about AD 750, St. John Damascene [33] repeats the statement that Mary was born in the Probatica.大约一个世纪之后,约公元750,圣约翰大马士革[33]重复,玛丽是出生在Probatica声明。

It is said that, as early as in the fifth century the empress Eudoxia built a church over the place where Mary was born, and where her parents lived in their old age.据说,早在五世纪的皇后多迦在那里建立了一个玛丽出生,并在她的父母在他们的晚年生活的地方教会。The present Church of St. Anna stands at a distance of only about 100 Feet from the pool Probatica.目前的圣安娜教堂坐落在一个只有约100英尺的游泳池Probatica距离。In 1889, 18 March, was discovered the crypt which encloses the supposed burying-place of St. Anna.在1889年3月18日,被发现的墓穴的包围应该埋葬,圣安娜的地方。Probably this place was originally a garden in which both Joachim and Anna were laid to rest.也许这个地方原本是其中既有下岗约阿希姆和安娜休息的花园。At their time it was still outside of the city walls, about 400 feet north of the Temple.在他们的时间仍是,大约400英尺的庙以北的城墙外。Another crypt near St. Anna's tomb is the supposed birthplace of the Blessed Virgin; hence it is that in early times the church was called St. Mary of the Nativity [34].另一个近圣安娜的墓墓穴是圣母应该诞生地,因此,它是在早期教堂被称为耶稣诞生[34]圣玛丽。In the Cedron Valley, near the road leading to the Church of the Assumption, is a little sanctuary containing two altars which are said to stand over the burying-places of Sts.在塞德隆山谷,靠近通往教堂路的设想,是一个包含两个小避难所说,这是在埋站,对街拐角的地方祭坛。Joachim and Anna; but these graves belong to the time of the Crusades [35].约阿希姆和安娜,但这些坟墓属于十字军东征[35]时间。In Sephoris too the Crusaders replaced by a large church an ancient sanctuary which stood over the legendary house of Sts.在Sephoris太十字军取而代之的是一个古老的教堂圣殿大超过了街拐角的房子是传奇。Joachim and Anna.约阿希姆和安娜。 After 1788 part of this church was restored by the Franciscan Fathers.1788年后,这座教堂部分恢复了方济神父。

Her Immaculate Conception她那一尘不染的构想

The Immaculate Conception of Our Blessed Lady has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.我们的祝福夫人无原罪已治疗的专题文章。

The birth of Mary出生的玛丽

As to the place of the birth of Our Blessed Lady, there are three different traditions to be considered.至于对我们的祝福夫人出生的地方,有三个不同的传统加以考虑。

First, the event has been placed in Bethlehem.首先,该事件已被放置在伯利恒。This opinion rests on the authority of the following witnesses: it is expressed in a writing entitled "De nativ. S. Mariae" [36] inserted after the works of St. Jerome; it is more or less vaguely supposed by the Pilgrim of Piacenza, erroneously called Antoninus Martyr, who wrote about AD 580 [37]; finally the popes Paul II (1471), Julius II (1507), Leo X (1519), Paul III (1535), Pius IV (1565), Sixtus V (1586), and Innocent XII (1698) in their Bulls concerning the Holy House of Loreto say that the Blessed Virgin was born, educated, and greeted by the angel in the Holy House.这个观点建立在以下证人的权力:它是在题为书面表达圣杰罗姆后插入的作品[36],它是或多或少含糊的朝圣者的皮亚琴察所谓的“德nativ学Mariae。” ,误称为安东尼烈士,谁写公元580 [37]最后,教皇保罗二世(1471),朱利叶斯二世(1507年),里奥十(1519),保三(1535),比约四(1565),西斯五(1586年),和无辜十二(1698)在其有关洛雷托圣家说,圣母出生,受过良好教育,并在圣天使之家迎接公牛队。 But these pontiffs hardly wish to decide an historical question; they merely express the opinion of their respective times.但是,这些教宗几乎要决定一个历史问题,他们只是表达了他们各自的时代意见。

A second tradition placed the birth of Our Blessed Lady in Sephoris, about three miles north of Bethlehem, the Roman Diocaesarea, and the residence of Herod Antipas till late in the life of Our Lord.第二个传统,放置在Sephoris,约三英里处的伯利恒,罗马Diocaesarea,以及居住,直到希律安提帕在我们的主晚年对我们的祝福夫人诞生。 The antiquity of this opinion may be inferred from the fact that under Constantine a church was erected in Sephoris to commemorate the residence of Joachim and Anna in that place [38].古代的这个意见,可从事实推断,根据君士坦丁教堂建于Sephoris纪念那个地方居住的约阿希姆和安娜[38]。St. Epiphanius speaks of this sanctuary [39].圣埃皮法尼乌斯讲的这个圣域[39]。But this merely shows that Our Blessed Lady may have lived in Sephoris for a time with her parents, without forcing us to believe that she had been born there.但是,这只是表明,我们的祝福夫人可能住在Sephoris的时间与她的父母没有强迫我们相信,她已经在那里出生的。

The third tradition, that Mary was born in Jerusalem, is the most probable one.第三个传统,玛丽出生在耶路撒冷,是最有可能的。We have seen that it rests upon the testimony of St. Sophronius, St. John Damascene, and upon the evidence of the recent finds in the Probatica.我们已经看到,它休息后圣Sophronius,圣约翰大马士革的证词,并要求在Probatica最近发现的证据。 The Feast of Our Lady's Nativity was not celebrated in Rome till toward the end of the seventh century; but two sermons found among the writings of St. Andrew of Crete (d. 680) suppose the existence of this feat, and lead one to suspect that it was introduced at an earlier date into some other churches [40].我国女子的圣诞庆祝节日是不是在罗马,直到朝七世纪结束,但在克里特岛的圣安德鲁(草680)说教的著作中发现了两个假设的这一壮举的存在,并导致人们怀疑这是早日引入一些其他的教会[40]。 In 799 the 10th canon of the Synod of Salzburg prescribes four feasts in honour of the Mother of God: the Purification, 2 February; the Annunciation, 25 March; the Assumption, 15 August; the Nativity, 8 September.在799的萨尔茨堡主教10日在佳能规定天主之母的荣誉四个节日:净化,2月2日的报喜,3月25日,圣母升天,8月15日,圣诞,9月8日。

The Presentation of Mary玛丽的演讲

According to Exodus 13:2 and 13:12, all the Hebrew first-born male children had to be presented in the Temple.根据出埃及记13:2和13:12,所有的希伯来文第一个出生的男性儿童,在庙主办。 Such a law would lead pious Jewish parents to observe the same religious rite with regard to other favourite children.这样的法律会导致虔诚的犹太父母遵守关于其他喜爱的儿童同样的宗教仪式。This inclines one to believe that Joachim and Anna presented in the Temple their child, which they had obtained by their long, fervent prayers.这种倾向一至认为,约阿希姆和安娜在庙宇的孩子,因为他们有他们的长,热心地祈祷获得主办。

As to Mary, St. Luke (1:34) tells us that she answered the angel announcing the birth of Jesus Christ: "how shall this be done, because I know not man".至于玛丽,圣卢克(1:34)告诉我们,她回答天使宣布耶稣基督诞生的:“怎​​么会这样做,因为我不知道的人”。These words can hardly be understood, unless we assume that Mary had made a vow of virginity; for, when she spoke them, she was betrothed to St. Joseph.这些话是很难理解的,除非我们认为,玛丽作出了誓言的贞洁,因为,她说这些时,她许配给圣若瑟。[41] The most opportune occasion for such a vow was her presentation in the Temple. [41],这样的誓言的最有利时机是她在寺庙介绍。As some of the Fathers admit that the faculties of St. John the Baptist were prematurely developed by a special intervention of God's power, we may admit a similar grace for the child of Joachim and Anna.由于有些父亲承认,圣施洗约翰的院系被过早由上帝的特殊干预权的发展,我们可能会承认为儿童的约阿希姆和安娜类似的宽限期。 [42][42]

But what has been said does not exceed the certainty of antecedently probable pious conjectures.但已表示不超过确定性可能先行虔诚的猜想。The consideration that Our Lord could not have refused His Blessed Mother any favours which depended merely on His munificence does not exceed the value of an a priori argument.认为我们的主不能拒绝他的圣母任何有利于这取决于他慷慨不超过一个先验参数值仅仅考虑。Certainty in this question must depend on external testimony and the teaching of the Church.在这个问题上的确定性,必须依赖于外部的证词和教学的教会。

Now, the Protoevangelium of James (7-8), and the writing entitled "De nativit. Mariae" (7-8), [43] state that Joachim and Anna, faithful to a vow they had made, presented the child Mary in the Temple when she was three years old; that the child herself mounted the Temple steps, and that she made her vow of virginity on this occasion.现在,詹姆斯的Protoevangelium(7-8),题为“德nativit。Mariae”(7-8)的撰写,[43]国家,约阿希姆和安娜,忠于他们已作出誓言,介绍了孩子玛丽寺当她3岁的孩子自己登上寺的步骤,而这一次,她就她的贞洁的誓言。 St. Gregory of Nyssa [44] and St. Germanus of Constantinople [45] adopt this report; it is also followed by pseudo-Gregory of Nazianzus in his "Christus patiens".圣格雷戈里的果树[44]和圣君士坦丁堡[45] germanus的采用这个报告,它也是由伪格雷戈里在他的“基督patiens”的nazianzus其次。[46] Moreover, the Church celebrates the Feast of the Presentation, though it does not specify at what age the child Mary was presented in the Temple, when she made her vow of virginity, and what were the special natural and supernatural gifts with which God endowed her. [46]此外,教会庆祝节日的介绍,但没有指明在什么年龄玛丽是在寺庙中提出,当她使她立下的处女,什么是特殊的自然和超自然的礼物与该子女上帝赋予她的。 The feast is mentioned for the first time in a document of Manuel Commenus, in 1166; from Constantinople the feast must have been introduced into the western Church, where we find it at the papal court at Avignon in 1371; about a century later, Pope Sixtus IV introduced the Office of the Presentation, and in 1585 Pope Sixtus V extended the Feast of the Presentation to the whole Church.提到这个节日是在一个曼努埃尔Commenus文件中第一次,在1166年,从君士坦丁堡的宴席必须被纳入西方教会,在那里我们发现在1371年罗马教皇在阿维尼翁在法庭上介绍,约一个世纪之后,教皇西斯四介绍了演示厅,1585年教皇西斯五延长了节日的介绍到整个教会。 Her betrothal to Joseph她约瑟夫订婚

The apocryphal writings to which we referred in the last paragraph state that Mary remained in the Temple after her presentation in order to be educated with other Jewish children.该猜测这是我们的著作中提到的最后一段指出,玛丽仍然在她发表在庙,以便与其他犹太儿童的教育。There she enjoyed ecstatic visions and daily visits of the holy angels.在那里,她喜欢欣喜若狂的理想和神圣的​​天使日常访问。

When she was fourteen, the high priest wished to send her home for marriage.当她14,大祭司希望送她回家结婚。Mary reminded him of her vow of virginity, and in his embarrassment the high priest consulted the Lord.玛丽想起了她的童贞发誓他,在他的尴尬大祭司征询主。Then he called all the young men of the family of David, and promised Mary in marriage to him whose rod should sprout and become the resting place of the Holy Ghost in form of a dove.然后,他呼吁所有的年轻人家庭的大卫,并承诺在婚姻玛丽对他的杆应萌芽,成为一种形式的安息之地的圣灵的鸽子。It was Joseph who was privileged in this extraordinary way.这是约瑟夫谁是在这不平凡的方式特权。

We have already seen that St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Germanus of Constantinople, and pseudo-Gregory Nazianzen seem to adopt these legends.我们已经看到,圣格雷戈里的果树,圣germanus的君士坦丁堡,和伪格雷戈里nazianzen似乎通过这些传说。 Besides, the emperor Justinian allowed a basilica to be built on the platform of the former Temple in memory of Our Lady's stay in the sanctuary; the church was called the New St. Mary's so as to distinguish it from the Church of the Nativity.此外,皇帝查士丁尼允许大殿要在平台的前寺建于圣母圣殿留在记忆教堂被称为新圣母,以区别于它的圣诞教堂。It seems to be the modern mosque el-Aksa.这似乎是现代清真寺埃尔-阿克萨。[47][47]

On the other hand, the Church is silent as to Mary's stay in the Temple.另一方面,教会是无声的,以玛丽留在圣殿。St. Ambrose [48], describing Mary's life before the Annunciation, supposes expressly that she lived in the house of her parents.圣刘汉铨[48],描述前报喜玛丽的生活,设明确表示,她在她父母家居住。All the descriptions of the Jewish Temple which can claim any scientific value leave us in ignorance as to any localities in which young girls might have been educated.所有的犹太圣殿的描述,可以要求任何科学价值留​​在无知中,以任何年轻女孩可能已经受过教育的地方我们。Joas's stay in the Temple till the age of seven does not favour the supposition that young girls were educated within the sacred precincts; for Joas was king, and was forced by circumstances to remain in the Temple (cf. 2 Kings 11:3).乔阿斯在圣殿留到七岁的时候不利于年轻女孩在神圣区教育假设;为乔阿斯是国王,并被迫的情况下留在圣殿(参见2国王11:3)。 What 2 Maccabees 3:19, says about "the virgins also that were shut up" does not show that any of them were kept in the Temple buildings.什么2马加比3:19说,关于“处女也被闭嘴”并不表明他们任何人在寺庙建筑保存。If the prophetess Anna is said (Luke 2:37) not to have "departed from the temple, by fastings and prayer serving night and day", we do not suppose that she actually lived in one of he temple rooms.如果预言安娜说(路加福音2:37)不要有“离开了寺庙禁食和祈祷,昼夜服务,”我们不认为她竟然在一个房间,他住寺。 [49] As the house of Joachim and Anna was not far distant from the Temple, we may supposed that the holy child Mary was often allowed to visit the sacred buildings in order to satisfy her devotion. [49]正如约阿希姆和安娜的房子是不是从遥远的圣殿,我们可能会以为玛丽是神圣的孩子往往允许访问的神圣建筑,以满足她的奉献精神。

Jewish maidens were considered marriageable at the age of twelve years and six months, though the actual age of the bride varied with circumstances.犹太少女被认为是在十二岁6个月以下结婚的,虽然与实际情况不同新娘的年龄。The marriage was preceded by the betrothal, after which the bride legally belonged to the bridegroom, though she did not live with him till about a year later, when the marriage used to be celebrated.结婚之前,订婚后,新娘新郎在法律上属于,尽管她没有与他同住,直到大约一年之后,当婚姻来庆贺。All this agrees well with the language of the Evangelists.所有这一切都同意与语言的福音。St. Luke (1:27) calls Mary "a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph"; St. Matthew (1:18) says, when as his mother Mary was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child, of the Holy Ghost". As we know of no brother of Mary, we must suppose that she was an heiress, and was obliged by the law of Numbers 36:6 to marry a member of her tribe. The Law itself prohibited marriage within certain degrees of relationship, so that the marriage of even an heiress was left more or less to choice.圣卢克(1:27)呼吁玛丽“的信奉一个人的名字是约瑟夫处女”;圣马太(1:18)说,当他的母亲玛丽信奉约瑟夫之前,他们走到一起,她被发现孩子,在圣灵“。由于我们不知道的玛丽兄弟,我们必须假设她是一个继承人,并受到法律的号码36:6不得不嫁给她的部落成员。法律本身禁止在一定程度上关系的婚姻,使婚姻甚至继承人留下或多或少的选择。

According to Jewish custom, the union between Joseph and Mary had to be arranged by the parents of St. Joseph.根据犹太习俗,约瑟夫和玛丽之间的联盟,必须由父母安排圣若瑟。One might ask why Mary consented to her betrothal, though she was bound by her vow of virginity.有人可能会问,为什么玛丽同意她的订婚,但她是由她的贞洁誓言的约束。As she had obeyed God's inspiration in making her vow, so she obeyed God's inspiration in becoming the affianced bride of Joseph.由于她在做她发誓服从上帝的灵感,于是她服从成为约瑟的未婚妻了上帝的启示。Besides, it would have been singular among the Jews to refuse betrothal or marriage; for all the Jewish maidens aspired after marriage as the accomplishment of a natural duty.此外,这本来是奇异的犹太人拒绝订婚或结婚;为所有犹太姑娘后,作为一种天然的责任成就婚姻渴望。Mary trusted the Divine guidance implicitly, and thus was certain that her vow would be kept even in her married state.玛丽相信神的指导含蓄,从而肯定,她发誓将保持甚至在她结婚的状态。

The Annunciation报喜

The Annunciation has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.报喜已治疗的专题文章。

The Visitation探视

According to Luke 1:36, the angel Gabriel told Mary at the time of the annunciation, "behold, thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age, and this is the sixth month with her that was called barren".据卢克1:36,天使加布里埃尔告诉在玛利亚报喜时,“看哪,你的表姐伊丽莎白,她还怀了上帝在她年老的儿子,这是6个月的她,被称为不毛之地” 。Without doubting the truth of the angel's words, Mary determined at once to add to the pleasure of her pious relative.如果没有怀疑的天使的话的真理,玛丽决定立即添加到了她的虔诚相对快乐。[50] Hence the Evangelist continues (1:39): "And Mary, rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. And she entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Elizabeth." [50]因此,传播者继续(39分):“玛丽,在那些日子里上升,走进山国急忙到一个城市,她的犹大到451家进入,并赞扬伊丽莎白。。”Though Mary must have told Joseph of her intended visit, it is hard to determine whether he accompanied her; if the time of the journey happened to coincide with one of the festal seasons at which the Israelites had to go to the Temple, there would be little difficulty about companionship.虽然玛丽必须告诉约瑟夫,她打算访问,这是很难确定他是否陪同她,如果发生的行车时间,以配合在其中的以色列人不得不去庙节日季节之一,将有关于友谊的小困难。 The place of Elizabeth's home has been variously located by different writers: it has been placed in Machaerus, over ten miles east of the Dead Sea, or in Hebron, or again in the ancient sacerdotal city of Jutta, about seven miles south of Hebron, or finally in Ain-Karim, the traditional St. John-in-the Mountain, nearly four miles west of Jerusalem.伊丽莎白的家的地方已经不同程度位于不同的作家:它已被安置在Machaerus,十英里以东的死海,在希伯伦,或再次在古老的尤塔sacerdotal城市或者,约七英里以南的希伯伦,或最后在Ain -卡里姆,传统的圣约翰合山,近耶路撒冷以西四英里。[51] But the first three places possess no traditional memorial of the birth or life of St. John; besides, Machaerus was not situated in the mountains of Juda; Hebron and Jutta belonged after the Babylonian captivity to Idumea, while Ain-Karim lies in the "hill country" [52] mentioned in the inspired text of St. Luke. [51]但是,前三名有没有对出生或生活的圣约翰传统纪念馆;此外,Machaerus不是在位于山区的犹大;希伯伦和尤塔后,属于巴比伦被掳到Idumea,而艾因,卡里姆谎言在“山国”的启发,在文圣路加提到的[52]。

After her journey of about thirty hours, Mary "entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Elizabeth" (Luke 1:40).之后,她约三十个小时的旅程,玛丽“进入451家,并赞扬伊丽莎白”(路1:40)。 According to tradition, Elizabeth lived at the time of the visitation not in her city home, but in her villa, about ten minutes distant from the city; formerly this place was marked by an upper and lower church.按照传统,伊丽莎白住在探视时间不是在她的城市家庭,但在她的别墅,约10分钟从遥远的城市,以前这个地方是由上,下丘奇标记。 In 1861 the present small Church of the Visitation was erected on the ancient foundations.在1861年本探望小教堂是建于古代的基础。

"And it came to pass that, when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb."“它来传递,当伊丽莎白一听马利亚问安,所婴儿一跃在她的子宫里。”It was at this moment that God fulfilled the promise made by the angel to Zachary (Luke 1:15), "and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb"; in other words, the infant in Elizabeth's womb was cleansed from the stain of original sin.正是在这个时刻,上帝完成了天使所作的承诺扎卡里(路加福音1:15),“他应充满圣灵,甚至从他母亲的子宫”,换言之,在伊丽莎白的子宫里的婴儿就洁净了从原罪污点。 The fullness of the Holy Ghost in the infant overflowed, as it were, into the soul of his mother: "and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost" (Luke 1:41).该婴儿在丰满的圣灵满溢,因为它被纳入了他母亲的灵魂:“伊丽莎白充满了圣灵”(路加福音1:41)。Thus both child and mother were sanctified by the presence of Mary and the Word Incarnate [53]; filled as she was with the Holy Ghost, Elizabeth "cried out with a loud voice, and said: Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold, as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord" (Luke 1:42-45).因此,这两个孩子和母亲是神圣的存在,玛丽和Word降生[53];填补她与圣灵,伊丽莎白“大声的声音出来了,说:你是有福的妇女,并祝福是在你的子宫的果实。以及在何时是这样对我,那是我主的母到我这里来?因为看啊,只要你问安的​​声音在我耳边响起,我的子宫里的婴儿就欢喜跳动。与祝福是那你的信心,因为这些东西应完成了交谈给你的上帝“(路1:42-45)。 Leaving to commentators the full explanation of the preceding passage, we draw attention only to two points:留给评论员的前通过详尽的解释,我们提请大家注意只有两点:

Elizabeth begins her greeting with the words with which the angel had finished his salutation, thus showing that both spoke in the same Holy Spirit; Elizabeth is the first to call Mary by her most honourable title "Mother of God".伊丽莎白开始与她的问候与该天使完成了他的称呼,从而表明,无论是在同一的圣灵;伊丽莎白是第一个打电话给她最尊敬的标题是“上帝之母”玛丽。

Mary's answer is the canticle of praise commonly called "Magnificat" from the first word of its Latin text; the "Magnificat" has been treated in a SEPARATE ARTICLE.玛丽的回答是俗称自其拉丁文字的第一个字“尊”赞美颂歌;的“Magnificat”已在另文处理。

The Evangelist closes his account of the Visitation with the words: "And Mary abode with her about three months; and she returned to her own house" (Luke 1:56).传播者将关闭与探望他的帐户的话:“她和玛丽同住三个月左右,而她回到她自己的房子”(路加福音1:56)。Many see in this brief statement of the third gospel an implied hint that Mary remained in the house of Zachary till the birth of John the Baptist, while others deny such an implication.许多人认为,在这个第三个福音暗示简短的声明暗示,玛丽的扎卡里直到施洗约翰出生的房子依然存在,而另一些人否认这样一个含义。 As the Feast of the Visitation was placed by the 43rd canon of the Council of Basle (AD 1441) on 2 July, the day following the Octave of the Feast of St. John Baptist, it has been inferred that Mary may have remained with Elizabeth until after the child's circumcision; but there is no further proof for this supposition.作为探望节是由理事会的巴塞尔(公元1441)7月2日,第43天之后,佳能放置的圣施洗约翰节八度,已推断,玛丽伊丽莎白仍可能有直到孩子的割礼,但没有进一步证明这一假设。 Though the visitation is so accurately described in the third Gospel, its feast does not appear to have been kept till the thirteenth century, when it was introduced through the influence of the Franciscans; in 1389 it was officially instituted by Urban VI.虽然探视是如此准确地描述在第三个福音,它的盛宴似乎不是已经到了十三世纪,当它是通过不断引进济的影响,在1389年它被正式提起市区六。

Mary's pregnancy becomes known to Joseph玛丽怀孕成为众所周知的约瑟夫

After her return from Elizabeth, Mary "was found with child, of the Holy Ghost" (Matthew 1:18).之后,她从伊丽莎白回来,玛丽“被发现的孩子,在圣灵”(马太1:18)。As among the Jews, betrothal was a real marriage, the use of marriage after the time of espousals presented nothing unusual among them.由于是犹太人,订婚是一个真正的婚姻,婚姻的介绍后,它们之间没有什么不寻常的婚筵的使用时间。 Hence Mary's pregnancy could not astonish anyone except St. Joseph.因此,玛丽怀孕不能擎着圣若瑟的人除外。As he did not know the mystery of the Incarnation, the situation must have been extremely painful both to him and to Mary.由于他不知道的神秘的化身,这种情况必须是极其痛苦的对他和玛丽。The Evangelist says: "Whereupon Joseph her husband being a just man, and not willing publicly to expose her, was minded to put her away privately" (Matthew 1:19).传道者说:“于是他丈夫约瑟是个义人,不愿意公开暴露她,有意把她带走私人”(马太1:19)。Mary left the solution of the difficulty to God, and God informed the perplexed spouse in His own time of the true condition of Mary.玛丽离开了困难解决上帝,上帝告知在他的真实情况的玛丽自己的时间困惑配偶。While Joseph "thought on these things, behold the angel of the Lord appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, son of David, fear not to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus. For He shall save His people from their sins" (Matthew 1:20-21).虽然约瑟夫“这事的思想,看哪,有主的使者出现在他睡觉,他说:约瑟,大卫的儿子,不要怕,只管娶过你的妻子马利亚,因为这是在她怀孕的圣洁鬼。她将要生一个儿子,你要给他起名叫耶稣。因为他必救从他们的罪孽“(马太1:20-21)他的人。

Not long after this revelation, Joseph concluded the ritual marriage contract with Mary.这个启示后不久,约瑟夫与玛丽仪式结束婚约。The Gospel simply says: "Joseph rising up from sleep did as the angel of the Lord had commanded him, and took unto him his wife" (Matthew 1:24).福音只是说:“约瑟夫崛起从睡眠也作为天使的上帝已命令他,并告诉他的妻子”(马太1:24)。While it is certain that between the betrothal and the marriage at least three months must have elapsed, during which Mary stayed with Elizabeth, it is impossible to determine the exact length of time between the two ceremonies.虽然可以肯定的是订婚和之间,至少要有三个月过去了婚姻,在此期间,玛丽伊丽莎白留下来,这是无法确定两者之间的确切仪式的时间长度。 We do not know how long after the betrothal the angel announced to Mary the mystery of the Incarnation, nor do we know how long the doubt of Joseph lasted, before he was enlightened by the visit of the angel.我们不知道多久订婚后宣布的天使玛丽的神秘的化身,我们也不知道多久,持续了约瑟夫怀疑之前,他是由开明的天使访问。 From the age at which Hebrew maidens became marriageable, it is possible that Mary gave birth to her Son when she was about thirteen or fourteen years of age.从年龄,希伯来文姑娘成了婚,有可能是玛丽生下了她的儿子时,她约十三,十四岁。No historical document tells us how old she actually was at the time of the Nativity.没有历史文件告诉我们如何岁,她实际上是在耶稣诞生的时间。

The journey to Bethlehem伯利恒的旅程

St. Luke (2:1-5) explains how Joseph and Mary journeyed from Nazareth to Bethlehem in obedience to a decree of Caesar Augustus which prescribed a general enrolment.圣卢克(2:1-5)解释了如何约瑟夫和玛丽journeyed从拿撒勒服从的法令,奥古斯都恺撒所规定的一般入学伯利恒。 The questions connected with this decree have been considered in the article BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY.这项法令连接的问题已经在文章中认为圣经年表。There are various reasons why Mary should have accompanied Joseph on this journey; she may not wished to lose Joseph's protection during the critical time of her pregnancy, or she may have followed a special Divine inspiration impelling her to go in order to fulfil the prophecies concerning her Divine Son, or again she may have been compelled to go by the civil law either as an heiress or to settle the personal tax payable by women over twelve years of age.还有,为什么玛丽要伴随这漫长的旅程约瑟夫种种原因,她可能不希望失去在她怀孕的关键时刻,约瑟夫的保护,否则她可能遵循一个特别神圣的灵感促使她为了去实现的预言有关她的神的儿子,或再次她可能被迫去的民法无论是作为继承人或解决妇女的个人应纳税额超过十二岁。 [54][54]

As the enrolment had brought a multitude of strangers to Bethlehem, Mary and Joseph found no room in the caravansary and had to take lodging in a grotto which served as a shelter for animals.由于入学率已经带来了众多的陌生人到伯利恒,玛丽和约瑟夫没有发现在队商旅馆房间,并参加一个洞穴,它作为一个动物庇护所住宿服务。 [55][55]

Mary gives birth to Our Lord玛丽生下我们的主

"And it came to pass, that when they were there, her days were accomplished, that she should be delivered" (Luke 2:6); this language leaves it uncertain whether the birth of Our Lord took place immediately after Joseph and Mary had taken lodging in the grotto, or several days later. “它来传递,当他们在那里,她的天完成,她应交付”(路加福音2:6),这语言叶子无法确定我们的主出生后立即把约瑟夫和玛丽的地方采取住宿在洞穴,或几天后。 What is said about the shepherds "keeping the night watches over their flock" (Luke 2:8) shows that Christ was born in the night time.是什么样的牧羊人说:“保持晚手表超过他们的羊群”(路加福音2:8)显示,基督是在夜间出生。

After bringing forth her Son, Mary "wrapped Him up in swaddling clothes, and laid Him in a manger" (Luke 2:7), a sign that she did not suffer from the pain and weakness of childbirth.之后带来了她的儿子,玛丽“他包裹在襁褓,奠定他在马槽里”(路2:7),这表明她没有遭受的痛苦和分娩的弱点。 This inference agrees with the teaching of some of the principal Fathers and theologians: St. Ambrose [56], St. Gregory of Nyssa [57], St. John Damascene [58], the author of Christus patiens [59], St. Thomas [60], etc. It was not becoming that the mother of God should be subject to the punishment pronounced in Genesis 3:16, against Eve and her sinful daughters.这一推断与各主要神父和神学家,一些教学同意:圣刘汉铨[56],圣格雷戈里的果树[57],圣约翰大马士革[58],在基督patiens作者[59],圣托马斯[60]等,这是不成为神的母亲应该在创世记3:16受惩处侵害应受宣判有罪的夏娃和她的女儿。 Shortly after the birth of the child, the shepherds, obedient to the angelic invitation, arrived in the grotto, "and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger" (Luke 2:16).不久后,孩子的诞生,牧羊人,听话的天使般的邀请,来到石窟“,他们找到了玛利亚和约瑟夫,婴儿躺在马槽”(路2:16)。 We may suppose that the shepherds spread the glad tidings they had received during the night among their friends in Bethlehem, and that the Holy Family was received by one of its pious inhabitants into more suitable lodgings.我们可以假设牧羊人传播了它们在伯利恒之间在晚上收到朋友们报喜,而圣家是由虔诚的居民之一,其接收到更合适的住处。

The Circumcision of Our Lord我们的主包皮环切

"And after eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, his name was called Jesus" (Luke 2:21).“并在8天内完成了,这孩子应该接受割礼,他的名字叫耶稣”(路加福音2:21)。 The rite of circumcision was performed either in the synagogue or in the home of the Child; it is impossible to determine where Our Lord's Circumcision took place.割礼的仪式进行无论是在犹太教堂或在家里的儿童,这是不可能的,以确定我们的主的割礼发生。At any rate, His Blessed Mother must have been present at the ceremony.无论如何,他的圣母必须已在签字仪式。

The Presentation演示文稿

According to the law of Leviticus 12:2-8, the Jewish mother of a male child had to present herself forty days after his birth for legal purification; according to Exodus 13:2, and Numbers 18:15, the first-born son had to be presented on the same occasion.根据利未记12:2-8法律,一个犹太男孩的母亲提出了自己的法律净化后,他的出生四十天根据出埃及记13:2,与数字18:15,第一个出生的儿子必须在同一场合介绍。 Whatever reasons Mary and the Infant might have for claiming an exemption, they complied with the law.不管原因玛丽和婴幼儿可能有声称的豁免,他们遵守法律。But, instead of offering a lamb, they presented the sacrifice of the poor, consisting of a pair of turtle-doves or two young pigeons.但是,而不是提供羔羊,他们提出了牺牲的穷人,一个海龟的鸽子或两只雏鸽对组成。In 2 Corinthians 8:9, St. Paul informs the Corinthians that Jesus Christ "being rich. . .became poor, for your sakes, that through his poverty you might be rich".在哥林多后书8:9,圣保罗通知科林蒂安耶稣基督“致富。。。成了贫穷,为你们的缘故,即通过他的贫穷,你可以成为富足。” Even more acceptable to God than Mary's poverty was the readiness with which she surrendered her Divine Son to the good pleasure of His Heavenly Father.更可以接受的上帝,玛丽的贫困是愿意与她交出了她的神的儿子,他的天父的美意。

After the ceremonial rites had been complied with, holy Simeon took the Child in his arms, and thanked God for the fulfilment of his promises; he drew attention to the universality of the salvation that was to come through Messianic redemption "prepared before the face of all peoples: a light to the revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory of thy people Israel" (Luke 2:31 sq.).仪式结束后仪式得到遵守,圣西蒙率先在他的怀里的孩子,并感谢上帝,他履行承诺,他提请注意的救恩的普遍性,那就是让弥赛亚赎回通过前脸的准备“所有人民:一到启示外邦人的光,你民以色列“(路加福音2:31平方米)的荣耀。 Mary and Joseph now began to know their Divine Child more fully; they "were wondering at those things which were spoken concerning him" (Luke 2:33).玛丽和约瑟夫现在开始知道自己神圣的儿童更充分,他们(路加福音2:33)“等这些事情,讲了关于他想知道”。As if to prepare Our Blessed Mother for the mystery of the cross, holy Simeon said to her: "Behold this child is set for the fall, and for the resurrection of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be contradicted. And thy own soul a sword shall pierce, that, out of many hearts, thoughts may be revealed" (Luke 2:34-35).好像是为了准备在十字架上,我们的祝福圣西蒙神秘母亲对她说:“看,这孩子是为秋季,并为在以色列的许多复活,并为这些矛盾,应与你的签名。自己的灵魂被刀皮尔斯说,在许多人心,思想可能会发现“(路加福音2:34-35)。 Mary had suffered her first great sorrow at the time when Joseph was hesitating about taking her for his wife; she experienced her second great sorrow when she heard the words of holy Simeon.玛丽遭受的时候约瑟夫是采取他的妻子她犹豫她的第一个极大的悲痛中,她经历了她的第二个伟大的悲伤,当她听到圣西缅的话。

Though the incident of the prophetess Anna had a more general bearing, for she "spoke of him (the Child) to all that looked for the redemption of Israel" (Luke 2:38), it must have added greatly to the wonder of Joseph and Mary.虽然在先知安娜事件有一个更广泛的影响,因为她“对他(孩子),看起来所有发言的赎回以色列”(路加福音2:38),它必须大大增加了奇迹的约瑟夫和玛丽。 The Evangelist's concluding remark, "after they had performed all things according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their city Nazareth" (Luke 2:39), has been variously interpreted by commentators; as to the order of events, see the article CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF JESUS CHRIST.福音的结束语,“之后他们一切的事,按照上主的法律,就回加利利,到自己的城市拿撒勒”(路加福音2:39),已不同的评论家解释;至于事件的顺序,看到耶稣基督的生命文章年表。

The visit of the Magi在访问的贤士

After the Presentation, the Holy Family either returned to Bethlehem directly, or went first to Nazareth, and then moved into the city of David.演讲结束后,罗马教廷家庭要么回到伯利恒直接或首先去了拿撒勒,然后进了大卫城感动。At any rate, after the "wise men from the east" had followed the Divine guidance to Bethlehem, "entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they adored him; and opening their treasures, they offered him gifts; gold, frankincense, and myrrh" (Matthew 2:11).无论如何,在“来自东方的智者”遵循神的指导伯利恒,“进了屋子进入,他们发现了他的母亲玛利亚的孩子,跌倒,他们崇拜他,并开放自己的宝藏,他们提供的他的礼物,黄金,乳香和没药“(马太2:11)。 The Evangelist does not mention Joseph; not that he was not present, but because Mary occupies the principal place near the Child.没有提到的传播者约瑟并不是说他不在场,但因为玛丽占据附近的儿童主要场所。How Mary and Joseph disposed of the presents offered by their wealthy visitors has not been told us by the Evangelists.如何玛丽和约瑟夫富有的游客提供其尚未出售的礼物告诉我们的福音。

The flight to Egypt飞行到埃及

Soon after the departure of the wise men Joseph received the message from the angel of the Lord to fly into Egypt with the Child and His mother on account of the evil designs of Herod; the holy man's ready obedience is briefly described by the Evangelist in the words: "who arose, and took the child and his mother by night, and retired into Egypt" (Matthew 2:14).不久后,约瑟夫收到了主天使的信息,进入埃及飞翔了孩子和他的希律王的邪恶设计帐户mother智者出发;神圣的人准备好服从是简略的传播者描述的话:“谁起来,夜间带着小孩子和他母亲往埃及退休”(马太2:14)。 Persecuted Jews had ever sought a refuge in Egypt (cf. 1 Kings 11:40; 2 Kings 25:26); about the time of Christ Jewish colonists were especially numerous in the land of the Nile [61]; according to Philo [62] they numbered at least a million.迫害犹太人曾经寻求在埃及避难(参见1国王11:40 2国王25:26)约基督的犹太殖民者时间分别为,尤其是在尼罗河[61]土地很多,据斐罗[62 ]他们的人数至少一万元。In Leontopolis, in the district of Heliopolis, the Jews had a temple (160 BC-AD 73) which rivalled in splendour the temple in Jerusalem.在Leontopolis,在赫利奥波利斯区,犹太人有一个寺庙(公元前160至公元73),它在耶路撒冷不亚于在辉煌的寺庙。 [63] The Holy Family might therefore expect to find in Egypt a certain amount of help and protection. [63]神圣家族可能因此期望在埃及发现的帮助和一定程度的保护。

On the other hand, it required a journey of at least ten days from Bethlehem to reach the nearest habitable districts of Egypt.另一方面,它需要从伯利恒的旅程到达埃及最近居住区至少10天。We do not know by what road the Holy Family effected its flight; they may have followed the ordinary road through Hebron; or they may have gone by way of Eleutheropolis and Gaza, or again they may have passed west of Jerusalem towards the great military road of Joppe.我们不知道通过什么道路的神圣家族影响其飞行,他们可能遵循一般通过希伯伦道路;或他们可能已经通过Eleutheropolis和加沙一起走了,或者他们可能已经度过了对伟大的军事西路耶路撒冷作者:若佩。

There is hardly any historical document which will assist us in determining where the Holy Family lived in Egypt, nor do we know how long the enforced exile lasted.几乎没有任何历史文件,将有助于确定我们在那里的神圣家族居住在埃及,我们也不知道多久强迫流亡之久。[64][64]

When Joseph received from the angel the news of Herod's death and the command to return into the land of Israel, he "arose, and took the child and his mother, and came into the land of Israel" (Matthew 2:21).当约瑟夫从天使的希律王去世的消息和命令返回到以色列的土地获得,他“就站起来,带着孩子和他母亲带到以色列地去”(太2:21)。 The news that Archelaus ruled in Judea prevented Joseph from settling in Bethlehem, as had been his intention; "warned in sleep [by the angel, he] retired into the quarters of Galilee. And coming he dwelt in a city called Nazareth" (Matthew 2:22-23).有消息称阿基劳斯在朱迪亚阻止约瑟夫在伯利恒解决作出裁决,作为曾经是他的意图,“在睡眠中警告说[由天使,他]退到加利利的宿舍和未来,他在一个叫拿撒勒的城市居住。”(马太2:22-23)。 In all these details Mary simply followed the guidance of Joseph, who in his turn received the Divine manifestations as head of the Holy Family.在所有这些细节玛丽只不过是听从了约瑟夫,谁在他又收到了​​神圣的圣家头表现指导。There is no need to point out the intense sorrow which Mary suffered on account of the early persecution of the Child.没有必要指出其中玛丽的强烈悲痛对儿童早期遭受迫害的帐户。

The Holy Family in Nazareth神圣家族在拿撒勒

The life of the Holy Family in Nazareth was that of the ordinary poor tradesman.在拿撒勒的圣家庭生活是贫困的普通商人。According to Matthew 13:55, the townsfolk asked "Is not this the carpenter's son?"; the question, as expressed in the second Gospel (Mark 6:3), shows a slight variation, "Is not this the carpenter?"据马修13:55时,乡亲问:“难道这不是木匠的儿子吗?”,问题,如第二个福音(马可福音6:3),显示有轻微变化,“难道这不是木匠?” While Joseph gained the livelihood for the Holy Family by his daily work, Mary attended to the various duties of housekeeper.虽然约瑟夫获得了他的日常工作​​生活的神圣家族,玛丽参加的管家的各项职责。St. Luke (2:40) briefly says of Jesus: "And the child grew, and waxed strong, full of wisdom; and the grace of God was in him".圣卢克(2:40)简要地说,耶稣:“孩子渐渐长大,强健起来,充满智慧和神的恩典在他身上。”The weekly Sabbath and the annual great feasts interrupted the daily routine of life in Nazareth.每周一次的安息日和年度伟大的节日中断了在拿撒勒日常的生活。

The finding of Our Lord in the Temple我们的主在圣殿中找到

According to the law of Exodus 23:17, only the men were obliged to visit the Temple on the three solemn feasts of the year; but the women often joined the men to satisfy their devotion.根据出埃及记23:17法律,只有男子被迫访问的三个节日的一年庄严寺;但妇女往往加入了男性,以满足他们的献身精神。 St. Luke (2:41) informs us that "his [the child's] parents went every year to Jerusalem, at the solemn day of the pasch".圣卢克(2:41)告诉我们,“他[儿童]父母每年前往耶路撒冷的Pasch在庄严的一天”。Probably the Child Jesus was left in the home of friends or relatives during the days of Mary's absence.也许儿童耶稣留在家里的朋友或亲戚在玛丽的缺席的日子。According to the opinion of some writers, the Child did not give any sign of His Divinity during the years of His infancy, so as to increase the merits of Joseph's and Mary's faith based on what they had seen and heard at the time of the Incarnation and the birth of Jesus.据一些作家认为,儿童没有给在他的婴儿期的任何一年,他的神牌,所以以增加若瑟和玛丽对他们所看到和的化身一次听说基于信仰的优点和耶稣的诞生。 Jewish Doctors of the Law maintained that a boy became a son of the law at the age of twelve years and one day; after that he was bound by the legal precepts.法律犹太医生认为,一个男孩成为在十二岁,一天一首女婿后,他是由法律规则的约束。

The evangelist supplies us here with the information that, "when he was twelve years old, they going up into Jerusalem, according to the custom of the feast, and having fulfilled the days, when they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem, and his parents knew it not" (Luke 2:42-43).我们这里的传播者提供的资料说,“当他十二岁,他们不断上升,耶路撒冷,根据的节日习俗,并完成了天,当他们回去,孩童耶稣在耶路撒冷仍然存在,他的父母知道这不是“(路加福音2:42-43)。 Probably it was after the second festal day that Joseph and Mary returned with the other Galilean pilgrims; the law did not require a longer sojourn in the Holy City.大概是在第二个喜庆的节日,约瑟夫和玛丽与其他伽利略朝圣者返回,法律并不要求在圣城逗留更长。On the first day the caravan usually made a four hours' journey, and rested for the night in Beroth on the northern boundary of the former Kingdom of Juda.在第一天的大篷车通常由四个小时的路程,为在Beroth对前者的犹大王国​​北部边界晚上休息。The crusaders built in this place a beautiful Gothic church to commemorate Our Lady's sorrow when she "sought him [her child] among their kinsfolks and acquaintance, and not finding him,. . .returned into Jerusalem, seeking him" (Luke 2:44-45).在这个地方建一个美丽的哥特式教堂,以纪念圣母的悲痛时,她的十字军“寻求他的大臣,密友和熟人之间[孩子],并没有找到他。。。返回到耶路撒冷,求他”(路加福音2:44 -45)。The Child was not found among the pilgrims who had come to Beroth on their first day's journey; nor was He found on the second day, when Joseph and Mary returned to Jerusalem; it was only on the third day that they "found him [Jesus] in the temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them questions. . .And seeing him, they wondered. And his mother said to him: Son, why hast thou done so to us? behold thy father and I have sought thee sorrowing" (Luke 2:40-48).小孩还是发现其中谁曾来的第一天的旅程Beroth朝圣者,也不是他发现的第二天,当约瑟夫和玛丽返回耶路撒冷发现,这是只有在第三天,他们“发现他[耶稣。。。在寺庙],坐在中间的医生,听他们,并要求他们的问题,看见他,他们想知道他的母亲对他说:。儿子,你为什么这样做,我们看见你的父亲吗?和我寻求你悲伤“(路加福音2:40-48)。 Mary's faith did not allow her to fear a mere accident for her Divine Son; but she felt that His behaviour had changed entirely from His customary exhibition of docility and subjection.玛丽的信心并没有让她害怕她的神的儿子只是一个意外,但她认为他的行为发生了变化,从他的顺从和服从的习惯展览完全。 The feeling caused the question, why Jesus had treated His parents in such a way.这种感觉造成的问题,为什么耶稣以这种方式对待他的父母。Jesus simply answered: "How is it that you sought me? did you not know, that I must be about my father's business?"耶稣简单地回答说:“怎么,你要求我做的你不知道,我必须对我父亲的事业?”(Luke 2:49).(路加福音2:49)。 Neither Joseph nor Mary understood these words as a rebuke; "they understood not the word that he spoke to them" (Luke 2:50).玛丽既不约瑟夫也不理解为指责这些话,“他们不理解这个词,他对他们说:”(路加福音2:50)。It has been suggested by a recent writer that the last clause may be understood as meaning, "they [ie, the bystanders] understood not the word he spoke unto them [ie, to Mary and Joseph]".据最近由作家建议,最后条款可以理解的意思,“他们[即旁观者]不理解这个词,他以对他们[即玛丽和约瑟夫]”。

The remainder of Our Lord's youth我们的主的青年其余

After this, Jesus "went down with them, and came to Nazareth" where He began a life of work and poverty, eighteen years of which are summed up by the Evangelist in the few words, and he "was subject to them, and. . .advanced in wisdom, and age, and grace with God and men" (Luke 2:51-52).在此之后,耶稣“就同他们下去,回到拿撒勒”在那里他开始了工作和生活贫困,其中有十八年总结出来的传播者在了几句话,他“受到他们和。 。。先进的智慧,和年龄,并神和人“(路加福音2:51-52)恩典。The interior life of Mary is briefly indicated by the inspired writer in the expression, "and his mother kept all these words in her heart" (Luke 2:51).内部生活的玛丽简要指示表达式中的作家的灵感“,他的母亲保持所有这些话在她的心”(路2:51)。A similar expression had been used in 2:19, "Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart".类似的表达已经在2:19使用,“玛丽保持所有这些话,在她的心里琢磨他们。”Thus Mary observed the daily life of her Divine Son, and grew in His knowledge and love by meditating on what she saw and heard.因此,玛丽发现了她的神的儿子生活,在他的知识和爱心增长沉思,她看到和听到的。It has been pointed out by certain writers that the Evangelist here indicates the last source from which he derived the material contained in his first two chapters.据指出某些作家出的传播者在这里显示的最后来源从中他得出在他的头两章所载的材料。

Mary's perpetual virginity玛丽的永久童贞

In connection with the study of Mary during Our Lord's hidden life, we meet the questions of her perpetual virginity, of her Divine motherhood, and of her personal sanctity.在与玛丽在我们的主的隐蔽生活学习方面,我们满足她永远童贞母亲,她的神,问题,以及她个人的尊严。Her spotless virginity has been sufficiently considered in the article on the Virgin Birth.她一尘不染的童贞已经充分考虑了美属维尔京出生的文章。The authorities there cited maintain that Mary remained a virgin when she conceived and gave birth to her Divine Son, as well as after the birth of Jesus.当局认为有提到玛丽仍然是一个处​​女,当她怀孕,生下了她的神的儿子,以及耶稣出生后,。Mary's question (Luke 1:34), the angel's answer (Luke 1:35, 37), Joseph's way of behaving in his doubt (Matthew 1:19-25), Christ's words addressed to the Jews (John 8:19) show that Mary retained her virginity during the conception of her Divine Son.玛丽的问题(路加福音1:34),天使的答案(路加福音1:35,37),约瑟夫在他的怀疑(马太1:19-25)行为方式,基督的话给犹太人(约8:19)显示玛丽留在她的神的儿子她的贞操观念。 [65][65]

As to Mary's virginity after her childbirth, it is not denied by St. Matthew's expressions "before they came together" (1:18), "her firstborn son" (1:25), nor by the fact that the New Testament books repeatedly refer to the "brothers of Jesus".至于玛丽的贞操后,她分娩,这不是否认圣马太的表现形式“之前,他们走到一起”(1:18),“她的长子”(1:25),也不是事实,即新约圣经的书籍反复指的是“耶稣的兄弟”。 [66] The words "before they came together" mean probably, "before they lived in the same house", referring to the time when they were merely betrothed; but even if the words be understood of marital intercourse, they only state that the Incarnation took place before any such intercourse had intervened, without implying that it did occur after the Incarnation of the Son of God. [66]的话“,才走到一起”的意思可能是,“之前,他们住在同一所房子”,指的是当他们只是订婚的时候,但即使是夫妻性交的话理解,他们的唯一国家道成肉身之前发生这样的性交进行了干预,但这并不意味着它确实发生后,神的儿子的化身。 [67][67]

The same must be said of the expression, "and he knew her not till she brought forth her firstborn son" (Matthew 1:25); the Evangelist tells us what did not happen before the birth of Jesus, without suggesting that it happened after his birth.同样必须指出的表达,“他不知道她,直到她生了头胎的儿子”(马太13:25),而福音告诉我们什么也没有发生之前,耶稣诞生,没有暗示,它发生后,他的出生。 [68] The name "firstborn" applies to Jesus whether his mother remained a virgin or gave birth to other children after Jesus; among the Jews it was a legal name [69], so that its occurrence in the Gospel cannot astonish us. [68]名称“长子”适用于耶稣的母亲是否仍是处女或给耶稣诞生后,向其他儿童;之间的犹太人这是一个法律名称[69],因此,其发生的福音我们不能震惊。

Finally, the "brothers of Jesus" are neither the sons of Mary, nor the brothers of Our Lord in the proper sense of the word, but they are His cousins or the more or less near relatives.最后,“耶稣的兄弟”既不是玛丽的儿子,也没有在这个词的正确意义上的兄弟,我们的主,但他们是他的堂兄弟还是或多或少的近亲属。 [70] The Church insists that in His birth the Son of God did not lessen but consecrate the virginal integrity of His mother (Secret in Mass of Purification). [70]教会坚持认为,在他出生时,上帝的儿子没有减少,但他的母亲神圣的处女完整性(秘密的净化质量)。The Fathers express themselves in similar language concerning this privilege of Mary.父亲表达类似的关于这一特权的玛丽语言本身。[71][71]

Mary's Divine motherhood玛丽的母亲神圣

Mary's Divine motherhood is based on the teaching of the Gospels, on the writings of the Fathers, and on the express definition of the Church.玛丽的母亲是神圣的基础上教学的福音,对著作的父亲,并在教会的明确定义。St. Matthew (1:25) testifies that Mary "brought forth her first-born son" and that He was called Jesus.马太(1:25)证明,玛丽“提出了她的第一个出生的儿子”,他被称为耶稣。According to St. John (1:15) Jesus is the Word made flesh, the Word Who assumed human nature in the womb of Mary.据圣约翰(1:15)耶稣是道成肉身,这个词是谁承担了玛丽的子宫人性。As Mary was truly the mother of Jesus, and as Jesus was truly God from the first moment of His conception, Mary is truly the mother of God.由于玛丽是真正的耶稣的母亲,和为耶稣是真正的第一时刻,他的观念上帝,玛丽是真正的上帝的母亲。Even the earliest Fathers did not hesitate to draw this conclusion as may be seen in the writings of St. Ignatius [72], St. Irenaeus [73], and Tertullian [74].即使是最早的父亲毫不犹豫地绘制成可在圣依纳爵[72],圣爱任纽[73],和良[74]的著作中看到了这一结论。The contention of Nestorius denying to Mary the title "Mother of God" [75] was followed by the teaching of the Council of Ephesus proclaiming Mary to be Theotokos in the true sense of the word.争论的涅斯否认玛丽的标题是“上帝之母”[75]是由安理会的以弗所宣布玛丽在这个词的真正意义上的圣母教学遵循。[76][76]

Mary's perfect sanctity玛丽的完美神圣

Some few patristic writers expressed their doubts as to the presence of minor moral defects in Our Blessed Lady.某些少数教父作家表示,至于未成年人的道德缺陷,我们的祝福夫人在场的疑虑。 [77] St. Basil, eg, suggests that Mary yielded to doubt on hearing the words of holy Simeon and on witnessing the crucifixion.[77]圣罗勒,例如,建议产生怀疑,玛丽对听力的圣西缅的文字和目睹了十字架。[78] St. John Chrysostom is of opinion that Mary would have felt fear and trouble, unless the angel had explained the mystery of the Incarnation to her, and that she showed some vainglory at the marriage feast in Cana and on visiting her Son during His public life together with the brothers of the Lord. [78]圣约翰金口的是,玛丽会感到恐惧和麻烦,除非天使已经解释了神秘的化身给她,她显示出在迦南在结婚宴席及参观她的儿子在一些虚荣的意见他的公共生活在一起,与主的兄弟。 [79] St. Cyril of Alexandria [80] speaks of Mary's doubt and discouragement at the foot of the cross. [79]圣西里尔亚历山大[80]说在脚下过玛丽的怀疑和失望。But these Greek writers cannot be said to express an Apostolic tradition, when they express their private and singular opinions.但是,这些希腊作家不能说是表达一个使徒的传统,当他们表达自己的私人和奇异的意见。Scripture and tradition agree in ascribing to Mary the greatest personal sanctity; She is conceived without the stain of original sin; she shows the greatest humility and patience in her daily life (Luke 1:38, 48); she exhibits an heroic patience under the most trying circumstances (Luke 2:7, 35, 48; John 19:25-27).圣经和传统同意归咎于玛丽的最大的个人尊严,她是无染原罪构思,她显示了最大的谦卑和耐心,在她的日常生活(路加福音1:38,48),她表现出的耐心下,英勇的最困难的情况下(路加福音2时07分,35,48;约翰19:25-27)。 When there is question of sin, Mary must always be excepted.当有罪过的问题,玛丽必须始终除外。[81] Mary's complete exemption from actual sin is confirmed by the Council of Trent (Session VI, Canon 23): "If any one say that man once justified can during his whole life avoid all sins, even venial ones, as the Church holds that the Blessed Virgin did by special privilege of God, let him be anathema." [81]玛丽从实际罪恶完全豁免证实了安理会的遄达(会话六,佳能23):“如果任何一个说人一旦理由可以在他的一生避免所有的罪孽,甚至venial的,因为教会举行该圣母神所没有的特权,让他被诅咒。“ Theologians assert that Mary was impeccable, not by the essential perfection of her nature, but by a special Divine privilege.神学家断言,玛丽是无可挑剔的,而不是由基本完善她的性质,而是由一个特别神圣的特权。Moreover, the Fathers, at least since the fifth century, almost unanimously maintain that the Blessed Virgin never experienced the motions of concupiscence.此外,父亲,至少从第五世纪,几乎一致认为,圣母从未经历过的concupiscence的议案。

The miracle in Cana在迦南奇迹

The evangelists connect Mary's name with three different events in Our Lord's public life: with the miracle in Cana, with His preaching, and with His passion.福音连接玛丽与三个不同的事件在我们的主的公共生活名称:与在迦南奇迹,他的说教,并与他的激情。The first of these incidents is related in John 2:1-10.这些事件首先是在约翰福音2:1-10相关。

There was a marriage feast in Cana of Galilee.有一个在加利利的迦拿结婚宴席。..and the mother of Jesus was there.。和耶稣的母亲在那里。And Jesus also was invited, and his disciples, to the marriage.耶稣也被邀请参加,并且他的弟子,结婚。And the wine failing, the mother of Jesus saith to him: They have no wine.和酒失败,耶稣的母亲对他说:他们没有酒了。And Jesus saith to her: Woman, what is that to me and to thee?耶稣对她说:女人,那是我和你?my hour is not yet come.我的时间还没有到。

One naturally supposes that one of the contracting parties was related to Mary, and that Jesus had been invited on account of his mother's relationship.一,研究假设,该缔约一方有关,玛丽,耶稣已对他母亲的关系帐户邀请。The couple must have been rather poor, since the wine was actually failing.这对夫妻一定是相当差,因为酒实际上是​​失败的。Mary wishes to save her friends from the shame of not being able to provide properly for the guests, and has recourse to her Divine Son.玛丽希望挽救了不能够为客人提供正确耻辱她的朋友,并求助于她的神的儿子。She merely states their need, without adding any further petition.她只是国的需要,不增加任何进一步的请愿书。In addressing women, Jesus uniformly employs the word "woman" (Matthew 15:28; Luke 13:12; John 4:21; 8:10; 19:26; 20:15), an expression used by classical writers as a respectful and honourable address.在处理妇女,耶稣一致采用这个词“女人”(马太15:28;路加福音13:12,约翰福音4:21,8:10; 19:26,20:15),经典作家作为一个尊重表达式而光荣的地址。[82] The above cited passages show that in the language of Jesus the address "woman" has a most respectful meaning.[82]上述列举段落表明,在语言的耶稣地址“女人”有一个最尊重的意思。The clause "what is that to me and to thee" renders the Greek ti emoi kai soi, which in its turn corresponds to the Hebrew phrase mah li walakh.该条款“那是我和你”呈现希腊启绥钛emoi基本生活,这反过来对应的希伯来文词组mAh锂walakh。This latter occurs in Judges 11:12; 2 Samuel 16:10; 19:23; 1 Kings 17:18; 2 Kings 3:13; 9:18; 2 Chronicles 35:21.这后者发生在法官11:12; 2塞缪尔16:10; 19:23 1国王17:18 2国王3:13; 9:18;历代35:21。The New Testament shows equivalent expressions in Matthew 8:29; Mark 1:24; Luke 4:34; 8:28; Matthew 27:19.新约马太福音20:29显示对应表达,马可福音13:24,路加福音4:34,8:28,马太福音27:19。 The meaning of the phrase varies according to the character of the speakers, ranging from a most pronounced opposition to a courteous compliance.这句话的含义根据不同的发言者的性格,从一个最明显的反对,有礼的规定。Such a variable meaning makes it hard for the translator to find an equally variable equivalent.这样的变量的意义使它很难翻译找到一个同样的变量等效。"What have I to do with thee", "this is neither your nor my business", "why art thou troublesome to me", "allow me to attend to this", are some of the renderings suggested. “什么,我与你”,“这既不是你也不是我的生意”,“你为什么要麻烦我”,“请允许我向出席本”,都是渲染一些建议。In general, the words seem to refer to well or ill-meant importunity which they endeavour to remove.在一般情况下,话似乎是指好或变坏,意味着importunity他们努力消除。The last part of Our Lord's answer presents less difficulty to the interpreter: "my hour is not yet come", cannot refer to the precise moment at which the need of wine will require the miraculous intervention of Jesus; for in the language of St. John "my hour" or "the hour" denotes the time preordained for some important event (John 4:21, 23; 5:25, 28; 7:30; 8:29; 12:23; 13:1; 16:21; 17:1).我们的主的答复的最后部分提出以下难度解释:“我小时是尚未到来”,不能提及的精确时刻,对葡萄酒的需求将需要耶稣的奇迹般的干预,在圣语言约翰“我小时”或“小时”是指对一些重要事件预定的时间(约翰4时21分,23岁; 17:25,28; 7:30,8:29,12:23; 13:1,16: 21; 17:1)。Hence the meaning of Our Lord's answer is: "Why are you troubling me by asking me for such an intervention? The divinely appointed time for such a manifestation has not yet come"; or, "why are you worrying? has not the time of manifesting my power come?"因此,我们的主的回答意思是:“你为什么要麻烦问我这种介入对于这样一个表现神指定的时间还没有到我吗?”,或者“你为什么要担心有没有时间?体现我的权力来的?“ The former of these meanings implies that on account of the intercession of Mary Jesus anticipated the time set for the manifestation of His miraculous power [83]; the second meaning is obtained by understanding the last part of Our Lord's words as a question, as was done by St. Gregory of Nyssa [84], and by the Arabic version of Tatian's "Diatessaron" (Rome, 1888).这些含义前者意味着对玛利亚耶稣的代祷帐户预料到,他的神奇的力量表现设定的时间[83],第二个意义是通过了解我们的主的作为疑问词的最后一部分而获得的,正如通过圣格雷戈里的果树[84],并经塔蒂安的“Diatessaron”(罗马,1888年)阿拉伯文版本。 [85] Mary understood her Son's words in their proper sense; she merely warned the waiters, "Whatsoever he shall say to you, do ye" (John 2:5). [85]玛丽在适当的意义上理解了她儿子的话,她只是警告说,服务员,“无论他会告诉你,你们”(约2:5)。There can be no question of explaining Jesus' answer in the sense of a refusal.不可能有任何解释耶稣在意识的拒绝回答问题。

Mary during the apostolic life of Our Lord玛丽在使徒生活,我们的主

During the apostolic life of Jesus, Mary effaced herself almost completely.在耶稣的使徒生活,玛丽抹去自己几乎完全。Not being called to aid her Son directly in His ministry, she did not wish to interfere with His work by her untimely presence.未被调用帮助她的儿子在他的部直接,她不想干扰他的工作由她过早地存在。In Nazareth she was regarded as a common Jewish mother; St. Matthew (3:55-56; cf. Mark 6:3) introduces the people of the town as saying: "Is not this the carpenter's son? Is not his mother called Mary, and his brethren James, and Joseph, and Simon, and Jude: and his sisters, are they not all with us?"在拿撒勒,她被视为一个共同的犹太母亲;圣马太(3:55-56;比照马克6:3。)介绍说城里的人:“难道这不是木匠的儿子是不是他的母亲叫什么名字?玛丽和他的兄弟雅各,约瑟,西门,犹大:和他的妹妹们不是都在我们所有的“? Since the people wish to lower Our Lord's esteem by their language, we must infer that Mary belonged to the lower social order of townspeople.由于人民希望降低我们的主的自尊由他们的语言,我们必须推断,玛丽属于较低的乡民社会秩序。The parallel passage of St. Mark reads, "Is not this the carpenter?"圣马克平行通道写着:“难道这不是木匠?”instead of, "Is not this the carpenter's son?"不是,“难道这不是木匠的儿子吗?”Since both evangelists omit the name of St. Joseph, we may infer that he had died before this episode took place.由于这两种福音省略圣若瑟的名字,我们可以推断他死于这次事件发生之前。

At first sight, it seems that Jesus Himself depreciated the dignity of His Blessed Mother.乍一看,似乎耶稣自己贬值,他的圣母尊严。When He was told: "Behold thy mother and thy brethren stand without, seeking thee", He answered: "Who is my mother, and who are my brethren? And stretching forth his hand towards his disciples, he said: Behold my mother and my brethren. For whosoever shall do the will of my Father, that is in heaven, he is my brother, and my sister, and my mother" (Matthew 12:47-50; cf. Mark 3:31-35; Luke 8:19-21).当他被告知:“看你母亲和你弟兄站在,求你”,他回答说:“谁是我的母亲,谁是我的弟兄和他伸出他的手向他的弟子,他说:看哪,我的母亲和。我的弟兄们凡遵行我的父亲,在天上的意志,他是我弟弟,妹妹,我的母亲“(马太12:47-50;。比照马克3:31-35;路加福音8 :19 - 21)。On another occasion, "a certain woman from the crowd, lifting up her voice, said to him: Blessed is the womb that bore thee, and the paps that gave thee suck. But he said: Yea rather, blessed are they who hear the word of God, and keep it" (Luke 11:27-28).在另一个场合,“一个女人从某些人群,抬起她的声音,对他说:有福是子宫膛你,和狗仔队,给你吸,但他说:。是的,相反,他们谁是有福听到神的话语,并保持它“(路加福音11:27-28)。

In reality, Jesus in both these passages places the bond that unites the soul with God above the natural bond of parentage which unites the Mother of God with her Divine Son.在现实中,这两个通道耶稣地方债券团结与上帝以上的天然联系,它使得父母与她的神的儿子团结天主之母的灵魂。The latter dignity is not belittled; as men naturally appreciate it more easily, it is employed by Our Lord as a means to make known the real value of holiness.后者的尊严是不能轻视,因为欣赏它的人自然更容易,它是由我们的主雇作为一种手段,使已知的圣洁的真正价值。Jesus, therefore, really, praises His mother in a most emphatic way; for she excelled the rest of men in holiness not less than in dignity.耶稣,所以,真的,歌颂在一个最有力的方式,他的母亲,因为她擅长在圣洁不低于较少其余的人的尊严。[86] Most probably, Mary was found also among the holy women who ministered to Jesus and His apostles during their ministry in Galilee (cf. Luke 8:2-3); the Evangelists do not mention any other public appearance of Mary during the time of Jesus's journeys through Galilee or Judea. [86]最大的可能,玛丽发现也属于谁伺候耶稣在加利利和他的门徒在他们的部(参见路加福音8:2-3)神圣妇女的福音,在不提任何其他公开露面的玛丽时间或通过加利利朱迪亚耶稣的行程。 But we must remember that when the sun appears, even the brightest stars become invisible.但是我们必须记住,当太阳出现时,即使最耀眼的明星成为不可见的。

Mary during the Passion of Our Lord在玛丽的激情我们的主

Since the Passion of Jesus Christ occurred during the paschal week, we naturally expect to find Mary at Jerusalem.由于耶稣受难的逾越节期间发生的一周,我们自然希望找到玛丽在耶路撒冷。Simeon's prophecy found its fulfilment principally during the time of Our Lord's suffering. Simeon的预言,主要发现在我们的主的苦难时其履行。According to a tradition, His Blessed Mother met Jesus as He was carrying His cross to Golgotha.根据传统,他的圣母遇见耶稣,因为他是带着他的十字架,各各他。The Itinerarium of the Pilgrim of Bordeaux describes the memorable sites which the writer visited AD 333, but it does not mention any locality sacred to this meeting of Mary and her Divine Son.作者:波尔多的朝圣者Itinerarium介绍了该作家参观了公元333难忘的网站,但它没有提到任何神圣的地方这种玛丽和她的神的儿子会议。 [87] The same silence prevails in the so-called Peregrinatio Silviae which used to be assigned to AD 385, but has lately been placed in AD 533-540.[87]同样的沉默,在所谓的Peregrinatio Silviae它使用流行被分配到公元385,但最近已被放置于公元533-540。[88] But a plan of Jerusalem, dating from the year 1308, shows a Church of St. John the Baptist with the inscription "Pasm. Vgis.", Spasmus Virginis, the swoon of the Virgin. [88]但是,计划在耶路撒冷,从1308年约会,显示,上面刻着的施洗圣约翰堂“PASM的。Vgis。”Spasmus室女座,美属维尔京昏厥。 During the course of the fourteenth century Christians began to locate the spots consecrated by the Passion of Christ, and among these was the place was the place where Mary is said to have fainted at the sight of her suffering Son.在第十四世纪基督徒开始找到了神圣的基督受难的景点,并在这些是地方是哪里有玛丽说,在她看到儿子的痛苦晕倒的地方。[89] Since the fifteenth century one finds always "Sancta Maria de Spasmo" among the Stations of the Way of the Cross, erected in various parts of Europe in imitation of the Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem. [89]自15世纪人们发现总是“Sancta玛丽亚德Spasmo”其中的苦路站,在欧洲各地的在耶路撒冷通过多罗萨仿建。[90] That Our Blessed Lady should have fainted at the sight of her Son's sufferings, hardly agrees with her heroic behaviour under the cross; still, we may consider her woman and mother in her meeting with her Son on the way to Golgotha, while she is the Mother of God at the foot of the cross. [90],我们的祝福夫人应该有她的儿子的痛苦景象晕倒,几乎没有同意她的十字架下的英勇行为,但是,我们可以考虑她的女人,在她与她的儿子会议的途中母亲墓地,而她是在十字架的上帝之母。

Mary's spiritual motherhood玛丽的母亲精神

While Jesus was hanging on the cross, "there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary Cleophas, and Mary Magdalen. When Jesus therefore had seen his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he saith to his mother: Woman, behold thy son. After that, he saith to the disciple: Behold thy mother. And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own" (John 19:25-27).虽然耶稣挂在十字架上,“有站在耶稣的十字架,他的母亲和他母亲的妹妹,玛丽Cleophas的,和玛丽德林。当耶稣看见他的母亲和门徒站在他所爱,他仰向他的妈妈:。女人,看你的儿子在此之后,他的弟子说:。看你的母亲,从这一时刻,门徒把她带到自己的“(约19:25-27)。 The darkening of the sun and the other extraordinary phenomena in nature must have frightened the enemies of Our Lord sufficiently so as not to interfere with His mother and His few friends standing at the foot of the cross.太阳和其他特殊性质变暗现象必须有害怕的敌人,我们的主充分,以免干扰他的母亲和十字架的脚站在他的几个朋友。In the meantime, Jesus had prayed for His enemies, and had promised pardon to the penitent thief; now, He took compassion on His desolate mother, and provided for her future.在此期间,耶稣曾祈求他的敌人,并答应赦免的忏悔小偷,现在,他把荒凉的母亲对他的同情,并为她的未来提供。If St. Joseph had been still alive, or if Mary had been the mother of those who are called Our Lord's brethren or sisters in the gospels, such a provision would not have been necessary.如果圣若瑟一直还活着,或者如果玛丽的母亲一直是谁被称为我们的主在福音的弟兄姐妹,这样的规定没有必要。Jesus uses the same respectful title with which he had addressed his mother at the marriage feast in Cana.耶稣使用相同的尊重所有权与他讨论了在迦南在结婚宴席他的母亲。Then he commits Mary to John as his mother, and wishes Mary to consider John as her son.然后他承诺玛丽约翰作为他的母亲,并希望玛丽认为她的儿子约翰。

Among the early writers, Origen is the only one who considers Mary's motherhood of all the faithful in this connection.在早期的作家,奥利是唯一一个谁认为玛丽的所有信徒在这方面母亲。According to him, Christ lives in his perfect followers, and as Mary is the Mother of Christ, so she is mother of him in whom Christ lives.据他说,基督的生命在他完美的追随者,并作为玛丽是基督的母亲,所以她对他的母亲是基督的生命在其中。Hence, according to Origen, man has an indirect right to claim Mary as his mother, in so far as he identifies himself with Jesus by the life of grace.因此,根据俄,男人有一个间接的权利要求为他的母亲玛丽在目前为止,他确定了与生命的恩典耶稣自己。[91] In the ninth century, George of Nicomedia [92] explains Our Lord's words on the cross in such a way as to entrust John to Mary, and in John all the disciples, making her the mother and mistress of all John's companions. [91]在第九世纪,尼科美底亚[92]乔治解释就在这样一种方式,以委托约翰对玛丽越过我们的主的话,在约翰所有的弟子,使她的母亲和所有约翰的同伴情妇。 In the twelfth century Rupert of Deutz explained Our Lord's words as establishing Mary's spiritual motherhood of men, though St. Bernard, Rupert's illustrious contemporary, does not enumerate this privilege among Our Lady's numerous titles.在十二世纪的道依茨鲁珀特解释我们的主的话作为建立虽然圣伯纳德,玛丽的母亲精神的男人,鲁珀特的杰出的当代,没有列举在圣母的众多头衔这样的特权。 [93] After this time Rupert's explanation of Our Lord's words on the cross became more and more common, so that in our day it has found its way into practically all books of piety. [93]在这个时候鲁珀特的,我们的主在十字架上的话解释变得越来越普遍,因此,在我们的一天,已进入到几乎所有书籍的虔诚的方式。[94][94]

The doctrine of Mary's spiritual motherhood of men is contained in the fact that she is the antitype of Eve: Eve is our natural mother because she is the origin of our natural life; so Mary is our spiritual mother because she is the origin of our spiritual life.玛丽的男子母亲精神学说是包含在事实上,她是antitype的除夕:除夕是我们的亲生母亲,因为她是我们的自然生命的起源,所以玛丽是我们的精神母亲,因为她是我们的精神起源生活。 Again, Mary's spiritual motherhood rests on the fact that Christ is our brother, being "the firstborn among many brethren" (Romans 8:29).同样,玛丽的母亲精神在于一个事实,即基督是我们的兄弟,是“在许多弟兄中作长子”(罗8:29)。She became our mother at the moment she consent to the Incarnation of the Word, the Head of the mystical body whose members we are; and she sealed her motherhood by consenting to the bloody sacrifice on the cross which is the source of our supernatural life.她成了我们现在的母亲,她同意了这个词,在神秘的机构,其成员,我们是头化身,她同意让密封在十字架上这是我们的超自然的生命之源血淋淋的牺牲她的母亲。 Mary and the holy women (Matthew 17:56; Mark 15:40; Luke 23:49; John 19:25) assisted at the death of Jesus on the cross; she probably remained during the taking down of His sacred body and during His funeral.玛丽和神圣的妇女(马太17:56,马可福音15:40,路加福音23:49,约翰福音19:25)在耶稣的死在十字架上的协助,她可能仍然在考虑到他的神圣下来,在他的身体葬礼。 The following Sabbath was for her a time of grief and hope.以下是安息日为她的悲伤和希望的时刻。The eleventh canon of a council held in Cologne, in 1423, instituted against the Hussites the feast of the Dolours of Our Blessed Lady, placing it on the Friday following the third Sunday after Easter.在科隆举行的理事会在1423年,第十一届佳能,对胡斯派提起对我们的祝福圣母Dolours盛宴,把它下面的星期五复活节后的第三个星期日。 In 1725 Benedict XIV extended the feast to the whole Church, and placed it on the Friday in Passion Week.在1725年本笃十四延长过节整个教会,并放置在受难周的周五。"And from that hour, the disciple took her to his own" (John 19:27).“,并从这一时刻,门徒就接她到自己的”(约翰19:27)。Whether they lived in the city of Jerusalem or elsewhere, cannot be determined from the Gospels.不管是在耶路撒冷城居住或其他地方,不能确定的福音。

Mary and Our Lord's Resurrection玛丽和我们的主的复活

The inspired record of the incidents connected with Christ's Resurrection do not mention Mary; but neither do they pretend to give a complete account of all that Jesus did or said.在与基督的复活没有提及玛丽连事件的启发纪录,但他们也不假装给所有耶稣做了或说完整的帐户。The Fathers too are silent as to Mary's share in the joys of her Son's triumph over death.父亲也沉默中的儿子的战胜死亡的胜利的欢乐玛丽的市场份额。Still, St. Ambrose [95] states expressly: "Mary therefore saw the Resurrection of the Lord; she was the first who saw it and believed. Mary Magdalen too saw it, though she still wavered".不过,圣刘汉铨[95]国家明确:“。玛丽因此看到了复活的主,她是第一个谁看见了,认为玛丽马格达伦也看到它,尽管她仍然没有动摇过。” George of Nicomedia [96] infers from Mary's share in Our Lord's sufferings that before all others and more than all she must have shared in the triumph of her Son.对尼科美底亚[96]从玛丽在我们的主的苦难份额推断乔治,在所有其他人,更比所有她必须在她儿子的胜利共享。In the twelfth century, an apparition of the risen Saviour to His Blessed Mother is admitted by Rupert of Deutz [97], and also by Eadmer [98] St. Bernardin of Siena [99], St. Ignatius of Loyola [100], Suarez [101], Maldonado [102], etc. [103] That the risen Christ should have appeared first to His Blessed Mother, agrees at least with our pious expectations.在12世纪,一个复活的救主,以他的圣母显灵是由道依茨[97]鲁伯特承认,也可以由Eadmer [98]圣锡耶纳[99],圣依纳爵罗耀拉贝尔纳丁[100]苏亚雷斯[101],马尔多纳多[102]等[103]这是复活的基督应该先出现他的圣母,同意与我们虔诚的期望最少。

Though the Gospels do not expressly tell us so, we may suppose that Mary was present when Jesus showed himself to a number of disciples in Galilee and at the time of His Ascension (cf. Matthew 28:7, 10, 16; Mark 16:7).虽然没有明确的福音告诉我们,所以我们可以假设玛丽也在场时,耶稣表明自己的一些弟子在加利利和在他的阿森松岛(参见马修28:7,10,16次;马克16: 7)。Moreover, it is not improbable that Jesus visited His Blessed Mother repeatedly during the forty days after His Resurrection.此外,这不是不可能,耶稣复活后,他访问了四十天,他的圣母反复。

IV.四。MARY IN OTHER BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT玛丽的新约在其他书籍

Acts 1:14-2:4徒1:14-2:4

According to the Book of Acts (1:14), after Christ's Ascension into Heaven the apostles "went up into an upper room", and: "all these were persevering with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren".根据使徒行传(1:14)在基督的使徒的阿森松岛到天堂“,上升到上层空间”,以及:“所有这些都是锲而不舍一心与妇女祈祷,耶稣和玛丽的母亲,并与他的兄弟“。 In spite of her exalted dignity it was not Mary, but Peter who acted as head of the assembly (1:15).她的崇高尊严,尽管它不是玛丽,但彼得谁担任大会(1:15)头行事。Mary behaved in the upper room in Jerusalem as she had behaved in the grotto at Bethlehem; in Bethlehem she had carried for the Infant Jesus, in Jerusalem she nurtured the infant Church.玛丽表现在顶楼房间在耶路撒冷,因为她曾在石窟表现在伯利恒,在伯利恒,她已进行的婴儿耶稣,她在耶路撒冷教会哺育婴儿。 The friends of Jesus remained in the upper room till "the days of the Pentecost", when with "a sound from heaven, as of a mighty wind coming. . .there appeared to them parted tongues as it were of fire, and it sat upon every one of them, and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost" (Acts 2:1-4).耶稣的朋友留在免耕“的五旬节的日子”顶楼房间时,“来自天堂的声音,作为一个强大的未来风。。。似乎有他们分手的舌头,因为它是火,它坐在他们每个人,他们都被圣灵“(徒2:1-4)填补。 Though the Holy Ghost had descended upon Mary in a special way at the time of the Incarnation, He now communicated to her a new degree of grace.虽然有圣灵降临后,玛丽以特殊的方式在时间的化身,他现在传达给她一个新的学位的宽限期。Perhaps, this Pentecostal grace gave to Mary the strength of properly fulfilling her duties to the nascent Church and to her spiritual children.也许,这五旬宽限期送给玛丽的正确履行其职责,新生的教会和她的灵童的力量。

Galatians 4:4加拉太书4:4

As to the Epistles, the only direct reference to Mary is found in Galatians 4:4: "But when the fulness of time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law".至于书信,唯一直接提及玛丽发现在加拉太书4:4:“但是,当时间的丰满,神就差遣他的儿子,为女子,根据法律作出。” Some Greek and Latin manuscripts, followed by several Fathers, read gennomenon ek gynaikos instead of genomenon ek gynaikos, "born of a woman" instead of "made of a woman".一些希腊和拉丁手稿,随后由几个父亲,阅读,而不是genomenon克朗gynaikos gennomenon克朗gynaikos,“出生在一个女人”而不是“一个女人的制造”。But this variant reading cannot be accepted.但这种变异的阅读是不能接受的。For gennomenon is the present participle, and must be rendered, "being born of a woman", so that it does not fit into the context.对于gennomenon是现在分词,必须提供“作为一个女人的诞生”,因此,它不适合的环境。 [104] though the Latin variant rendering "natum" is the perfect participle, and does not imply the inconveniences of its Greek original, St. Bede [105] rejects it, on account of its less appropriate sense. [104]虽然拉丁美洲渲染“natum”变种是一个完美的词,但并不意味着它的希腊原始的不便,圣比德[105]拒绝它,就其较适当的意义帐户。 In Romans 1:3, which is to a certain extent a parallel of Galatians 4:4, St. Paul writes genomenos ek stermatos Daveid kata sarka, ie "made of the seed of David, according to the flesh".在罗马书1:3,这在一定程度上是一个加拉太4:4的同时,圣保禄写道genomenos克朗stermatos Daveid字sarka,即“由大卫的后裔,根据肉”。Tertullian [106] points out that the word "made" implies more than the word "born"; for it calls to mind the "Word made flesh", and establishes the reality of the flesh made of the Virgin.良[106]指出,“所作”一词意味着更多的比“诞生”,因为它呼吁铭记的“道成肉身”,并确立了圣母在肉身上的现实。

Furthermore, the Apostle employs the word "woman" in the phrase under consideration, because he wishes to indicate merely the sex, without any ulterior connotation.此外,使徒采用这个词在正在审议的语句“女人”,因为他希望表明仅仅是没有任何不可告人的内涵性。In reality, however, the idea of a man made of a woman alone, suggests the virginal conception of the Son of God.在现实中,然而,一个女人独自一个人提出的想法,表明了神的儿子处女的概念。St. Paul seems to emphasize the true idea of the Incarnation of the Word; a true understanding of this mystery safeguards both the Divinity and the real humanity of Jesus Christ.圣保禄似乎强调的Word化身真实想法,这个神秘的保障措施都神和耶稣基督的真正的人性的真正理解。[107][107]

The Apostle St. John never uses the name Mary when speaking of Our Blessed Lady; he always refers to her as Mother of Jesus (John 2:1, 3; 19:25-26).使徒圣约翰从未使用的名称时,玛丽说,我们祝福她,他总是提到她的母亲耶稣(约翰2:1,3; 19:25-26)。 In his last hour, Jesus had established the relation of mother and son between Mary and John, and a child does not usually address his mother by her first name.在他的最后一个小时,耶稣已经成立了母亲和儿子之间的玛丽和约翰的关系,以及儿童通常不解决她的名字他的母亲。

Apocalypse 12:1-6启示录12:1-6

In the Apocalypse (12:1-16) occurs a passage singularly applicable to Our Blessed Mother:在启示录(12:1-16)发生一段奇异适用于我们的祝福母亲:

And a great sign appeared in heaven: A woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars; and being with child, she cried travailing in birth, and was in pain to be delivered.一个伟大的标志出现在天堂:身披日头与一个女人,她的脚下的月亮,她头戴十二星的冠冕,以及与儿童的福利,她哭了travailing在出生,并在疼痛交付。 And there was seen another sign in heaven: and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads, and ten horns, and on his heads seven diadems; and his tail drew the third part of the stars of heaven; and cast them to the earth; and the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to be delivered; that when she should be delivered, he might devour her son.并有在天上看到另一个标志:有一条大红龙,七头,十角,七头上冠冕,他的尾巴提请着天上星辰的三分之一,并摔在地上和龙站在面前的女人谁愿意交付,这时候她应交付时,他可能吃掉她的儿子。 And she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with an iron rod; and her son was taken up to God, and to his throne.生了一个儿子,谁是统治铁棒所有国家,以及她的儿子被带到了上帝,和他的王位。And the woman fled into the wilderness, where she had a place prepared by God, that there they should feed her a thousand two hundred sixty days.而妇人就逃到旷野,在那里她被神预备的地方,有他们应该养活一千二百六十日。

The applicability of this passage to Mary is based on the following considerations:这个玛丽通过适用性是基于以下考虑:

At least part of the verses refer to the mother whose son is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; according to Psalm 2:9, this is the Son of God, Jesus Christ, Whose mother is Mary.至少有一部分的诗句指的是母亲的儿子,是用铁条棒所有国家,据诗篇2:9,这是神的儿子,耶稣基督,他的母亲是玛丽。

It was Mary's son that "was taken up to God, and to his throne" at the time of His Ascension into heaven.这是玛丽的儿子说:“被带到了上帝,和他的宝座”在他的升天时间。

The dragon, or the devil of the earthly paradise (cf. Apocalypse 12:9; 20:2), endeavoured to devour Mary's Son from the first moments of His birth, by stirring up the jealousy of Herod and, later on, the enmities of the Jews.龙,还是魔鬼的人间天堂(参见启示录12:9,20:2),努力吞食从他的出生的第一时刻玛丽的儿子挑起了嫉妒的希律王,后来,在仇恨犹太人的。 Owing to her unspeakable privileges, Mary may well be described as "clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars".由于她无法形容的特权,玛丽很可能被形容为“丰衣足食,与太阳和月亮在她的脚,和她头戴十二星的冠冕。”

It is true that commentators generally understand the whole passage as applying literally to the Church, and that part of the verses is better suited to the Church than to Mary.这是事实,评论家普遍字面理解为适用教会整个通道,这部分的诗句更适合于玛丽教会。But it must be kept in mind that Mary is both a figure of the Church, and its most prominent member.但必须牢记,玛丽是一个数字的教会,其最突出的成员。What is said of the Church, is in its own way true of Mary.什么是教会的说,是在以自己的方式真正的玛丽。Hence the passage of the Apocalypse (12:5-6) does not refer to Mary merely by way of accommodation [108], but applies to her in a truly literal sense which appears to be partly limited to her, and partly extended to the whole Church.因此,启示录(12:5-6)没有提及玛丽仅仅通过住宿方式[108],但适用于在一个真正意义上的文字似乎是她的部分仅限于她,和部分延伸到整个教会。 Mary's relation to the Church is well summed up in the expression "collum corporis mystici" applied to Our Lady by St. Bernardin of Siena.玛丽的关系,教会是在总结了很好的表达“科拉姆corporis mystici”适用于由圣锡耶纳贝尔纳丁我们的夫人。[109][109]

Cardinal Newman [110] considers two difficulties against the foregoing interpretation of the vision of the woman and child: first, it is said to be poorly supported by the Fathers; secondly, it is an anachronism to ascribe such a picture of the Madonna to the apostolic age.红衣主教纽曼[110]认为两个反对对妇女和儿童视力上述解释上的困难:第一,它是说是很差的父亲的支持;其次,它是一个时代错误归咎于这样一个图片的麦当娜的使徒时代。 As to the first exception, the eminent writer says:至于第一个例外,著名的作家说:

Christians have never gone to Scripture for proof of their doctrines, till there was actual need, from the pressure of controversy; if in those times the Blessed Virgin's dignity was unchallenged on all hands, as a matter of doctrine, Scripture, as far as its argumentative matter was concerned, was likely to remain a sealed book to them.基督徒从来没有以圣经为他们的学说的证据,直到有实际需要,从争论的压力;如果在这些时候圣母的尊严是对所有的手不受挑战作为一种学说,圣经据,物质,其议论此事有关,很可能仍然是一个密封的书给他们。

After developing this answer at length, the cardinal continues:在长度在开发这个回答,枢机主教继续说:

As to the second objection which I have supposed, so far from allowing it, I consider that it is built upon a mere imaginary fact, and that the truth of the matter lies in the very contrary direction.至于第二个反对我所假定,从允许它到目前为止,我认为这仅仅是建立在一个假想的事实,而事实的真相在非常相反的方向所在。 The Virgin and Child is not a mere modern idea; on the contrary, it is represented again and again, as every visitor to Rome is aware, in the paintings of the Catacombs.圣母子是不是一个单纯的现代观念,相反,它是代表一次又一次,因为每到罗马游客,知道在画的墓穴。Mary is there drawn with the Divine Infant in her lap, she with hands extended in prayer, he with his hand in the attitude of blessing.玛丽是有绘制圣婴在她的圈,她双手在祈祷扩展,他与他的态度的祝福手。

V. MARY IN THE EARLY CHRISTIAN DOCUMENTS五,玛丽在早期基督教文献

Thus far we have appealed to the writings or the remains of the early Christian era in as far as they explain or illustrate the teaching of the Old Testament or the New, concerning the Blessed Virgin.迄今为止,我们呼吁著作或仍然在尽可能的早期基督教时代,由于他们解释或说明的旧约或新的教学,关于圣母。In the few following paragraphs we shall have to draw attention to the fact that these same sources, to a certain extent, supplement the Scriptural doctrine.在以后的几以下各段,我们必须提请注意的是,这些相同的来源,在一定程度上补充了圣经的教义。In this respect they are the basis of tradition; whether the evidence they supply suffices, in any given case, to guarantee their contents as a genuine part of Divine revelation, must be determined according to the ordinary scientific criteria followed by theologians.在这方面,他们都是传统的基础上,他们提供的证据是否足以在任何情况下,以保证作为一个真正的神的启示的一部分内容,必须下大决心根据神学家遵循普通的科学标准。 Without entering on these purely theological questions, we shall present this traditional material, first, in as far as it throws light on the life of Mary after the day of Pentecost; secondly, in as far as it gives evidence of the early Christian attitude to the Mother of God.如果没有这些纯粹的神学问题的讨论,我们应提出这一传统材料,第一,在尽可能将引发对玛丽后一天的降临生命之光;第二,在尽可能给出了早期基督教的态度证据天主之母。

VI.六。POST-PENTECOSTAL LIFE OF MARY后五旬生活玛丽

On the day of Pentecost, the Holy Ghost had descended on Mary as He came on the Apostles and Disciples gathered together in the upper room at Jerusalem.在五旬节,圣灵降临了,因为他对玛丽在使徒和聚集在顶楼房间一起在耶路撒冷的门徒来。No doubt, the words of St. John (19:27), "and from that hour the disciple took her to his own", refer not merely to the time between Easter and Pentecost, but they extend to the whole of Mary's later life.毫无疑问,圣约翰(19:27),字“,并从那时起,那门徒就接她到自己的”,是指不仅要在复活节和圣灵降临节之间的时间,但他们延伸到玛丽后来的整个人生。 Still, the care of Mary did not interfere with John's Apostolic ministry.尽管如此,照顾玛丽不干扰约翰的使徒事工。 Even the inspired records (Acts 8:14-17; Galatians 1:18-19; Acts 21:18) show that the apostle was absent from Jerusalem on several occasions, though he must have taken part in the Council of Jerusalem, AD 51 or 52.即使是灵感记录(徒8:14-17;加拉太书1:18-19,徒21:18)表明,使徒不在耶路撒冷几次,但他必须已在耶路撒冷,公元51安理会的或52。 We may also suppose that in Mary especially were verified the words of Acts 2:42: "And they were persevering in the doctrine of the apostles, and in the communication of the breaking of bread, and in prayers".我们还可以假设,在玛丽的行为进行了核实,特别是2:42的话:“他们是在坚持不懈的使徒教义,并在通讯,擘饼,祈祷。” Thus Mary was an example and a source of encouragement to the early Christian community.因此,玛丽是一个例子,一个鼓励的源泉,以早期基督教社区。At the same time, it must be confessed that we do not possess any authentic documents bearing directly on Mary's post-Pentecostal life.与此同时,必须承认,我们不拥有任何负担对玛丽的后五旬生活直接真实的文件。

Place of her life, death, and burial代替她的生命,死亡,埋葬

As to tradition, there is some testimony for Mary's temporary residence in or near Ephesus, but the evidence for her permanent home in Jerusalem is much stronger.至于传统,有一些玛丽的以弗所内或附近暂住证,但她在耶路撒冷永久的家更强大的证据。

Arguments for Ephesus论据为以弗所

Mary's Ephesian residence rests on the following evidence:玛丽的以弗所居住取决于下列证据:

(1) A passage in the synodal letter of the Council of Ephesus [111] reads: "Wherefore also Nestorius, the instigator of the impious heresy, when he had come to the city of the Ephesians, where John the Theologian and the Virgin Mother of God St. Mary, estranging himself of his own accord from the gathering of the holy Fathers and Bishops. . ." (1)在以弗所[111]理事会通过主教的信写道:“人哪,也涅斯,对煽动者的impious异端,当他来到以弗所,城市,约翰的神学和圣母神圣玛丽,疏离了他从圣神父和主教。自行收集自己。。“ Since St. John had lived in Ephesus and had been buried there [112], it has been inferred that the ellipsis of the synodal letter means either, "where John. . .and the Virgin. . .Mary lived", or, "where John. . .and the Virgin. . .Mary lived and are buried".由于圣约翰一直住在以弗所,并已埋葬在那里[112],它已推断,该省略号意味着要么主教会议的信,“在约翰。。。和维尔京。。。玛丽住”,或者“而约翰。。。和维尔京。。。玛丽住,并葬。“

(2) Bar-Hebraeus or Abulpharagius, a Jacobite bishop of the thirteenth century, relates that St. John took the Blessed Virgin with him to Patmos, then founded the Church of Ephesus, and buried Mary no one knows where. (2)酒吧,Hebraeus或Abulpharagius,一个主教詹姆斯党的十三世纪,涉及圣约翰带着圣母帕特摩斯,然后成立了教会的以弗所,并埋葬玛丽没有人知道在哪里。 [113][113]

(3) Benedict XIV [114] states that Mary followed St. John to Ephesus and died there. (3)本笃十四[114]个国家,玛丽随后圣约翰以弗所就死在那里。He intended also to remove from the Breviary those lessons which mention Mary's death in Jerusalem, but died before carrying out his intention.他还打算取消从这些经验教训祈祷其中提到玛丽的死在耶路撒冷,但在执行其意图死亡。 [115][115]

(4) Mary's temporary residence and death in Ephesus are upheld by such writers as Tillemont [116], Calmet [117], etc. (4)玛丽的临时居住和死亡是由在以弗所坚持这样的作家如蒂耶蒙[116],卡尔梅特[117]等

(5) In Panaghia Kapoli, on a hill about nine or ten miles distant from Ephesus, was discovered a house, or rather its remains, in which Mary is supposed to have lived. (5)在帕纳吉娅Kapoli,在约九或十英里远从以弗所山上,发现一所房子,或者更确切地说,它依然存在,其中玛丽应该是曾经生活过。The house was found, as it had been sought, according to the indications given by Catherine Emmerich in her life of the Blessed Virgin.这所房子被发现,因为它已要求,根据给凯瑟琳艾默里奇在她的生命迹象圣母。

Arguments against Ephesus论据反对以弗所

On closer inspection these arguments for Mary's residence or burial in Ephesus are not unanswerable.仔细检查玛丽的居住地或葬在以弗所这些论点不无法回答。

(1) The ellipsis in the synodal letter of the Council of Ephesus may be filled out in such a way as not to imply the assumption that Our Blessed Lady either lived or died in Ephesus.(1)在安理会的以弗所主教会议的信省略号可填补了这样一种方式为不暗示,前提是我们的祝福夫人无论居住或在以弗所死亡。 As there was in the city a double church dedicated to the Virgin Mary and to St. John, the incomplete clause of the synodal letter may be completed so as to read, "where John the Theologian and the Virgin. . .Mary have a sanctuary".由于在这个城市是一个双教堂奉献给圣母和圣约翰,对不完整的条款主教信可能完成,以便阅读,“在约翰的神学和维尔京。。。玛丽已经避难所“。 This explanation of the ambiguous phrase is one of the two suggested in the margin in Labbe's Collect.这种暧昧的词语解释是两个中的一个在拉韦的收集保证金建议。Concil.Concil。(lc) [118](立法会)[118]

(2) The words of Bar-Hebraeus contain two inaccurate statements; for St. John did not found the Church of Ephesus, nor did he take Mary with him to Patmos. (2)扎Hebraeus的话包含两个不准确的陈述;为圣约翰没有发现的以弗所教会,也没有采取玛丽与他帕特莫斯。St. Paul founded the Ephesian Church, and Mary was dead before John's exile in Patmos.圣保罗创办了以弗所教会,在约翰和玛丽是在帕特莫斯流亡死亡。It would not be surprising, therefore, if the writer were wrong in what he says about Mary's burial.这也不足为奇,因此,如果作家在他对玛丽的葬礼说错误的。Besides, Bar-Hebraeus belongs to the thirteenth century; the earlier writers had been most anxious about the sacred places in Ephesus; they mention the tomb of St. John and of a daughter of Philip [119], but they say nothing about Mary's burying place.此外,扎Hebraeus属于13世纪的早期作家一直对在以弗所最着急的神圣的地方,他们提到的圣约翰墓和一弘[119]的女儿,但他们说玛丽的埋葬什么地方。

(3) As to Benedict XIV, this great pontiff is not so emphatic about Mary's death and burial in Ephesus, when he speaks about her Assumption in heaven. (3)本笃十四,这个伟大的教宗与其说是玛丽的死亡与以弗所,埋葬时,他斩钉​​截铁她在天堂的设想说话。

(4) Neither Benedict XIV nor the other authorities who uphold the Ephesian claims, advance any argument that has not been found inconclusive by other scientific students of this question. (4)无论本笃十四或其他当局坚持以弗所谁主张,推动任何尚未发现这一问题的其他科学的学生定论的说法。

(5) The house found in Panaghia-Kapouli is of any weight only in so far as it is connected with the visions of Catherine Emmerich.(5)家中帕纳吉娅- Kapouli发现的唯一,只要它是与凯瑟琳艾默里奇的异象连任何重量。Its distance from the city of Ephesus creates a presumption against its being the home of the Apostle St. John.它与城市的距离以弗所创建一个针对其作为该使徒圣约翰家推定。The historical value of Catherine's visions is not universally admitted.叶卡捷琳娜的愿景历史价值没有得到普遍承认。Mgr.经理。Timoni, Archbishop of Smyrna, writes concerning Panaghia-Kapouli: "Every one is entire free to keep his personal opinion".Timoni,大主教的士麦那,写关于帕纳吉娅- Kapouli:“每个人是整个自由让他的个人意见”。Finally the agreement of the condition of the ruined house in Panaghia-Kapouli with Catherine's description does not necessarily prove the truth of her statement as to the history of the building.最后,对在帕纳吉娅- Kapouli毁了凯瑟琳的家里条件描述协议并不一定证明至于建筑的历史,她发言的真相。 [120][120]

Arguments against Jerusalem论据反对耶路撒冷

Two considerations militate against a permanent residence of Our Lady in Jerusalem: first, it has already been pointed out that St. John did not permanently remain in the Holy City; secondly, the Jewish Christians are said to have left Jerusalem during the periods of Jewish persecution (cf. Acts 8:1; 12:1).两方面的考虑不利于我们的夫人在耶路撒冷永久居留:第一,它已经指出,圣约翰没有永久留在圣城;第二,犹太基督信徒据说已经离开,犹太人在耶路撒冷期间迫害(参见行为8:1; 12:1)。But as St. John cannot be supposed to have taken Our Lady with him on his apostolic expeditions, we may suppose that he left her in the care of his friends or relatives during the periods of his absence.但随着圣约翰不能假定已采取对他和他使徒的探险我们的夫人,我们可以假设,他留在他的朋友或亲属照顾他缺席期间,期间她。 And there is little doubt that many of the Christians returned to Jerusalem, after the storms of persecution had abated.而且毫无疑问的是,许多基督徒返回耶路撒冷后遭受迫害风暴已经减弱。

Arguments for Jerusalem参数为耶路撒冷

Independently of these considerations, we may appeal to the following reasons in favour of Mary's death and burial in Jerusalem:独立于这些考虑,我们可以上诉到玛丽的死亡和安葬在耶路撒冷的青睐,原因如下:

(1) In 451 Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, testified to the presence of Mary's tomb in Jerusalem.(1)在451韦纳尔,耶路撒冷主教,证明了玛丽的坟墓在耶路撒冷的存在。It is strange that neither St. Jerome, nor the Pilgrim of Bordeaux, nor again pseudo-Silvia give any evidence of such a sacred place.奇怪的是,既不圣杰罗姆,也不是波尔多的朝圣者,也再次伪西尔维娅提供任何证据证明这样一个神圣的地方。 But when the Emperor Marcion and the Empress Pulcheria asked Juvenal to send the sacred remains of the Virgin Mary from their tomb in Gethsemani to Constantinople, where they intended to dedicate a new church to Our Lady, the bishop cited an ancient tradition saying that the sacred body had been assumed into heaven, and sent to Constantinople only the coffin and the winding sheet.但是,当皇帝马吉安和皇后Pulcheria问韦纳尔发送神圣仍然从他们的盖特塞马尼墓的圣母玛利亚为君士坦丁堡,在那里他们打算奉献出新的圣母教堂,主教举了一个古老的传统说,神圣身体被假设成天堂,并送君士坦丁堡只有棺材和裹尸布。 This narrative rests on the authority of a certain Euthymius whose report was inserted into a homily of St. John Damascene [121] now read in the second Nocturn of the fourth day within the octave of the Assumption.这说明建立在一个成一个,其报告圣约翰大马士革[121]现在在第四天的第二夜曲阅读范围内的某些设想倍频讲道插入Euthymius权威。 Scheeben [122] is of opinion that Euthymius's words are a later interpolation: they do not fit into the context; they contain an appeal to pseudo-Dionysius [123] which are not otherwise cited before the sixth century; and they are suspicious in their connection with the name of Bishop Juvenal, who was charged with forging documents by Pope St. Leo.Scheeben [122]是认为Euthymius的话是后来插:他们不适合的情况下,它们包含呼吁伪狄奥尼修斯[123]这是没有其他前六世纪引,他们都怀疑他们涉嫌与主教韦纳尔,谁是锻造的教皇圣利奥文件收取的名字。 [124] In his letter the pontiff reminds the bishop of the holy places which he has under his very eyes, but does not mention the tomb of Mary.[124]教宗在信中提醒的,他在他的眼前已圣地的主教,但没有提到玛丽的坟墓。 [125] Allowing that this silence is purely incidental, the main question remains, how much historic truth underlies the Euthymian account of the words of Juvenal? [125]允许保持沉默,这纯粹是偶然的,主要问题是,有多少历史真相的基础的话韦纳尔Euthymian的帐户?

(2) Here must be mentioned too the apocryphal "Historia dormitionis et assumptionis BMV", which claims St. John for its author. (2)在这里必须提到过的猜测“历史dormitionis等assumptionis墨西哥证券交易所”,这为它的作者声称圣约翰。[126] Tischendorf believes that the substantial parts of the work go back to the fourth, perhaps even to the second, century.[126]提申多​​夫认为,相当部分的工作回到第四,甚至第二,世纪。[127] Variations of the original text appeared in Arabic and Syriac, and in other languages; among these must be noted a work called "De transitu Mariae Virg.", which appeared under the name of St. Melito of Sardes. [127]的原始文字的变化出现在阿拉伯和叙利亚,并在其他语言;其中必须指出所谓的工作,这下圣Sardes美利托名字出现在“德途中Mariae Virg。”。[128] Pope Gelasius enumerates this work among the forbidden books. [128]教宗格拉西列举之间这种禁书的工作。[129] The extraordinary incidents which these works connect with the death of Mary do not concern us here; but they place her last moments and her burial in or near Jerusalem. [129]这些作品与死亡的玛丽就可以不关心我们在这里不平凡的事件;但他们的地方她的最后时刻,她安葬在耶路撒冷或附近。

(3) Another witness for the existence of a tradition placing the tomb of Mary in Gethsemani is the basilica erected above the sacred spot, about the end of the fourth or the beginning of the fifth century. (3)另外对于配售的玛丽在盖特塞马尼存在的传统的见证墓大教堂竖立以上圣地关于第四年底或第五世纪初。The present church was built by the Latins in the same place in which the old edifice had stood.目前这座教堂建在同一个地方的在旧的大厦已经站在拉丁人。[130][130]

(4) In the early part of the seventh century, Modestus, Bishop of Jerusalem, located the passing of Our Lady on Mount Sion, in the house which contained the Cenacle and the upper room of Pentecost. (4)在七世纪初,白虾,耶路撒冷主教,位于锡安山的夫人,我们在传球,在房子里,其中载有晚餐厅和顶楼房间的降临。[131] At that time, a single church covered the localities consecrated by these various mysteries. [131]在那个时候,一个单一的教会所涵盖的这些不同的奥秘神圣的地方。One must wonder at the late evidence for a tradition which became so general since the seventh century.难怪人们必须在一个传统的证据,成为晚七世纪以来,这样一般。

(5) Another tradition is preserved in the "Commemoratorium de Casis Dei" addressed to Charlemagne.(5)另一个传统是在“Commemoratorium德Casis棣”保留给查理曼。[132] It places the death of Mary on Mt.[132]这地方的玛丽山死亡。Olivet where a church is said to commemorate this event.奥利韦据说其中一所教堂,以纪念这一事件。Perhaps the writer tried to connect Mary's passing with the Church of the Assumption as the sister tradition connected it with the cenacle.也许作家试图连接玛丽的与作为连接晚餐厅的传统假设它的姊妹教会传递。 At any rate, we may conclude that about the beginning of the fifth century there existed a fairly general tradition that Mary had died in Jerusalem, and had been buried in Gethsemani.无论如何,我们可以得出这样的结论的第五世纪初,存在着一个相当普遍的传统,玛丽死在耶路撒冷,并已在盖特塞马尼掩埋。 This tradition appears to rest on a more solid basis than the report that Our Lady died and was buried in or near Ephesus.这一传统似乎休息比报告,我们的夫人死后被葬在以弗所附近更坚实的基础。As thus far historical documents are wanting, it would be hard to establish the connection of either tradition with apostolic times.由于迄今为止的历史文件所希望的,这将是难以建立的不是传统与使徒时代的连接。[133][133]

Conclusion结论

It has been seen that we have no absolute certainty as to the place in which Mary lived after the day of Pentecost.它已经看到,我们作为的地方,其中玛丽后一天的降临生活没有绝对的把握。Though it is more probable that she remained uninterruptedly in or near Jerusalem, she may have resided for a while in the vicinity of Ephesus, and this may have given rise to the tradition of her Ephesian death and burial.虽然这是更可能,她仍然不间断地在耶路撒冷或附近,她可能居住在附近的以弗所,同时,这可能导致了她的以弗所死亡和埋葬的传统。 There is still less historical information concerning the particular incidents of her life.还有少有关历史资料,她生活中的特定事件。St. Epiphanius [134] doubts even the reality of Mary's death; but the universal belief of the Church does not agree with the private opinion of St. Epiphanius.圣埃皮法尼乌斯[134]甚至怀疑玛丽的死亡的现实,但普遍信仰的教会不同意圣埃皮法尼乌斯的个人意见。Mary's death was not necessarily the effect of violence; it was undergone neither as an expiation or penalty, nor as the effect of disease from which, like her Divine Son, she was exempt.玛丽的死不一定是暴力的影响,这是经历既不是作为一个赎罪或处罚,也不是从对疾病的影响,像她的神的儿子,她被免除。 Since the Middle Ages the view prevails that she died of love, her great desire to be united to her Son either dissolving the ties of body and soul, or prevailing on God to dissolve them.自中世纪盛行的看法,她的爱情死了,她的伟大愿望,团结起来,她的儿子或者解散的身体与灵魂的关系,或上帝当时解散他们。 Her passing away is a sacrifice of love completing the dolorous sacrifice of her life.她的逝世是一个牺牲的爱完成了她的生命悲哀的牺牲。It is the death in the kiss of the Lord (in osculo Domini), of which the just die.这是死亡的亲吻勋爵(在osculo多米尼),其中刚刚死去。There is no certain tradition as to the year of Mary's death.没有一定的传统,对玛丽的死亡年。Baronius in his Annals relies on a passage in the Chronicon of Eusebius for his assumption that Mary died AD 48.在他的志巴若尼依靠在他的尤西比乌斯Chronicon假设玛丽死于公元48通道。It is now believed that the passage of the Chronicon is a later interpolation.现在认为,该Chronicon通道是后来插值。 [135] Nirschl relies on a tradition found in Clement of Alexandria [136] and Apollonius [137] which refers to a command of Our Lord that the Apostles were to preach twelve years in Jerusalem and Palestine before going among the nations of the world; hence he too arrives at the conclusion that Mary died AD 48.[135] Nirschl依赖于克莱门特亚历山大发现[136]和阿波罗纽斯[137]一个传统,这是指我们的主的命令,使徒们的传教前在世界各国将在耶路撒冷和巴勒斯坦十二岁;因此,他也得出结论认为,玛丽死于公元48。 Her assumption into heaven她的假设到天堂

The Assumption of Our Lady into heaven has been treated in a SPECIAL ARTICLE.我们的圣母升天假设是治疗的专题文章。

[138] The feast of the Assumption is most probably the oldest among all the feasts of Mary properly so called.[138]的圣母升天节是最有可能在所有的所谓正确的玛丽最古老的节日。[139] As to art, the assumption was a favourite subject of the school of Siena which generally represents Mary as being carried to heaven in a mandorla. [139]至于艺术,假设是一个学校的锡耶纳一般代表玛丽作为正在开展的mandorla天堂喜欢的话题。

VII.七。EARLY CHRISTIAN ATTITUDE TO THE MOTHER OF GOD早期基督教的态度,以上帝的母亲

Her image and her name她的形象和她的名字

Depictions of her image她的形象刻画

No picture has preserved for us the true likeness of Mary.没有图片保留了我们的玛丽逼真的影象。 The Byzantine representations, said to be painted by St. Luke, belong only to the sixth century, and reproduce a conventional type.拜占庭交涉说是圣路加画,只属于六世纪,并重现传统的类型。There are twenty-seven copies in existence, ten of which are in Rome.有22份存在,其中10个在罗马的人​​。[140] Even St. Augustine expresses the opinion that the real external appearance of Mary is unknown to us, and that in this regard we know and believe nothing. [140]即使圣奥古斯丁表示认为,真正的外观玛丽是我们未知的,而在这方面,我们知道并相信什么。[141] The earliest picture of Mary is that found in the cemetery of Priscilla; it represents the Virgin as if about to nurse the Infant Jesus, and near her is the image of a prophet, Isaias or perhaps Micheas. [141]玛丽最早的照片是发现在墓地普里西拉,它代表仿佛正要护士的婴儿耶稣,圣母,靠近她是一个先知,伊萨亚斯或者Micheas形象。The picture belongs to the beginning of the second century, and compares favourably with the works of art found in Pompeii.这张照片属于第二个世纪开始,相比之下,在庞贝发现的艺术品毫不逊色。From the third century we possess pictures of Our Lady present at the adoration of the Magi; they are found in the cemeteries of Domitilla and Calixtus.从第三世纪,我们有我们的夫人在贤士朝拜赠画,他们是在Domitilla和Calixtus墓地发现的。Pictures belonging to the fourth century are found in the cemetery of Saints Peter and Marcellinus; in one of these she appears with her head uncovered, in another with her arms half extended as if in supplication, and with the Infant standing before her.图片属于第四世纪被发现在圣彼得和利努斯墓地,在其中一个发现了她与她的头部出现在另一半与她的胳膊,仿佛祈求延长,并与婴儿站在她面前。 On the graves of the early Christians, the saints figured as intercessors for their souls, and among these saints Mary always held the place of honour.论早期基督徒的坟墓,圣人想通为他们的灵魂代祷,并在这些圣人玛丽始终召开地方的荣誉。Besides the paintings on the walls and on the sarcophagi, the Catacombs furnish also pictures of Mary painted on gilt glass disks and sealed up by means of another glass disk welded to the former.除了在墙上和石棺上的画,也提供了墓穴玛丽画上镀金玻璃磁盘和密封焊接的前再喝一杯磁盘方式设立的照片。[142] Generally these pictures belong to the third or fourth century.[142]一般来说这些照片属于第三或第四世纪。Quite frequently the legend MARIA or MARA accompanies these pictures.相当频繁的传说玛丽亚或马拉伴随着这些照片。

Use of her name使用她的名字

Towards the end of the fourth century, the name Mary becomes rather frequent among Christians; this serves as another sign of the veneration they had for the Mother of God.在接近年底的第四世纪,玛丽的名字,而成为基督教徒之间的频繁,这是另一个他们的崇拜为神的母亲签署了农技服务。[143][143]

Conclusion结论

No one will suspect the early Christians of idolatry, as if they had paid supreme worship to Mary's pictures or name; but how are we to explain the phenomena enumerated, unless we suppose that the early Christians venerated Mary in a special way?没有人会怀疑,早期基督徒崇拜,因为如果他们支付了最高崇拜玛丽的图片或名称,但我们如何来解释这种现象列举的,除非我们假设,早期的基督徒以特殊的方式崇敬玛丽? [144][144]

Nor can this veneration be said to be a corruption introduced in later times.这种崇拜也可以说是在稍后的时间推出了腐败。It has been seen that the earliest picture dates from the beginning of the second century, so that within the first fifty years after the death of St. John the veneration of Mary is proved to have flourished in the Church of Rome.人们看到,从第二世纪初最早的图片日期,这样在头五十年后的圣约翰死亡的崇拜的玛丽是证明在罗马教会的蓬勃发展。

Early writings早期著作

For the attitude of the Churches of Asia Minor and of Lyons we may appeal to the words of St. Irenaeus, a pupil of St. John's disciple Polycarp [145]; he calls Mary our most eminent advocate.对于小亚细亚教会和里昂的态度,我们可能会上诉到圣爱任纽,一圣约翰弟子波利卡普[145]学生的话,他呼吁玛丽是我们最杰出的倡导者。 St. Ignatius of Antioch, part of whose life reached back into apostolic times, wrote to the Ephesians (c. 18-19) in such a way as to connect the mysteries of Our Lord's life more closely with those of the Virgin Mary.圣依纳爵的安提阿,部分达到了他们的生活回到使徒时代,写信给以弗所(约18-19)在这样的方式来连接我们的主的生命的奥秘更紧密地与圣母玛利亚的人。 For instance, the virginity of Mary, and her childbirth, are enumerated with Christ's death, as forming three mysteries unknown to the devil.举例来说,童贞圣母玛利亚,她分娩,列举与基督的死亡,形成三个神秘未知的魔鬼。The sub-apostolic author of the Epistle to Diognetus, writing to a pagan inquirer concerning the Christian mysteries, describes Mary as the great antithesis of Eve, and this idea of Our Lady occurs repeatedly in other writers even before the Council of Ephesus.的书信分使徒的作者Diognetus,书面向异教徒询问者关于基督教奥秘,介绍了作为伟大的对立面夏娃玛利亚,圣母这个想法多次出现甚至在安理会的以弗所其他作家。 We have repeatedly appealed to the words of St. Justin and Tertullian, both of whom wrote before the end of the second century.我们一再呼吁圣贾斯汀和良,两人之前的第二个世纪结束时说的话。

As it is admitted that the praises of Mary grow with the growth of the Christian community, we may conclude in brief that the veneration of and devotion to Mary began even in the time of the Apostles.由于它是承认的玛丽成长的基督教社会发展的赞誉,我们可以得出结论认为,在短暂的敬仰和热爱,即使在玛丽的使徒时候开始。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的书面由AJ马斯。Transcribed by Michael T. Barrett.转录由迈克尔巴雷特。Dedicated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.专门为玛利亚的天主教百科全书,体积第十五无玷圣心。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,12年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

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[6] Lagarde, Guthe, Giesebrecht, Cheyne, Wilke.[6]拉嘉德,Guthe,吉泽布雷希特,进益,维尔克。 [7] cf.[7]参看。Knabenbauer, Comment. Knabenbauer,评论。in Isaiam, Paris, 1887; Schegg, Der Prophet Isaias, Munchen, 1850; Rohling, Der Prophet Isaia, Munster, 1872; Neteler, Das Bush Isaias, Munster, 1876; Condamin, Le livre d'Isaie, Paris, 1905; Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, 333 sqq.; Lagrange, La Vierge et Emmaneul, in Revue biblique, Paris, 1892, pp. 481-497; Lémann, La Vierge et l'Emmanuel, Paris, 1904; St. Ignat., ad Eph., cc.在Isaiam,巴黎,1887年; Schegg,明镜先知伊萨亚斯,慕尼黑,1850年,罗林,明镜先知Isaia,穆斯特,1872年; Neteler,达斯布什总统伊萨亚斯,明斯特,1876年; Condamin,乐及女方德Isaie,巴黎,1905年;马斯,基督的类型和预言,纽约,1893年,我,333 sqq。拉格朗日,香格里拉维耶热等Emmaneul,在杂志biblique,巴黎,1892年,第481-497; Lémann,香格里拉维耶热等欧莱雅灵光,巴黎, 1904年,圣Ignat,广告弗,抄送。。。7, 19, 19; St. Justin, Dial., PG, VI, 144, 195; St. Iren., adv.7,19,19;圣贾斯汀,拨号,编号,六,144,195;。圣伊伦,地。。 haer., IV, xxxiii, 11. haer。,四,三十三,11。[8] Cf. [8]参看。the principal Catholic commentaries on Micheas; also Maas, "Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, pp. 271 sqq. [9] PG, XXV, col. 205; XXVI, 12 76 [10] In Jer., PL, XXIV, 880主要天主教评论对Micheas;也马斯,“基督的类型和预言,纽约,1893年,我第271 sqq [9]前列腺素,二十五,彩色205;。。二十六,12 76 [10]在哲。 ,特等,二十四,880

[11] cf. [11]参看。Scholz, Kommentar zum Propheten Jeremias, Würzburg, 1880; Knabenbauer, Das Buch Jeremias, des Propheten Klagelieder, und das Buch Baruch, Vienna, 1903; Conamin, Le texte de Jeremie, xxxi, 22, est-il messianique?肖尔茨Kommentar zum之Propheten赫雷米亚斯,维尔茨堡,1880年; Knabenbauer,达斯布赫赫雷米亚斯,德之Propheten Klagelieder,布赫巴鲁​​克,维也纳,1903年有限公司格; Conamin,乐texte德和Jeremie,三十一,22日,美国东部时间金正日messianique?in Revue biblique, 1897, 393-404; Maas, Christ in Type and Prophecy, New York, 1893, I, 378 sqq.在杂志biblique,1897,393-404;马斯,基督的类型和预言,纽约,1893年,我,378 sqq. [12] cf.[12]参看。St. Ambrose, de Spirit.圣刘汉铨,德精神。Sanct., I, 8-9, PL, XVI, 705; St. Jerome, Epist., cviii, 10; PL, XXII, 886. Sanct,我,8-9,特等,十六,705。圣杰罗姆,Epist,cviii,10;。特等,22,886。

[13] cf. [13]参看。Gietmann, In Eccles.Gietmann,在埃克尔斯。et Cant.等公会。cant., Paris, 1890, 417 sq. [14] cf.不能。,巴黎,1890年,417平方米[14]参看。Bull "Ineffabilis", fourth Lesson of the Office for 10 Dec.公牛“Ineffabilis”,为12月10日的第四课办公室。[15] Response of seventh Nocturn in the Office of the Immaculate Conception.[15]响应的圣母无原罪办公室第七夜曲。[16] cf.[16]参看。St. Justin, dial.圣贾斯汀,拨号。 c.Tryph., 100; PG, VI, 709-711; St. Iren., adv.Tryph,100;。编号,六,709-711;圣伊伦,地。。haer., III, 22; V, 19; PG, VII, 958, 1175; Tert., de carne Christi, 17; PL, II, 782; St. Cyril., catech., XII, 15; PG, XXXIII, 741; St. Jerome, ep. haer,三,22;。五,19条;编号,第七,958,1175;叔,德卡尔基督教,17人;。特等,二,782;圣西里尔,儿茶酚,第十二章,15条;。。编号,三十三, 741,圣杰罗姆,环保。XXII ad Eustoch., 21; PL, XXII, 408; St. Augustine, de agone Christi, 22; PL, XL, 303; Terrien, La Mère de Dien et la mère des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 120-121; II, 117-118; III, pp. 8-13; Newman, Anglican Difficulties, London, 1885, II, pp. 26 sqq.; Lecanu, Histoire de la Sainte Vierge, Paris, 1860, pp. 51-82.二条广告Eustoch,21;。特等,22,408;圣奥古斯丁,德agone基督,22;特等,加大码,303; Terrien,香格里拉仅仅只是去演德等香格里拉地球社,巴黎,1902年,我,120-121 ;二,117-118;三,第8-13;纽曼,英国圣公会难点,伦敦,1885年,第二,第26 sqq。Lecanu,历史德拉圣维耶热,巴黎,1860年,第51-82。

[17] de B. Virg., l.[17]德二Virg。湖IV, c.四角24 [18] La Vierge Marie d'apres l'Evangile et dans l'Eglise [19] Letter to Dr. Pusey [20] Mary in the Gospels, London and New York, 1885, Lecture I. [21] cf.24 [18]香格里拉维耶热玛丽德apr镳欧莱雅乐王吉尔堡等丹斯欧莱雅埃格斯[19]信博士蒲赛[20]玛丽在福音,伦敦和纽约,1885年,一讲[21]参看。 Tertullian, de carne Christi, 22; PL, II, 789; St. Aug., de cons.良,德卡尔基督教,22;特等,二,789;圣8月,德利弊。Evang., II, 2, 4; PL, XXXIV, 1072.埃旺,二,二,四。特等,三十四,1072。[22] Cf.[22]参看。St. Ignat., ad Ephes, 187; St. Justin, c.圣Ignat,广告Ephes,187。圣贾斯汀角Taryph., 100; St. Aug., c. Taryph,100;。圣八月角Faust, xxiii, 5-9; Bardenhewer, Maria Verkundigung, Freiburg, 1896, 74-82; Friedrich, Die Mariologie des hl.浮士德,二十三,5-9;巴登黑韦尔,玛丽亚Verkundigung,弗赖堡,1896年,74-82;弗里德里希,模具Mariologie万的HL。 Augustinus, Cöln, 1907, 19 sqq.奥古斯丁,科隆,1907年,19 sqq。[23] Jans., Hardin., etc. [24] hom.[23] Jans。,哈丁。等[24]坎。I. de nativ.岛nativ。BV, 2, PG, XCVI, 664 [25] PG, XLVII, 1137 [26] de praesent., 2, PG, XCVIII, 313 [27] de laud. BV公司,2,前列腺素,XCVI,664 [25]前列腺素,四十七,1137 [26]德praesent。,2,前列腺素,时候正好,313 [27]德赞扬。Deipar., PG, XLIII, 488Deipar。,前列腺素,四十三,488

[28] PL, XCVI, 278 [29] in Nativit.[28]特等,XCVI,278 [29] Nativit。Deipar., PL, CLI, 324 [30] cf. Deipar。,特等,CLI中,324 [30]参看。Aug., Consens. 8月,Consens。Evang., l.埃旺。湖II, c.二角2 [31] Schuster and Holzammer, Handbuch zur biblischen Geschichte, Freiburg, 1910, II, 87, note 6 [32] Anacreont., XX, 81-94, PG, LXXXVII, 3822 [33] hom.2 [31]舒斯特和Holzammer,Handbuch楚biblischen历史馆,弗赖堡,1910年,二,87,注6 [32] Anacreont。,第二十条,81-94,前列腺素,LXXXVII,3822 [33]坎。I in Nativ.我在Nativ。BMV, 6, II, PG, CCXVI, 670, 678 [34] cf.墨西哥证券交易所,六,二,前列腺素,CCXVI,670,678 [34]参看。Guérin, Jérusalem, Paris, 1889, pp. 284, 351-357, 430; Socin-Benzinger, Palästina und Syrien, Leipzig, 1891, p.卡介苗,耶路撒冷,巴黎,1889年,第284,351-357,430; Socin,齐杰,Palästina有限公司Syrien,莱比锡,1891年,第80; Revue biblique, 1893, pp. 245 sqq.; 1904, pp. 228 sqq.; Gariador, Les Bénédictins, I, Abbaye de Ste-Anne, V, 1908, 49 sq.80;杂志biblique,1893年,第245 sqq。1904年,第228 sqq。Gariador,莱斯Bénédictins,我去修道院科技教育,安妮,五,1908年,49平方米

[35] cf. [35]参看。de Vogue, Les églises de la Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1850, p.德时尚,莱斯莱塞格利斯德拉地球,圣,巴黎,1850年,第310 [36] 2, 4, PL, XXX, 298, 301 [37] Itiner., 5, PL, LXXII, 901 [38] cf.310 [36] 2,4,特等,三十,298,301 [37] Itiner。,5,特等,LXXII,901 [38]参看。Lievin de Hamme, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, Jerusalem, 1887, III, 183 [39] haer., XXX, iv, II, PG, XLI, 410, 426 [40] PG, XCVII, 806 [41] cf.Lievin德哈梅,导游德拉地球,圣,耶路撒冷,1887年,三,183 [39] haer。,三十,四,二,前列腺素,四十一,410,426 [40]前列腺素,XCVII,806 [41]参看。Aug., de santa virginit., I, 4, PL, XL, 398 [42] cf.8月,德圣virginit。,我,4,特等,加大码,398 [42]参看。Luke, i, 41; Tertullian, de carne Christi, 21, PL, II, 788; St. Ambr., de fide, IV, 9, 113, PL, XVI, 639; St. Cyril of Jerus., Catech., III, 6, PG, XXXIII, 436 [43] Tischendorf, Evangelia apocraphya, 2nd ed., Leipzig, 1876, pp. 14-17, 117-179 [44] PG, XLVII, 1137 [45] PG, XCVIII, 313 [46] PG, XXXVCIII, 244卢克,我,41岁;良,德卡尔基督教,21,特等,二,788。街式污泥,德有诚意,四,九,113,特等,十六,639。。圣西里尔的Jerus,儿茶酚,三,六,前列腺素,三十三,436 [43]提申多夫,Evangelia apocraphya,第二版。,莱比锡,1876年,第14-17,117-179 [44]前列腺素,四十七,1137 [45]前列腺素,时候正好,313 [46]前列腺素,XXXVCIII,244

[47] cf. [47]参看。Guérin, Jerusalem, 362; Liévin, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, I, 447 [48] de virgin., II, ii, 9, 10, PL, XVI, 209 sq. [49] cf.卡介苗,耶路撒冷,362。Liévin,导游德拉地球,圣,我,447 [48]德处女,二,二,九,十,特等,十六,209平方米[49]参看。Corn.玉米。Jans., Tetrateuch. Jans。,Tetrateuch。in Evang., Louvain, 1699, p.在埃旺。,鲁汶,1699年,第484; Knabenbauer, Evang.484; Knabenbauer,埃旺。sec.秒。Luc., Paris, 1896, p.吕克。,巴黎,1896年,第138 [50] cf.138 [50]比照。 St. Ambrose, Expos.圣刘汉铨,博览会。Evang.埃旺。sec.秒。Luc., II, 19, PL, XV, 1560 [51] cf.吕克。第一,二,19,特等,十五,1560 [51]参看。Schick, Der Geburtsort Johannes' des Täufers, Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins, 1809, 81; Barnabé Meistermann, La patrie de saint Jean-Baptiste, Paris, 1904; Idem, Noveau Guide de Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1907, 294 sqq.希克,明镜Geburtsort约翰内斯'万Täufers,Zeitschrift德德意志Palästina - Vereins,1809年,81; Barnabé Meistermann,香格里拉patrie德圣让巴蒂斯特,巴黎,1904年同上,风格指南代特雷-圣,巴黎,1907年,294 sqq 。

[52] cf. [52]参看。Plinius, Histor.Plinius,历史文物。natural., V, 14, 70 [53] cf.自然的。,五,14,70 [53]参看。Aug., ep.八月,环保。XLCCCVII, ad Dardan., VII, 23 sq., PL, XXXIII, 840; Ambr.XLCCCVII,广告Dardan,七,23平方米,特等,三十三,840。式污泥。Expos.博览会。Evang.埃旺。sec.秒。Luc., II, 23, PL, XV, 1561 [54] cf.吕克。第一,二,23,特等,十五,1561 [54]参看。Knabenbauer, Evang. Knabenbauer,埃旺。sec.秒。Luc., Paris, 1896, 104-114; Schürer, Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 4th edit., I, 508 sqq.; Pfaffrath, Theologie und Glaube, 1905, 119 [55] cf.吕克,巴黎,1896年,104-114。Schürer,史德Jüdischen Volkes即时Zeitalter基督耶稣,第四编辑,我,508 sqq。。Pfaffrath,神学与Glaube,1905年,119 [55]参看。St. Justin, dial.圣贾斯汀,拨号。c.Tryph., 78, PG, VI, 657; Orig., c.Tryph,78,编号,六,657。厄里格角。Cels., I, 51, PG, XI, 756; Euseb., vita Constant., III, 43; Demonstr.透明片,我51岁,前列腺素,十一,756;。。Euseb,维恒,三,43;。Demonstr。evang., VII, 2, PG, XX, 1101; St. Jerome, ep.埃旺,七,二,前列腺素,第二十条,1101;。圣杰罗姆,环保。ad Marcell., XLVI [al.广告马塞尔。,四十六[人。XVII].第十七]。12; ad Eustoch., XVCIII [al. 12,广告Eustoch,XVCIII [人。。XXVII], 10, PL, XXII, 490, 884 [56] in Ps.二十七],10,特等,22,490,884 [56在PS]。XLVII, II, PL, XIV, 1150; [57] orat.四十七,二,特等,第十四条,1150; [57]由于以下原因造成。I, de resurrect., PG, XLVI, 604; [58] de fide orth., IV, 14, PG, XLIV, 1160; Fortun., VIII, 7, PL, LXXXVIII, 282;一,德复活,前列腺素,四十六,604。[58]德有诚意奥尔特,四,14,前列腺素,四十四,1160。。Fortun,八,七,特等,LXXXVIII,282;

[59] 63, 64, 70, PL, XXXVIII, 142; [60] Summa theol., III, q.[59] 63,64,70,特等,三十八,第142号,[60]总结theol,三,问:。35, a.35,甲6; [61] cf.6,[61]参看。 Joseph., Bell.约瑟夫。贝尔。 Jud., II, xviii, 8 [62] In Flaccum, 6, Mangey's edit., II, p.士。第一,二,十八,8 [62]在Flaccum,6,Mangey的编辑。,第二,第 523 [63] cf.523 [63]参看。 Schurer, Geschichte des Judischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, Leipzig, 1898, III, 19-25, 99 Schurer,史德Judischen Volkes即时Zeitalter基督耶稣,莱比锡,1898年,三,19-25,99

[64] The legends and traditions concerning these points may be found in Jullien's "L'Egypte" (Lille, 1891), pp. 241-251, and in the same author's work entitled "L'arbre de la Vierge a Matarich", 4th edit. [64]的传说和传统有关这些点可能会发现在朱利安的“欧莱雅埃及”(里尔,1891年),第241-251,并在同一作者的作品题为“欧莱雅阿布里德拉维耶热一Matarich”第四编辑。 (Cairo, 1904). (开罗,1904年)。[65] As to Mary's virginity in her childbirth we may consult St. Iren., haer. [65]至于玛丽在她分娩时,我们可以查阅圣伊伦贞操。,haer。IV, 33, PG, VII, 1080; St. Ambr., ep.四,33,前列腺素,七,1080;街式污泥,环保。。XLII, 5, PL, XVI, 1125; St. Aug., ep CXXXVII, 8, PL, XXXIII, 519; serm.四十二,五,特等,十六,1125;圣八月,环保CXXXVII,8,特等,三十三,519;变换SERM。LI, 18, PL, XXXVIII, 343; Enchir.李,18,特等,三十八,343; Enchir。34, PL, XL, 249; St. Leo, serm., XXI, 2, PL, LIV, 192; St. Fulgent., de fide ad Petr., 17, PL, XL, 758; Gennad., de eccl. 34,特等,加大码,249。圣利奥,变换SERM,二十一,二,特等,丽芙,192。圣Fulgent,德有诚意广告切赫,17,特等,加大码,758。。Gennad,德传道书。 dogm., 36, PG, XLII, 1219; St. Cyril of Alex., hom.dogm,36,前列腺素,四十二,1219;。圣西里尔的亚历克斯,坎。。XI, PG, LXXVII, 1021; St. John Damasc., de fide orthod., IV, 14, PG, XCIV, 1161; Pasch.十一,前列腺素,LXXVII,1021。。圣约翰Damasc德有诚意正畸,四,14,前列腺素,XCIV,1161; Pasch。Radb., de partu Virg., PL, CXX, 1367; etc. As to the passing doubts concerning Mary's virginity during her childbirth, see Orig., in Luc., hom.Radb,德partu Virg,特等,CXX来,1367。。等至于通过疑虑在她分娩玛利亚的童贞,看到原始内容,在吕克,坎。。。XIV, PG, XIII, 1834; Tertullian, adv.十四,前列腺素,十三,1834年;良,地。Marc., III, 11, PL, IV, 21; de carne Christi, 23, PL, II, 336, 411, 412, 790.马克,三,11,特等,四,21;。德卡尔基督教,23,特等,二,336,411,412,790。

[66] Matt., xii, 46-47; xiii, 55-56; Mark, iii, 31-32; iii, 3; Luke, viii, 19-20; John, ii, 12; vii, 3, 5, 10; Acts, i, 14; I Cor., ix, 5; Gal., i, 19; Jude, 1 [67] cf. [66]亚光,十二,46-47。十三,55-56;马克,三,31-32,三,三,路加福音,八,19-20;约翰,二,12;七,三,五, 10,徒,我,14,我肺心病,九,五;。半乳糖,我,19;。裘德,1 [67]参看。St. Jerome, in Matt., i, 2 (PL, XXVI, 24-25) [68] cf.圣杰罗姆,在马特。,一,二(特等,26,24-25)[68]参看。St. John Chrys., in Matt., v, 3, PG, LVII, 58; St. Jerome, de perpetua virgin.圣约翰Chrys,在马特,五,三,前列腺素,第五十七号,58;。。圣杰罗姆,德perpetua处女。BM, 6, PL, XXIII, 183-206; St. Ambrose, de institut.骨髓,6,特等,二十三,183-20​​6;圣刘汉铨,德研究所。virgin., 38, 43, PL, XVI, 315, 317; St. Thomas, Summa theol., III, q.处女,38,43,特等,十六,315,317;。圣托马斯,总结theol,三,问:。28, a.28,甲3; Petav., de incarn., XIC, iii, 11; etc. [69] cf.3; Petav,德incarn,西昌,三,11。。等[69]参看。Exod., xxxiv, 19; Num., xciii, 15; St. Epiphan., haer.Exod,三十四,19;。序号,xciii,15人;。圣Epiphan,haer。。lxxcviii, 17, PG, XLII, 728 [70] cf.lxxcviii,17,前列腺素,四十二,728 [70]参看。Revue biblique, 1895, pp. 173-183 [71] St. Peter Chrysol., serm., CXLII, in Annunt.杂志biblique,1895年,第173-183 [71]圣彼得Chrysol。,变换SERM。,CXLII,在Annunt。BMV, PG, LII, 581; Hesych., hom.墨西哥证券交易所,前列腺素,第五十二,581; Hesych,坎。。V de SM Deip., PG, XCIII, 1461; St. Ildeph., de virgin.V得钐向合资格,前列腺素,XCIII,1461;。圣Ildeph,德处女。。perpet.perpet。SM, PL, XCVI, 95; St. Bernard, de XII praer.钐,特等,XCVI,95;圣伯纳,德第十二praer。BVM, 9, PL, CLXXXIII, 434, etc.最高性价比,9,特等,CLXXXIII,434等

[72] ad Ephes., 7, PG, V, 652 [73] adv.[72]广告Ephes。,7,前列腺素,五,652 [73]地。haer., III, 19, PG, VIII, 940, 941 [74] adv.haer。,三,19,前列腺素,八,940,941 [74]地。Prax.普凯。27, PL, II, 190 [75] Serm. 27,特等,二,190 [75]变换SERM。I, 6, 7, PG, XLVIII, 760-761 [76] Cf.一,6,7,前列腺素,48,760-761 [76]参看。Ambr., in Luc.式污泥。,在吕克。 II, 25, PL, XV, 1521; St. Cyril of Alex., Apol.二,25,特等,十五,1521;圣亚历西里尔,亚太线上。。pro XII cap.; c.第十二亲帽。角 Julian., VIII; ep.朱利安,八。集。ad Acac., 14; PG, LXXVI, 320, 901; LXXVII, 97; John of Antioch, ep.广告乙酰丙酮,14;。前列腺素,LXXVI,320,901; LXXVII,97;约翰的安提阿,环保。ad Nestor., 4, PG, LXXVII, 1456; Theodoret, haer.广告内斯特,4,前列腺素,LXXVII,1456。Theodoret,haer。fab., IV, 2, PG, LXXXIII, 436; St. Gregory Nazianzen, ep.晶圆厂,四,二,前列腺素,LXXXIII号,436。圣格雷戈里nazianzen,环保。 ad Cledon., I, PG, XXXVII, 177; Proclus, hom.广告Cledon,我,前列腺素,三十七,177。Proclus,坎。de Matre Dei, PG, LXV, 680; etc. Among recent writers must be noticed Terrien, La mère de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 3-14; Turnel, Histoire de la théologie positive, Paris, 1904, 210-211.德马特雷棣,前列腺素,第六十五,680;在最近的作家等,必须注意Terrien,香格里拉德Dieu酒店等香格里拉仅仅只是德地球社,巴黎,1902年,我和3-14; Turnel,历史德拉神学积极,巴黎, 1904年,210-211。[77] cf.[77]参看。Petav., de incarnat., XIV, i, 3-7Petav。,德incarnat。,第十四条,我,3-7

[78] ep. [78]张EP。CCLX, PG, XXXII, 965-968 [79] hom.CCLX,前列腺素,三十二,965-968 [79]坎。IV, in Matt., PG, LVII, 45; hom.四,在马特,前列腺素,第五十七号,45;。坎。XLIV, in Matt.四十四,在马特。 PG, XLVII, 464 sq.; hom.前列腺素,四十七,464平方米;坎。XXI, in Jo., PG, LIX, 130 [80] in Jo., PG, LXXIV, 661-664 [81] St. Ambrose, in Luc.二十一,在乔。,前列腺素,LIX 130 [80]在乔。,前列腺素,LXXIV,661-664 [81]圣刘汉铨在吕克。II, 16-22; PL, XV, 1558-1560; de virgin.二,16-22;特等,十五,1558年至1560年,德处女。I, 15; ep.一,15;集。LXIII, 110; de obit. LXIII,110;去讣告。Val., 39, PL, XVI, 210, 1218, 1371; St. Augustin, de nat. 。缬氨酸,39,特等,十六,210,1218,1371,圣奥古斯丁,德纳特。et grat., XXXVI, 42, PL, XLIV, 267; St. Bede, in Luc.等大,三十六,42,特等,四十四,267。圣比德,在吕克。II, 35, PL, XCII, 346; St. Thomas, Summa theol., III.二,35,特等,XCII,346;圣托马斯,总结theol,三。。Q. XXVII, a.问:二十七,答4; Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 3-14; II, 67-84; Turmel, Histoire de la théologie positive, Paris, 1904, 72-77; Newman, Anglican Difficulties, II, 128-152, London, 18854; Terrien,香格里拉德Dieu酒店等香格里拉仅仅只是德地球社,巴黎,1902年,我和3-14;二,67-84; Turmel,历史德拉神学积极,巴黎,1904年,72-77,纽曼,英国圣公会的难点第一,二,128-152,伦敦,1885年

[82] cf. [82]参看。Iliad, III, 204; Xenoph., Cyrop., V, I, 6; Dio Cassius, Hist., LI, 12; etc. [83] cf.伊利亚特,三,204; Xenoph,Cyrop,五,一,6;。。迪欧卡西斯,历史,李,12岁;。等[83]参看。St. Irenaeus, c.圣爱任纽角 haer., III, xvi, 7, PG, VII, 926 [84] PG, XLIV, 1308 [85] See Knabenbauer, Evang.haer。,三,十六,七,前列腺素,七,926 [84]前列腺素,四十四,1308 [85]见Knabenbauer,埃旺。sec.秒。Joan., Paris, 1898, pp. 118-122; Hoberg, Jesus Christus.。琼,巴黎,1898年,第118-122;霍贝格,基督耶稣。Vorträge, Freiburg, 1908, 31, Anm.Vorträge,弗赖堡,1908年,31岁,Anm。2; Theologie und Glaube, 1909, 564, 808.2,神学与Glaube,1909年,564,808。

[86] cf. [86]参看。St. Augustin, de virgin., 3, PL, XL, 398; pseudo-Justin, quaest.圣奥古斯丁,德处女,3,特等,加大码,398。伪贾斯汀,quaest。et respons.等反应作者。ad orthod., I, q.广告正畸。,我,问:136, PG, VI, 1389 [87] cf. 136,编号,六,1389 [87]参看。Geyer, Itinera Hiersolymitana saeculi IV-VIII, Vienna, 1898, 1-33; Mommert, Das Jerusalem des Pilgers von Bordeaux, Leipzig, 1907 [88] Meister, Rhein.格耶,Itinera Hiersolymitana saeculi第四至第八,维也纳,1898年,1-33; Mommert,达斯耶路撒冷德Pilgers冯波尔多,莱比锡,1907年[88]梅斯特,莱茵。Mus., 1909, LXIV, 337-392; Bludau, Katholik, 1904, 61 sqq., 81 sqq., 164 sqq.; Revue Bénédictine, 1908, 458; Geyer, lc; Cabrol, Etude sur la Peregrinatio Silviae, Paris, 1895亩,1909年,LXIV,337-392。Bludau,Katholik,1904年,61 sqq,81 sqq,164 sqq。。。歌剧团笃,1908,458;格耶,立法会; Cabrol,练习曲河畔拉Peregrinatio Silviae,巴黎, 1895年

[89] cf. [89]参看。de Vogüé, Les Eglises de la Terre-Sainte, Paris, 1869, p.德时尚,莱斯莱塞格利斯德拉地球,圣,巴黎,1869年,第438; Liévin, Guide de la Terre-Sainte, Jerusalem, 1887, I, 175 [90] cf.438; Liévin,导游德拉地球,圣,耶路撒冷,1887年,我,175 [90]参看。Thurston, in The Month for 1900, July-September, pp. 1-12; 153-166; 282-293; Boudinhon in Revue du clergé français, Nov. 1, 1901, 449-463 [91] Praef.瑟斯顿,在争取1900年月,七月至九月,页1-12,153-166,282-293; Boudinhon在杂志杜clergé日本语11月1日,1901年,449-463 [91] Praef。in Jo., 6, PG, XIV, 32 [92] Orat.在乔。,6,前列腺素,十四,32 [92]由于以下原因造成。VIII in Mar. assist.在三月八协助。cruci, PG, C, 1476 [93] cf. cruci,前列腺素,丙,1476 [93]参看。Sermo dom.Sermo的DOM。 infr.infr。oct.十月Assumpt., 15, PL, XLXXXIII, 438 [94] cf.Assumpt。,15,特等,XLXXXIII,438 [94]参看。Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, III, 247-274; Knabenbauer, Evang. Terrien,香格里拉德Dieu酒店等香格里拉仅仅只是德地球社,巴黎,1902年,三,247-274; Knabenbauer,埃旺。 sec.秒。Joan., Paris, 1898, 544-547; Bellarmin, de sept.琼,巴黎,1898年,544-547。Bellarmin,德九月verb.动词。Christi, I, 12, Cologne, 1618, 105-113 [95] de Virginit., III, 14, PL, XVI, 283基督教,我,12,科隆,1618,105-113 [95]德Virginit。,三,14,特等,十六,283

[96] Or. [96]或者。IX, PG, C, 1500 [97] de div.九,前列腺素,丙,1500 [97]德分区。offic., VII, 25, PL, CLIX, 306 [98] de excell.团员管理系。,七,25,特等,CLIX,306 [98]德脱颖而出。VM, 6, PL, CLIX, 568 [99] Quadrages.虚拟机,6,特等,CLIX,568 [99] Quadrages。I, in Resurrect., serm.我,在复活。,变换SERM。LII, 3 [100] Exercit.第五十二,3 [100] Exercit。spirit.精神。de resurrect., I apparit.德复活。,我apparit。[101] de myster. [101]德myster。vit.维生素。Christi, XLIX, I [102] In IV Evang., ad XXVIII Matth.基督教,第四十九届,我[102]在四埃旺。,广告二十八Matth。[103] See Terrien, La mere de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, I, 322-325. [103]见Terrien,香格里拉德Dieu酒店等香格里拉仅仅只是德地球社,巴黎,1902年,我,322-325。[104] cf.[104]比照。Photius, ad Amphiloch., q. Photius,广告Amphiloch。,问:228, PG, CI, 1024 [105] in Luc. 228,前列腺素,传播,1024 [105]在吕克。XI, 27, PL, XCII, 408 [106] de carne Christi, 20, PL, II, 786 [107] Cf.十一,27,特等,XCII,408 [106]德卡尔基督教,20,特等,二,786 [107]参看。Tertullian, de virgin.良,德处女。vel., 6, PL, II, 897; St. Cyril of Jerus., Catech., XII, 31, PG, XXXIII, 766; St. Jerome, in ep. 。德维尔,6,特等,二,897。。圣Jerus西里尔,儿茶酚,第十二章,31,前列腺素,三十三,766;圣杰罗姆,在EP。ad Gal.广告加尔。II, 4, PL, XXVI, 372.二,四,特等,26,372。

[108] cf. [108]比照。Drach, Apcal., Pris, 1873, 114 [109] Cf.德劳奇,Apcal。,Pris,1873年,114 [109]参看。pseudo-Augustin, serm.伪奥古斯丁,变换SERM。IV de symbol.四代的象征。ad catechum., I, PL, XL, 661; pseudo-Ambrose, expos, in Apoc., PL, XVII, 876; Haymo of Halberstadt, in Apoc.广告catechum,我,特等,加大码,661。伪刘汉铨,博览会,在载脂蛋白C,特等,十七,876。Haymo的哈尔贝施塔特,在载脂蛋白C。 III, 12, PL, CXVII, 1080; Alcuin, Comment.三,12,特等,CXVII,1080;阿尔昆,评论。in Apoc., V, 12, PL, C, 1152; Casssiodor., Complexion.在载脂蛋白C,五,12,特等,丙,1152。。Casssiodor,肤色。 in Apoc., ad XII, 7, PL, LXX, 1411; Richard of St. Victor, Explic.在载脂蛋白C,广告第十二,7,特等,LXX的,1411;。理查德圣维克多,Explic。in Cant., 39, PL, VII, 12, PL, CLXIX, 1039; St. Bernard, serm.在斜面,39,特等,七,十二,特等,CLXIX,1039;。圣伯纳德,变换SERM。 de XII praerog.德十二praerog。BVM, 3, PL, CLXXXIII, 430; de la Broise, Mulier amicta sole,in Etudes, April-June, 1897; Terrien, La mère de Dieu et la mere des hommes, Paris, 1902, IV, 59-84.最高性价比,3,特等,CLXXXIII,430;德拉Broise,Mulier amicta唯一的,在练习曲,四月至六月,1897年; Terrien,香格里拉德Dieu酒店等香格里拉仅仅只是德地球社,巴黎,1902年,四,59-84。[110] Anglican Difficulties, London, 1885, II, 54 sqq.[110]英国圣公会难点,伦敦,1885年,二,54 sqq。[111] Labbe, Collect. [111]拉韦,收集。Concilior., III, 573 [112] Eusebius, Hist.Concilior。,三,573 [112]尤西比乌斯,历史。Eccl., III, 31; V, 24, PG, XX, 280, 493 [113] cf.。传道书,三,31;伏,24,前列腺素,第二十条,280,493 [113]参看。Assemani, Biblioth. Assemani,Biblioth。orient., Rome, 1719-1728, III, 318 [114] de fest.东方。,罗马,1719年至1728年,三,318 [114]德巨星。DNJX, I, vii, 101 DNJX,我七,101

[115] cf. [115]比照。Arnaldi, super transitu BMV, Genes 1879, I, c.Arnaldi,超途中墨西哥证券交易所,基因1879年,我角 I [116] Mém.我[116]纪念。 pour servir à l'histoire ecclés., I, 467-471 [117] Dict.倒servir à欧莱雅历史学埃克尔斯。,我,467-471 [117]快译通。de la Bible, art.德拉圣经,艺术。 Jean, Marie, Paris, 1846, II, 902; III, 975-976 [118] cf.牛仔布,Marie,巴黎,1846年,二,902;三,975-976 [118]参看。Le Camus, Les sept Eglises de l'Apocalypse, Paris, 1896, 131-133.乐加缪,莱斯九月莱塞格利斯德欧莱雅启示,巴黎,1896年,131-133。[119] cf.[119]比照。Polycrates, in Eusebius's Hist.波利克拉特斯,在尤西比乌斯的历史。Eccl., XIII, 31, PG, XX, 280 [120] In connection with this controversy, see Le Camus, Les sept Eglises de l'Apocalypse, Paris, 1896, pp. 133-135; Nirschl, Das Grab der hl. 。传道书,十三,31,前列腺素,第二十条,280 [120]关于这个争议,见乐加缪,莱斯九月莱塞格利斯德欧莱雅启示,巴黎,1896年,第133-135; Nirschl,达斯抓斗明镜HL时。Jungfrau, Mainz, 1900; P. Barnabé, Le tombeau de la Sainte Vierge a Jérusalem, Jerusalem, 1903; Gabriélovich, Le tombeau de la Sainte Vierge à Ephése, réponse au P. Barnabé, Paris, 1905.少女峰,美因茨,1900年;体育Barnabé,乐通博德拉圣维耶热耶路撒冷,耶路撒冷,1903年; Gabriélovich,乐通博德拉圣维耶热à Ephése,réponse区体育Barnabé,巴黎,1905年。

[121] hom. [121]坎。II in dormit.二,在dormit。BVM, 18 PG, XCVI, 748 [122] Handb.最高性价比,18编号,XCVI,748 [122] Handb。der Kath.德与Kath。Dogmat., Freiburg, 1875, III, 572 [123] de divinis Nomin., III, 2, PG, III, 690 [124] et.Dogmat。,弗赖堡,1875年,三,572 [123]德divinis Nomin。,三,二,前列腺素,三,690 [124]等。XXIX, 4, PL, LIV, 1044 [125] ep.第29届,4,特等,丽芙,1044 [125]集。CXXXIX, 1, 2, PL, LIV, 1103, 1105 [126] cf.CXXXIX,1,2,特等,丽芙,1103,1105 [126]参看。Assemani, Biblioth. Assemani,Biblioth。orient., III, 287 [127] Apoc.东方。,三,287 [127]载脂蛋白C。apocr., Mariae dormitio, Leipzig, 1856, p.apocr。,Mariae dormitio,莱比锡,1856年,第XXXIV [128] PG, V, 1231-1240; cf.三十四[128]前列腺素,五,1231至1240年;比照。Le Hir, Etudes bibliques, Paris, 1869, LI, 131-185乐的HIR,练习曲bibliques,巴黎,1869年,李,131-185

[129] PL, LIX, 152 [130] Guerin, Jerusalem, Paris, 1889, 346-350; Socin-Benzinger, Palastina und Syrien, Leipzig, 1891, pp. 90-91; Le Camus, Notre voyage aux pays bibliqes, Paris, 1894, I, 253 [131] PG, LXXXVI, 3288-3300 [132] Tobler, Itiner, Terr.[129]特等,LIX,152 [130]卡介苗,耶路撒冷,巴黎,1889年,346-350; Socin,齐杰,Palastina有限公司Syrien,莱比锡,1891年,第90-91;乐加缪,巴黎航行辅助自付bibliqes,巴黎,1894年,我,253 [131]编号,捌拾,3288-3300 [132]托布勒,Itiner,泰尔。sanct., Leipzig, 1867, I, 302 [133] Cf.sanct。,莱比锡,1867年,我,302 [133]参看。Zahn, Die Dormitio Sanctae Virginis und das Haus des Johannes Marcus, in Neue Kirchl.赞恩,模具Dormitio Sanctae室女座格豪斯有限公司德约翰内斯马库斯,在Neue Kirchl。Zeitschr., Leipzig, 1898, X, 5; Mommert, Die Dormitio, Leipzig, 1899; Séjourné, Le lieu de la dormition de la TS Vierge, in Revue biblique, 1899, pp.141-144; Lagrange, La dormition de la Sainte Vierge et la maison de Jean Marc, ibid., pp. 589, 600. Zeitschr,莱比锡,1898年,第十,5;。Mommert,模具Dormitio,莱比锡,1899年; Séjourné,在杂志乐柳堤香格里拉安息德拉的TS维耶热,biblique,1899年,pp.141 - 144;拉格朗日,香格里拉安息德拉圣维耶热等拉迈松在Jean马克,同上。,第589,600。[134] haer.[134] haer。 LXXVIII, 11, PG, XL, 716 [135] cf.第七十八号,11,前列腺素,加大码,716 [135]参看。Nirschl, Das Grab der hl. Nirschl,达斯抓斗明镜HL时。Jungfrau Maria, Mainz, 1896, 48 [136] Stromat.少女玛丽亚,美因茨,1896年,48 [136] Stromat。vi, 5六,五

[137] in Eus., Hist.[137]在超声内镜。,组织胺。eccl., I, 21 [138] The reader may consult also an article in the "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1906, pp. 201 sqq.传道书。,我,21 [138]读者还可以咨询在“杂志毛皮天主教神学”,1906年,第201 sqq的文章。 [139] ; cf.[139];比照。 "Zeitschrift fur katholische Theologie", 1878, 213.“杂志毛皮天主教神学”,1878年,213。[140] cf.[140]比照。Martigny, Dict.马蒂尼,快译通。 des antiq.德antiq。chrét., Paris, 1877, p. chrét。,巴黎,1877年,第792 [141] de Trinit.792 [141]德Trinit。VIII, 5, PL, XLII, 952 [142] cf.八,五,特等,四十二,952 [142]参看。Garucci, Vetri ornati di figure in oro, Rome, 1858 [143] cf.Garucci,Vetri ornati迪奥罗,罗马,1858年[143]参看图。 Martigny, Dict.马蒂尼,快译通。 das antiq.DAS的antiq。 chret., Paris, 1877, p. chret。,巴黎,1877年,第515 [144] cf.515 [144]参看。Marucchi, Elem.Marucchi,伊莱姆。d'archaeol.德考古。chret., Paris and Rome, 1899, I, 321; De Rossi, Imagini scelte della BV Maria, tratte dalle Catacombe Romane, Rome, 1863 [145] adv.。chret,巴黎和罗马,1899年,我,321;德罗西,Imagini scelte德拉BV的玛丽亚,tratte装饰板Catacombe Romane,罗马,1863年[145]地。haer., V, 17, PG VIII, 1175 haer。,五,17,前列腺素八,1175

The works treating the various questions concerning the name, the birth, the life, and the death of Mary, have been cited in the corresponding parts of this article.工程处理的各种问题有关姓名,出生,生活,和玛丽的死亡,已在本文章中的相应部分引用。We add here only a few names of writers, or of collectors of works of a more general character: BOURASSE, Summa aurea de laudibus B. Mariae Virginis, omnia complectens quae de gloriosa Virgine Deipara reperiuntur (13 vols., Paris, 1866); KURZ, Mariologie oder Lehre der katholischen Kirche uber die allerseligste Jungfrau Maria (Ratisbon, 1881); MARACCI, Bibliotheca Mariana (Rome, 1648); IDEM, Polyanthea Mariana, republished in Summa Aurea, vols IX and X; LEHNER, Die Marienerehrung in den ersten Jahrhunderten (2nd ed., Stuttgart, 1886).我们这里只添加几个作家的名字,或以一个更一般性的作品收藏:BOURASSE,总结罗非鱼德laudibus乙Mariae室女座,OMNIA公司complectens quae德格洛里萨Virgine Deipara reperiuntur(。13卷,巴黎,1866年);库尔兹,Mariologie奥德Lehre明镜katholischen教堂尤伯杯死allerseligste少女玛丽亚(拉蒂斯邦,1881年); MARACCI,书目马里亚纳(罗马,1648年),同上,Polyanthea马里亚纳,在总结金叶再版,第一卷第九和第十,雷纳,模具在书房Marienerehrung ersten Jahrhunderten(第二版。,斯图加特,1886年)。


Mary Magdalene, Magdala抹大拉的玛利亚,抹大拉

General Information一般资料

Saint Mary Magdalene, in the New Testament, is a woman so named from Magdala, a town near Tiberias (now in Israel).圣玛丽抹大拉,在新约,是如此的抹大拉,太巴列附近的一个小镇(今以色列)命名的女人。 Jesus healed her of evil spirits (see Luke 8:2) and, following her vigil at the foot of the cross (see Mark 15:40), he appeared to her after his resurrection (see Matthew 28:9).耶稣治好了她的邪灵(见路加福音8:2),按照她在十字架(见马克15:40)脚守夜,他似乎对她后,他的复活(见马太28:9)。 Mary Magdalene was identified by Pope Gregory I with a sinful woman described as having anointed the Lord's feet (see Luke 7:37-38) and with Mary the sister of Martha, who also anointed Jesus (see John 12:3), although the Gospels support neither tradition. The Eastern church maintains the distinction between the three. The feast day of Mary Magdalene is July 22.抹大拉的玛丽被确定由罗马教皇格雷戈里我作为有膏主的脚(见路加福音7:37-38),并与玛丽的妹妹玛莎,谁也受膏者耶稣(见约翰福音12:3)描述了一个罪孽深重的女人,虽然福音既不支持的传统。 东部教会保持三个区别的。节日的玛丽抹大拉的是7月22日。



Also, see:此外,见:
Mariology mariology
Assumption 假设
Immaculate Conception圣母无染原罪瞻礼
Virgin Birth维尔京诞生

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