Miracle奇迹

General Information一般资料

A miracle is an event occurring within human experience in which the hitherto observed operations of nature appear to be overruled or suspended; such events are usually ascribed to the intervention of divine power. In Judaism and Islam miracles are regarded as signs of the omnipotence of God. Many events are recorded in the Old Testament that are considered miraculous. 一个奇迹是一个事件发生暂停经验,其中在人类迄今观察到的行动的性质似乎被推翻或;这些事件通常归因于的神圣权力的干预。在犹太教和伊斯兰教的奇迹看作是万能的迹象。 许多神奇的事件记录在旧约的考虑。Two of these, in particular the Exodus from Egypt and the division of the waters of the Red Sea, became the symbols of all God's deliverances in history, the theme of much Jewish literature, and the hope of the Jewish future. 这两个,特别是外流,从埃及和海司的红色的水域,成为历史上的符号在所有神deliverances,文献主题多犹太人,对未来充满希望的犹太人。

The New Testament records numerous miracles, frequently acts of healing, performed by Jesus Christ. They are presented by the gospel writers as gesta Christi, the works of the Messiah, and were regarded as part of the proclamation of the kingdom of God, designed to awaken repentance and turn people toward God rather than to provoke mere wonder. The supreme miracles of Christianity are the Incarnation (God becoming man) and the Resurrection (the raising of Jesus Christ from the dead). 新约圣经记载耶稣基督的无数奇迹,经常进行愈合行为。它们提交的弥赛亚的福音作家的作品gesta基督,并以设计为把一部分王国的宣讲,神唤醒忏悔,把上帝的子民,而不是挑起对单纯的奇迹。 奇迹基督教的最高法院是化身(神成为人)和复活(死者提高耶稣基督从)。On these two miracles rests the historic faith of the Christian church. 在这两个奇迹在于信仰的基督教教堂的历史。

Rationalist philosophers, most notably David Hume, have attacked the concept of miracle; Hume argued that a miracle would be a violation of the common course of nature and, therefore, cannot happen.理性主义哲学家,最显着的大卫休谟,袭击了奇迹般的概念;休谟认为,一个奇迹将是一个大自然的共同课程侵犯,因此,不可能发生。 One response to Hume's argument is that it presupposes that human knowledge of "nature's laws" is complete. Saint Augustine defined a miracle not as something "opposed to nature" but as something opposed only to "what is known of nature."一种反应,以休谟的说法是,它的前提是法律“人类知识的”自然的就完成了。 圣奥古斯丁定义一个奇迹而不是什么“反自然”的东西,但不是唯一的“什么是自然知道了。”

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Roman Catholic orthodoxy teaches that miracles still take place, as in every previous century. 罗马天主教的正统教导我们,上个世纪的奇迹仍然需要地方,在每个。Certain places, such as Lourdes, are associated with miraculous healings.某些地方,如卢尔德,都与神奇的医治。The Roman Catholic church also requires attestation of miracles as a basic condition for Canonization.罗马天主教教会也需要作为一个经典的基本条件奇迹认证。In the Protestant churches and in the Charismatic Movement there has been a recent revival of interest in divine healing.在新教教会和魅力的运动发生了兴趣,在最近复兴的神圣愈合。

Charles W. Ranson查尔斯W兰森

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Moule, Charles F., ed., Miracles: Cambridge Studies in Their Philosophy and History (1965); Swinburne, Richard, The Concept of Miracle (1971).莫尔,查尔斯楼,教育署,奇迹:剑桥大学研究他们的哲学和历史(1965年);斯温伯恩,理查德的奇迹概念(1971年)。。


A List of Miracles Mentioned in the Bible一个的奇迹在圣经中提到的名单

General Information一般资料

An event in the external world brought about by the immediate agency or the simple volition of God, operating without the use of means capable of being discerned by the senses, and designed to authenticate the divine commission of a religious teacher and the truth of his message (John 2:18; Matt. 12:38).在外部世界的事件所带来的直接机构或神的意志的简单,没有使用的手段被察觉的感官,设计验证教师神圣的宗教事务监察委员会及他的信息真实经营能力(约翰2:18;。马特12:38)。 It is an occurrence at once above nature and above man.这是一个在自然之上及以上的人曾发生。It shows the intervention of a power that is not limited by the laws either of matter or of mind, a power interrupting the fixed laws which govern their movements, a supernatural power.它显示了一个不被任何物质或精神的法律,一个电源中断的管理他们的行动,一种超自然的力量固定的法律权力有限的干预。 "The suspension or violation of the laws of nature involved in miracles is nothing more than is constantly taking place around us. One force counteracts another: vital force keeps the chemical laws of matter in abeyance; and muscular force can control the action of physical force. When a man raises a weight from the ground, the law of gravity is neither suspended nor violated, but counteracted by a stronger force. The same is true as to the walking of Christ on the water and the swimming of iron at the command of the prophet. The simple and grand truth that the universe is not under the exclusive control of physical forces, but that everywhere and always there is above, separate from and superior to all else, an infinite personal will, not superseding, but directing and controlling all physical causes, acting with or without them." 。“暂停或参与的奇迹是违反自然规律的无非是不断正在我们周围发生一种力量抵消另:重要力量保持在暂时搁置化学物质的法律;和肌肉力量可以控制物理力的作用。当一个人提出了一个从地面重量,万有引力定律,也不违反既不是暂停,而是由一个更强大的力量抵消。同样是真实的,上的水上步行基督和铁在命令游泳先知。简单而隆重的真理,即宇宙是没有根据的独家控制的物质力量,但无处不在,始终存在以上,不同于和优于一切,无限的个人意愿,而不是取代,但指挥和控制所有的物理原因,或者没有他们行事。“

God ordinarily effects his purpose through the agency of second causes; but he has the power also of effecting his purpose immediately and without the intervention of second causes, ie, of invading the fixed order, and thus of working miracles.神一般的影响,通过代理的第二个原因他的目的,但他有他的目的影响立即无条件的第二个原因,即侵略的固定程序,从而干预的权力,工作的奇迹也。 Thus we affirm the possibility of miracles, the possibility of a higher hand intervening to control or reverse nature's ordinary movements.因此,我们肯定奇迹的可能性,提出了更高的干预以控制或扭转性质的普通运动手的可能性。

In the New Testament these four Greek words are principally used to designate miracles:在新约这四个希腊字主要用于指定奇迹:

Miracles are seals of a divine mission.奇迹是海豹的神圣使命。The sacred writers appealed to them as proofs that they were messengers of God.神圣的作家呼吁他们作为证明,他们是上帝的使者。 Our Lord also appealed to miracles as a conclusive proof of his divine mission (John 5:20, 36; 10:25, 38).我们的主还呼吁奇迹作为他的神圣使命的确凿证据(约翰福音5:20,36; 10:25,38)。Thus, being out of the common course of nature and beyond the power of man, they are fitted to convey the impression of the presence and power of God.因此,作为对自然和人的力量超出了公共课的时候,他们均设有传达神的存在和权力的印象。Where miracles are there certainly God is.哪里有奇迹一定神。The man, therefore, who works a miracle affords thereby clear proof that he comes with the authority of God; they are his credentials that he is God's messenger.该名男子,因此,谁的作品能提供一个奇迹,从而清楚地证明,他与上帝的权威来,他们是他的证书,他是上帝的使者。 The teacher points to these credentials, and they are a proof that he speaks with the authority of God.老师点这些凭据,他们是一个证明他与上帝的权威说话。He boldly says, "God bears me witness, both with signs and wonders, and with diverse miracles."他大胆地说,“上帝熊我作证,都与神迹奇事,并与不同的奇迹。”

The credibility of miracles is established by the evidence of the senses on the part of those who are witnesses of them, and to all others by the testimony of such witnesses.奇迹的信誉是建立在对这些谁是他们的感官证据的证人的一部分,以及所有其他由这些证人的证词。The witnesses were competent, and their testimony is trustworthy.这些证人是主管,他们的证词是可靠的。Unbelievers, following Hume, deny that any testimony can prove a miracle, because they say miracles are impossible.不信道,继休谟,否认有任何证据可以证明一个奇迹,因为他们说,奇迹是不可能的。We have shown that miracles are possible, and surely they can be borne witness to.我们已经表明,奇迹是可能的,他们肯定可以见证。Surely they are credible when we have abundant and trustworthy evidence of their occurrence.他们肯定是可信的,当我们有丰富的和可信赖其发生的证据。They are credible just as any facts of history well authenticated are credible.他们就像是可信的历史事实是任何可信的良好验证。 Miracles, it is said, are contrary to experience.奇迹,这是说,违背了经验。Of course they are contrary to our experience, but that does not prove that they were contrary to the experience of those who witnessed them.他们当然是违反我们的经验,但这并不能证明他们违反了这些谁目睹他们的经验。 We believe a thousand facts, both of history and of science, that are contrary to our experience, but we believe them on the ground of competent testimony.我们相信,无论是历史和科学一千事实,这是违反我们的经验,但我们相信在主管证词地上。An atheist or a pantheist must, as a matter of course, deny the possibility of miracles; but to one who believes in a personal God, who in his wisdom may see fit to interfere with the ordinary processes of nature, miracles are not impossible, nor are they incredible.一名无神论者或泛神论者必须作为理所当然的事,否认奇迹的可能性,但是对于某个人谁相信上帝,谁在他认为合适的智慧可能干扰大自然的普通进程,奇迹不是不可能的,他们也不是不可思议的。

Miracles Recorded in the Old Testament奇迹旧约中记载

Miracles Recorded in the Gospels在福音记录奇迹

Peculiar to Matthew特有的马修

Peculiar to Mark特有的标记

Peculiar to Luke特有的卢克

Peculiar to John特有的约翰

Common to Matthew and Mark常见的马修和马克

Common to Matthew and Luke常见的马修和卢克

Common to Mark and Luke常见马克和卢克

Common to Matthew, Mark and Luke共同的马太,马克和卢克

Common to Matthew, Mark and John共同的马太,马克和约翰

Common to all the evangelists共同所有的福音

In addition to the above miracles wrought by Christ, there are four miraculous events connected with his life -除了上述的基督带来的奇迹,也有与他的生命连结的4不可思议的事件 -

(Eastman's Bible Dictionary)(伊士曼的圣经字典)

Editor's Note: This listing contains either 35 or 39 distinct Miracles performed by Jesus and witnessed by apparently credible witnesses.编者注:此列表包含任何35岁或39耶稣和执行显然是可信的见证人在场见证奇迹明显。Some critics of Christianity suggest that Jesus was merely a Prophet, similar to a number of others throughout history; however, there does not seem to be credible evidence that any of those Prophets were involved with more than one or two Miracles, and in those cases, it seems reasonable that the Lord actually performed such Miracles for specific purposes.一些评论家认为,基督教,耶稣只是一个先知,类似于其他一些在整个历史,但是人们似乎没有可信的证据表明,那些先知任何人与​​一个或两个以上的奇迹参与,而在这些案件中,似乎合理的主实际执行的具体用途,如奇迹。 The large number of Miracles associated with Jesus seems to give evidence toward regarding Jesus as Divine, and not just a Prophet.与耶稣有关的奇迹似乎给大量证据,对耶稣视为神圣的,不只是一位先知。

In the thousands of years of the Old Testament, around 55 Miracles were witnessed and described.在数千年的旧约,约55人目睹了奇迹和描述。In His three-year public Ministry, and specifically during the final months of it, witnesses saw and recorded at least 35 Miracles He performed.在他为期三年的公共事务部,特别在它的最后几个月,目击者看到并记录至少35个奇迹他的表现。This seems significant.这似乎显着。


Miracle奇迹

Advanced Information先进的信息

It is sometimes claimed that the culture of the late twentieth century is "post-Christian."人们有时声称,二十世纪后期文化是“后基督教”。Those who put forward this claim point out that while the presuppositions and concepts of the historic Christian faith remain intelligible to modern man, they are no longer foundational to our world view.这些谁提出了这点,而索赔的前提和历史悠久的基督教信仰概念仍然对现代人的理解,他们不再是我们的世界观的基石。They claim that man has now "come of age," that we now have a scientific and empirical world view that is obviously linked up with reality and which cannot take miracles seriously.他们声称,那人已经“走向成熟,”我们现在有一个科学的世界观和经验,显然是与现实联系起来并不能创造奇迹重视。 In fact, this perspective finds the biblical emphasis on miracles to be somewhat offensive.事实上,这种观点找到了圣经的奇迹重点是有点攻势。

It is clear that orthodox Christians cannot accept this world view with its suspicion of miracles.很显然,东正教基督徒不能接受这个奇迹怀疑其世界观。Belief in miracles lies at the heart of authentic Christian faith.奇迹信仰位于地道的基督教信仰的核心。Without the miracle of the first Easter, Christianity would no doubt long since have passed from the scene, and would certainly not be around to offend the "modern" man.如果没有第一个复活​​节奇迹,基督教无疑早已从现场通过,一定不会得罪周围的“现代”的男人。

It should be equally clear, however, that this world view is a part of the cultural milieu in which modern Christians find themselves.它应该是同样明显的,但是,这个世界的看法是一种文化氛围中,现代基督徒发现自己的一部分。Understanding the role of miracles in the genesis and spread of our faith is therefore an imperative for today's Christian.了解的发生和传播我们的信仰创造奇迹的作用,因此对于今天的基督教势在必行。

Unlike the modern world, the ancient world was not suspicious of miracles.不像现代世界,古代世界没有可疑的奇迹。They were regarded as a normal, if somewhat extraordinary, part of life.他们被视为正常的,如果有点特殊,生活的一部分。Ancient people typically believed not only that supernatural powers existed, but also that they intervened in human affairs.古代人们通常认为,不仅是神通存在,但同时他们在人类事务中进行了干预。Miracles, then, did not present a problem to the early Christians as they attempted to explain and relate their faith to the culture around them.奇迹,那么,并没有提出一个问题,早期的基督徒,因为他们试图解释和有关他们的信仰他​​们的周围的文化。

In understanding miracles it is important to bear in mind that the biblical concept of a miracle is that of an event which runs counter to the observed processes of nature.在了解奇迹重要的是要牢记的一个奇迹圣经中的概念是,一个事件,违背了大自然的观察过程。The word "observed" is particularly important here.这个“观察”在这里尤为重要。This was emphasized as early as Augustine, who stated in his City of God that Christians must not teach that miracles are events which run counter to nature, but rather that they are events which run counter to what is known of nature.强调了这一点如奥古斯丁,谁在他的上帝之城说,基督徒不能告诉我们,奇迹是背道而驰的事件的性质,而是他们的事件违背什么是自然界已知的早期。 Our knowledge of nature is a limited knowledge.我们对自然的认识是有限的知识。Clearly there may be higher laws which remain unknown to man.显然,这可能会高于法律一无所知的人。In any case, miracles are not correctly conceived of as irrational disruptions of the pattern of nature, but as only the known part of that pattern.在任何情况下,奇迹是没有正确理解为大自然的格局不合理的中断,但只有该模式已知的一部分。This understanding of the biblical conception may well erode some of contemporary man's objections to miracles.这个概念理解的圣经可能削弱当代人的反对一些奇迹。It is purely a corrective to the erroneous view that miracles are complete violations of nature.这纯粹是一个纠正的错误观点,奇迹是自然的完整的侵犯。

Biblical miracles have a clear objective: they are intended to bring the glory and love of God into bold relief.圣经的奇迹有一个明确的目标:他们的目的是使大胆救济的荣耀和神的爱。They are intended, among other things, to draw man's attention away from the mundane events of everyday life and direct it toward the mighty acts of God.他们的目的是,除其他事项外,提请人的注意力从日常生活的世俗事件,直接对神的大能的作为了。

In the context of the OT, miracles are viewed as the direct intervention of God in human affairs, and they are unquestionably linked to his redemptive activity on behalf of man.在加时赛中,奇迹被看作是上帝在人类事务的直接干预,他们无疑是与他在代表人类救赎的活动。They help to demonstrate that biblical religion is not concerned with abstract theories about God's power, but with actual historical manifestations and experiences of that power.他们帮助证明圣经宗教是不关心对上帝的力量抽象的理论,但与实际的历史表现和权力的经验。The most significant miracle of the OT is God's action on behalf of the Hebrews in opening up the Red Sea as they escaped the Egyptians.的催产素最重要的奇迹,是神对希伯来人的名义采取行动,开放红海,他们逃脱了埃及人。 This miracle is the centerpiece of Hebrew history and of OT religion.这个奇迹是希伯来文旧约历史和宗教的中心。It is a demonstration of God's power and love in action.这是上帝的力量和行动上的爱的示范。And this action became the theme of much of the Hebrew religion and literature which came after it.这一行动成为了希伯来宗教与文学的主题后,来了很多。It was the Hebrew view that man does not know the being of God so much as he knows the acts of God.这是希伯来文认为,人不知道上帝的存在这么多,因为他知道上帝的行为。God is therefore known as he acts on man's behalf, and the miracle at the Red Sea is the paradigm of God's acting.因此,被称为神,他的行为对人的代表,并在红海奇迹,是神的表演模式。

This emphasis on miracles as the redemptive activity of God is continued in the NT, where they are a part of the proclamation of the good news that God has acted ultimately on man's behalf in the coming of Jesus Christ into history.这对作为上帝救赎的活动重点是继续创造奇迹,在新台币,在那里它们是过去的好消息宣布,上帝已经采取行动的人的代表最终在耶稣基督的未来成为​​历史的一部分。 Miracles are a manifestation of the power that God will use to restore all of creation ot its proper order, to restore the image of God in man to its full expression, and to destroy death.奇迹是上帝的力量,将用于恢复所有的创造逾其应有的秩序,恢复其在人,充分体现了神的形象,并摧毁死亡的体现。Again we see the theme of biblical religion as centered not on theory but on action.我们再次看到了圣经宗教的主题,集中于理论,而是在行动,而不是。

The central miracleof the NT, indeed of the Judeo-Christian Scriptures, is the resurrection of Christ.的NT中央奇迹确实是犹太教和基督教的圣经,是基督的复活。Every book in the NT canon either proclaims or assumes the resurrection of Christ on the third day after his crucifixion.每个新台币佳能书或者宣告或承担基督在十字架上后,他第三天复活。It is discussed thoroughly in each Gospel and is declared by Paul in I Cor.这是彻底讨论每个福音,是由保罗宣布我肺心病。 15 to be the keystone of Christian faith.15日是基督教信仰的基石。The reference to it in I Corinthians is much earlier (in date) than those of the Gospels.与它的参考哥林多前书远早于福音者(日期)。

When the ancient acceptance of miracles is considered along with the wholly depressing circumstances surrounding the ending of Jesus' mission on the first Good Friday, it can be seen that the best evidence for the resurrection is the existence, energy, and growth of the early church itself.当古老的奇迹接受是完全令人沮丧的认为与周围的耶稣受难节的第一个mission结束的情况下沿,可以看出,在复活最好的证据是存在的,能源,和早期教会增长本身。 After the crucifixion the apostles were utterly defeated persons, and their movement was sputtering to a humiliating stop.受难后的使徒被彻底打败的人,他们的运动是溅射的屈辱停止。They were completely without hope after watching Jesus die as a criminal.他们是完全没有希望看完耶稣死于犯罪。Yet within a few weeks these same men were boldly proclaiming Christ's resurrection to the very people who had brought about the condemnation of Christ.然而,在几周内这些相同的男子大胆地宣称基督的复活到谁曾谴责对基督带来的人。They were preaching that Jesus was the risen Lord to any and to all.他们鼓吹耶稣是复活的主的任何和所有。And these apostles were normal, rational, sane men.而这些使徒是正常的,理性的,理智的人。Individually and corporately they had undergone a dramatic change after the crucifixion, from depressed, insecure, and despairing men to confident and bold preachers.单独和corporately他们经历了一个从低迷后,受难,不安全戏剧性的变化,并自信和大胆的传教士绝望的男人。 Surely it is reasonable, on almost any criterion of reasonableness, to consider that witnessing the risen Christ was what brought about this dramatic change.毫无疑问,这是合理的几乎任何合理的标准,要考虑到见证复活的基督是个怎样的人带来了戏剧性的变化。It should also be noted that one of the earliest acts of Christian worship was the breaking of bread with its attendant symbolism of Christ's broken body.还应当指出,最早的基督教崇拜行为之一是与它的面包,基督的破体服务员象征打破。This phenomenon would be unexplainable without the knowledge of the risen Christ, unless, that is, one wishes to dismiss the early apostles as irrational masochists, which they clearly were not.这种现象将无法解释没有认识基督的复活,除非,就是一要辞退不合理受虐狂,他们显然没有早期的使徒。

It should be clear then that the central miracle of NT religion is the resurrection of Christ.应当明确在那时,中央新台币宗教奇迹,是基督的复活。Without this miracle the early church would not have come into being, and we who live in the twentieth century would no doubt never have heard of the other NT miracles.如果没有这个奇迹的早期教会不会便应运而生,我们谁住在二十世纪无疑将永远不会有其他新台币奇迹听到。Indeed, we would probably never have heard of Jesus of Nazareth, who would have been forgotten along with hundreds of other obscure preachers and miracle workers who wandered about the ancient Middle East.事实上,我们可能从来没有听说过耶稣的拿撒勒,谁就会被遗忘与其他传教士和奇迹的工人晦涩谁对数百个古老的中东漫步沿。

The Gospels teach that the significance of all the miracles of Christ is that they are the prophesied works of the Messiah.福音教导说,所有基督奇迹的意义在于,他们是弥赛亚预言作品。 The miracles are signs rather than merely wonderful works.有迹象的奇迹,而不仅仅是美好的作品。They are, however, signs only to those who have the spiritual discernment to recognize them as such.但他们却是,只有那些谁拥有的精神标志,以识别它们承认等。Without the enlightenment that accompanies Christian commitment they are only "wonders," or wonderful works, and their true theological significance cannot be recognized.如果没有伴随着基督教的启示,他们只承诺“奇迹”,或精彩作品,其真正的神学意义不能被识别。

Belief in the biblical miracles has always been a central feature of Christian faith, and this remains the case in the twentieth century.信仰圣经的奇迹一直是基督教信仰的中心功能,这仍然是在二十世纪的情况。Christian faith is informed by the revelation of God to man in Scripture and in the mighty acts recorded there.基督教信仰是通报了在圣经启示上帝给男人和记录有强大的行为。Christian faith is not to be conformed to the culture around it but is intended to be a transforming influence in the midst of its cultural milieu.基督教信仰是不能符合它周围的文化,但目的是在其文化氛围之中转化的影响。 The continuing work of the church in the world may itself be viewed as evidence for the truth of the biblical concept of miracle.该教会继续在世界上的工作本身可能被视为为概念的奇迹圣经真理的证据。Certainly the Christian's experience of God as Redeemer and Sustainer is the experience of miracle.当然,基督教的上帝救世主和维持者的经验是奇迹的经验。It renders the posture of skepticism untenable.它呈现的怀疑站不住脚的姿态。

JD Spiceland法学博士什皮采兰
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CS Lewis, Miracles; CFD Moule, Miracles; HH Farmer, Are Miracles Possible? CS刘易斯,奇迹;差价莫尔,奇迹; HH农民,是创造奇迹的可能?HS Box, Miracles and Critics; AC Headlam, The Miracles of the NT; EML Keller, Miracles in Dispute; RM Burns, The Great Debate on Miracles; JB Mozley, Eight Lectures on Miracles.房协盒,奇迹和批评,交流德姆,对新界的奇迹; EML的凯勒,争议奇迹;室燃烧,大辩论的奇迹;巴顿莫兹利,八讲座的奇迹。


Mir'acle Mir'acle

Advanced Information先进的信息

A miracle is an event in the external world brought about by the immediate agency or the simple volition of God, operating without the use of means capable of being discerned by the senses, and designed to authenticate the divine commission of a religious teacher and the truth of his message (John 2:18; Matt. 12:38).一个奇迹是在外部世界的事件所带来的直接机构或神的意志的简单操作,无需使用,大约是指被察觉的感官,设计验证教师神圣的宗教委员会和真理的能力他的消息(约翰2:18;。马特12:38)。 It is an occurrence at once above nature and above man.这是一个在自然之上及以上的人曾发生。It shows the intervention of a power that is not limited by the laws either of matter or of mind, a power interrupting the fixed laws which govern their movements, a supernatural power.它显示了一个不被任何物质或精神的法律,一个电源中断的管理他们的行动,一种超自然的力量固定的法律权力有限的干预。 "The suspension or violation of the laws of nature involved in miracles is nothing more than is constantly taking place around us. One force counteracts another: vital force keeps the chemical laws of matter in abeyance; and muscular force can control the action of physical force. 。“暂停或参与的奇迹是违反自然规律的无非是不断正在我们周围发生一种力量抵消另:重要力量保持在暂时搁置化学物质的法律;和肌肉力量可以控制物理力的作用。

When a man raises a weight from the ground, the law of gravity is neither suspended nor violated, but counteracted by a stronger force.当一个人提出了一个从地面重量,万有引力定律,也不违反既不是暂停,而是由一个更强大的力量抵消。The same is true as to the walking of Christ on the water and the swimming of iron at the command of the prophet.同样是真实的,上的水上步行基督和铁在先知命令游泳。The simple and grand truth that the universe is not under the exclusive control of physical forces, but that everywhere and always there is above, separate from and superior to all else, an infinite personal will, not superseding, but directing and controlling all physical causes, acting with or without them." God ordinarily effects his purpose through the agency of second causes; but he has the power also of effecting his purpose immediately and without the intervention of second causes, ie, of invading the fixed order, and thus of working miracles. Thus we affirm the possibility of miracles, the possibility of a higher hand intervening to control or reverse nature's ordinary movements.简单而隆重的真理,即宇宙是没有根据的独家控制的物质力量,但无处不在,始终存在以上,不同于和优于一切,无限的个人意愿,而不是取代,但指挥和控制所有的物理原因。,有或没有他们表演的“神一般的影响,通过代理的第二个原因他的目的,但他有权力也影响他的目的立即无条件的第二个原因,即入侵固定程序,干预,因而工作的奇迹。因此,我们肯定奇迹的可能性,提出了更高的干预以控制或扭转性质的普通运动手的可能性。

In the New Testament these four Greek words are principally used to designate miracles:, (1.) Semeion, a "sign", ie, an evidence of a divine commission; an attestation of a divine message (Matt. 12:38, 39; 16:1, 4; Mark 8:11; Luke 11:16; 23:8; John 2:11, 18, 23; Acts 6:8, etc.); a token of the presence and working of God; the seal of a higher power.在新约这四个希腊字主要用于指定奇迹:(1)。Semeion,一个“符号”,一个神圣的证据,即;的一个神圣的讯息认证(太12:38,39 ; 16:1,4;马克20:11;路加福音11:16; 23:8,约翰福音2:11,18,23,徒6:8,等等),一个象征的存在和神的工作;在封的更高的功率。(2.) Terata, "wonders;" wonder-causing events; portents; producing astonishment in the beholder (Acts 2:19). 。(2)Terata,“奇迹,”奇迹致癌事件;征兆,而在旁观者(徒2:19)生产惊讶。(3.) Dunameis, "might works;" works of superhuman power (Acts 2:22; Rom. 15:19; 2 Thess. 2:9); of a new and higher power. (3。)Dunameis,“可能的作品,”超人的力量作品(徒2:22,罗马书15:19;。2帖2时09分。)一个新的,更高的功率。(4.) Erga, "works;" the works of Him who is "wonderful in working" (John 5: 20, 36). (4。)普遍,“工程,”他工作的是谁“的工作棒极了”(约翰福音5:20,36)。Miracles are seals of a divine mission.奇迹是海豹的神圣使命。The sacred writers appealed to them as proofs that they were messengers of God.神圣的作家呼吁他们作为证明,他们是上帝的使者。 Our Lord also appealed to miracles as a conclusive proof of his divine mission (John 5:20, 36; 10:25, 38).我们的主还呼吁奇迹作为他的神圣使命的确凿证据(约翰福音5:20,36; 10:25,38)。

Thus, being out of the common course of nature and beyond the power of man, they are fitted to convey the impression of the presence and power of God.因此,作为对自然和人的力量超出了公共课的时候,他们均设有传达神的存在和权力的印象。Where miracles are there certainly God is.哪里有奇迹一定神。The man, therefore, who works a miracle affords thereby clear proof that he comes with the authority of God; they are his credentials that he is God's messenger.该名男子,因此,谁的作品能提供一个奇迹,从而清楚地证明,他与上帝的权威来,他们是他的证书,他是上帝的使者。 The teacher points to these credentials, and they are a proof that he speaks with the authority of God.老师点这些凭据,他们是一个证明他与上帝的权威说话。He boldly says, "God bears me witness, both with signs and wonders, and with divers miracles."他大胆地说,“上帝熊我作证,都与神迹奇事,和各样的奇迹。”The credibility of miracles is established by the evidence of the senses on the part of those who are witnesses of them, and to all others by the testimony of such witnesses.奇迹的信誉是建立在对这些谁是他们的感官证据的证人的一部分,以及所有其他由这些证人的证词。The witnesses were competent, and their testimony is trustworthy.这些证人是主管,他们的证词是可靠的。

Unbelievers, following Hume, deny that any testimony can prove a miracle, because they say miracles are impossible.不信道,继休谟,否认有任何证据可以证明一个奇迹,因为他们说,奇迹是不可能的。 We have shown that miracles are possible, and surely they can be borne witness to.我们已经表明,奇迹是可能的,他们肯定可以见证。Surely they are credible when we have abundant and trustworthy evidence of their occurrence.他们肯定是可信的,当我们有丰富的和可信赖其发生的证据。They are credible just as any facts of history well authenticated are credible.他们就像是可信的历史事实是任何可信的良好验证。 Miracles, it is said, are contrary to experience.奇迹,这是说,违背了经验。Of course they are contrary to our experience, but that does not prove that they were contrary to the experience of those who witnessed them.他们当然是违反我们的经验,但这并不能证明他们违反了这些谁目睹他们的经验。 We believe a thousand facts, both of history and of science, that are contrary to our experience, but we believe them on the ground of competent testimony.我们相信,无论是历史和科学一千事实,这是违反我们的经验,但我们相信在主管证词地上。An atheist or a pantheist must, as a matter of course, deny the possibility of miracles; but to one who believes in a personal God, who in his wisdom may see fit to interfere with the ordinary processes of nature, miracles are not impossible, nor are they incredible.一名无神论者或泛神论者必须作为理所当然的事,否认奇迹的可能性,但是对于某个人谁相信上帝,谁在他认为合适的智慧可能干扰大自然的普通进程,奇迹不是不可能的,他们也不是不可思议的。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Miracle奇迹

Catholic Information天主教新闻

(Latin miraculum, from mirari, "to wonder").(拉丁语miraculum,从米拉里,“怀疑”)。

In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, ie, wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God.一般来说,一个美妙的事情,所以这个词被用在古典拉丁语,在一个特定的意义上说,拉美vulgate由一种特殊miracula一个奇迹指定,表达得更为明确的条款,在terata,dynameis,semeia,即希腊文,奇迹作为执行特殊使命的一些迹象超自然的力量或礼物,并明确归因于上帝。

These terms are used habitually in the New Testament and express the meaning of miraculum of the Vulgate.这些词的使用习惯性地在新约和表达的vulgate miraculum意义。Thus St. Peter in his first sermon speaks of Christ as approved of God, dynamesin, kai terasin kai semeiois (Acts 2:22) and St. Paul says that the signs of his Apostleship were wrought, semeiois te kai terasin kai dynamesin (2 Corinthians 12:12).因此,圣彼得在他的第一次讲道讲基督的神的批准,dynamesin,启terasin启semeiois(徒2:22)和圣保罗说,他的使徒的迹象,紧张得要命,semeiois德启terasin启dynamesin(2哥林多前书12:12)。 Their united meaning is found in the term erga ie, works, the word constantly employed in the Gospels to designate the miracles of Christ.他们发现在美国的意义是普遍的术语,即工程,这个词不断地在福音聘用指定基督的奇迹。 The analysis of these terms therefore gives the nature and scope of the miracle.这些条款的分析,因此给出了奇迹的性质和范围。

I. NATURE一,性质

(1) The word terata literally means "wonders", in reference to feelings of amazement excited by their occurrence, hence effects produced in the material creation appealing to, and grasped by, the senses, usually by the sense of sight, at times by hearing, eg, the baptism of Jesus, the conversion of St. Paul. (1)一词terata字面意思是“奇迹”,在参照其发生兴奋的惊奇的感觉,因此在物质生产的影响,呼吁建立和所掌握的感觉,通常意义上的视线,有时由听证会,例如,耶稣,圣保罗转换的洗礼。 Thus, though the works of Divine grace, such as the Sacramental Presence, are above the power of nature, and due to God alone, they may be called miraculous only in the wide meaning of the term, ie, as supernatural effects, but they are not miracles in the sense here understood, for miracles in the strict sense are apparent.因此,虽然神的恩典,如圣事的存在,作品,均高于自然的力量,而且由于只有上帝,他们只可称为奇迹般的在长期广泛的含义,即作为supernatural的影响,但他们是不是在这里创造奇迹​​的意义理解为严格意义上的奇迹,是显而易见的。 The miracle falls under the grasp of the senses, either in the work itself (eg raising the dead to life) or in its effects (eg, the gifts of infused knowledge with the Apostles).这个奇迹属于感官的把握,无论是在工作本身(如提高死的生命),或在其影响(例如,与使徒注入知识的礼物)。 In like manner the justification of a soul in itself is miraculous, but is not a miracle properly so called, unless it takes place in a sensible manner, as, eg, in the case of St. Paul.在这样的态度,本身就是一种灵魂的理由是奇迹,但不是所谓正确的奇迹,除非它发生在一个合理的方式进行,因为,例如,在圣保罗的情况下。

The wonder of the miracle is due to the fact that its cause is hidden, and an effect is expected other than what actually takes place.奇迹的奇迹,是由于这样的事实,其原因是隐藏的,效果比预期的其他实际发生。Hence, by comparison with the ordinary course of things, the miracle is called extraordinary.因此,通过与日常的事情相比,所谓的奇迹是非凡的。In analyzing the difference between the extraordinary character of the miracle and the ordinary course of nature, the Fathers of the Church and theologians employ the terms above, contrary to, and outside nature.在分析之间的不平凡的奇迹性质和普通的自然过程中的差异,教会的神父和神学家雇用上述条款,违反和外部性。 These terms express the manner in which the miracle is extraordinary.这些术语表达的方式,是不平凡的奇迹。

A miracle is said to be above nature when the effect produced is above the native powers and forces in creatures of which the known laws of nature are the expression, as raising a dead man to life, eg, Lazarus (John 11), the widow's son (1 Kings 17).一个奇迹据说是在自然之上是当效果产生高于本土权力和动物,其中自然知道法律是表达力量与提高一个死人的生命,例如,拉撒路(约11人),寡妇儿子(列王纪上17)。 A miracle is said to be outside, or beside, nature when natural forces may have the power to produce the effect, at least in part, but could not of themselves alone have produced it in the way it was actually brought about.据说是一个奇迹外,或旁边,性质自然力量时,可能至少有部分的权力,产生的影响,但可以有自己并不孤独中产生它实际上带来的方式。 Thus the effect in abundance far exceeds the power of natural forces, or it takes place instantaneously without the means or processes which nature employs.因此,丰富的效果远远超过了自然力力量,也没有发生瞬间的手段或过程的性质员工。In illustration we have the multiplication of loaves by Jesus (John 6), the changing of water into wine at Cana (John 2) -- for the moisture of the air by natural and artificial processes is changed into wine -- or the sudden healing of a large extent of diseased tissue by a draught of water.在论述中,我们已经由耶稣(约翰6),改变水变成在迦南(约翰2)酒饼乘法 - 用于空气由自然和人为的过程转变成酒水分 - 或者突然愈合对病变组织一水很大程度上草案。A miracle is said to be contrary to nature when the effect produced is contrary to the natural course of things.一个奇迹据说是违背自然产生的影响时,违反了事物的自然过程。

The term miracle here implies the direct opposition of the effect actually produced to the natural causes at work, and its imperfect understanding has given rise to much confusion in modern thought.奇迹这个词在这里意味着效果的直接反对在工作中实际产生的自然原因,其不完善的理解,已经引起了许多混乱的现代思想。 Thus Spinoza calls a miracle a violation of the order of nature (proeverti, "Tract. Theol. Polit.", vi).因此,斯宾诺莎所谓的奇迹是自然秩序的行为(proeverti,“道。Theol。Polit。”,第六章)。Hume says it is a "violation" or an "infraction", and many writers -- eg, Martensen, Hodge, Baden-Powell, Theodore Parker -- use the term for miracles as a whole.休姆说,这是“侵犯”或“违规”,和许多作家 - 例如,马敦生,霍奇,巴登鲍威尔,西奥多帕克 - 使用作为一个整体奇迹的术语。But every miracle is not of necessity contrary to nature, for there are miracles above or outside nature.但每一个奇迹,是不违背自然的必要性,因为有上述或境外性质的奇迹。

Again, the term contrary to nature does not mean "unnatural" in the sense of producing discord and confusion.同样,违背自然一词并不意味着“不自然”的生产不和谐和混乱的感觉。The forces of nature differ in power and are in constant interaction.自然的力量不同的权力并在不断的相互作用。This produces interferences and counteractions of forces.这会产生干扰和部队counteractions。This is true of mechanical, chemical, and biological forces.这是机械,化学和生物的力量如此。So, also, at every moment of the day I interfere with and counteract natural forces about me.所以,还每天在每一个时刻,我干扰和抵制对我的自然力量。I study the properties of natural forces with a view to obtain conscious control by intelligent counteractions of one force against another.我研究了各种自然力量的属性,以取得一国对另一力的智能counteractions意识的控制。Intelligent counteraction marks progress in chemistry, in physics -- eg, steam locomotion, aviation -- and in the prescriptions of the physician.智能反作用标志着进展化学,物理 - 例如,蒸汽运动,航空 - 并在医生的处方。Man controls nature, nay, can live only by the counteraction of natural forces.男人控制的性质,不仅如此,能活只能由自然力量的反作用。Though all this goes on around us, we never speak of natural forces violated.虽然这一切就在我们身边去,我们从来没有谈论自然力量的侵犯。These forces are still working after their kind, and no force is destroyed, nor is any law broken, nor does confusion result.这些部队仍在工作后,他们的实物,任何势力破坏,也不是任何法律的破坏,也没有混乱的结果。The introduction of human will may bring about a displacement of the physical forces, but no infraction of physical processes.人类将引入可能带来的物理力量位移,但没有违规行为的物理过程。Now in a miracle God's action relative to its bearing on natural forces is analogous to the action of human personality.现在是类似于人的个性行动上帝创造奇迹的行动相对于其对自然力量的影响。Thus, eg, it is against the nature of iron to float, but the action of Eliseus in raising the axe-head to the surface of the water (2 Kings 6) is no more a violation, or a transgression, or an infraction of natural laws than if he raised it with his hand.因此,例如,它是针对铁的性质浮动,但以利沙在提高斧头水的表面(2国王6)动作不再是一种侵犯,或侵,或违反了如果不是他提出了他的手很自然的法律。 Again, it is of the nature of fire to burn, but when, eg, the Three Children were preserved untouched in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3) there was nothing unnatural in the act, as these writers use the word, any more than there would be in erecting a dwelling absolutely fireproof.再次,它是火灾的燃烧性质,但是当,例如,那三个孩子都保存在火热熔炉(丹尼尔3)有没有在法不自然,非接触,因为这些作家使用这个词,任何多有将在建立一个住宅绝对防火。 In the one case, as in the other, there was no paralysis of natural forces and no consequent disorder.在一个案例中,因为在其它方面,有没有自然的力量并没有随之而来的瘫痪症。The extraordinary element in the miracle -- ie an event apart from the ordinary course of things; enables us to understand the teaching of theologians that events which ordinarily take place in the natural or supernatural course of Divine Providence are not miracles, although they are beyond the efficiency of natural forces.在不平凡的奇迹元素 - 即从日常事件的东西分开;使我们能够理解该事件的神学家通常参与了神圣的自然或超自然的过程中发生的教学是不是奇迹,但他们超越自然力量的效率。 Thus, eg, the creation of the soul is not a miracle, for it takes place in the ordinary course of nature.因此,如灵魂的创造不是一个奇迹,因为它发生在普通的自然过程中发生的。Again, the justification of the sinner, the Eucharistic Presence, the sacramental effects, are not miracles for two reasons: they are beyond the grasp of the senses and they have place in the ordinary course of God's supernatural Providence.同样,罪人的理由,圣体的存在,圣事的影响,是不是奇迹,原因有二:他们是超越感官的把握和他们在上帝的超自然的普罗维登斯正常进行。

(2) The word dynamis, "power" is used in the New Testament to signify: (2)字dynamis,“权力”,是在新约,以示使用:

the power of working miracles, (en dymamei semeion -- Romans 15:19); mighty works as the effects of this power, ie, miracles themselves (al pleistai dynameis autou -- Matthew 11:20) and expresses the efficient cause of the miracle, ie, Divine power.奇迹力量的工作,(恩dymamei semeion - 罗马书15:19);作为这项权力,即影响自己强大的工程奇迹(基地pleistai dynameis autou - 马太福音11:20),并表达了高效率的原因奇迹,即神圣的权力。

Hence the miracle is called supernatural, because the effect is beyond the productive power of nature and implies supernatural agency.因此,所谓的奇迹是超自然的,因为其效果是超越生产力的性质,意味着超自然的机构。Thus St. Thomas teaches: "Those effects are rightly to be termed miracles which are wrought by Divine power apart from the order usually observed in nature" (Contra Gent., III, cii), and they are apart from the natural order because they are "beyond the order or laws of the whole created nature" (ST I:102:4).因此,圣托马斯教授:(。魂斗罗根特,三,中基)“这些影响都理所当然地要被称为是造成的神圣权力,除了通常的顺序,从自然观察中奇迹”,他们是从自然秩序,因为他们除了是“超越的命令或整个创建自然的法则”(秘口:102:4)。 Hence dynamis adds to the meaning of terata by pointing out the efficient cause.因此dynamis增加了terata,指出有效的事业的意义。For this reason miracles in Scripture are called "the finger of God" (Exodus 8:19, Luke 11:20), "the hand of the Lord" (1 Samuel 5:6), "the hand of our God" (Ezra 8:31).对于这个原因奇迹圣经被称为“上帝的手指”(出埃及记8:19,路加福音11:20),“耶和华的手”(1塞缪尔5:6),“我们的上帝之手”(以斯拉8:31)。 In referring the miracle to God as its efficient cause the answer is given to the objection that the miracle is unnatural, ie, an uncaused event without meaning or place in nature.在谈到这个奇迹上帝作为其高效率的原因,答案是考虑到反对,认为是不自然的奇迹,即一个没有意义或性质的地方独立自存的事件。 With God as the cause, the miracle has a place in the designs of God's Providence (Contra Gent. III, xcviii).与神的原因,有一个奇迹在上帝的普罗维登斯的设计(矛盾绅士。三,时候正好)举行。In this sense -- ie, relatively to God -- St. Augustine speaks of the miracle as natural (De Civit. Dei, XXI, viii, n. 2).在这个意义上 - 即,相对于上帝 - 圣奥古斯丁讲的自然奇迹(德Civit棣,21,八,注2。)。

An event is above the course of nature and beyond its productive powers: with regard to its substantial nature, ie, when the effect is of such a kind that no natural power could bring it to pass in any manner or form whatsoever, as eg, the raising to life of the widow's son (Luke 7), or the cure of the man born blind (John 9).以上事件的性质和超越其生产力的过程:就其实质性质,即当效果的这样一种自然的力量,没有能够把它带到任何传递任何方式或形式,例如担任,现在,集资的寡妇的儿子(路加福音7),或生来瞎眼的人治愈(约9)生活。 These miracles are called miracles as to substance (quoad substantiam).这些奇迹是所谓的实质内容(quoad substantiam)奇迹。

With regard to the manner in which the effect is produced ie, where there may be forces in nature fitted and capable of producing the effect considered in itself, yet the effect is produced in a manner wholly different from the manner in which it should naturally be performed, ie, instantaneously, by a word, eg, the cure of the leper (Luke 5).关于中产生的效果即,有可能在自然力量配备和生产方式本身能力的影响考虑,但效果是生产方式完全不同于以何种方式,它应该自然会有所不同执行,即瞬间,一个词,例如,对麻疯病人(路加福音5)治疗。 These are called miracles as to the manner of their production (quoad modum).这些被称为奇迹,以他们的生产(quoad modum)的方式。

God's power is shown in the miracle:上帝的力量是表现在奇迹:

directly through His own immediate action or mediately through creatures as means or instruments.直接通过他自己立即采取行动或治疗中,通过为手段或工具的生物。

In the latter case the effects must be ascribed to God, for He works in and through the instruments; "Ipso Deo in illis operante" (Augustine, "De Civit. Dei", X, xii).在后一种情况下,效果必须归因于上帝,因为他的作品中,并通过这些文书;“当然迪奥在illis operante”(奥古斯丁,“德Civit棣。”,第十,十二)。Hence God works miracles through the instrumentality因此,上帝创造奇迹的作品通过工具性

of angels, eg, the Three Children in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), the deliverance of St. Peter from prison (Acts 12); of men, eg, Moses and Aaron (Exodus 7), Elias (1 Kings 17), Eliseus (2 Kings 5), the Apostles (Acts 2:43), St. Peter (Acts 3:9), St. Paul (Acts 19), the early Christians (Galatians 3:5).天使,例如,在火热熔炉(丹尼尔3),圣彼得从监狱释放(徒12)的三个孩子,男人,例如,摩西和亚伦(出埃及记7),埃利亚斯(列王纪17),以利沙(列王纪五),使徒(徒2:43),圣彼得(徒3:9),圣保罗(使徒19),(加拉太书3:5)早期的基督徒。 In the Bible also, as in church history, we learn that animate things are instruments of Divine power, not because they have any excellence in themselves, but through a special relation to God.在圣经中也,如在教会历史,我们了解到,动画事物都是神圣的权力工具,不是因为他们有卓越本身,而是通过一种特殊关系的神。 Thus we distinguish holy relics, eg, the mantle of Elias (2 Kings 2), the body of Eliseus (2 Kings 13), the hem of Christ's garment (Matthew 9), the handkerchiefs of St. Paul (Acts 19:12); holy images, eg, the brazen serpent (Numbers 21) holy things, eg, the Ark of the Covenant, the sacred vessels of the Temple (Daniel 5); holy places, eg, the Temple of Jerusalem (2 Chronicles 6:7), the waters of the Jordan (2 Kings 5), the Pool of Bethsaida (John 5).因此,我们区分圣物,例如,埃利亚斯地幔(2国王2),在以利沙身上(2国王13),基督的服装(马太9),圣保罗(徒19:12)的手帕下摆;圣像,例如,厚颜无耻蛇(21号)的圣物,例如,在约柜的圣殿(丹尼尔5)神圣的船只;神圣的地方,例如,寺(历代6:7耶路撒冷),在约旦河水(2国王5),在伯赛大池(约5)。

Hence the contention of some modern writers, that a miracle requires an immediate action of Divine power, is not true.因此,争论的一些现代作家,是一个奇迹,需要立即采取行动的神圣权力,是不正确的。It is sufficient that the miracle be due to the intervention of God, and its nature is revealed by the utter lack of proportion between the effect and what are called means or instruments.这是足够了奇迹,是由于神的干预,其本质是揭示了效果之间的比例完全缺乏,什么是所谓的手段或工具。The word semeion means "sign", an appeal to intelligence, and expresses the purpose or final cause of the miracle.这个词semeion的意思是“征”,呼吁情报,并表达了奇迹目的或最终原因。A miracle is a factor in the Providence of God over men.一个奇迹,是一个在上帝的普罗维登斯超过男性因素。Hence the glory of God and the good of men are the primary or supreme ends of every miracle.因此,荣耀神和人的善行,是每一个奇迹的主要或最高目的。This is clearly expressed by Christ in the raising of Lazarus (John 11), and the Evangelist says that Jesus, in working His first miracle at Cana, "manifested his glory" (John 2:11).这显然​​是表示基督在拉撒路(约11)提高,和传播者说,耶稣,在他的第一个工作在迦南奇迹“,体现他的荣耀”(约2:11)。 Therefore the miracle must be worthy the holiness, goodness, and justice of God, and conducive to the true good of men.因此,必须奇迹值得的圣洁,善良,正义的上帝,有利于真正的男人好。Hence they are not performed by God to repair physical defects in His creation, nor are they intended to produce, nor do they produce, disorder or discord; do they contain any element which is wicked, ridiculous, useless, or unmeaning.因此,他们不是由上帝来修复身体缺陷在他的创作,也不是为了生产,也没有生产,紊乱或不协调,不包含任何元素,他们是邪恶的,荒谬的,无用的,或者毫无意义。 Hence they are not on the same plane with mere wonders, tricks works of ingenuity, or magic.因此,他们不是在与单纯奇观,别出心裁,或魔术作品同一平面上。The efficacy, usefulness, purpose of the work and the manner of performing it clearly show that it must be ascribed to Divine power.其有效性,实用性,目的的工作和执行它的方式清楚地表明,它必须归因于神圣的权力。This high standing and dignity of the miracle is shown, eg, in the miracles of Moses (Exodus 7-10), of Elias (1 Kings 18:21-38), of Eliseus (2 Kings 5).如此高的地位和尊严的奇迹证明,例如,在摩西的奇迹(出埃及记7-10)埃利亚斯,,(1国王18:21-38),对以利沙(王五)。 The multitudes glorified God at the cure of the paralytic (Matthew 9:8), of the blind man (Luke 18:43), at the miracles of Christ in general (Matthew 15:31, Luke 19:37), as at the cure of the lame man by St. Peter (Acts 4:21).在治愈的荣耀神的众多麻痹(马太9:8),盲人男子(路加福音18:43)在一般(马太15:31,路加福音19:37)基督的奇迹,截至治愈的,由圣彼得(使徒4:21)跛子。 Hence miracles are signs of the supernatural world and our connection with it.因此,奇迹是世界的超自然的迹象,我们与它的连接。In miracles we can always distinguish secondary ends, subordinate, however, to the primary ends.奇迹,我们总是可以区分次要目的,下属,然而,主要的目的。Thus因此,

they are evidences attesting and confirming the truth of a Divine mission, or of a doctrine of faith or morals, eg, Moses (Exodus 4), Elias (1 Kings 17:24).他们的证据证明,并确认了一个神圣的使命真理,或信仰或道德的教义,例如,摩西(出埃及记4),埃利亚斯(1国王17:24)。 For this reason the Jews see in Christ "the prophet" (John 6:14), in whom "God hath visited his people" (Luke 7:16).由于这个原因,犹太人看到基督“先知”(约6:14),在其中“神眷顾了他的人”(路加福音7:16)。Hence the disciples believed in Him (John 2:11) and Nicodemus (John 3:2) and the man born blind (John 9:38), and the many who had seen the raising of Lazarus (John 11:45).因此,弟子相信他(约翰福音2:11)和尼哥底母(约3:2),生来是瞎眼的(约9:38)的人,和谁看到了许多提高拉撒路(约11:45)。 Jesus constantly appealed to His "works" to prove that He was sent by God and that He is the Son of God, eg, to the Disciples of John (Matthew 11:4), to the Jews (John 10:37).耶稣不断呼吁他的“作品”,以证明他是上帝派来,而且他是神,例如,他的儿子约翰的门徒(马太11:4),向犹太人(约10:37)。 He claims that His miracles are a greater testimony than the testimony of John (John 5:36), condemns those who will not believe (John 15:24), as He praises those who do (John 17:8), and exhibits miracles as the signs of the True Faith (Mark 16:17).他声称,他的奇迹是一个比约翰(约翰福音5:36)更大的证词证言,谴责那些谁也不会相信(约翰15:24),因为他赞扬那些谁(约翰福音17:8),和展品的奇迹作为真正的信仰(马克16:17)的迹象。 The Apostles appeal to miracles as the confirmation of Christ's Divinity and mission (John 20:31; Acts 10:38), and St. Paul counts them as the signs of his Apostleship (2 Corinthians 12:12).使徒们呼吁,作为基督的神性和使命确认奇迹(约20:31,徒10:38),和圣保罗算作他的使徒(林后12:12)他们的标志。 Miracles are wrought to attest true sanctity.奇迹是造成以证明真正的神圣性。Thus, eg, God defends Moses (Numbers 12), Elias (2 Kings 1), Eliseus (2 Kings 13).因此,例如,神守摩西(12号),埃利亚斯(2国王1),以利沙(2国王13)。Hence the testimony of the man born blind (John 9:30 sqq.) and the official processes in the canonization of saints.因此,该名男子的证词生来是瞎眼的(约翰9:30 sqq。)和官方在封圣过程。

As benefits either spiritual or temporal.由于利益或精神或时间。The temporal favours are always subordinate to spiritual ends, for they are a reward or a pledge of virtue, eg the widow of Sarephta (1 Kings 17), the Three Children in the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), the preservation of Daniel (Daniel 5), the deliverance of St. Peter from prison (Acts 12), of St. Paul from shipwreck (Acts 27).颞主张总是服从精神结束,因为他们是奖励或质押的美德,例如,Sarephta寡妇(1国王17),在火热熔炉(丹尼尔3),保存的丹尼尔(丹尼尔的三个孩子5),圣彼得从监狱释放(徒12),圣保罗从沉船(使徒27)。 Thus semeion, ie, "sign", completes the meaning of dynamis, ie, "[Divine] power".因此semeion,即“征”,完成了dynamis,即意义“,[神]的力量”。It reveals the miracle as an act of God's supernatural Providence over men.它揭示了作为上帝的超自然的普罗维登斯超过男性行为的奇迹。It gives a positive content to teras, ie, "wonder", for, whereas the wonder shows the miracle as a deviation from the ordinary course of nature, the sign gives the purpose of the deviation.它提供了一个积极的内容,以teras,即“奇迹”,因为,而显示为一个奇迹,从普通的自然过程中的偏差的奇迹,标志给出了偏差的目的。

This analysis shows that这一分析表明,

the miracle is essentially an appeal to knowledge.这个奇迹基本上是一个知识上诉。Therefore miracles can be distinguished from purely natural occurrences.因此奇迹可区别于纯粹的自然现象。A miracle is a fact in material creation, and falls under the observation of the senses or comes to us through testimony, like any natural fact.奇迹是建立在事实材料,并根据感官观察跌倒或证词来我们通过像任何自然事实。Its miraculous character is known:其奇迹般的性格是众所周知的:

from positive knowledge of natural forces, eg, the law of gravity, the law that fire burns.从自然力量的积极的知识,例如,万有引力定律,法律的那团火烧伤。To say that we do not know all the laws of nature, and therefore cannot know a miracle (Rousseau, "Lett. de la Mont.", let. iii), is beside the question, for it would make the miracle an appeal to ignorance.如果说,我们不知道所有的自然法则,因此无法知道一个奇迹(卢梭,“快报。德拉蒙特。”让。三),是最重要的问题,因为它将使奇迹呼吁无知。 I may not know all the laws of the penal code, but I can know with certainty that in a particular instance a person violates one definite law.我可能不知道所有的刑法典的法律,但我可以肯定地知道,在一个特定的实例一个人违反了一个明确的法律。

From our positive knowledge of the limits of natural forces.从我们对自然力量的限制积极的知识。Thus, eg, we may not know the strength of a man, but we do know that he cannot by himself move a mountain.因此,例如,我们可能不知道一个人的力量,但我们知道,他可以通过自己不能移动一座山。In enlarging our knowledge of natural forces, the progress of science has curtailed their sphere and defined their limits, as in the law of abiogenesis.在扩大我们对自然力量的知识,科学的进步,限制其范围,并确定其局限性,如在自然发生的法律。Hence, as soon as we have reason to suspect that any event, however uncommon or rare it appear, may arise from natural causes or be conformable to the usual course of nature, we immediately lose the conviction of its being a miracle.因此,只要我们有理由怀疑任何事件,但它不常见或罕见的出现,可能产生的自然原因或自然相适应的日常,我们立即失去了其作为一个奇迹的信念。 A miracle is a manifestation of God's power; so long as this is not clear, we hould reject it as such.一个奇迹是上帝的力量的体现,只要是不明确的,我们hould拒绝它是这样。

Miracles are signs of God's Providence over men, hence they are of high moral character, simple and obvious in the forces at work, in the circumstances of their working, and in their aim and purpose.奇迹是上帝的普罗维登斯超过男性的迹象,因此他们是道德高尚,简单和明显的工作力量,在他们工作的情况,并在其目标和宗旨。 Now philosophy indicates the possibility, and Revelation teaches the fact, that spiritual beings, both good and bad, exist, and possess greater power than man possesses.现在哲学指示的可能性,并启示教的事实,即精神的人,无论是好是坏,存在,并拥有比人类拥有更大的权力。Apart from the speculative question as to the native power of these beings, we are certain除了以这些人本机电源的投机问题,我们一定

that God alone can perform those effects which are called substantial miracles, eg, raising the dead to life, that miracles performed by the angels, as recorded in the Bible, are always ascribed to God, and Holy Scripture gives Divine authority to no miracles less than Divine; that Holy Scripture shows the power of evil spirits as strictly conditioned, eg, testimony of the Egyptian magicians (Exodus 8:19), the story of Job, evil spirits acknowledging the power of Christ (Matthew 8:31), the express testimony of Christ himself (Matthew 24:24) and of the Apocalypse (Revelation 9:14).这只有上帝可以执行这些被叫做大量的奇迹,如效果,提高了死的生活,这奇迹在圣经中所记载的天使,总是归因于上帝执行,并且圣经给神圣的权力,没有奇迹少不是神,这显示了圣经辟邪力量为严格条件,例如,在(出埃及记8:19)埃及魔术师的证词,有关职位的故事,辟邪承认基督的能力(马太8:31)时,表达自己的证词,基督(马太24:24)和启示录(启示录9:14)。 Granting that these spirits may perform prodigies -- ie, works of skill and ingenuity which, relatively to our powers, may seem to be miraculous -- yet these works lack the meaning and purpose which would stamp them as the language of God to men.给予这些精神可能执行神童 - 即作品的技巧和智慧的,相对于我们的权力,似乎是奇迹 - 但这些作品缺乏意义和目的将邮票作为上帝的语言,他们的男子。

II.二。ERRORS错误

Deists reject miracles, for they deny the Providence of God.自然神论者拒绝奇迹,因为他们否认神的保佑。Agnostics also, and Positivists reject them: Comte regarded miracles as the fruit of the theological imagination.不可知论者也和实证主义拒绝他们:孔德视为奇迹的神学想象力水果。Modern Pantheism has no place for miracles.现代泛神论没有奇迹的地方。Thus Spinoza held creation to be the aspect of the one substance, ie, God, and, as he taught that miracles were a violation of nature, they would therefore be a violation of God.因此,斯宾诺莎是召开创造了一个物质,即上帝的方面,而且,正如他告诉我们,奇迹是一个自然的侵犯,他们将因此成为上帝的侵犯。 The answer is, first that Spinoza's conception of God and nature is false and, secondly, that in fact miracles are not a violation of nature.答案是:第一,斯宾诺莎的上帝和自然的概念是虚假的,其次,这其实不是一个奇迹是自然的侵犯。To Hegel creation is the evolutive manifestation of the one Absolute Idea, ie, God, and to the neo-Hegelians (eg, Thos. Green) consciousness is identified with God; therefore to both a miracle has no meaning.黑格尔创新是一个绝对的理念,即上帝,并以新黑格尔主义者(如绿色的公益。)意识是与上帝确定的演化表现,因此这两个一个奇迹是没有意义的。

Erroneous definitions of the supernatural lead to erroneous definitions of the miracle.导致的错误的定义,以超自然的奇迹错误的定义。Thus因此,

Bushnell defines the natural to be what is necessary, the supernatural to be what is free; therefore the material world is what we call nature, the world of man's life is supernatural.布什内尔定义自然是什么是必要的,超自然的是什么是免费的,因此在物质世界就是我们所说的性质,人的生活世界是超自然的。 So also Dr. Strong ("Baptist Rev.", vol. I, 1879), Rev. CA Row ("Supernat. in the New Test.", London, 1875).因此,也强博士(“浸信会牧师”,第一卷。本人,1879年),牧师的CA行(“Supernat在新的考验。。”,伦敦,1875)。 In this sense every free volition of man is a supernatural act and a miracle.在这个意义上每个人的自由意志是一种超自然的行为,是奇迹。The natural supernaturalism proposed by Carlyle, Theodore Parker, Prof. Pfleiderer, and, more recently, Prof. Everett ("The Psychologic Elem. of Relig. Faith", London and New York, 1902), Prof. Bowne ("Immanence of God", Boston and New York, 1905), Hastings ("Diction. of Christ and the Gospels", sv "Miracles").自然超自然凯雷,帕克教授弗莱德尔提出,以及最近,教授埃弗里特(“的心理伊莱姆。作者Relig。信仰”,伦敦和纽约,1902年),教授鲍恩(“内在的神“,波士顿和纽约,1905年),黑斯廷斯(”用词。基督和福音“,希沃特”奇迹“)。 Thus the natural and the supernatural are in reality one: the natural is its aspect to man, the supernatural is its aspect to God.因此,自然和超自然的是在现实中一:自然是其对人的方面,超自然的方面是它的上帝。The "Immediate theory", that God acts immediately without second causes, or that second causes, or laws of nature, must be defined as the regular methods of God's acting. “立即理论”,即上帝的行为立即无第二个原因,或者说第二个原因,或自然的法律,必须被定义为神的行事的常规方法。This teaching is combined with the doctrine of evolution.这种教学是结合的进化学说。The "relative" theory of miracles is by far the most popular with non-Catholic writers. “相对”的奇迹理论与非天主教作家是迄今为止最流行的。This view was originally proposed to hold Christian miracles and at the same time hold belief in the uniformity of nature.这一观点最初提议举行基督教的奇迹,并在同一时间举行统一的自然信仰。Its main forms are three.其主要形式有三种。

(1) The mechanical view of Babbage (Bridgewater Treatises) (1)巴贝奇(布里奇沃特论文)机械查看

In Babbage's view, which was later advanced by the Duke of Argyll (Reign of Law), nature is presented as a vast mechanism wound up in the beginning and containing in itself the capacity to deviate at stated times from its ordinary course.在Babbage的看法,后来由阿盖尔公爵(依法执政的)先进,自然是作为一个巨大的机制,伤口开始和本身含有的能力,在其偏离正常规定的时间了。 The theory is ingenious, but it makes the miracle a natural event.该理论是巧妙,但它使奇迹的自然事件。It admits the assumption of opponents of miracles, viz., that physical effects must have physical causes, but this assumption is contradicted by common facts of experience, eg, will acts on matter.它承认了对手的奇迹,即假设。,即物理效应必须有身体的原因,但这种假设是矛盾的共同的经验事实,例如,关于此事将行为。

(2) The "unknown" law of Spinoza(2)“未知”法斯宾诺莎

Spinoza taught that the term miracle should be understood with reference to the opinions of men, and that it means simply an event which we are unable to explain by other events familiar to our experience.斯宾诺莎告诉我们,奇迹一词应理解参考男人的意见,这意味着一个单纯的事件,我们无法解释我们的经验所熟悉的其他活动。 Locke, Kant, Eichhorn, Paulus Renan hold the same view.洛克,康德,艾希霍恩,保卢斯雷南持相同的看法。Thus Prof. Cooper writes "The miracle of one age becomes the ordinary working of nature in the next" ("Ref. Ch. R.", July, 1900).因此,库珀教授写道,“一个时代的奇迹成为下一个普通性质的工作”(“号。通道。河”,七月,1900年)。 Hence a miracle never happened in fact, and is only a name to cover our ignorance.因此,在一个奇迹从来没有发生过的事实,只是一个名字,以支付我们的无知。Thus Matthew Arnold could claim that all Biblical miracles will disappear with the progress of science (Lit. and Bible) and M. Muller that "the miraculous is reduced to mere seeming" (in Rel., pref., p. 10).因此,马修阿诺德可以声称,所有圣经的奇迹将会消失,随着科学(大戏和圣经)和M.穆勒进展,“神奇的是减少到仅仅是表面上的”(在相对。,县。,第10页)。 The advocates of this theory assume that miracles are an appeal to ignorance.这一理论的倡导者认为的奇迹,也是一种无知上诉。

(3) The "higher law" theory of Argyll of "Unseen Universe"(3)“高级法”对“看不见的宇宙”阿盖尔理论

Trench, Lange (on Matt., p. 153), Gore (Bampton Lect, p. 36) proposed to refute Spinoza's claim that miracles are unnatural and productive of disorder.海沟,兰格(马特。,第153页),戈尔(班普顿Lect,第36页)提出反驳斯宾诺莎的说法,奇迹是不自然的,无序的生产。 Thus with them the miracle is quite natural because it takes place in accordance with laws of a higher nature.因此,与他们的奇迹,是很自然的,因为它需要的地方,按照自然规律的更高。Others -- eg, Schleiermacher and Ritschl -- mean by higher law, subjective religious feeling.其他 - 例如,施莱尔马赫和里奇尔 - 指由更高的法律,主观的宗教感情。Thus, to them a miracle is not different from any other natural event; it becomes a miracle by relation to the religious feeling.因此,对于他们来说不是一个奇迹,是其他任何自然事件的不同,它也成了关系到宗教感情的奇迹。 A writer in "The Biblical World" (Oct., 1908) holds that the miracle consists in the religious significance of the natural event in its relation to the religious appreciation as a sign of Divine favour.一个在“圣经的世界”(10月,1908年)笔者认为,奇迹的自然事件的关系作为一种神圣的赞成票赞赏宗教意义的宗教符号组成。 Others explain higher law as a moral law, or law of the spirit.别人解释作为一个道德法律,法律的精神或更高的法律。Thus the miracles of Christ are understood as illustrations of a higher, grander, more comprehensive law than men had yet known, the incoming of a new life, of higher forces acting according to higher laws as manifestations of the spirit in the higher stages of its development.因此,基督的奇迹是作为一个更高的,宏大的,更全面的法律比男人还没有已知的插图的理解,新生活更高的力量,根据传入的作用,作为精神表现在较高阶段的更高的法律发展。 The criticism of this theory is that miracles would cease to be miracles: they would not be extraordinary, for they would take place under the same conditions.这个理论的批评是,奇迹将不再是奇迹:他们不会是非凡的,因为他们也采取相同的条件下进行。To bring miracles under a law not yet understood is to deny their existence.为使下一个法律尚未理解奇迹是否认自己的存在。Thus, when Trench defines a miracle as "an extraordinary event which beholders can reduce to no law with which they are acquainted", the definition includes hypnotism and clairvoyance.因此,当海沟定义为“一个非凡的盛事,旁观者可以减少任何法律与他们熟悉”的定义包括催眠和洞察力的奇迹。 If by higher law we mean the high law of God's holiness, then a miracle can be referred to this law, but the higher law in this case is God Himself and the use of the term is apt to create confusion.如果由更高的法律是指神的圣洁高的法律,然而奇迹发生了可以被称为这项法律,但在这种情况下,更高的法律是神自己和一词的使用容易造成混淆。

III.三。ANTECEDENT IMPROBABILITY先行不大可能

The great problem of modern theology is the place and value of miracles.现代神学的大问题是地方与奇迹的价值。In the opinion of certain writers, their antecedent improbability, based on the universal reign of law is so great that they are not worthy of serious consideration.在某些作家的意见,他们的先行不大可能,在法律得到普遍的统治基础是如此之大,他们不值得认真考虑。 Thus his conviction of the uniformity of nature led Hume to deny testimony for miracles in general, as it led Baur, Strauss, and Renan to explain the miracles of Christ on natural grounds.因此,他对自然的一致性信念导致休谟否认对一般奇迹的见证,因为它导致了鲍尔,史特劳斯,和雷南理由来解释自然基督的奇迹。 The fundamental principle is that whatever happens is natural, and what is not natural does not happen.最根本的原则是,不管发生什么事是很自然的,什么是不自然不会发生。On belief in the uniformity of nature is based the profound conviction of the organic unity of the universe, a characteristic trait of nineteenth-century thought.论自然的统一的信念是基于对宇宙,对19世纪的思想特征性状的有机统一的深刻信念。It has dominated a certain school of literature, and, with George Eliot, Hall Came, and Thomas Hardy, the natural agencies of heredity, environment, and necessary law rule the world of human life.它具有一定的文学为主的学校,并与乔治艾略特,大厅里,与哈代,遗传,环境和必要的法律规则的人的生活世界自然机构。It is the basic principle in modern treatises on sociology.它是现代社会学的论文的基本原则。

Its chief exponent is science philosophy, a continuation of the Deism of the eighteenth century without the idea of God, and the view herein presented, of an evolving universe working out its own destiny under the rigid sway of inherent natural laws, finds but a thin disguise in the Pantheistic conception, so prevalent among non-Catholic theologians, of an immanent God, who is the active ground of the world-development according to natural law -- ie, Monism of mind or will.它的主要指数是科学理念,在十八世纪的想法没有上帝自然神论的延续,本文介绍了制定下一个不断发展的内在自然规律的支配自己的命运刚性宇宙的看法,但一发现薄伪装在pantheistic概念,所以普遍在非天主教神学家的一个内在的上帝,谁是世界发展的积极地按照自然法则 - 即一元论的思想或意志。This belief is the gulf between the old and the modern school of theology.这种信仰是与旧的神学现代学校的鸿沟。Max Muller finds the kernel of the modern conception of the world in the idea that "there is a law and order in everything, and that an unbroken chain of causes and effects holds the whole universe together" ("Anthrop. Relig.", pref., p. 10).缪勒发现了的世界,在现​​代观念的核心理念,“有一个法律和秩序的一切,而且导致和影响的完整链条认为整个宇宙一起”(“Anthrop。Relig。”县。,第1​​0页)。 Throughout the universe there is a mechanism of nature and of human life, presenting a necessary chain, or sequence, of cause and effect, which is not, and cannot be, broken by an interference from without, as is assumed in the case of a miracle.在整个宇宙有一个自然和人的生命机理,提出必要的链条,或序列的因果关系,这是不,并不能由一干扰破坏从没有,就像在一个案例假设奇迹。 This view is the ground of modern objections to Christianity, the source of modern scepticism, and the reason for a prevailing disposition among Christian thinkers to deny miracles a place in Christian evidences and to base the proof for Christianity on internal evidences alone.这种观点是现代基督教反对理由,现代怀疑来源,为一间基督教思想家普遍倾向,否认奇迹的地方,在基督教的证据,并立足于国内的基督教的证据证明单的原因。

Criticism批评

(1) This view ultimately rests upon the assumption that the material universe alone exists.(1)根据这种观点最终取决于假设宇宙的物质单独存在。It is refuted:这是反驳:

by proving that in man there is a spiritual soul totally distinct from organic and inorganic existence, and that this soul reveals an intellectual and moral order totally distinct from the physical order; by inferring the existence of God from the phenomena of the intellectual, the moral, and the physical order.通过证明,在人有一种精神的灵魂完全不同的有机和无机的存在,而这个灵魂揭示了一个智力和道德秩序的物理顺序完全不同;通过推断,从我国的知识产权的现象,道德神的存在和物理顺序。

(2) This view is also based on an erroneous meaning of the term nature. (2)这种观点也是基于一个错误的长期性的意义。Kant made a distinction between the noumenon and the phenomenon of a thing, he denied that we can know the noumenon, ie, the thing in itself; all we know is the phenomenon, ie, the appearance of the thing.康德之间的本体与现象,事物的区别,他否认,我们可以知道的本体,即事情本身,所有我们知道的现象,即事物的外观。 This distinction has profoundly influenced modern thought.这种区分有现代思想的深刻影响。As a Transcendental Idealist, Kant denied that we know the real phenomenon; to him only the ideal appearance is the object of the mind.作为一个先验的理想主义者,康德否认,我们知道真正的现象;在他只有理想模样是心灵的对象。 Thus knowledge is a succession of ideal appearances, and a miracle would be an interruption of that succession.因此,知识是一种理想的外观继承和奇迹将是继任中断。Others, ie, the Sense-School (Hume, Mill, Bain, Spencer, and others), teach that, while we cannot know the substance or essences of things, we can and do grasp the real phenomena.其他人,即意识与学校(休谟,密尔,贝恩,斯宾塞,和其他人),教授,虽然我们无法知道的实质或本质的东西,我们能够而且确实掌握真实现象。 To them the world is a phenomenal world and is a pure coexistence and succession of phenomena, the antecedent determines the consequent.对他们来说,世界是一个惊人的世界,是一个纯粹的共存和继承的现象,由此产生的前提决定。In this view a miracle would be an unexplained break in the (so-called) invariable law of sequence, on which law Mill based his Logic.在这种观点看来是一个奇迹将是一个在(所谓的)序列不变的法律,法律上无法解释他的逻辑基础密尔突破。Now we reply that the real meaning of the word nature includes both the phenomenon and the noumenon.现在我们回答说,这个词的真正含义既包括自然现象和本体。We have the idea of substance with an objective content.我们有一个客观的物质与内容的想法。In reality the progress of science consists in the observation of, and experimentation upon, things with a view to find out their properties or potencies, which in turn enable us to know the physical essences of the various substances.在现实中的科学进步组成,以期找出事情其属性或效力,这反过来又使我们了解了各种物质的物理本质的观察和实验后。

(3) Through the erroneous conception of nature, the principle of causality is confounded with the law of the uniformity of nature. (3)通过对自然的错误的概念,原则,因果关系与大自然的统一性的法律困惑。But they are absolutely different things.但是,他们是绝对不同的事情。The former is a primary conviction which has its source in our inner consciousness.前者是首要信念,在我们的内心有意识之源。The latter is an induction based upon a long and careful observation of facts: it is not a self-evident truth, nor is it a universal and necessary principle, as Mill himself has shown (Logic, IV, xxi).后者是建立在对事实的长期和细致的观察为基础的归纳:它不是一个不言而喻的真理,也不是一个普遍和必要的原则,穆勒本人已经显示(逻辑,四,21)。 In fact uniformity of nature is the result of the principle of causation.其实自然界的一致性是因果关系原则的结果。

(4) The main contention, that the uniformity of nature rules miracles out of consideration, because they would imply a break in the uniformity and a violation of natural law, is not true. (4)主要论点,表示在大自然的奇迹了统一规则的考虑,因为它们意味着在匀打破和违反自然规律,是不正确的。The laws of nature are the observed modes or processes in which natural forces act.自然规律是观察到的模式或行为过程中,自然的力量。These forces are the properties or potencies of the essences of natural things.这些部队的属性或自然事物的本质效力。 Our experience of causation is not the experience of a mere sequence but of a sequence due to the necessary operation of essences viewed as principles or sources of action.我们的因果关系的经验是不是一个单纯的序列,但序列由于为原则或行动的来源看本质必要的操作经验。

Now essences are necessarily what they are and unchangeable, therefore their properties, or potencies, or forces, under given circumstances, act in the same way.现在本质必然是他们的和不可改变的,因此他们的财产,或效力,或力量,在特定情况下,以同样的方式行事。On this, Scholastic philosophy bases the truth that nature is uniform in its action, yet holds that constancy of succession is not an absolute law for the succession is only constant so long as the noumenal relations remain the same.在此,士林哲学基础的真理,在其行动的性质是一致的,但认为恒定的继承并非绝对规律的继承是唯一不变的,只要本体关系保持不变。 Thus Scholastic philosophy, in defending miracles, accepts the universal reign of law in this sense, and its teaching is in absolute accord with the methods actually pursued by modern science in scientific investigations.因此,士林哲学,在捍卫奇迹,在这个意义上接受法律的普遍的统治,其教学与实际的科学调查方法,现代科学所追求的绝对一致。 Hence it teaches the order of nature and the reign of law, and openly declares that, if there were no order, there would be no miracle.因此,它告诉我们自然秩序和法律的统治,并公开宣称,如果没有秩序,就不会有奇迹。

It is significant that the Bible appeals constantly to the reign of law in nature, while it attests the actual occurrence of miracles.值得注意的是,圣经不断上诉的法律性质的统治,而它证明实际发生的奇迹。Now human will, in acting on material forces, interferes with the regular sequences, but does not paralyze the natural forces or destroy their innate tendency to act in a uniform manner.现在人的意志,在对物质力量的作用,干扰了正常序列,但不瘫痪或自然力量摧毁其与生俱来的倾向,以一种统一的方式。 Thus a boy, by throwing a stone into the air, does not disarrange the order of nature or do away with the law of gravity.因此,一个男孩,扔一块石头到空气中,不打乱秩序的性质或做了万有引力定律了。A new force only is brought in and counteracts the tendencies of the natural forces, just as the natural forces interact and counteract among themselves, as is shown in the well-known truths of the parallelogram of forces and the distinction between kinetic and potential energy.一个新的力量不仅是引进和抵消自然力量的倾向,就像自然力量互动,彼此抵消,因为是在平行四边形和力量之间的动能和势能的区别众所周知的事实证明。 The analogy from man's act to God's act is complete as far as concerns a break in the uniformity of nature or a violation of its laws.从人的行为,以上帝的行为比喻是完成涉及一个尽可能在自然的统一性或违反其法律的突破。 The extent of the power exerted does not affect the point at issue.该权力范围内施加影响,在不争论的焦点。Hence physical nature is presented as a system of physical causes producing uniform results, and yet permits the interposition of personal agency without affecting its stability.因此,物理性质是作为一个统一的物理原因产生结果的系统,但允许在不影响其稳定性的个人代理干预。

(5) The truth of this position is so manifest that Mill admits Hume's argument against miracles to be valid only on the supposition that God does not exist for, he says, "a miracle is a new effect supposed to be produced by the introduction of a new cause . . . of the adequacy of that cause, if present, there can be no doubt" (Logic, III, xxv). (5)这个位置的事实是如此明显的,穆勒承认休谟的反对奇迹参数只有在假定上帝不存在,他说,有效的“一个奇迹,是一个新的效果应该是通过引进生产一个新的事业。。导致的充足。,如果存在,不可能有任何怀疑“(逻辑,三,二十五)。 Hence, admitting the existence of God, Hume's "uniform sequence" does not hold as an objection to miracles.因此,承认上帝的存在,休谟的“统一序列”并不作为奇迹持有异议。Huxley also denies that physicists withhold belief in miracles because miracles are in violation of natural laws and he rejects the whole of this line of argument ("Some Controverted questions", 209; "Life of Hume", 132), and holds that a miracle is a question of evidence pure and simple.赫胥黎还否认隐瞒物理学家相信奇迹,因为奇迹是违反自然规律,他拒绝了这种论点全(“一些有争议的问题”,209,“休谟的生命”,132),并认为是一个奇迹是一个单纯的证据的问题。 Hence the objection to miracles on the ground of their antecedent improbability has been abandoned.因此,对他们的地面奇迹先行不大可能反对已被放弃。"The Biblical World" (Oct., 1908) says "The old rigid system of 'Laws of Nature' is being broken up by modern science. There are many events which scientists recognize to be inexplicable by any known law. But this inability to furnish a scientific explanation is no reason for denying the existence of any event, if it is adequately attested. Thus the old a priori argument against miracles is gone." “圣经的世界”(10月,1908年)说:“老'自然法则'僵化体制正在被打破由现代科学。科学家承认有被任何已知的法律莫名的许多事件。但是,这不能提供一个科学的解释是不否认存在任何情况下,如果有足够的理由证明。因此,旧的一个先验的论点是对的奇迹了。“ Thus in modern thought the question of the miracle is simply a question of fact.因此,思想与现代的奇迹问题是一个简单的事实问题。

IV.四。PLACE AND VALUE OF MIRACLES IN THE CHRISTIAN VIEW OF THE WORLD地点与奇迹价值在世界基督教观

As the great objection to miracles really rests on narrow and false philosophical views of the universe, so the true world-view is necessary to grasp their place and value.正如伟大的奇迹真的反对对宇宙的哲学观点狭隘的和虚假的休息,所以真正的世界的看法是要把握自己的位置和价值。

Christianity teaches that God created and governs the world.基督教认为上帝创造和支配着世界。 This government is His Providence.这个政府是他的普罗维登斯。It is shown in the delicate adjustment and subordination of the tendencies proper to material things, resulting in the marvellous stability and harmony which prevail throughout the physical creation, and in the moral order, which through conscience, is to guide and control the tendencies of man's nature to a complete harmony in human life.这是显示在微妙的调整和倾向恰当的物质的东西的从属地位,在奇妙的稳定与和谐,这整个物质创造为准导致,并在道德秩序,它通过良心,是引导和控制人的倾向大自然是人类生活的完整和谐。 Man is a personal being, with intelligence and free-will, capable of knowing and serving God, and created for that purpose.人是一个个人的生命,用智慧和自由意志,有能力的认识和事奉神,并为此目的而创建的。To him nature is the book of God's work revealing the Creator through the design visible in the material order and through conscience, the voice of the moral order based in the very constitution of his own being.对他来说自然是上帝的揭示,通过设计以看得见的物质,并通过良心,在他自己的存在很宪法为基础的道德秩序的声音造物主的创作书。 Hence the relation of man to God is a personal one.因此,人类对上帝的关系是个人的。God's Providence is not confined to the revelation of Himself through His works.上帝的普罗维登斯并不局限于自己通过他的作品的启示。 He has manifested Himself in a supernatural manner throwing a flood of light on the relations which should exist between man and Himself.他有一种超自然的表现在扔的关系应该存在的人与自己的光洪水神情。 The Bible contains this revelation, and is called the Book of God's Word.圣经包含此启示,是所谓的上帝的话语书。It gives the record of God's supernatural Providence leading up to the Redemption and the founding of the Christian Church.它给上帝的超自然的普罗维登斯领导到创纪录的赎回和基督教会的成立。Here we are told that beyond the sphere of nature there is another realm of existence -- the supernatural, peopled by spiritual beings and departed souls.在这里,我们被告知,超出了自然界的存在还有另一种境界 - 超自然的,由鬼神人居住和离开的灵魂。Both spheres, the natural and the supernatural, are under the overruling Providence of God.这两个领域,自然和超自然的,是在神推翻普罗维登斯。Thus God and man are two great facts.因此,上帝和人是两个伟大的事实。The relation of the soul to its Maker is religion.在其制作的灵魂的关系是宗教。

Religion is the knowledge, love, and service of God; its expression is called worship, and the essence of worship is prayer.宗教是知识,爱,神服务,其表达式称为崇拜,和崇拜的本质是祈祷。Thus between man and God there is constant intercourse, and in God's Providence the appointed means of this intercourse is prayer.因此,人与神有不断的交往,在上帝的普罗维登斯这一任命意味着性交祈祷。By prayer man speaks to God in acts of faith, hope, love, and contrition and implores His aid.以祈祷的人说话的神的信仰,希望,爱和悔悟,并恳求他帮助的行为。In answer to prayer God acts on the soul by His grace and, in special circumstances, by working miracles.在回答祈祷上帝的行为,由他的恩典的灵魂,在特殊情况下,由工作的奇迹。Hence the great fact of prayer, as the connecting link of man to God, implies a constant interference of God in the life of man.因此,祈祷伟大的事实作为承上启下的男子上帝,意味着在人的生命神不断干扰。Therefore in the Christian view of the world, miracles have a place and a meaning.因此,在世界基督教认为,奇迹有一个地方,一个意思。They arise out of the personal relation between God and man.它们产生于上帝和人之间的个人关系。The conviction that the pure of heart are pleasing to God, in some mysterious way, is worldwide; even among the heathens pure offerings only are prepared for the sacrifice.信念,即纯粹的心是神所喜悦的某种神秘的方式,是世界性的,即使在异教徒不仅是单纯的产品为牺牲的准备。

This intimate sense of God's presence may account for the universal tendency to refer all striking phenomena to supernatural causes.这个神的存在,亲密感,也许可以解释的普遍倾向,把所有的原因惊人的超自然现象。Error and exaggeration do not change the nature of the belief founded in the abiding conviction of the Providence of God.错误和夸大不改变,在神的信念,创立了普罗维登斯持久信念的性质。To this belief St. Paul appealed in his discourse to the Athenians (Acts 17).为了这一信念圣保禄呼吁在他的话语向雅典人(使徒17)。 In the miracle, therefore, God subordinates physical nature to a higher purpose, and this higher purpose is identical with the highest moral aims of existence.在奇迹,因此,神下属的物理性质,更高的目标,更高的目标,这是存在的最高道德目标的一致。The mechanical view of the world is in harmony with the teleological, and when purpose exists, no event is isolated or unmeaning.世界的机械的看法是在和谐与目的论,当目的而存在,没有事件是孤立的或毫无意义。Man is created for God, and a miracle is the proof and pledge of His supernatural Providence.人是创造的神,是一个奇迹证明,他的超自然的普罗维登斯的承诺。Hence we can understand how, in devout minds, there is even a presumption for and an expectation of miracles.因此,我们可以了解,在虔诚的心,甚至有一个推定,一个创造奇迹的期望。They show the subordination of the lower world to the higher, they are the breaking in of the higher world on the lower ("C. Gent.", III, xcviii, xcix; Benedict XIV, 1,c,1,IV,plcI).他们显示了下级向上级的世界,他们是打破隶属中就较低(较高的世界,三,时候正好,xcix“三绅士。”;本笃十四,1,丙,一,四,plcI )。

Some writers -- eg, Paley, Mansel, Mozley, Dr. George Fisher -- push the Christian view to the extreme, and say that miracles are necessary to attest revelation.一些作家 - 例如,佩利,曼塞尔,莫兹利,乔治费舍尔博士 - 推到了极致基督教的观点,并说,奇迹是有必要证明的启示。Catholic theologians, however, take a broader view.天主教神学家,但是,采取更广阔的视野。They hold他们认为

that the great primary ends of miracles are the manifestation of God's glory and the good of men; that the particular or secondary ends, subordinate to the former, are to confirm the truth of a mission or a doctrine of faith or morals, to attest the sanctity of God's servants, to confer benefits and vindicate Divine justice.这奇迹的伟大主要目的是神的荣耀的体现和男人的好,这特定的或次要目的,服从于前者,是确认任务真理或信仰或道德学说,证明的上帝的仆人,尊严,赋予利益和维护神圣的正义。

Hence they teach that the attestation of Revelation is not the primary end of the miracle, but its main secondary end, though not the only one.因此,他们教的启示认证是不是奇迹的主要目的,但其主要次级终点,但不是唯一的一个。

They say that the miracles of Christ were not necessary but "most fitting and altogether in accord with His mission" (decentissimum et maximopere conveniens) -- Benedict XIV, IV, p.他们说,基督的奇迹没有必要的,但“最合适的,并与他的使命完全一致”(decentissimum等maximopere不方便) - 本笃十四,四,第1, c. 1角2, n. 2,注3; ST III:43) as a means to attest its truth.3,圣三:43)作为一种手段来证明它的真实性。At the same time they place miracles among the strongest and most certain evidences of Divine revelation.在同一时间,他们挤身神圣启示的强大和最可靠的证据的奇迹。

Yet they teach that, as evidences, miracles have not a physical force, ie, absolutely compelling assent, but only a moral force, ie they do no violence to free will, though their appeal to the assent is of the strongest kind.然而,他们教导说,作为证据,奇迹已经不是物质力量,即绝对令人信服的同意,但只有一种道德力量,即他们没有暴力的自由意志,尽管他们的呼吁,同意最强的一种。 That, as evidences, they are not wrought to show the internal truth of the doctrines, but only to give manifest reasons why we should accept the doctrines.鉴于证据,他们不是紧张得要命,以证明其学说的内部真相,但只给表现为何我们应该接受的学说。Hence the distinction: not evidenter vera, but evidenter credibilia.因此,区别:不evidenter芦荟,但evidenter credibilia。For the Revelation, which miracles attest, contains supernatural doctrines above the comprehension of the mind and positive institutions in God's supernatural Providence over men.对于启示,这奇迹证明,含有以上的理解和心灵在上帝的超自然的普罗维登斯积极机构接管人超自然学说。Thus the opinion of Locke, Trench, Mill, Mozley, and Cox, that the doctrine proves the miracle not the miracle the doctrine, is not true.因此,洛克,海沟,轧机,莫兹利和Cox,这证明了奇迹的学说不是教条奇迹的意见,是不正确的。

Finally, they maintain that the miracles of Scripture and the power in the Church of working miracles are of Divine faith, not, however the miracles of church history themselves.最后,他们坚持认为,圣经中的奇迹和权力,教会工作的奇迹是神圣的信仰,不是,但是他们自己的教会历史的奇迹。 Hence they teach that the former are both evidences of faith and objects of faith, that the latter are evidences of the purpose for which they are wrought, not, however, objects of Divine faith.因此,他们教导说,前者是信仰和信仰的对象都证明,后者是对他们所造成,但不能对神圣的信仰对象,目的的证据。Hence this teaching guards against the other exaggerated view recently proposed by non-Catholic writers, who hold that miracles are now considered not as evidences but as objects of faith.因此,这种教学人员最近对其他夸张的非天主教作家,谁认为奇迹是目前被认为没有证据,但作为信仰对象提出的看法。

V. TESTIMONY五,证词

A miracle, like any natural event, is known either from personal observation or from the testimony of others.一个奇迹,像任何自然事件,被称为无论是从个人的观察,或从别人的见证。In the miracle we have the fact itself as an external occurrence and its miraculous character.在奇迹我们有作为外部发生奇迹般的人物,其事实本身。The miraculous character of the fact consists in this: that its nature and the surrounding circumstances are of such a kind that we are forced to admit natural forces alone could not have produced it, and the only rational explanation is to be had in the interference of Divine agency.事实的神奇字符包含在这一点:它的性质和周围的情况这样的,我们不得不承认是一种自然力量本身不能产生它,唯一合理的解释是要在有干扰神圣的机构。 The perception of its miraculous character is a rational act of the mind, and is simply the application of the principle of causality with the methods of induction.其神奇的人物的看法是一种心态理性的行为,是简单的归纳的方法与因果关系的原则。The general rules governing the acceptance of testimony apply to miracles as to other facts of history.理事的证词接受一般规则适用于对历史的奇迹作为其他事实。If we have certain evidence for the fact, we are bound to accept it.如果我们有一定的事实证据,我们必然要接受它。The evidence for miracles, as for historical facts in general, depends on the knowledge and veracity of the narrators, ie, they who testify to the occurrence of the events must know what they tell and tell the truth.奇迹的证据,在一般的历史事实,对知识和讲解员,即准确性取决于他们谁证明了事件的发生,必须知道他们告诉我们,说实话。 The extraordinary nature of the miracle requires more complete and accurate investigation.的奇迹特殊性质,需要更完整和准确的调查。Such testimony we are not free to reject; otherwise we must deny all history whatsoever.这样的证词,我们不能自由地拒绝,否则我们必须拒绝所有的历史可言。We have no more rational warrant for rejecting miracles than for rejecting accounts of stellar eclipses.我们没有拒绝的恒星比拒绝更合理蚀帐户奇迹令。Hence, they who deny miracles have concentrated their efforts with the purpose of destroying the historical evidence for all miracles whatsoever and especially the evidence for the miracles of the Gospel.因此,他们谁否认奇迹都集中在销毁所有奇迹的历史的任何证据,特别是对福音的奇迹证据而努力。

Hume held that no testimony could prove miracles, for it is more probable that the testimony is false than that the miracles are true.休谟认为,没有证据可以证明的奇迹,因为它是更可能的证词是假的比这奇迹是真实的。But

his contention that "a uniform experience", which is "a direct and full proof", is against miracles, is denied by Mill, provided an adequate cause -- ie, God -- exists.他的论点,即“统一的经验”,这是“直接和充分的证据”,是反对奇迹,是由米尔拒绝,提供了适当的事业 - 即上帝 - 存在。

Hume's "experience" may mean: (a) the experience of the individual, and his argument is made absurd (eg, historic doubts about Napoleon) or (b) the experience of the race, which has become common property and the type of what may be expected.休谟的“经验”可能是指:(一)个人的经验,他的论点是由荒谬的(例如,关于拿破仑的历史怀疑)或(b)的比赛,这已成为共同财产和类型的经验是什么可以预期。 Now in fact we get this by testimony; many supernatural facts are part of this race experience; this supernatural part Hume prejudges, arbitrarily declares it untrue, which is the point to be proved and assumes that miraculous is synonymous with absurd.现在实际上我们得到的证词这一点;许多超自然的事实是这场比赛的经验的一部分,这部分休谟超自然预先判断,任意宣布它不真实的,这是要证明点,并假定那神奇的是荒谬的代名词。 The past, so expurgated, is made the test of the future, and should prevent the consistent advocates of Hume from accepting the discoveries of science.过去,所以删改,是由未来的测试,并应避免接受的科学发现休谟的一贯主张。

Hard-pressed, Hume is forced to make the distinction between testimony contrary to experience and testimony not conformable to experience, and holds that the latter may be accepted -- eg, testimony of ice to the Indian prince.捉襟见肘,休谟是被迫作出相反的证词之间的经验和证词不相符合的经验区别,并认为后者可能被接受 - 例如冰的证词向印度王子。But this admission is fatal to his position.但是,这是致命的录取他的位置。

Hume proceeds on the supposition that, for practical purposes, all the laws of nature are known, yet experience shows that this is not true.上,对于实际的目的,所有的自然规律是众所周知的,但经验表明,这是不正确的假设休谟的收益。

His whole argument rests upon the rejected philosophical principle that external experience is the sole source of knowledge, rests upon the discredited basis that miracles are opposed to the uniformity of nature as violations of natural laws and was advanced through prejudice against Christianity.他的全部论点休息后拒绝哲学原则,即外部经验是知识的唯一来源,经名誉扫地的基础上,奇迹在于反对对自然的统一,作为违反自然规律,并通过先进的对基督教的偏见。 Hence later sceptics have receded from Hume's extreme position and teach, not that miracles cannot be proved, but that as a matter of fact they are not proved.因此,后来怀疑论者已经退去从休谟的极端的立场和传授,而不是奇迹不能被证明,但作为事实上他们没有证明。

The attack by Hume on miracles in general has been applied to the miracles of the Bible, and has received added weight from the denial of Divine inspiration.由休谟的奇迹攻击一般已应用到圣经的奇迹,并已收到了神圣的灵感拒绝增加了重量。Varying in form, its basic principle is the same, viz., the humanism of the Renaissance applied to theology.在形式上变,其基本原理是一样的,即。,文艺复兴时期的人文主义应用到神学。Thus we have:因此,我们有:

(1) The interpretation theory(1)理论的解释

The old rationalism of Semler Eichhorn, de Wette, and Paulus, who held the credibility of the Bible records, but contended that they were a collection of writings composed by natural intelligence alone, and to be treated on the same plane with other natural productions of the human mind.对塞姆勒艾希霍恩,德wette和保卢斯,谁举行了圣经记载的信誉,但辩称,他们是受自然组成单独的著作收集情报,并在同一平面处理与其他自然生产的旧理性人的心灵。 They got rid of the supernatural by a bold interpretation of miracles as purely natural facts.他们摆脱了超自然的一个事实,作为纯粹的自然奇迹大胆的解释。This is called the "interpretation" theory, and appears today under two forms: Modified rationalism, which teaches that we are warranted in accepting a very considerable portion of the Gospel narratives as substantially historical, without being compelled to believe in any miracles.这就是所谓的“解释”的理论,今天出现在两种形式:改性理性,它教导我们,我们在接受福音的叙述相当一部分为保证历史不会大幅被迫相信任何奇迹。 Hence they give credence to the accounts of the demoniacs and healings, but allege that these wonders were wrought by, or in accordance with, natural law.因此,他们轻信了demoniacs和医治的帐户,但声称,这些奇迹是造成的,或是在与自然的法律规定。Thus we have the electric theory of M. Corelli, the appeal to "moral therapeutics" by Matthew Arnold, and the psychological theory advanced by Prof. Bousset of Gottingen, in which he claims that Christ performed miracles by natural mental powers of a superior kind (cf. "N. World", March 1896).因此,我们有米科雷利,对“道德疗法”马修阿诺德呼吁电动理论,心理学理论教授哥廷根Bousset先进,他声称,基督由上级进行一种自然的心理力量的奇迹(参见“全世界”,1896年3月)。 But the attempt to explain the miracles of the Gospel either by the natural powers of Christ, ie, mental or moral superiority, or by peculiar states of the recipient, faith cure, and allied psychic phenomena, is arbitrary and not true to facts.但是,试图解释无论是基督的福音,即精神或道德优越感,自然权力或国家特有的收件人,信仰治愈的奇迹,和专职心理现象,是武断的,不正确的事实。 In many of the miracles faith is not required, and is in fact absent this is shown, in the miracles of power, by the expressed fear of the Apostles, eg, at Christ stilling the tempest (Mark 4:40), at Christ on the waters (Mark 6:51), at the draught of fishes (Luke 5:8), and in the miracles of expelling demons.在许多信仰的奇迹不是必需的,而事实上是不存在,这是表明,在权力的奇迹,由使徒们表示担心,如在基督,消力暴风雨(马可福音4:40),在基督水域(马克6:51),在鱼(路加福音5:8),并在草案驱逐恶魔的奇迹。 In some miracles Christ requires faith, but the faith is not the cause of the miracle, only the condition of His exercising the power.在一些需要奇迹基督信仰,但信仰是不是奇迹,只有他行使权力的状况的原因。

Others, like Holstein, Renan, and Huxley, follow de Wette, who explains the miracles as the emotional interpretation of commonplace events.其他,像荷斯坦,任南,和赫胥黎,按照日Wette,谁解释为对事件的情绪普遍解释的奇迹。They claim that the facts which occurred were substantially historical, but in the narrating were covered over with the interpretations of the writers.他们声称,事实发生了重大的历史,但在叙事上满布着作家的解释了。Hence, they say that, in studying the Gospels, we must distinguish between the facts as they actually took place and the subjective emotions of those who witnessed them, their strong excitement, tendency to exaggeration, and vivid imagination.因此,他们说,在研究了福音,我们必须区分事实确实发生了,他们和那些谁目睹他们的主观情绪,强烈的兴奋,夸张的倾向,以及丰富的想象力。 Thus they appeal not to the "fallacies of testimony" so much as to the "fallacies of the senses".因此,他们呼吁不要以“歪理邪说的证词”这么多,至于“感官的谬论。”But this attempt to transform the Apostles into nervous visionaries cannot be held by an unbiased mind.但是,这种企图转化为神经有远见者的使徒不能持有不偏不倚的态度。St. Peter clearly distinguished between a vision (Acts 10:17) and a reality (Acts 12), and St. Paul mentions two cases of visions (Acts 22:17; 2 Corinthians 12), the latter by way of contrast with his ordinary missionary life of labours and sufferings (2 Corinthians 11).圣彼得明确区分的远见(徒10:17)和现实(使徒12),和圣保罗提到两起案件的愿景(徒22:17;哥林多后书12),后者通过对比的方式与他普通劳动者传教生活和痛苦(哥林多后书11)。 Renan even goes so far as to present the glaring inconsistency of a Christ remarkable, as he says, for moral beauty of life and doctrine, who nevertheless is guilty of conscious deception, as, eg, in the make-believe raising of Lazarus.雷南甚至竟提出了一个基督显着突出的矛盾,正如他说,对于生活和学说,但谁是有罪的道德意识的欺骗美丽,因为,如在化妆相信提高拉撒路。 This teaching is in reality a denial of testimony.这种教学是在现实中拒绝作证。The miracles of Christ must be taken as a whole; and in the Gospel setting where they are presented as a part of his teaching and his life.基督的奇迹,必须采取作为一个整体,并在福音设置他们被视为他的教学和他生活的一部分提交。 On the ground of evidence there is no reason to make a distinction among them or to interpret them so that they become other than they are.对证据的理由,没有理由对他们进行区分或解释他们,使他们成为其他比他们。The real reason is prejudgment on false philosophical grounds with a view to get rid of the supernatural element.真正的原因是与虚假的哲学观点的理由预断摆脱摆脱超自然的元素。In fact the conjectures and hypotheses proposed are far more improbable than the miracles themselves.事实上,猜测和假设提出了远比自己不可思议的奇迹。Again, how thus explain the great miracle that the hero of a baseless legend, the impotent and deceitful Christ, could be come the founder of the Christian Church and of Christian civilization?再次,如何解释这样的伟大奇迹,一个毫无根据的传说,无能和欺骗性基督,英雄可以来的基督教教会的创始人和基督教文明? Finally, this method violates the first principles of interpretation; for the New Testament writers are not allowed to speak their own language.最后,这个方法违反第一原则的解释,为新约圣经的作家都不准讲自己的语言。

(2) The theory of Biblical Humanism(2)理论的圣经人文主义

The fundamental idea of Hegel's metaphysic (viz., that existing things are the progressive manifestation of the idea, ie, the absolute) gave a philosophical basis for the organic conception of the universe, ie, the Divine as organic to the human.黑格尔的形而上学的基本理念(即,这是现有的东西的想法,即绝对的进步表现)举办了一次宇宙,即有机的人类神圣的有机观的哲学基础。 Thus revelation is presented as a human process, and history -- eg, the Bible -- is a record of human experience, the product of a human life.因此启示是作为一个人的过程,和历史 - 例如,圣经 - 是人类经验的记录,一个人生活的产物。This philosophy of history was applied to explain the miraculous in the Gospels and appears under two forms: the Tübingen School and the "Mystical" School.这种历史的哲学是用来解释在福音的神奇,根据两种形式出现:蒂宾根大学学院和“神秘”学校。

(a) the Tübingen School(一)在蒂宾根学校

Baur regards the Hegelian process in its objective aspect, ie, the facts as things.鲍尔在其关于客观方面,即作为事物的事实,黑格尔的过程。He held the books of the New Testament to be states through which the human life and thought of early Christianity had passed.他认为,新约圣经的书籍成为各国通过这些人的生活和早期基督教的思想已经过去了。He attempted to do with reference to the origin what Gibbon tried with reference to the spread of Christianity -- ie, get rid of the supernatural by the tacit assumption that there were no miracles and by the enumeration of natural causes, chief of which was the Messianic idea to which Jesus accommodated Himself.他试图做参考的起源是什么长臂猿参考基督教的传播尝试 - 即获得摆脱超自然的默契假设有没有奇迹和自然原因,其中主要是统计耶稣救世主的想法容纳自己。The evolution element in Baur's Humanism, however, constrained him to deny that we possess contemporaneous documents of our Lord's life, to hold that the New Testament literature was the result of warring factions among the early Christians, and therefore of a much later date than tradition ascribes to it, and that Christ was only the occasional cause of Christianity.在鲍尔的人文发展的元素,然而,约束他否认,我们拥有我们的主的生命同期证件,认为新约文献是交战中的早期基督徒派系的结果,一个更比传统的较后日期,因此赋予它,以及基督只是偶尔基督教事业。 He accepted as genuine only the Epistles to the Galatians, Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, and the Apocalypse.他只接纳为真正的书信向加拉太,罗马人,1和2哥林多前书,和启示。But the Epistles admitted by Baur show that St. Paul believed in miracles and asserted the actual occurrence of them as well-known facts both in regard to Christ and in regard to himself and the other Apostles (eg, Romans 15:18; 1 Corinthians 1:22; 12:10, 2 Corinthians 12:12, Galatians 3:5, especially his repeated references to the Resurrection of Christ, 1 Corinthians 15).但鲍尔承认的书信表明,圣保罗相信奇迹,并断言它们是众所周知的事实实际发生的两方面,以基督和他本人和方面(例如,其他使徒罗马书15点18分;哥林多前书1:22,12:10,哥林多后书12:12,加拉太书3:5,特别是基督的复活,哥林多前书15)他一再引用。 The basis on which the Tübingen School rests, viz., that we possess no contemporaneous records of Christ's life, and that the New Testament writings belong to the second century, has been proved to be false by the higher criticisms.它的基础在于蒂宾根大学的学校,即。,我们有基督的生命没有当时的记录,而且新约圣经的著作属于第二个世纪,已被证明是假的由上级批评。 Hence Huxley admits that this position is no longer tenable (The Nineteenth Century, Feb., 1889), and in fact there is no longer a Tübingen School at Tübingen.因此,赫胥黎也承认,这一立场已经站不住脚(十九世纪,二月,1889年),并在实际上已不再是一个在蒂宾根蒂宾根学校。 Harnack says: "As regards the criticisms of the sources of Christianity, we stand unquestionably in a movement of return to tradition. The chronological framework in which tradition set the earliest documents is to be henceforth accepted in its main outlines" (The Nineteenth Cent., Oct., 1899).哈纳克说:“至于基督教的来源的批评,我们站在一个回归传统运动无疑是其中的传统年代学框架设定的最早的文献记录是要在其今后的主要接受的轮廓。”(第十九美分。 10月,1899年)。Hence Romanes said that the outcome of the battle on the Bible documents is a signal victory for Christianity (Thoughts on Religion, p. 165).因此罗曼纳说,圣经上的文件战斗的结果是(宗教思想,第165页)为基督教信号的胜利。Dr. Emil Reich speaks of the bankruptcy of the higher criticism ("Contemp. Rev.", April, 1905).埃米尔帝国博士谈到了较高的批评(“Contemp。启示录”,四月,1905年)破产。

(b) The "Mythical" School(二)“神话”学校

Strauss regarded the Hegelian process in its subjective aspect.施特劳斯认为在其主观方面黑格尔的过程。 The facts as matters of consciousness with the early Christians concerned him exclusively.作为与有关事项的意识完全是他早期基督徒的事实。Hence he regarded Christ within the Christian consciousness of the time, and held that Christ of the New Testament was the outcome of this consciousness.因此,他认为的时间内基督基督教意识,并认为新约基督是这种意识的结果。He did not deny a relatively small nucleus of historical reality, but contended that the Gospels, as we possess them, are mythical inventions or fabulous and fanciful embellishments and are to be regarded only as symbols for spiritual ideas, eg, the Messianic idea.他不否认的历史事实相对较小的核,但辩称,福音,因为我们拥有它们,是神话般的发明或神话般的和幻想的装饰和将被视为只作为符号的精神理念,如救世主的想法。 Strauss thus attempted to remove the miraculous -- or what he considered the unhistorical matter -- from the text.施特劳斯从而试图消除奇迹 - 或者什么,他认为非历史的问题 - 从文本。But this view was too fanciful long to hold currency after a careful study of the truthful, matter-of-fact character of the New Testament writings, and a comparison of them with the Apocrypha.但这种观点过于幻想长期持有后的真实,就事论事的,事实上,新约圣经的著作性格认真研究货币,以及它们与伪经比较。 Hence it has been rejected, and Strauss himself confessed to disappointment at the result of his labours (The Old and New Faith).因此,它已被拒绝,并在施特劳斯自己招认,他的劳动(旧的和新信仰)结果令人失望。

(3) The Critical Agnostic School(3)的关键不可知学校

Its basis is the organic idea of the universe, but it views the world process apart from God, because reason cannot prove the existence of God, and therefore, to the Agnostic, He does not exist (eg, Huxley); or to the Christian Agnostic, His existence is accepted on Faith (sg, Baden-Powell).其依据是宇宙的有机概念,但它认为世界的过程中,除了上帝,因为理由不能证明神的存在,因此,不可知论者,他不存在(例如,赫胥黎),或以基督教不可知论者,他的存在是接受了信仰(新加坡,巴登鲍威尔)。 To both there is no miracle, for we have no way of knowing it.既没有奇迹,因为我们不知道它的方式。Thus Huxley admits the facts of miracles in the New Testament, but says that the testimony as to their miraculous character may be worthless, and strives to explain it by the subjective mental conditions of the writers ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889).因此,赫胥黎承认新约中的奇迹的事实,但他说,以他们的奇迹般的性格可能是毫无价值的证词,并努力解释的主观心理状态的作家(“第十九美分。”三月吧, 1889年)。Baden-Powell (in "Essays and Reviews"), Holtzmann (Die synoptischen Evangelien), and Harnack (The Essence of Christianity) admit the miracles as recorded in the Gospels, but hold that their miraculous character is beyond the scope of historical proof, and depends on the mental assumptions of the readers.贝登堡(在“散文与评论”),Holtzmann(模具synoptischen Evangelien)和哈纳克(基督教的本质)接纳为在福音中记录的奇迹,但认为他们的奇迹般的人物超越了历史证据的范围,并取决于读者的心理假设。

Criticism批评

The real problem of the historian is to state well-authenticated facts and give an explanation of the testimony.历史学家的真正的问题是国家以及验证的事实和证据作出的解释。He should show how such events must have taken place and how such a theory only can explain them.他应该如何将这些事件必须发生,以及如何这种理论不仅可以解释。He takes cognizance of all that is said about these events by competent witnesses, and from their testimony he draws the conclusion.他把所有认识到的是关于这些事件的目击者主管说,从他们的证词,他得出结论。To admit the facts and to deny an explanation is to furnish very great evidence for their historical truth, and to show qualities not consistent with the scientific historian.承认事实,否认一个解释是他们历史真相提供了很大的证据,显示品质不符合科学历史学家一致。

(4) The theory of liberal Protestantism(4)自由新教理论

(a) Older form(一)旧的形式

In its older form, this was advocated by Carlyle (Froude's "Life of Carlyle"), Martineau (Seal of Authority in Religion), Rathbone Greg (Creed of Christendom), Prof. Wm.在其旧的形式,这是主张由凯雷(佛洛德的“生命凯雷”),马蒂诺(管理局印章宗教),拉思伯恩格雷格(基督教教义),西医教授。 H. Green (Works, III pp. 230, 253), proposed as a religious creed under the title of the "new Reformation" ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889) and popularized by Mrs. Humphry Ward in "Robert Elsmere."阁下绿色(工程,三第230,253),作为下的“新改革”称号宗教信仰建议(“第十九美分。”三月,1889年)和推广汉弗莱沃德女士在“罗伯特埃尔斯米尔。“ As the old Reformation was a movement to destroy the Divine authority of the Church by exalting the supernatural character of the Bible, so the new Reformation aimed at removing the supernatural element from the Bible and resting faith in Christianity on the high moral character of Jesus and the excellence of His moral teaching.由于旧的改革是一项运动摧毁高举圣经的超自然的性质,因此新的改革旨在消除来自圣经的超自然元素和休息的高品格的耶稣在基督教信仰和教会的目的是神圣的权威对他的道德教学卓越。 It is in close sympathy with some writers on the science of religion who see in Christianity a natural religion, though superior to other forms.它是在与一些宗教的基督教科学作家谁在看一个自然宗教,但优于其他形式的密切同情。In describing their position as "a revolt against miraculous belief", its adherents yet profess great reverence for Jesus as "that friend of God and Man, in whom, through all human frailty and necessary imperfection, they see the natural head of their inmost life, the symbol of those religious forces in man which are primitive, essential and universal" ("The Nineteenth Cent.", Mar., 1889).在描述为“一个奇迹般的信念,对起义”的立场,但其信徒信奉崇敬耶稣为“神与人的朋友,在其中,通过所有人类的脆弱和必要的缺陷,他们看到自己的内在生命自然头,在那些人是原始的,基本和普遍的“(”第十九美分。“三月,1889年)宗教势力的象征。 By way of criticism it may be said that this school has its source in the philosophical assumption that the uniformity of nature has made the miracle unthinkable -- an assumption now discarded.通过批评方式可以说,这所学校有其哲学假设,即对自然的统一作出了不可思议的奇迹源 - 一个假设现在丢弃。 Again, it has its basis in the Tübingen School which has been proved false, and it requires a mutilation of the Gospels so radical and wholesale that nearly every sentence has to be excised or rewritten.再次,它有其蒂宾根大学的学校,已经证明是错误的基础,它需要如此激进的福音和批发,几乎每一句话都必须切除或重写肢解。 The miracles of Jesus are too essential a part of His life and teaching to be thus removed.耶稣的奇迹是太重要了他的生活和教学的一部分,因此被删除。We might as well expurgate the records of military achievements from the lives of Alexander or of Caesar.我们不妨从expurgate亚历山大或凯撒的生命军事成就的记录。Strauss exposed the inconsistencies of this position, which he once held (Old Faith and the New), and von Hartmann considered the Liberal theologians as causing the disintegration of Christianity ("Selbstersetzung des Christ", 1888).斯特劳斯暴露了这一立场,他曾举行(旧信仰和新)不一致,冯哈特曼认为是造成了基督教解体(“Selbstersetzung德基督”,1888年)自由神学家。

(b) Newer form(二)较新形式

In its recent form, it has been advocated by the exponents of the psychological theory.在其最近的形式,它一直倡导的心理理论的倡导者。Hence, where the old school followed an objective, this pursues a subjective method.因此,当旧学校遵循客观,这奉行的是主观的方法。This theory combines the basic teaching of Hegel, Schleiermacher, and Ritschl.这种理论结合了黑格尔,施莱尔马赫,并里奇尔基础教学。 Hegel taught that religious truths are the figurative representation of rational ideas; Schleiermacher taught that propositions of faith are the pious states of the heart expressed in language; Ritschl, that the evidence of Christian doctrine is in the "value judgment", ie, the religious effect on the mind; on this basis Prof. Gardner ("A Historical View of the New Test.", London, 1904) holds that no reasonable man would profess to disprove the Christian miracles historically; that in historical studies we must accept the principle of continuity as set forth by evolution, that the statements of the New Testament are based mainly on Christian experience, in which there is always an element of false theory; that we must distinguish between the true underlying fact and its defective outward expression; that this expression is conditioned by the intellectual atmosphere of the time, and passes away to give place to a higher and better expression.黑格尔告诉我们,宗教真理是理性的想法形象化表述;施莱尔马赫告诉我们,信仰命题是在语言表达内心的虔诚的国家;里奇尔,认为证据是基督教教义中的“价值判断”,即宗教在头脑中的影响;认为,没有合理的人会信奉基督教反驳历史的奇迹在此基础上加德纳教授(“一个新的考试的历史观。”,伦敦,1904年),这在历史研究中,我们必须接受的原则连续性的进化过程中所述,即新约中的陈述主要是根据基督教的经验,其中总有一个错误的理论元素,我们必须区分真正的基本事实,其缺陷的外在表现,这表达的条件是由当时的学术气氛,和去世,让地方到一个更高,更好的表现。 Hence the outward expression of Christianity should be different now from what it was in other days.因此,基督教的外在表现应该是不同的现在从它在别的日子了。Hence, while miracles may have had their value for the early Christians, they have no value for us, for our experience is different from theirs.因此,虽然可能有奇迹的早期基督徒的价值,他们没有为我们的价值,是与他们不同的经验。Thus M. Réville ("Liberal Christianity", London, 1903) says: "The faith of a liberal Protestant does not depend upon the solution of a problem of historical criticism. It is founded upon his own experience of the value and power of the Gospel of Christ", and "The Gospel of Jesus is independent of its local and temporary forms" (pp. 54, 58).因此,米雷维尔(“自由基督教”,伦敦,1903年)说:“一个自由新教信仰并不取决于批评的历史问题解决方案,它将是在他的价值和力量的经验为依据。基督的福音“和”耶稣的福音是其局部的,暂时的形式“(第54,58)无关。 All this, however, is philosophy, not history, it is not Christianity, but Rationalism.所有这一切,然而,是哲学,而不是历史,它不是基督教,而是理性。So it inverts the true standard of historical criticism -- viz., we should study past events in the light of their own surroundings, and not from the subjective feeling on the part of the historian of what might, could, or would have occurred.因此,颠倒历史的批评,真正的标准 - 。即,我们应研究在自己的周围环境光线过去的事件,而不是从对什么可能,可以或已经发生的历史学家主观的感觉。There is no reason to restrict these principles to questions of religious history; and if extended to embrace the whole of past history, they would lead to absolute scepticism.没有任何理由来限制这些原则,以宗教历史问题,以及如果扩大到拥抱整个过去的历史,它们会导致绝对的怀疑。

VI.六。THE FACT以下事实

The Bible shows that at all times God has wrought miracles to attest the Revelation of His will.圣经表明,在任何时候上帝造成的奇迹来证明了他的意志的启示。

(1) The miracles of the Old Testament reveal the Providence of God over His chosen people. (1)旧约揭示了他所选择的人普罗维登斯的上帝的奇迹。They are convincing proof for the commission of Moses (Exodus 3:4), manifest to the people that Jehovah is Sovereign Lord (Exodus 10:2, Deuteronomy 5:25), and are represented as the "finger of God" and "the hand of God."他们是令人信服的佣金为摩西(出埃及记3:4),体现以人,耶和华是至高无上的主(出埃及记10:2,申命记5:25)的证明,并表示为“上帝的手指”和“上帝之手“。 God punishes Pharaoh for refusing to obey His commands given by Moses and attested by miracles, and is displeased with the infidelity of the Jews for whom He worked many miracles (Numbers 14).上帝惩罚拒绝服从给予摩西和法老的奇迹证明了他的命令,并与犹太人的人,他的工作(14号)的许多奇迹不忠不满。Miracles convinced the widow of Sarephta that Elias was "a man of God" (1 Kings 17:24), made the people cry out in the dispute between Elias and the prophets of Baal, "the Lord he is God" (1 Kings 18:39), caused Naaman to confess that "there is no other God in all the earth, but only in Israel" (2 Kings 5:15), led Nabuchodonosor to issue a public decree in honour of God upon the escape of the Three Children from the fiery furnace (Daniel 3), and Darius to issue a like decree on the escape of Daniel (Daniel 5).相信奇迹的Sarephta寡妇,以利亚是“神人”(1国王17:24),使人们不禁惊叫之间埃利亚斯和巴力的先知争议,“耶和华他是神”(1国王18 :39),造成乃​​缦承认,“有在普天下没有别的神,只有在以色列,但”(2国王5:15),导致Nabuchodonosor发出后,在三逃避神荣誉市民法令从火热熔炉(丹尼尔3),和大流士儿童发出了关于丹尼尔(丹尼尔5)逃生喜欢的法令。 The ethical element is conspicuous in the miracles and is in consonance with the exalted ethical character of Jehovah, "a king of absolute justice, whose love for his people was conditioned by a law of absolute righteousness, as foreign to Semitic as to Aryan tradition", writes Dr. Robertson Smith ("Religion of the Semites", p. 74, cf. Kuenen, Hibbert Lect., p. 124).中的道德因素是显眼的奇迹,在和谐与崇高的道德品格耶和华“的绝对正义,他爱他的人是由一个绝对正义的法律条件国王,外国对犹太人,以雅利安人的传统”写道罗伯逊史密斯博士(“宗教的闪米特人”,第74页,比照。Kuenen,希伯特Lect。,第124页)。 Hence the tendency among recent writers on the history of religion to postulate the direct intervention of God through revelation as the only explanation for the exalted conception of the Deity set forth by Moses and the prophets.因此,倾向之间就历史上的宗教作家假设最近通过启示作为崇高的神由摩西和先知的概念提出的唯一解释神的直接干预。

(2) The Old Testament reveals a high ethical conception of God who works miracles for high ethical purposes, and unfolds a dispensation of prophecy leading up to Christ.(2)旧约揭示了高尚的道德观神谁的作品为高尚的道德目的创造奇迹,展现导致的预言基督福音。In fulfillment of this prophecy Christ works miracles.在实现这一预言基督工程奇迹。His answer to the messengers of John the Baptist was that they should go and tell John what they had seen (Luke 7:22; cf. Isaiah 35:5).他的回答施洗约翰的使者,是他们应该去告诉约翰,他们看到(路加福音7:22;比照以赛亚书35:5)。。Thus the Fathers of the Church, in proving the truth of the Christian religion from the miracles of Christ, join them with prophecy (Origen, "C. Celsum" I, ii, Irenaeus, Adv. haer. L, ii, 32; St. Augustine, "C. Faustum", XII).因此,父亲教会在证明了从基督的奇迹基督教的真理,加入他们的预言(奥利,“三Celsum”一,二,爱任纽,高级haer L时,二,32;。。圣。奥古斯丁,“三Faustum”,第十二章)。Jesus openly professed to work miracles.耶稣公开自称创造奇迹。He appeals repeatedly to His "works" as most authentic and decisive proof of His Divine Sonship (John 5:18-36; 10:24-37) and of His mission (John 14:12), and for this reason condemns the obstinacy of the Jews as inexcusable (John 15:22, 24).他呼吁多次向他的“作品”作为最正宗的和决定性的证明他的神圣的sonship(约翰5:18-36; 10:24-37)和他的使命(约14:12),并为此谴责固执作为不可原谅的犹太人(约15:22,24)。He worked miracles to establish the Kingdom of God (Matthew 12; Luke 11), gave to the Apostles (Matthew 10:8) and disciples (Luke 10:9, 19) the power of working miracles, thereby instructing them to follow the same method, and promised that the gift of miracles should persist in the Church (Mark 16:17).他工作的奇迹,建立神的国度(马太12;路加福音11),给了使徒(马太10:8)和门徒(路加福音10:9,19),工作的奇迹力量,从而指示他们遵循相同法,并承诺赠送的奇迹要坚持在教会(马克16:17)。 At the sight of His marvellous works, the Jews (Matthew 9:8), Nicodemus (John 3:2), and the man born blind (John 9:33) confess that they must be ascribed to Divine power.在他的奇妙的景象,犹太人(马太9:8),尼哥底母(约3:2),和生来是瞎眼的(约9:33)承认,他们必须要归功于神圣权力的人。

Pfleiderer accepts the second Gospel as the authentic work of St. Mark, and this Gospel is a compact account of miracles wrought by Christ.弗莱德尔接受作为第二真迹圣马克福音,这福音是由基督造成奇迹紧凑帐户。Ewald and Weiss speak of the miracles of Christ as a daily task.埃瓦尔德和韦斯说成是一个每日任务基督的奇迹。Miracles are not accidental or external to the Christ of the Gospels; they are inseparably bound up with His supernatural doctrine and supernatural life -- a life and doctrine which is the fulfillment of prophecy and the source of Christian civilization.奇迹不是偶然的或外部的基督的福音,他们是不可分割的约束与他的超自然学说和超自然的人生 - 生命和学说这是预言的实现与基督教文明的源头。Miracles form the very substance of the Gospel narratives, so that, if removed, there would remain no recognizable plan of work and no intelligent portrait of the worker.奇迹形成了福音叙述很物质,所以,如果取消,将继续有没有计划,没有辨认工作的工人智能人像。We have the same evidence for miracles that we have for Christ.我们有奇迹,我们为基督有同样的证据。Dr. Holtzmann says that the very traits whose astonishing combination in one person presents the highest kind of historical evidence for His existence are indissolubly connected with miracles.Holtzmann博士说,其惊人的组合,一人很性状介绍了他的存在是不可分割的历史证据和连接最高的一种奇迹。 Unless we accept miracles, we have no Gospel history.除非我们接受的奇迹,我们没有福音的历史。Admit that Christ wrought many miracles, or confess that we do not know Him at all -- in fact, that He never existed.承认,基督造成了许多奇迹,或者坦白地说,我们不知道他在所有 - 事实上,他根本不存在。The historical Christ of the Gospels stands before us remarkable in the charm of personality, extraordinary in the elevation of life and beauty of doctrine, strikingly consistent in tenor of life, exercising Divine power in varied ways and at every turn.作者站在历史基督福音在我们面前以显着的人格魅力,在生活和美丽的学说,在生活的男高音惊人地一致海拔非凡,行使不同的方式,在每回合神力。 He rises supreme over, and apart from, His surroundings and cannot be regarded as the fruit of individual invention or as the product of the age.他上升至上结束,除了,他的环境,能不能作为个人的发明成果,或作为时代的产物认为。 The simplest clearest, only explanation is that the testimony is true.最简单的最清晰的,唯一的解释是,证词是真实的。They who deny have yet to offer an explanation strong enough to withstand the criticism of the sceptics themselves.他们谁否认尚未作出解释​​强大到足以抵挡怀疑自己的批评。

(3) The testimony of the Apostles to miracles is twofold:(3)使徒的见证奇迹是双重的:

They preached the miracles of Christ, especially the Resurrection.他们宣扬基督的奇迹,尤其是复活。 Thus St. Peter speaks of the "miracles, and wonders, and signs" which Jesus did as a fact well-known to the Jews (Acts 2:22), and as published through Galilee and Judea (Acts 10:37).因此,圣彼得讲的“奇迹,奇事,和标志”耶稣作为众所周知的事实做了犹太人(徒2:22),和通过加利利和朱迪亚(徒10:37)公布。 The Apostles profess themselves witnesses of the Resurrection (Acts 2:32), they say that the characteristic of an Apostle is that he be a witness of the Resurrection (Acts 1:22), and upon the Resurrection base their preaching in Jerusalem (Acts 3:15; 4:10; 5:30, 10:40), at Antioch (Acts 13:30 sqq.), at Athens (Acts 17:31), at Corinth (1 Corinthians 15), at Rome (Romans 6:1), and in Thessalonica (1 Thessalonians 1:10).使徒信奉自己的复活(徒2:32)证人,他们说,一个使徒的特点是将他的复活(徒1:22)证人,并呼吁复活基地,他们在耶路撒冷说教(使徒3:15,4:10,5:30,10:40),在安提阿(徒13:30 sqq),在雅典(徒17:31),在科林斯(哥林多前书15),在罗马(罗马6。 :1),并在萨洛尼卡(帖前1:10)。

They worked miracles themselves, wonders and signs in Jerusalem (Acts 2:43), cure the lame (Acts 3:14), heal the sick, and drive out demons (Acts 8:7-8), raise the dead (Acts 20:10 sqq.).他们曾在耶路撒冷(使徒2:43)自己的奇迹,奇事,神迹,治好瘸子(徒3:14),治愈病人,并驱逐恶魔(使徒行传8:7-8),叫死人复活(使徒20 :10 sqq)。。St. Paul calls the attention of the Christians at Rome to his own miracles (Romans 15:18-19), refers to the well-known miracles performed in Galatia (Galatians 3:5), calls the Christians of Corinth to witness the miracles he worked among them as the signs of his apostleship (2 Corinthians 12:12), and gives to the working of miracles a place in the economy of the Christian Faith (1 Corinthians 12).圣保禄所称的基督徒在罗马的注意,他(罗马书15:18-19)自己的奇迹,是指知名加拉太(加拉太书3:5)进行奇迹,呼吁基督教徒科林斯见证奇迹其中他曾作为他的使徒(林后12:12)的标志,并给予工作的奇迹,在基督教信仰(哥林多前书12)经济中的地位。 Thus the Apostles worked miracles in their missionary journeys in virtue of the power given them by Christ (Mark 3:15) and confirmed after His Resurrection (Mark 16:17).因此,在他们的传教使徒工作的旅程中给予的基督(马可福音3:15)他们复活后,他(马克16:17)确认电源凭借奇迹。

(4) Dr. Middleton holds that all miracles ceased with the Apostles. (4)米德尔顿博士认为,所有奇迹与使徒停止。Mozley and Milman ascribe later miracles to pious myths, fraud, and forgery.莫兹利和米尔曼归咎于后来奇迹,以虔诚的神话,诈骗和伪造。Trench admits that few points present greater difficulty than the attempt to determine the exact period when the power of working miracles was withdrawn from the Church.麟趾承认,现在几点比试图以确定确切的时期,工作的奇迹权力从教会撤回更大的困难。This position is one of polemical bias against the Catholic Church, just as presumptions of various kinds are behind all attacks on the miracles of scripture.这一立场是反对天主教教会的论战偏见之一,正如各种推定落后于圣经中的奇迹所有攻击。

Now we are not obliged to accept every miracle alleged as such.现在,我们没有义务接受每一个奇迹,因为这样的指控。The evidence of testimony is our warrant, and for miracles of church history we have testimony of the most complete kind.证据的证词是我们的保证,并为教会历史的奇迹,我们有最完整的实物见证。If it should happen that, after careful investigation, a supposed miracle should turn out to be no miracle at all, a distinct service to truth would be rendered.如果它发生的,经过仔细调查,所谓奇迹,应该变成是没有奇迹可言,一个独特的服务,真相将被渲染。Throughout the course of church history there are miracles so well authenticated that their truth cannot be denied.在整个历史过程中的教会有这么好,他们的真实身份验证不能否认的奇迹。

Thus St. Clement of Rome and St. Ignatius of Antioch speak of the miracles wrought in their time.因此,圣克莱门特的罗马和圣依纳爵的安提阿在其发言时间所造成的奇迹。

Origen says he has seen examples of demons expelled, many cures effected, and prophecies fulfilled ("C. Celsum", I, II, III, VII).奥利说,他已经看到被驱逐恶魔,影响许多治愈的例子,并预言应验(“三Celsum”,一,二,三,七)。

Irenaeus taunts the magic-workers of his day that "they cannot give sight to the blind nor hearing to the deaf, nor put to flight demons; and they are so far from raising the dead as Our Lord did, and the Apostles, by prayer, and as is most frequently done among the brethren, that they even think it impossible" (Adv. haer., II).爱任纽嘲讽他那个魔工人,“他们不能给盲人重见光明,也没有听证会,聋人,也不要放在飞行的恶魔,他们是迄今从提高作为我们的主死了一样,和使徒的祈祷, ,并作为最经常做在弟兄中间,他们甚至认为不可能的“(2002上海高考haer。,二)。

St. Athanasius writes the life of St. Anthony from what he himself saw and heard from one who had long been in attendance on the saint.圣亚他那修写的圣安东尼生命从他自己看到的和从一早就在出席谁一直在圣听到。St. Justin in his second apology to the Roman Senate appeals to miracles wrought in Rome and well attested.圣贾斯汀在他的第二道歉,罗马元老院在罗马呼吁锻造和良好证明奇迹。

Tertullian challenges the heathen magistrates to work the miracles which the Christians perform (Apol., xxiii);德尔图良的挑战异教徒裁判工作的奇迹,其中基督徒执行(Apol.,二十三);

St. Paulinus, in the life of St. Ambrose, narrates what he has seen.圣Paulinus,在生命的圣刘汉铨,叙述他所看到。

St. Augustine gives a long list of extraordinary miracles wrought before his own eyes, mentions names and particulars, describes them as well known, and says they happened within two years before he published the written account (De civit. Dei., XXII, viii; Retract., I, xiii).圣奥古斯丁在他给出了一个非凡的奇迹,锻造自己的眼睛长长的清单,提到姓名和资料,描述了他们作为众所周知的,并说他们在两年内发生过,他发表了书面说明(德civit。棣。,22,八;收缩,我,十三)。。

St. Jerome wrote a book to confute Vigilantius and prove that relics should be venerated, by citing miracles wrought through them.圣杰罗姆写了书,驳斥Vigilantius,证明了文物应该崇敬援引造成透过他们的奇迹,。

Theodoret published the life of St. Simon Stylites while the saint was living, and thousands were alive who had been eyewitnesses of what had happened. Theodoret出版了圣西门Stylites的生活,而圣是生活,数千人活着谁已经发生了什么事目击者。St. Victor, Bishop of Vita, wrote the history of the African confessors whose tongues had been cut out by command of Hunneric, and who yet retained the power of speech, and challenges the reader to go to Reparatus, one of them then living at the palace of the Emperor Zeno.圣维克多,维他主教,题写了其已被削减了由Hunneric命令,谁的舌头还保留了说话的能力坦白非洲历史,挑战读者去Reparatus,其中一人当时生活在皇帝芝诺的宫殿。

From his own experience Sulpicius Severus wrote the life of St. Martin of Tours.从自己的经历写了Sulpicius西弗勒斯圣旅游马丁的生命。

St. Gregory the Great writes to St. Augustine of Canterbury not to be elated by the many miracles God was pleased to work through his hands for the conversion of the people of Britain.圣格雷戈里大写入坎特伯雷圣奥古斯丁不要被上帝很高兴地通过他的手共同为英国人民扬眉吐气转换许多奇迹。

Hence Gibbon says, "The Christian Church, from the time of the Apostles and their disciples, has claimed an uninterrupted succession of miraculous powers, the gift of tongues, of visions and of prophecy, the power of expelling demons, of healing the sick and of raising the dead" (Decline and Fall, I, pp. 264, 288), thus miracles are so interwoven with our religion, so connected with its origin, its promulgation its progress and whole history, that it is impossible to separate them from it.因此,吉本说:“从基督教的使徒和他们的弟子时,声称一个神奇的不间断的继承权,所赐的口才的异象和预言,驱逐恶魔的力量医治伤病,提高死“(衰亡,我,第264,288页),从而奇迹是这样交织在一起,使我们的宗教,其起源相连,它的颁布,其进展和整个历史,它是不可能将它们分开的它。 The existence of the Church, the kingdom of God on earth, in which Christ and His Holy Spirit abide, rendered illustrious by the miraculous lives of saints of all countries and all times, is a perpetual standing witness for the reality of miracles (Bellarmine, "De notis eccl.", LIV, xiv).的教会,神的国度在地球上,在基督和他的圣灵遵守的存在,提供了对所有国家和所有时代的奇迹般的生命辉煌的圣人,是一个现实的奇迹(贝拉明永远站在证人, “德notis传道书。”丽芙,十四)。The well-attested records are to be found in the official Processes for the canonization of saints.该井确凿的记录是在为封圣的官方发现进程。Mozley held that an enormous distinction exists between the miracles of the Gospel and those of church history, through the false notion that the sole purpose of miracles was the attestation of revealed truth: Newman denies the contention and shows that both are of the same type and as well-authenticated by historical evidence.莫兹利认为,一个巨大的区别之间存在着奇迹的福音教会的历史和那些通过虚假的概念,即创造奇迹的唯一目的是发现真理认证:纽曼否认的论点,并表明两者是同一类型和以及身份验证的历史证据。

VII.七。PLACE AND VALUE OF THE GOSPEL MIRACLES地点和福音价值奇迹

In studying the Gospel miracles we are impressed by the accounts given of their multitude, and by the fact that only a very small proportion of them is related by the Evangelists in detail; the Gospels speak only in the most general terms of the miracles Christ performed in the great missionary journeys through Galilee and Judea.在学习了福音,我们留下了深刻印象他们的群众给予的帐户,并且由其中只有很小一部分是由相关的细节福音其实奇迹;福音发言奇迹是最普通的只有基督执行在通过加利利和朱迪亚伟大的传教旅程。 We read that the people, seeing the things which He did, followed Him in crowds (Matthew 4:25), to the number of 5000 (Luke 9:14) so that He could not enter the cities, and His fame spread from Jerusalem through Syria (Matthew 4:24).我们读到的人,看到他做的事,随后在人群中(太4:25)他,到5000(路加福音9:14)号码,以便他能不能进入城市,他从耶路撒冷的名利蔓延通过叙利亚(马太4:24)。 His reputation was so great that the chief priests in council speak of Him as one who "doth many miracles" (John 11:47), the disciples at Emmaus as the "prophet, mighty in work and word before God and all the people" (Luke 24:19), and St. Peter describes Him to Cornelius as the wonder-working preacher (Acts 10:38).他的名声是如此之大,在行政长官会同行政祭司谈起他作为一个谁“,岂是许多奇迹”(约11:47),门徒在以马忤斯的“先知,在工作和强大的上帝面前,所有的人民讲几句话” (路加福音24:19),和圣彼得形容他的奇迹利乌斯工作传道(徒10:38)。Out of the great mass of miraculous events surrounding our Lord's person, the Evangelists made a selection.走出围绕我们的主的人奇迹般的大弥撒活动,作出了选择的福音。True, it was impossible to narrate all (John 20:30).诚然,这是不可能的叙述所有(约20:30)。Yet we can see in the narrated miracles a twofold reason for the selection.然而,我们可以看到,在叙述一个奇迹的选择双重原因。

(1) The great purpose of the Redemption was the manifestation of God's glory in the salvation of man through the life and work of His Incarnate Son. (1)赎回伟大的目的是神在人类在生命降生的儿子和他的拯救工作,光荣的表现。Thus it ranks supreme among the works of God's Providence over men.因此,在男性中排名最高的上帝的普罗维登斯作品。This explains the life and teaching of Christ; it enables us to grasp the scope and plan of His miracles.这就解释了生活和基督的教学手段,它使我们能够掌握的范围和他的奇迹的计划。They can be considered in relation to the office and person of Christ as Redeemer.他们可以考虑在有关办公室和基督的人作为救世主。Thus因此,

they have their source in the hypostatic union and follow on the relation of Christ to men as Redeemer.他们有他们的来源和本质联盟在基督的关系遵循的是救世主的人。In them we can see references to the great redemption work He came to accomplish.从他们身上我们可以看到伟大的引用工作,他赎回来完成。Hence the Evangelists conceive Christ's miraculous power as an influence radiating from Him (Mark 5:30; Luke 6:19), and theologians call the miracles of Christ theandrical works.因此,设想为一个福音,从他的辐射影响基督的神奇力量(马可福音17:30,路加福音6:19),和神学家呼吁基督theandrical工程的奇迹。 Their aim is the glory of God in the manifestation of Christ's glory and in the salvation of men, as eg in the miracle of Cana (John 2:11), in the Transfiguration (Matthew 17), the Resurrection of Lazarus (John 11:15), Christ's last prayer for the Apostles (John 17), the Resurrection of Christ (Acts 10:40).他们的目的是神在基督的荣耀表现及拯救男人的荣耀,正如在迦南(约翰2:11),在变形(马太17),拉撒路(约11复活的奇迹,例如: 15),基督为使徒(约17),基督(徒10:40)复活最后的祈祷。St. John opens his Gospel with the Incarnation of the Eternal Word and adds, "we saw his glory" (John 1:14).圣约翰打开他与永恒的化身字福音补充道,“我们看到他的荣耀”(约翰福音1:14)。Hence Irenaeus (Adv. haer., V) and Athanasius (Incarn.) teach that the works of Christ were the manifestations of the Divine Word who in the beginning made all things and who in the Incarnation displayed His power over nature and man, as a manifestation of the new life imparted to man and a revelation of the character and purposes of God.因此,爱任纽(2002上海高考haer。,V)和亚他那修(Incarn.)教导基督的作品是神圣的字眼的表现谁在开始时所作的一切事物,谁在化身显示对自然和人为他的权力,如一个新的生命的表现传授给男人和的性质和宗旨的上帝的启示。 The repeated references in the Acts and in the Epistles to the "glory of Christ" have relation to His miracles.在行为和向“基督的荣耀”书信多次提到了有关他的奇迹。The source and purpose of the miracles of Christ is the reason for their intimate connection with His life and teaching.源和基督的神迹的目的是出于他们自己的生活和教学的密切联系的原因。A saving and redeeming mission was the purpose of the miracles, as it was of the doctrine and life of the eternal Son of God.一个储蓄和赎回的任务是创造奇迹的目的,因为它的教义和神的儿子的生命是永恒的。Their motive was mercy.他们的动机是仁慈。Most of Christ's miracles were works of mercy.基督的奇迹大多是仁慈的作品。They were performed not with a view to awe men by the feeling of omnipotence, but to show compassion for sinful and suffering humanity.他们进行了不与由无所不能的感觉以敬畏的人,而是要说明的罪恶和痛苦的同情心。They are not to be regarded as isolated or transitory acts of sympathy, but as prompted by a deep and abiding mercy which characterizes the office of Saviour.他们不是被视为孤立的或暂时的行为表示同情,但作为一个深刻而持久的慈悲救主所特有的办公室提示。The Redemption is a work of mercy, and the miracles reveal the mercy of God in the works of His Incarnate Son (Acts 10:38).赎回是一个仁慈的工作,揭示了奇迹在他降生的儿子(徒10:38)的作品上帝的怜悯。

Hence we can see in them a symbolical character.因此,我们可以从中看到一个象征性的人物。They were signs, and in a special sense they signified by the typical language of external facts, the inward renewal of the soul.他们的迹象,并在一个特殊的意义,他们受外部事实,灵魂的典型的语言,标志着外来重建。Thus, in commenting on the miracle of the widow's son at Naim, St. Augustine says that Christ raised three from the death of the body, but thousands from the death of sin to the life of Divine grace (Serm. de verbis Dom., xcviii, al. xliv).因此,在关于寡妇的儿子在奈姆奇迹评论,圣奥古斯丁说,基督提出的从三个死亡的尸体,但是从罪恶死亡的神圣慈悲的生命(Serm.德verbis大教堂数千人。,时候正好,等。四十四)。

The relief which Christ brought to the body represented the deliverance He was working on souls.救济基督的身体带来解脱,他所代表的是在灵魂的工作。His miracles of cures and healings were the visible picture of His spiritual work in the warfare with evil.他的治疗和愈合的奇迹是他在与邪恶的战争精神工作可见图片。These miracles, summarized in the answer of Jesus to the messengers of John (Matthew 11:5), are explained by the Fathers of the Church with reference to the ills of the soul (ST III:44).这些奇迹,总结了在耶稣的回答使者约翰(马太11:5),是由教会的神父解释参照的灵魂(圣三:44)的弊病。The motive and meaning of the miracles explain the moderation Christ showed in the use of His infinite power.的动机和意义解释的奇迹适度基督在他的无限权力的表现。Repose in strength is a sublime trait in the character of Jesus; it comes from the conscious possession of power to be used for the good of men.安息在实力是耶稣的性格特征的崇高,它从权力意识的管有的要为人类的良好使用。 Rousseau confesses "All the miracles of Jesus were useful without pomp or display, but simple as His words, His life, His whole conduct" (Lettr. de la Montag., pt. I, lett. iii).卢梭承认“所有的耶稣的奇迹是有用的或显示不排场,但他的话,他的生命,他的整个进行简单”(Lettr.德拉蒙塔格。角。我,丽莎。三)。 He does not perform them for the sake of being a mere worker of miracles.他不执行的仅仅是一个创造奇迹的工人为了他们。Everything He does has a meaning when viewed in the relation Christ holds to men.他所做的每件事都有基督的关系时,坚持以人观看的意思。In the class known as miracles of power Jesus does not show a mere mental and moral superiority over ordinary men.作为权力的奇迹称为类耶稣并没有表现出比一般人只是精神和道德的优势。In virtue of His redeeming mission He proves that He is Lord and Master of the forces of nature.在他的救赎使命的美德,他证明了他是自然的力量主及硕士学位。Thus by a word He stills the tempest, by a word He multiplied a few loaves and fishes so that thousands feasted and were filled, by a word He healed lepers, drove out demons, raised the dead to life, and finally set the great seal upon His mission by rising from death, as He had explicitly foretold.因此,驶过一个词,他剧照由他乘几面包和鱼,使数以千计的宴请,并填补了他治愈麻风病人的字,词暴风雨,赶鬼,使死人复活的生命,最后设置大印后,他从死亡上升,因为他曾明确预言使命。 Thus Renan admits that "even the marvellous in the Gospels is but sober good sense compared with that which we meet in the Jewish apocryphal writings or the Hindu or European mythologies" (Stud. in Hist. of Relig., pp. 177 203).因此雷南承认,“即使是了不起的福音,是很好的清醒意识,但与那些为我们在犹太未经著作或印度教或欧洲神话见面”(在组织胺Stud.。作者Relig。,第177 203)。

Hence the miracles of Christ have a doctrinal import.因此,基督的奇迹有一个理论上的进口。 They have a vital connection with His teaching and mission, illustrate the nature and purpose of His kingdom, and show a connection with some of the greatest doctrines and principles of His Church.他们有一个与他的教学和任务的重要方面,说明了他的王国的性质和宗旨,并表现出与最伟大的学说和他的教会的一些原则的连接。 Its catholicity is shown in the miracles of the centurion's servant (Matthew 8) and the Syro-phoenician woman (Mark 7).它的共通性是所示的百夫长的仆人(马太8)和西罗腓尼基女人(马克7)的奇迹。The Sabbatical miracles reveal its purpose, ie, the salvation of men, and show that Christ's kingdom marks the passing of the Old Dispensation.奇迹的公休揭示其目的,即救赎的男子,并表明基督的王国标志着旧省却传递。His miracles teach the power of faith and the answer given to prayer.他的神迹教的信仰和祈祷的答案给予的权力。The central truth of His teaching was life.他的教学的核心真理就是生活。He came to give life to men, and this teaching is emphasized by raising the dead to life, especially in the case of Lazarus and His own Resurrection.他来给生活的人,这是提高教学死的生活,特别是在案件的拉撒路和他自己的复活,强调。The sacramental teaching of the miracles is manifested in the miracle of Cana (John 2), in the cure of the paralytic, to show he had the power to forgive sins [and he used this power (Matthew 9) and gave it to the Apostles (John 20:23) ], in the multiplication of the loaves (John 6) and in raising the dead.奇迹的圣教学表现在迦南(约翰2)奇迹,在麻痹的治疗,以显示他有赦罪的权柄[和他使用这个权力(马太9)和给它的使徒(约翰福音20:23)],在面包(约翰6),以及在提高死亡繁殖。 Finally, the prophetic element of the fortunes of the individual and of the Church is shown in the miracles of stilling the tempest, of Christ on the waters, of the draught of fishes, of the didrachma and the barren fig tree.最后,个人和教会的命运预言的元素是列在消力基督的暴风雨,在水域,鱼的草稿didrachma和无花果树的奇迹。Jesus makes the miracle of Lazarus the type of the General Resurrection, just as the Apostles take the Resurrection of Christ to signify the rising of the soul from the death of sin to the life of grace, and to be a pledge and prophecy of the victory over sin and death and of the final resurrection (1 Thessalonians 4).耶稣使拉撒路复活的一般类型的奇迹,正如使徒采取基督复活的象征,从罪到施恩生命的死亡灵魂上升,并成为一个承诺,胜利的预言战胜罪恶和死亡及最终的复活(帖撒罗尼迦前书4)。

(2) The miracles of Christ have an evidential value.(2)基督的奇迹有证据价值。This aspect naturally follows from the above considerations.这一方面当然从以上的考虑。In the first miracle at Cana He "manifested His glory", therefore the disciples "believed in Him" (John 2:11).在他第一次在迦南奇迹“体现他的荣耀”,因此弟子“相信他”(约翰2:11)。Jesus constantly appealed to His "works" as evidences of His mission and His divinity.耶稣不断呼吁他的“作品”,作为他的使命和他的神性的证据。He declares that His miracles have greater evidential value than the testimony of John the Baptist (John 5:36); their logical and theological force as evidences is expressed by Nicodemus (John 3:2).他宣称,他的奇迹有更大的比证言的证据价值约翰施洗(约5:36),他们的逻辑和神学作为证据力由尼哥底母(约3:2)表示。 And to the miracles Jesus adds the evidence of prophecy (John 5:31).耶稣的奇迹,并增加了的预言(约翰5:31)的证据。Now their value as evidences for the people then living is found not only in the display of omnipotence in His redeeming mission but also in the multitude of His works.现在,他们的价值,为当时居住的发现,不仅在他救赎的使命中无所不能,但也显示了他的作品在许多人的证据。Thus the unrecorded miracles had an evidential bearing on His mission.因此,未记录的奇迹还就他的任务是证据的影响。So we can see an evidential reason for the selection of the miracles as narrated in the Gospels.因此,我们可以看到,作为一个在福音讲述了选择的证据奇迹的原因。

This selection was guided by a purpose to make clear the main events in Christ's life leading up to the Crucifixion and to show that certain definite miracles (eg, the cure of the lepers, the casting out of demons in a manner marvelously superior to the exorcisms of the Jews, the Sabbatical miracles, the raising of Lazarus) caused the rulers of the Synagogue to conspire and put Him to death.这个选择是遵循一个目的明确,在基督的生活导致的受难的主要事件,并表明某些(例如,对麻风病人的治疗,铸造的恶魔出来的方式不平凡优于驱魔明确的奇迹在犹太人的安息奇迹,在提高拉撒路)引起的犹太教堂的统治者合谋,把他打死。 A second reason for the selection was the expressed purpose to prove that Jesus was the Son of God (John 20:31).为选择第二个原因是,表达的目的,证明耶稣是神的儿子(约翰福音20:31)。

Thus, for us, who depend on the Gospel narratives, the evidential value of Christ's miracles comes from a comparatively small number related in detail, though of a most stupendous and clearly supernatural kind, some of which were performed almost in private and followed by the strictest injunctions not to publish them.因此,对我们来说,谁在福音的叙述依赖,基督的奇迹作为证据的价值来自于细节有关一个比较小的数目,但一个最了不起的,明确超自然的一种,其中一些进行了几乎完全私有化,所遵循的严格的禁令不发表他们。 In considering them as evidences in relation to us now living, we may add to them the constant reference to the multitude of miracles unrecorded in detail, their intimate connection with our Lord's teaching and life, their relation to the prophecies of the Old Testament, their own prophetic character as fulfilled in the development of His kingdom on earth.在考虑作为关系到我们现在生活的证据他们,我们可能会增加他们不断提及的奇迹众多详细未记录,他们的亲密联系与我们的主的教学和生活中,其有关的预言旧约,其为实现自己的预言性质,在他的王国在地球上的发展。

VIII.八。SPECIAL PROVIDENCES特别PROVIDENCES

Prayer is a great fact, which finds expression in a persistent manner and enters intimately into the life of humanity.祷告是一个伟大的事实,这将在一个持久的方式表达,并进入到人类的生活息息相关。So universal is the act of prayer that it seems an instinct and part of our being.如此普遍是祈祷的行为,这似乎是一个本能和我们的生命的一部分。It is the fundamental fact of religion, and religion is a universal phenomenon of the human race.这是宗教的基本事实,宗教是人类的普遍现象。Christian philosophy teaches that in his spiritual nature man is made to the image and likeness of God, therefore his soul instinctively turns to his Maker in aspirations of worship, of hope, and of intercession.基督教哲学教导我们,在他的精神本性是向上帝的形象和相似性,因此他的灵魂,本能地转向他的崇拜造物主的希望,愿望和调解。

The real value of prayer has been a vital subject for discussion in modern times.祷告的真正价值一直是近代讨论重要的问题。Some hold that its value lies only in its being a factor in the culture of the moral life, by giving tone and strength to character.有的认为它的价值在于它是一所中的道德生活给予音文化因素和力量的性格。Thus Professor Tyndall, in his famous Belfast address, proposed this view, maintaining that modern science has proved the physical value of prayer to be unbelievable (Fragments of Science).因此廷德尔教授在其著名的贝尔法斯特的地址,提出这一观点,认为现代科学已经证明了祈祷是令人难以置信的体力值(科学碎片)。 He based his contention on the uniformity of nature.他以他对大自然的统一性争夺。But this basis is now no longer held as an obstacle to prayer for physical benefits.但是此基础上,现在已不再举行一个身体的好处障碍祈祷。Others, like Baden-Powell (Order of Nature) admit that God answers prayer for spiritual favours, but denies its value for physical effects.像巴登鲍威尔其他,(自然顺序)承认上帝祈祷的答案为精神主张,但拒绝对身体的影响它的价值。But his basis is the same as that of Tyndall, and besides an answer for spiritual benefits is in fact an interference on the part of God in nature.但他的依据是,作为廷德尔相同,除了一对精神利益的答案,其实是对神在大自然的一部分干扰。

Now Christian philosophy teaches that God, in answer to prayer confers not only spiritual favours but at times interferes with the ordinary course of physical phenomena, so that, as a result, particular events happen otherwise than they should.现在基督教哲学教导我们,神祈祷授予在回答不仅有利于精神,但有时会干扰正常的物理现象,因此,其结果是,特定的事件发生,但并非他们应该。 This interference takes place in miracles and special providences.这种干扰发生在奇迹和特殊providences地方。When we kneel to pray we do not always beg God to work miracles or that our lives shall be constant prodigies of His power.当我们跪下祷告,我们并不总是乞求上帝创造奇迹,或者我们的生活应是他的权力不断神童。The sense of our littleness gives an humble and reverential spirit to our prayer.我们的渺小感给出了一个对我们的谦卑和虔诚的祈祷精神。We trust that God, through His Infinite knowledge and power, will in some way best known to Him bring about what we ask.我们相信上帝,通过他的无穷的知识和力量,将在某种程度上他最熟悉的我们带来什么样问。Hence, by special providences we mean events which happen in the course of nature and of life through the instrumentality of natural laws.因此,通过特殊providences是指事件发生在自然过程中的生活,并通过自然法则的工具性。We cannot discern either in the event itself or in the manner of its happening any deviation from the known course of things.我们无法辨别无论是在事件本身或在其发生的任何事物的认识过程中的偏差的方式。What we do know, however, is that events shape themselves in response to our prayer.我们所知道的,然而,就是在塑造事件回应我们的祈祷自己。The laws of nature are invariable, yet one important factor must not be forgotten: that the laws of nature may produce an effect, the same conditions must be present.大自然的规律是不变的,但一个重要的因素决不能忘记:这就是大自然的法律可能产生的效果,同样的条件必须存在。If the conditions vary, then the effects also vary.如果条件各不相同,那么,影响也各不相同。By altering the conditions, other tendencies of nature are made predominant, and the forces which otherwise would work out their effects yield to stronger forces.通过改变的条件下,其他性质的倾向是由占主导地位,以及部队,否则将影响他们的工作产生更强烈的力量。In this way our will interferes with the workings of natural forces and with human tendencies, as is shown in our intercourse with men and in the science of government.这样,我们会干扰自然力量的运作和人类的倾向,这在我们与男性交往和在政府科学所示。

Now, if such power rests with men, can God do less?现在,如果这种权力与男性承担,可以少做神?Can we not believe that, at our prayer, God may cause the conditions of natural phenomena so to combine that, through His special agency, we may obtain our heart's desire and yet so that, to the ordinary observer, the event happens in its ordinary place and time.难道我们不能相信,在我们的祈祷,上帝可能导致对自然现象的条件,使结合,通过他的专门机构,我们可以得到我们的心里的愿望,但这样,对一般观察员,事件发生在一般地点和时间。 To the devout soul, however, all is different.对于虔诚的灵魂,然而,一切都不同。He recognizes God's favour and is devoutly thankful for the fatherly care.他承认上帝的青睐,是虔诚的感谢慈父般照顾。 He knows that God has brought the event about in some way.他知道,上帝已经以某种方式带来的事件。When, therefore, we pray for rain or to avert a calamity, or to prevent the ravages of plague, we beg not so much for miracles or signs of omnipotence: we ask that He who holds the heavens in His hands and who searches the abyss will listen to our petitions and, in His own good way, bring about the answer we need.当,因此,我们祈求雨水或避免一场灾难,或防止瘟疫的肆虐,我们乞求奇迹或不那么多的无所不能的迹象:我们请他在他的手中谁拥有,谁天上的深渊搜索听取我们的请愿书,并在他自己的好方法,实现我们需要的答案。

Publication information Written by John T. Driscoll.出版信息的书面约翰T.德里斯科尔。Transcribed by Don Ross.转录由Don罗斯。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约



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