General Information一般资料

(This presentation primarily discusses Roman Catholic perspectives on the Eucharist. At the end of this presentation are links to Protestant and Jewish persectives, and a more general presentation on the Eucharist that includes presentation of the Orthodox perspective.) (本文主要讨论了罗马天主教的圣体的观点。在本月底提交的是新教和犹太教persectives环节,对圣体更具有一般性介绍,其中包含介绍正统的角度)。

The central religious service of the Roman Catholic church, Mass is the celebration of the sacrament of the Eucharist, the rite instituted by Jesus Christ at the Last Supper. Some Lutherans and Anglicans also refer to the Eucharist as Mass. Based on the medieval Latin liturgy of Rome, the Mass takes its name from the Latin missa (dismissed), referring to the practice of dismissing the catechumens before the offertory. 中央天主教罗马的宗教服务,质量是最后的晚餐庆祝圣餐的仪式在圣体中,提起由耶稣基督。一些lutherans和圣公会也指作为马萨诸塞州的圣体礼仪基于中世纪拉丁文罗马,地下考虑其名称源于拉丁文弥撒(驳回),指的是解雇前offertory慕道的做法。 In the Eastern churches, the Mass is called the Holy Liturgy or the Offering.在东方教会,地下被称为神圣礼仪或发售。Catholics believe that consecration of the eucharistic elements of bread and wine transforms their substances into those of Jesus' body and blood; this doctrine is called transubstantiation.天主教徒认为,面包和酒的圣体元素奉献转化为耶稣的身体和血液的他们的物质,这种学说被称为陷于。 Catholics are required to attend Sunday Mass as a minimum of public worship.天主教徒必须参加公共崇拜作为一种最低主日弥撒。

The two chief parts of the Mass are the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist.大众的两个主要部分的Word礼仪和圣体礼仪。The first consists primarily of two or three Scripture readings, a homily following the Gospel reading, and general intercessions or prayers of the faithful.第一个主要由两个或三个读经的经文,一读福音讲道后,一般交涉或祈祷的信徒。The main actions of the second part are the preparation of the altar and gifts, eucharistic prayer, breaking of bread, and communion.第二部分的主要行动的祭坛和礼品,圣体圣事祷告,擘饼,与共融的准备。The Lord's Prayer is recited at the end of the eucharistic prayer and is followed by the exchange of the sign of peace.主祷文是在圣体圣事祈祷结束后,由背诵的和平标志交换。Introductory rites, including an entrance song, penitential rite, and opening prayer, precede the Word liturgy, and a concluding rite follows communion.入门仪式,其中包括一个入口歌曲,悔罪的仪式,开幕祈祷,先在Word礼仪,并总结如下圣餐仪式。

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The structure of the Mass has remained fairly constant since the 2d century, although some local variations existed until modern times.该岩体结构一直相当恒定2世纪以来,尽管一些地方存在着的变化,直到近代。In the Roman rite Mass was celebrated in Latin from an early period until the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, which allowed for the use of vernacular languages, and which emphasized congregational singing and permitted communion in the forms of both bread and wine (previously the congregation had received only the bread).在罗马弥撒仪式庆祝从早期直到第二次梵蒂冈会议,这使得对于使用本地语言,并强调这两个面包和酒的形式(以前的公理唱歌,并允许在拉美的改革共融众只收到的面包)。 The new Order of Mass of 1969 is one of the chief reforms stemming from the Council. 1969年群众对新秩序是从安理会制止行政改革之一。

LL Mitchell当地雇员米切尔

Bibliography 参考书目
Jungmann, Joseph, The Mass of the Roman Rite (1951); Klauser, Theodor, A Short History of the Western Liturgy, 2d ed.Jungmann,约瑟夫,罗马成年礼(1951)质量; Klauser,西奥多,中西方礼仪中,2版简史。(1979); McManus, Frederick, ed., Thirty Years of Liturgical Renewal (1987); Patino, JM, ed., The New Order of Mass (1970). (1979年);麦克马纳斯,冯检,海关,第三礼仪重建(1987)年;。。帕蒂诺,谟,教育署,大众新秩序(1970年)。


General Information一般资料

High Mass is sung, with a Priest, a Deacon and a sub-Deacon participating. 高质量是唱,有牧师,执事和子迪肯参加。

Low Mass is spoken, not sung, with only a Priest and server participating. 低质量的发言,不唱参与,只有一名牧师和服务器。


General Information一般资料

Mass is the ritual of chants, readings, prayers, and other ceremonies used in the celebration of the Eucharist in the Roman Catholic church.质量是圣歌,读,祈祷,并在圣体圣事在罗马天主教会的庆祝活动中使用的其他庆典仪式。The same name is used in high Anglican churches.使用相同的名称在高圣公会教堂。Other Protestant churches call this ritual Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper ; Eastern Orthodox churches call it the Divine Liturgy .其他新教教会称之为圣餐仪式或上帝的晚餐 ;东正教教堂称之为神圣礼仪 The word mass comes from the Latin missa ("sent").质量这个词来(“发送”)源于拉丁文弥撒。It was taken from the formula for dismissing the congregation: Ite, missa est ("Go, the Eucharist has been sent forth"), referring to the ancient custom of sending consecrated bread from the bishop's Mass to other churches in Rome to symbolize that church's unity with the bishop in the celebration of the Mass.这是从公式解雇众:伊特,弥撒的EST(“去吧,圣体已被送往出来”),指的是发送罗马主教的群众奉献面包别的教会古老的习俗,象征着教会的团结,在主教的弥撒庆典

Forms of the Mass形式的群众

The earliest form of the celebration of the Mass was the domestic Eucharist.该庆祝活动的群众最早的形式是国内圣体。Archaeological evidence shows that from the 3rd to the 4th century, Christian communities celebrated Mass in large homes.考古证据显示,从3至4世纪,基督教社区群众庆祝大家园。The local bishop presided over this Eucharist.当地主教主持了圣体。After Emperor Constantine the Great's Edict of Toleration (313 AD), public buildings - called basilicas - were adapted to the celebration of the bishop's Eucharist.经过皇帝君士坦丁大帝的宽容敕令(313年),公共建筑-所谓的大教堂 -圣体是适应庆祝主教的。 As the church grew and the number of individual churches increased, presbyters attached to these churches came to lead the celebration.由于教堂和教会人数增长的个人增加,教会长老来连接到这些领导的庆祝活动。 Eventually, these presbyters became known as sacerdotes ("priests"; see Priest).最终,这些长老被称为sacerdotes(“祭司”,见牧师)。

Before the 8th century, the only form of the Mass was the public Mass, celebrated by a bishop or priest with a congregation.前8世纪,大众的唯一形式是公众弥撒,由主教或​​神父与众庆祝。 In its solemn form ( High Mass ), most parts are sung.在其庄严的形式( 高大众 ),大部分地区都唱。In its most elaborate form, the papal Mass , the pope is assisted by the papal nobility, Latin and Eastern Rite deacons, the papal court, and numerous other functionaries.在其最详细的表格, 教皇弥撒 ,教宗是协助教皇贵族,拉丁美洲和东欧礼执事,教皇法庭,以及众多的其他工作。The pontifical Mass (solemn Mass of a bishop) is less elaborate, although besides deacons, subdeacons, thurifers (incense bearers), and acolytes, the bishop is also assisted by his familia (family), assistants who are responsible for taking care of his regalia (solemn vestments) and insignia (miter, crosier, and pontifical cross).主教) 教皇弥撒的质量 (庄严的一少细,虽然除了执事,耶稣,thurifers(香旗手)和追随者,主教也福美来协助他(家庭),助手是谁负责照顾他的富豪 (庄严法衣)和徽章 (斜切,权杖,以及圣座交叉)。The solemn parish, or monastic, Mass is celebrated with deacon and subdeacon.庄严的教区,或寺院,质量是庆祝执事和subdeacon。The simplest form of sung Mass is celebrated by one priest, with the assistance of acolytes and thurifer.宋群众的最简单的形式是由一个著名的牧师,在追随者和thurifer援助。In daily celebrations, a simpler form is used in which all parts of the Mass are read by one priest.在日常生活庆祝,一个简单的形式中使用的所有部分的群众是由一个牧师读。This is the Missa Lecta ("read Mass"), or Low Mass.这是弥撒勒克塔 (“读质量”),或低马萨诸塞州

Beginning in the 8th century, the private Mass evolved in the monasteries of northern Europe.在8世纪初,私营质量演变欧洲北部的寺院。Monks were originally laity, and they relied on local priests for their sacramental needs or ordained some of their own members for those needs.和尚本来俗人,他们依靠当地牧师为他们的需要或祝圣为那些需要自己的一些成员。 Beginning in the 8th century, British and Irish monks were ordained for the missionary work of converting the tribes of northern Europe that had been subdued by Charlemagne and his successors.在8世纪初,英国和爱尔兰僧侣被祝圣为转换的北欧已经由查理曼和他的继任者制服部落传教。By the 11th century (after the great missionary age), the growing monasteries of northern Europe continued to ordain their monks; so the number of priests eventually far exceeded the sacramental needs of the monks.到11世纪(后伟大的传教士岁),北欧的增长继续向阿拉维的寺庙僧人,所以最终的祭司人数远远超过了僧侣的圣需求。Thus, the practice of private daily celebration of Mass grew until, by the 12th century, it was common.因此,私人执业群众日常庆祝增长,直到到了12世纪,这是常见的。

Parts of the Mass部分群众

By the 6th century the parts of the Mass were relatively fixed.到6世纪的大批量的部分是相对固定的。Six principal sections can be distinguished.六个主要部分可以加以区别。

Liturgical Books礼仪书籍

Before the 13th century a variety of liturgical books were used in the celebration of the Mass. The choir used the Graduale (for the Gradual chant) and Antiphonale (for the responsive processional chants at the Entrance, Offertory, Communion, and Recessional). 13世纪前一各种书籍的礼仪中使用了Graduale庆祝弥撒的合唱团所使用的(对于渐进咏)和Antiphonale(圣歌的反应列队在门口,奉献,交流和退缩)。 The subdeacon used the Apostolus (letters of the New Testament), the deacons the Evangelarium (Gospel) , and the presiding celebrant the Sacramentarium, which contained all the prayers of the Mass. As the practice of private Mass grew, the various liturgical texts were gathered into one book for the priest who performed all the parts of the Mass alone.该subdeacon使用Apostolus(约字母的新),执事的Evangelarium(福音),及投票站的Sacramentarium其中载有所有的群众实践的私人祈祷的弥撒随着增长,各种礼仪文本进行收集到一个神父谁执行的所有部分的群众单独的书。 This book, called the missal , contained all the prayers, readings, and chants of the Mass. The various missals used since the 13th century were standardized in an official text, the Roman missal (1570), which was issued by order of the Council of Trent.这本书,叫做missal,包含所有的祈祷,阅读和圣歌的马萨诸塞州的13世纪以来的各种missals所用文字标准化一官员说, 罗马missal(1570),这是安理会发出的命令遄达。Earlier, in 1298, papal and episcopal ceremonies had been standardized in the Roman pontifical .此前,在1298年,罗马教皇和主教仪式已在罗马宗座标准化。The Roman missal and the Roman pontifical have been revised several times over the centuries.罗马missal和罗马教皇已修订了数百年几次。

The Second Vatican Council (1962-65) introduced a number of changes into the celebration of Mass. The council returned to the ancient practice of calling this sacrament and its celebration by the same name: the Eucharist .第二次梵蒂冈会议(1962-1965)介绍了名称相同的数字变成了庆祝庆祝马萨诸塞州及其安理会回到了古老的圣实践呼唤这样的: 圣体The principal liturgical changes include the introduction of vernacular languages into the Eucharist, the return to the custom of allowing the laity to receive both bread and wine, and the reintroduction of the practice of concelebration.礼仪的主要变化包括方言入圣体,对容许俗人接收面包和酒,和实践的concelebration放归自定义返回的介绍。