General Information一般资料

Mishnah, a Hebrew term meaning "repetition" or "study," is the name given to the oldest postbiblical codification of Jewish Oral Law.米示拿,一个希伯来术语,意思是“重复”或“学习”,是考虑到最古老的犹太口服法postbiblical编纂的名称。Together with the Gemara (later commentaries on the Mishnah itself), it forms the Talmud.再加上革马拉(在以后的mishnah本身评论),它构成了犹太法典。

Between 400 BC and the beginning of the Christian Era, the biblical laws (see Torah) were intensively studied, applied to new situations, and supplemented by traditions of popular observance and by precedents established by prominent leaders.公元前400年之间的基督教时代的开始,(见圣经)圣经的法律进行深入研究,运用新的形势,并遵守传统和流行的由著名领导人确立的先例补充。 This material, long transmitted by word of mouth and known as the Oral Torah, defined the meaning of biblical laws.这种材料,长传输口耳相传的口头和托拉称,确定了圣经的规定的含义。After the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD, the Jewish scholars and teachers called tannaim continued to elaborate and systematize the Oral Torah.秋天后,耶路撒冷和圣殿的毁灭在公元70年,犹太学者和教师的名字叫继续制定和系​​统化的口头律法tannaim。 About 200 AD, Rabbi Judah Ha - Nasi promulgated a collection of the most reliable traditions.大约公元200年,拉比犹大公顷 - 纳西颁布了最可靠的传统的集合。This work, the Mishnah, became the official text out of which further Jewish legal development occurred.这项工作的mishnah,成为正式文本,其中发生进一步的犹太​​法律发展。

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The Mishnah consists of 6 orders (sedarim):该mishnah由6目(sedarim):

These sections are divided into 63 treatises.这些部分分为63个论文。The Mishnah includes some nonlegal material, notably the Pirke Avot ("Chapters of the Fathers"), a collection of wise sayings that forms the final treatise of the Neziqin.该mishnah包括一些非法律材料,尤其是Pirke Avot(“章的父亲”),一个明智的谚语集合,构成了Neziqin最后的论文。

The rabbis cited in the Mishnah were regarded as more authoritative than those of succeeding generations, and they produced several other compilations of law and lore.拉比们列举在mishnah被视为比后代的权威,他们生产的法律和其他一些传说汇编。

Bernard J Bamberger伯纳德Ĵ班贝格

Bibliography: 参考书目:
TR Herford, The Ethics of the Talmud: Sayings of the Fathers (1962); The Mishnah (1931); HL Strack, Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash (1931); J Weingreen, From Bible to Mishna: The Continuity of Tradition (1976).风帆尔福德,该塔木德伦理:父亲熟语(1962年);米示拿(1931年); HL施特拉克,介绍了塔木德和米德拉士(1931年); Ĵ Weingreen,从圣经弥:传统的连续性(1976年)。


General Information一般资料

The Mishnah, the first part of the Talmud, is a codification of the oral law of the Old Testament and of the political and civil laws of the Jews.该mishnah,该塔木德的第一部分,是对旧约和犹太人的政治和民事法律的口头法律编纂工作。It was compiled and edited (orally) in the last quarter of the 2nd century AD or the first quarter of the 3rd century by Rabbi Judah (circa 135-c. 220), known as ha-Kadosh (Hebrew, "the Saint") or ha-Nasi (Hebrew, "the Prince" or "the Patriarch"), but generally known to devout Jews simply as "Rabbi."这是编制和编辑在公元2世纪或一季度最后一个季度(口服)第三世纪犹太拉比(约135 - C的。220年),作为公顷卡多什(希伯来文,“圣”)已知或HA -纳思(希伯来文,“王子”或“族长”),但只是一般人都知道,以虔诚的犹太人“拉比”。He was the patriarch of Palestinian Jewry and grandson of Gamaliel of Jabneh.他是犹太人和巴勒斯坦人的Jabneh加马利亚孙子族长。In this final redaction, the Mishnah represents several centuries of evolution.在这最后的编辑,代表的mishnah几个世纪的演变。Among the various earlier collections, the earliest was that of the pupils of Shammai and of Hillel, an ancestor of Rabbi Judah.在众多的早期藏品,最早的是,沙买和希勒尔,一个犹太拉比祖先的学生。The Mishnah is written in Hebrew, but it contains a great number of Aramaic and Greek words.该mishnah是希伯来文写的,但它含有的阿拉姆语和希腊语单词的数量。It is divided into six orders, each subdivided into treatises and chapters.它分为六个订单,细分到每个论文和章节。

The Mishnah presents only a codification of laws; it is followed by the Gemara, or second part of the Talmud, consisting of an elaborate commentary on the Mishnah.该mishnah只提出法律编纂,其次是革马拉​​,或第二的犹太法典的一部分,一个复杂的评论对mishnah组成。

Saul Lieberman扫罗利伯曼


Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观资料

A noun formed from the verb "shanah," which has the same meaning as the Aramaic "matnita," derived from "teni" or "tena."从动词形成的名词“shanah,”它具有相同的阿拉姆语,意思是“matnita”,从“teni”或派生“特纳”。 The verb "shanah," which originally meant "to repeat," acquired in post-Biblical Hebrew the special force of "to teach" and "to learn" that which was not transmitted in writing but only orally; the development of connotation being due to the fact that the retention of teachings handed down by word of mouth was possible only by frequent recitation.动词“shanah,”原本的意思是“重复,”收购后圣经希伯来语的特殊部队“教”与“学”说这是不以书面形式发送,但只有口服;的内涵发展是由于这一事实,即在口耳相传交给保留下来的教义是可能的,只有经常背诵。

"Mishnah," the derivative of the verb "shanah," means therefore: (1) "instruction," the teaching and learning of the tradition, the word being used in this sense in Ab.“米示拿”的动词“shanah,”衍生手段,因此:(1)“指令”的传统教学和学习,这个词是在AB在此意义上使用。iii.三。7, 8; and (2) in a concrete sense, the content of that instruction, the traditional doctrine as it was developed down to the beginning of the third century of the common era. 7,8,(2)在具体的意义上说,该指令的内容,传统的理论,因为它是发展到了第三的共同时代世纪初。"Mishnah" is frequently used, therefore, to designate the law which was transmitted orally, in contrast to "Miḳra," the law which is written and read (eg, BM 33a; Ber. 5a; Ḥag. 14a; 'Er. 54b; Ḳid. 30a; Yer. Hor. iii. 48c; Pes. iv. 130d; Num. R. xiii.; and many other passages); and the term includes also the halakic midrashim, as well as the Tosefta or explanatory additions to the Mishnah (Ḳid. 49b; see Baraita). “米示拿”是经常使用的,因此,指定是口头转达,而相比之下,“Miḳra”的是写入和读取(例如,骨髓33A条法则,误码率5A条。。女巫的第14A条;'呃54B条。 ;孩子30A条;​​。。也门里亚尔贺三48C条。。瘟四130d。。。编号河十三。和许多其他段落),以及任期也包括halakic米大示,以及解释的Tosefta或增加米示拿(Ḳid.49B条,见baraita的)。 In this wider sense the word was known to the Church Fathers, who, however, regarded it as the feminine form of "mishneh," analogous to "miḳneh" and "miḳnah," and supposed that it signified "second teaching" (comp. "'Aruk," sv ), translating it by δευτέρωσις (see the passages in Schürer, "Gesch." 3d ed., i. 113).在这种广泛意义上的字是众所周知的教会的父亲,谁,但是,视为“mishneh,”类似于“miḳneh”和“miḳnah,”女性的形式,并推测它标志着“第二教学”(可比“'Aruk,”希沃特),由δευτέρωσις翻译它(见Schürer的通道,的“Gesch。”三维版。岛113)。

The Name.的名称。

The term "mishnah" connotes also (3) the sum and substance of the teachings of a single tanna (eg, Giṭ. 67a; Yeb. 49b, 50a: "mishnat R. Eliezer b. Ya'aḳob" = "the teachings of R. Eliezer b. Jacob"; comp. Rashi ad loc.); or it may mean (4) the view of a tanna in regard to some one matter (eg, Men. 18a: "mishnat R. Eliezer" = "the view of R. Eliezer," and the expressions "mishnah rishonah" = "the earlier view," and "mishnah aḥaronah" = "the later view," Ḥag. 2a; Ket. v. 29d; M. Ḳ. iii. 83b).所谓“米示拿”意味着也(3)的总和与单一塔纳(例如,Git的第67A的教诲物质; Yeb第49B,50A的:。。“mishnat河埃利泽湾Ya'aḳob”=“的教诲河埃利泽湾雅各。“;。可比赖希广告同上);或者它可能意味着(4)在一个塔纳方面的看法,在遇到一个问题(例如,男子18A条:”。mishnat河埃利泽“=”的查看河埃利泽“和表达”米示拿rishonah“=”前面的观点,“和”米示拿aḥaronah“=”后认为,“女巫甲。酮诉29D款。先生K表三83B条。。 )。It may furthermore denote (5) a single tenet (eg, BM 33b; Hor. 13b; B. Ḳ. 94b; Shab. 123b), being in this sense parallel to the expression Halakah (on the difference between the two see Frankel, "Hodegetica in Mischnam," p. 8).它可能还记(5)单一的宗旨(如骨髓33B条;贺13B条;。乙ḳ94b。。沙巴123b),在这个意义上并行看到两者之间的差异表达弗兰克尔Halakah(即,第8页)“在Mischnam,Hodegetica”。 It is used also for (6) any collection of such tenets, being thus applied to the great Mishnaic collections ("Mishnayot Gedolot") of R. Akiba, R. Ḥiyya, R. Hoshaiah, and Bar Ḳappara, in Lam.它是用于(六)收集有关原则也正因此,适用于大mishnaic收藏的河秋叶,河Ḥiyya,何沙雅河,酒吧Ḳappara,在林(“Mishnayot Gedolot”)。R., Introduction, and in Cant.河,导言,并在斜面。R. viii.河八。2 (comp. Yer. Hor. iii. 48c; Eccl. R. ii.).2(。comp.也门里亚尔贺三48C条。。。传道书河二。)。

Finally the name "Mishnah" is applied particularly to (7) the collection of halakot made by R. Judah ha-Nasi I. (generally called "Rabbi"), which constitutes the basis of the Talmud, and which, with many additions and changes, has been transmitted to the present time.最后命名为“米示拿”,是特别适用于(7)由R.犹大公顷,纳西一提出halakot收集(一般称为“拉比”),这构成了犹太法典的基础上,并与许多补充和的变化,已转发到现在的时间。 In Palestine this collection was called also "Halakot," as in Yer.在巴勒斯坦这个集合也被称为“Halakot”,如在也门里亚尔。Hor.贺。iii.三。48c; Ber.48C条;误码率。i.53c; Lev.494;列弗。R. iii.河三。(comp. Frankel, lcp 8). (可比弗兰克尔,液晶8)。The designation "Talmud" is likewise applied to R. Judah ha-Nasi's Mishnah (Yer. Shab. v. 1, 7b; Beẓah ii. 1, 61b; Yeb. viii. 9a; comp. also Frankel, lcp 285; OH Schorr in "He-Ḥaluẓ," 1866, p. 42; A. Krochmal in the introduction to "Yerushalayim ha-Benuyah," p. 6; Oppenheim, "Zur Gesch. der Mischna," p. 244).指定的“塔木德”同样适用于河犹太公顷,纳西的米示拿(yer.沙巴诉1,7B条。Beẓah二1,61B条。。Yeb八9A条。。比赛也弗兰克尔,LCP的285;俄亥俄州施尔在“合Ḥaluẓ,”1866年,第42页; A.在引言科罗赫马尔“Yerushalayim公顷Benuyah,”第6条;奥本海姆,“论Gesch明镜Mischna。”第244页)。 The "Mishnah of R. Judah," however, is not to be regarded as a literary product of the third century, nor R. Judah as its author.在“犹大米示拿的河”,然而,是不是要作为第三个世纪文学产品视为,也不河犹太作为其作者。It is, on the contrary, a collection which includes almost the entire material of the oral doctrine as developed from the period of the earliest halakic exegesis down to that of the fixed and crystallized halakot of the early third century.这是,与此相反,一个集合,其中包括几乎整个学说的口头材料作为从最早开发的halakic注释期间下降到了第三个世纪初的固定和结晶halakot的。 Judah ha-Nasi, who was the redactor of this work, included in his compilation the largest and most important portion of the earlier collections that he had at hand, and fortunately preserved, for the most part without change, the traditional teachings which he took from older sources and collections; so that it is still possible to distinguish the earlier from the later portions by their form and mode of expression.犹太公顷,纳西,谁是这一工作redactor,在他编制包括认为他在手,保存最幸运的部分,没有变化,收藏规模最大,最重要的部分,传统的教义,他参加了从旧的来源和收藏,因此它仍然可以区分他们的形式和表达方式的后面部分较早。

Development of the Mishnah.发展的mishnah。

In order to obtain a correct conception of the Mishnah, as well as of its value and importance, it is necessary to consider its relation to preceding collections of similar content as well as the general development of the oral doctrine from the earliest midrash of the Soferim down to the time when the Halakah received its final form.为了获得一个正确的mishnah概念,以及它的价值和重要性,有必要考虑它关系到前面的类似内容的集合,以及对口腔学说从总体发展Soferim最早米德拉士到时候的Halakah收到它的最后形式。

According to a reliable tradition, contained in the Letter of Sherira Gaon (Neubauer, "MJC" p. 15) and confirmed by other sources (Hoffmann, "Die Erste Mischna," pp. 6-12), the earliest form of discussion of halakic regulations was the Midrash (see Midrash Halakah); and vestiges of such halakot may still be found in the Mishnah.据可靠的传统,在Sherira gaon的信中(纽鲍尔,“澳门赛马会”第15页)和其他消息来源证实(霍夫曼,“模具奥地利第一储蓄Mischna,”页6-12),讨论的最早形式halakic法规是米德拉士(见米德拉士Halakah),以及这些halakot遗迹仍可能在mishnah发现。

In addition to this form of the Midrash, which connects the halakic interpretation with the Scriptural passage on which it is based, the independent, definitive Halakah, apart from Scripture, was used in very early times in certain cases, and collections of such halakot were compiled (comp. Hoffmann, lcp 11, note 2).除了这个米德拉士,连接通道与圣经上所依据的,独立的,明确的Halakah,除了从经文halakic解释的形式被用在非常早的时期,在某些情况下,以及有关halakot藏品编译(comp.霍夫曼,LCP的11注2)。 As early as the time of the Second Temple the definitive Halakah was used more frequently than the midrashic form, the change having begun, according to geonic accounts, as early as the time of Hillel and Shammai (comp. Hoffmann, lc pp. 12-14).早在第二圣殿的权威Halakah是采用比midrashic形式更频繁的时间早,变化已经开始,根据,因为早在希勒尔和Shammai时间(comp.霍夫曼,立法会第12若尼克帐户 - 14)。Although it can not be assumed that a collection of halakot, arranged in six orders, was undertaken when this change was made, or that Hillel himself edited a Mishnah, as Lerner has attempted to show (Berliner's "Magazin," 1886, pp. 1-20), it is probable that the material of the Mishnah first began to be collected at the time of the "Ziḳne Bet Shammai" and "Ziḳne Bet Hillel," the elder pupils of Shammai and Hillel.虽然不能假设,一个halakot收集,在六个订单安排,进行了此更改时,或者自己编辑的希勒尔米示拿,因为雷纳一直试图证明(柏林的“Magazin的,”1886年,第1 -20),它是有可能的材料的mishnah刚开始是在“Ziḳne投注沙买”和“Ziḳne投注希勒尔”的沙麦和希勒尔时间收集的老学生。The beginnings of the present Mishnah may be found in this first mishnah collection, which in the completed text is termed "Mishnah Rishonah" (Sanh. iii. 4; 'Eduy. vii. 2; Giṭ. v. 6; Nazir vi. 1).本米示拿的起源可能会发现在这家米示拿的收集,这在已完成的文本被称为“米示拿Rishonah”(Sanh.三,四。。'Eduy七二。Git的五,六。纳齐尔六1。 )。A large portion of this first Mishnah is still preserved in its original form, notwithstanding the many changes to which it was subjected by the Tannaim; for many portions can be proved to have been redacted, in the form which they now bear, at the time of the schools of Shammai and Hillel, while the Temple was still standing (comp. Hoffmann, lc pp. 15-20; idem, "Bemerkungen zur Kritik der Mischna," in Berliner's "Magazin," 1881, pp. 170 et seq.).这第一个米示拿大部分仍保留原来的形式,尽管它所受到的Tannaim是由许多变化,为许多部分可以证明有绝密的形式,他们现在承担,当时对沙买和希勒尔学校,而庙依然屹立(可比霍夫曼,立法会第15-20;同上,“Bemerkungen楚Kritik明镜Mischna”,在柏林的“Magazin的,”1881年,第170页起。 )。

This first collection of the Mishnah and its separation from the Midrash were intended, on the one hand, to reduce the traditional Halakah to a shorter form, and, on the other, to fix the disputed halakot as such; of these disputed halakot there were then but few.这和它的mishnah从米德拉士分离第一个集合的目的,一方面,减少了传统的Halakah较短的形式,而且,另一方面,为解决此类争议halakot;这些有争议halakot有然后却很少。 The isolation of the Halakah from the Midrash not only resulted in a shorter and more definite form, but also removed many differences then existing.在隔离的halakah从米德拉士不仅导致了更短,更明确的形式,而且许多差异,然后删除现有的。Indeed in many cases the divergency had been merely one of form, the proof and the derivation from Scripture being differently stated for the same halakah by different teachers.事实上,在许多情况下,发散一直只是形式,论证和推导,从经文的不同而不同的教师相同halakah指出之一。 This earliest Mishnah was intended to afford the teachers both a norm for their decisions and a text-book for their classes and discourses, and thus to preserve the uniformity of teaching.这是为了最早的米示拿得起老师既是他们的决定规范和文本为他们的书类和论述,从而维护了教学的统一性。It did not accomplish this purpose entirely, however; for when the political disorders and the fall of the Jewish state diverted attention from careful doctrinal studies, many halakot of the Mishnah were forgotten, and their wording became a subject of controversy.它没有完全达到这个目的,但是,因为当政治障碍和犹太国家把注意力从理论上认真研究秋天,许多halakot的mishnah被遗忘了,他们的措辞成为一个有争议的问题。 Since, moreover, in addition to these differences each tanna taught the first Mishnah according to his own conception of it, the one Mishnah and the one doctrine developed into many mishnayot and many doctrines (Sanh. 88b; Soṭah 47b).此后,而且,除了这些差别每个坦纳教导第一米示拿的是根据他自己的概念,一米示拿和一个主义发展到许多mishnayot和(Sanh. 88B条;Soṭah47B条)的许多教义。This multiplication occurred during the period of the later "Bet Hillel" and "Bet Shammai" (comp. Letterof Sherira Gaon, lc pp. 4, 9; Hoffmann, lcp 49).这个乘法的过程中发生后来的“投注希勒尔”及“我爱沙买”(可比Letterof Sherira gaon的,立法会第4,第9条;霍夫曼,LCP的49)的时期。

The Synod of Jabneh.主教会议的Jabneh。

To avert the danger which threatened the uniformity of doctrine, the synod of Jabneh was convened (Tosef., 'Eduy. i. 1; comp. Letter of Sherira Gaon, lcp 5; Dünner, "Einiges über Ursprung und Bedeutung des Traktates Eduyot," in "Monatsschrift," 1871, pp. 37 et seq.), and under the presidency of Gamaliel II.为了避免危险,威胁到学说均匀,Jabneh主教会议召开(Tosef.,'Eduy一,1。可比信Sherira gaon的,LCP的5。邓纳,“Einiges黚Ursprung有限公司Bedeutung德​​Traktates Eduyot, “在”月刊“,1871年,第37起。),并根据加马利亚二主席。and Eleazar b.和埃莱亚萨湾 Azariah it undertook to collect the ancient halakot, to examine and determine their wording, and to discuss and decide their differences; thus there arose the collection 'Eduyot (Ber. 28a).亚撒利雅它进行收集古halakot,审查并确定其措辞,并讨论和决定他们之间的分歧;于是出现了集合'Eduyot(Ber. 28A条)。This compilation, that in its original form was much larger than the treatise that now bears its name, included all the halakot which were then known, whether controverted or not, and was in a certain sense a revision of the first Mishnah.该汇编,在其原来的形式是比论文,现在它的名字带有较大,其中包括所有当时已知的,是否有争议与否,在一定意义上是第一次修订halakot米示拿。 Even in the present form of the treatise there are many "'eduyot" which are expressly said to have modified the earlier Mishnah; and there are many others, not so characterized, which must likewise be regarded as modifications of the Mishnah as redacted for the first time.即使在目前的形式的论文有很多“'eduyot”,即明确表示已修改了早米示拿,并有许多人,没有那么的特点,这同样也必须尽可能不经编辑修改的mishnah视为第一次。 But neither the first Mishnah nor its revision, the 'Eduyot collection, was arranged topically or systematically.但是,无论是第一次米示拿或其修订,'Eduyot收集,被安排局部或系统。It is true, a geonic responsum, which was printed in "Sha'are Teshubah," No. 187 (Leipsic, 1858) and erroneously ascribed to Sherira (comp. Harkavy, "Einleitung zu den Teschubot Hageonim," pp. x. et seq.), refers to six orders of the Mishnah said to date from the time of Hillel and Shammai, as does also the "Seder Tanna'im we-Amora'im" (ed. Luzzatto, p. 7), but this statement, which is probably based on Ḥag.这是真的,那么若尼克responsum,这是印在“Sha'are Teshubah,”第187号(普西克,1858),并错误地归因于Sherira(可比Harkavy,“导论巢穴Teschubot Hageonim祖”等十页起。),是指六种米示拿订单说从希勒尔和Shammai时间日期一样,也是“我们塞德Tanna'im - Amora'im”(编辑卢扎托,第7页),但这一声明,这可能是基于女巫。14a, is untrustworthy.第14A条,是不可信的。

Divisions of Earliest Mishnah.区划最早mishnah。

The earliest Mishnah, however, must have been divided in some way, possibly into treatises, although such a division, if it existed, was certainly arranged formally and not topically like the present tractates and orders.最早的米示拿,但是,必须以某种方式被划分,有可能持续到论文,虽然这样的分工,如果它存在,肯定是局部安排,而不是像现在这样的tractates和正式订单。 The several halakot were grouped together by a common introductory phrase, which served as the connecting-link, as may be inferred from various traces of this old method of grouping still to be seen in the Mishnah, especially in the last treatises of the order Mo'ed.这几halakot进行分组在一起的共同语的介绍,作为连接链路可从担任本分组仍然有待在mishnah看见老方法各种痕迹推断,尤其是在最后的论文以钼'版。 These phrases (comp. Oppenheim, lcp 270) referred for the most part to the similarity or the contrast between two or more halakot.这些词组(可比奥本海姆,LCP的270)提到大部分的相似性或两个或两个以上halakot对比。Moreover, the name of the author or of the transmitter was often used as the connecting-link for the various halakot, as is evident from the treatise 'Eduyot in its present form (Dünner, lc pp. 62-63; A. Krochmal, in "He-Ḥaluẓ," ii. 81-82).此外,作者或变送器的往往是作为连接为各个halakot链接所使用的名称,因为是从论文'Eduyot在其目前的形式(邓纳,立法会第62-63明显的A.科罗赫马尔,在“合Ḥaluẓ,”二。81-82)。 The 'Eduyot collection, which now became the basis for the discourses delivered in the schools, was the means of preserving the uniformity of teaching; but, as the mass incorporated in it was difficult to handle, there was a growing need for a methodical arrangement.在'Eduyot收集,现在成了在学校发表的论述基础,是维护统一的教学手段,但是,正如它纳入了质量是很难处理,有一个越来越需要一个有条理的安排。 R. Akiba, therefore, undertook a sifting of this traditional material, and made a mishnaic collection which he edited systematically by arranging the different subjects in different treatises, and perhaps also by combining the various treatises into orders.传译秋叶,因此,进行了这一传统材料筛选,并作出了由他编辑的系统安排在不同的论文的不同科目一mishnaic收集,也许结合成订单的各种论文也。 In the present Mishnah this collection is often mentioned in contradistinction to the first Mishnah (Sanh. iii. 4, and elsewhere; comp. Frankel, lcp 210; Hoffmann, lcp 38).在目前的米示拿这个集合是在对比经常提到的第一个米示拿(Sanh.三4,和其他地方。。比赛,LCP的210弗兰克尔,霍夫曼,LCP的38)。

The passage Ab.该通道抗体。RN xviii.护士十八。1 indicates that Akiba arranged his Mishnah according to topics (comp. Oppenheim, lc pp. 237 et seq.); and a like inference is to be drawn from the expression "tiḳḳen" (Yer. Sheḳ. v. 1), which does not mean "to correct," as A. Krochmal supposed ("Yerushalayim ha-Benuyah," pp. 34b-35a), but "to arrange," "to redact," the same word being applied to the work of Judah ha-Nasi in the redaction of his Mishnah (Yeb. 64b). 1表示秋叶安排了他的米示拿按主题(可比奥本海姆,立法会第237页起。)以及类似的推论是从表达“tiḳḳen”凭(Yer.石诉1。),但这并不是指“正确的”,应该为A科罗赫马尔(“Yerushalayim公顷Benuyah,”第34B条,35A条),但“安排”,“以纂,”同一个词被应用到犹大公顷工作纳西在他的米示拿(Yeb. 64B条)节录。Similarly the term "sidder," meaning "to arrange," is applied both to Akiba's work (Tosef., Zab. i. 5) and to that of R. Judah ha-Nasi (Yer. Pes. iv. 30d), thus justifying the conclusion that Akiba's method of division and arrangement of the Mishnah was the same as that followed by Judah ha-Nasi.同样,术语“sidder”,意思是“安排”,是同时适用于秋叶的工作(Tosef.,扎卜。一5)和R的犹大公顷纳思说(Yer.瘟。四。30D条),从而正当的结论是,秋叶的分工和安排的mishnah方法是相同其次为犹太公顷,纳西。 Two treatises are definitely known to have been included in their present form in Akiba's Mishnah, in which they even bore their present names.两个论文肯定是众所周知的,在其在秋叶的米示拿,他们甚至在其目前承担的名字目前的形式包括在内。R. Meïr mentions the treatise 'Uḳẓin by name in Hor.河梅尔提到在贺的论文名称'Uḳẓin。13b; and R. Jose in like manner names the treatise Kelim (Kelim, end): both of these tannaim, who antedated Judah ha-Nasi, undoubtedly designated by these names the treatises Kelim and 'Uḳẓin as included in the Mishnah of their teacher Akiba. 13B条;和R.何塞在喜欢的方式名称的论文凯利姆(凯利姆,结束):这些tannaim两个,谁antedated犹大公顷,纳西,无疑是这些名字的论文凯利姆和'Uḳẓin作为他们的老师,包括指定的米示拿秋叶。

Mishnah of R. Akiba.米示拿的河秋叶。

R. Akiba's treatment of the old Mishnah in editing his own Mishnah collection was entirely arbitrary.河秋叶的米示拿他自己的编辑收集旧米示拿的待遇是完全任意的。He excluded many of the halakot contained in the original text; and those which he accepted he endeavored to found upon some text, explaining their phraseology, and tracing their origin, but striving most of all to present the Halakah in short, clear, and explicit form (comp. Tosef., Zab. i. 5).他排除了在原始文本中包含的halakot许多人,以及那些他接受他努力找到一些文字后,解释他们的用语,并追查其来源,但最重要的是争取在短期呈现,清晰的Halakah,明确形式(可比Tosef。,扎卜。一5)。 Many halakic sentences which he included called for more detailed explanation.他包括了很多更详细的解释所谓halakic句子。For the sake of brevity, however, and to aid his pupils in memorizing the Mishnah, he omitted the required explanations and made an additional collection containing the comments to the Mishnah, thus laying the foundation for the Tosefta (comp. Letter of Sherira Gaon, lcp 16; Frankel, lcp 306; Oppenheim, lcp 270).为简便起见,然而,以帮助记忆的米示拿他的学生,他没有作出必要的解释和一个额外的集合,包含了意见的mishnah,从而奠定了基础的Tosefta(可比的Sherira gaon的信, LCP的16条;弗兰克尔,LCP的306;奥本海姆,LCP的270)。

Akiba's method, which reduced the halakic collections to an orderly system, soon found imitators; and nearly every tannaitic head of a school, who, in virtue of his position, had a mishnaic collection, sooner or later adopted Akiba's method of dividing and arranging the material.秋叶的方法,从而降低了halakic集合到一个有序的系统,很快就发现模仿者;以及几乎所有学校tannaitic头,谁在他的立场的美德,有mishnaic收集,迟早通过秋叶的划分和安排方法材料。 R. Meïr especially followed this system, availing himself of it when the increasing number of new halakot, discovered and established by Akiba's pupils, rendered a new mishnaic collection necessary.河梅尔特别是遵循了这一系统,援用它自己的时候,越来越多的新halakot,发现并呈现的新的mishnaic收集必要秋叶的学生,成立。 In this compilation he included the larger portion of Akiba's Mishnah, but also drew upon other existing collections, such as that of Abba Saul (comp. Lewy, "Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der Mischna des Abba Saul," Berlin, 1876).他在这本汇编包括了秋叶的米示拿的较大部分,而且还取决于其他现有的集合,例如认为阿爸扫罗(可比路易“Ueber Einige Fragmente澳大利亚明镜Mischna德阿爸扫罗,”柏林,1876年),提请。He likewise incorporated many old halakot known in the schools but excluded by Akiba.他同样纳入了许多老halakot已知的学校,但秋叶排除在外。He frequently cited the opinions of Akiba, without naming him, as "setam" and therefore authoritative for halakic decisions; but sometimes, when the opinion of the majority was opposed to Akiba's view, he designated the former as "setam" and binding for the Halakah (comp. Oppenheim, lcp 315).R.他经常提到的秋叶的意见,没有命名他为“setam”,因此对halakic决定的权威,但有时,当大多数人的意见是反对秋叶的观点,他指定为“setam”,并结合前Halakah(comp.奥本海姆,LCP的315)。河 Meïr's collection had a wide circulation, although it was not able to displace the other compilations.梅尔的收藏品有一个广为流传,虽然它不能取代其他汇编。As every tanna at the head of a school, however, had, as stated above, his own mishnaic collection in which the halakot of preceding teachers as well as their controversies were differently expounded, the uniformity in teaching which the redactors of the Mishnah had desired and which had almost been attained was again lost; for there were as many different teachings as there were Mishnah collections.作为每一个在一个学校的校长塔纳,然而,有,如上所述,他自己在其中的mishnaic收集与前教师halakot以及他们的争论是不同的阐述,在教学中统一其中的mishnah曾渴望的编纂并几乎已经达到再次落空,因为有许多不同的教诲,因为有米示拿的集合。 There was good ground, therefore, for the complaint that the religious world was thrown into disorder by the teachers who gave halakic decisions according to their own mishnaic collections (Soṭah 22a), since a clear and reliable Halakah could not be found in any individual compilation (Shab. 138b, 139a).有良好的地面,因此对世界的宗教秩序混乱引发的教师是谁给了halakic决定根据他们自己的(Soṭah22A条)mishnaic收藏,因为一个明确和可靠的Halakah,投诉,找不到任何个人汇编(Shab. 138B章,第139A条)。

R. Judah ha-Nasi.河犹太公顷,纳西。

To remedy this evil and to restore uniformity of teaching, Judah ha-Nasi undertook his collection, arrangement, and redaction of the Mishnah, which work has survived to the present time.为了弥补这一罪恶和恢复教学均匀,犹大公顷,纳西承诺他的收藏,整理,和米示拿,这工作已存活到现在的时间节录。He followed his own method so far as the selection and presentation of the material were concerned, but adopted the systems of Akiba and Meïr in regard to the division and arrangement.他按照自己的方法,所以就选择和材料的编排而言,而是通过关于分工和安排秋叶和梅尔制度。This Mishnah was intended to serve practical purposes and to be an authority in deciding religious and legal questions.这米示拿是为了服务于实际目的,是一个在宗教和法律问题决定的权力。Judah often gives, therefore, the opinion of a single teacher, where he regards it as the correct one, in the name of "the sages" ("ḥakamim") (Ḥul. 85a); and in order that the opinion of a single scholar may prevail as final, he ignores the fact that this view was controverted by many others.犹大往往给人,因此,单一的老师,在那里他认为正确的它在“圣人”(“ḥakamim”)(Ḥul.85A条)的名称,意见,并为了一个单一的意见学者可能会占上风的决赛中,他忽略了一个事实,这种观点得到了许多人有争议。 At times he, without mentioning his name, quotes his own opinion as "setam," to record it as authoritative (comp. Oppenheim, lcp 347, No. 16).有时他,不提他的名字,报价为“setam,”录制为权威的IT(可比奥本海姆,LCP的347,第16号)他自己的意见。 Frequently, too, he explains or limits the earlier Halakah (see Yer. Hor. i. 46a), and endeavors to find a compromise in the case of disputed halakot, or he himself decides the cases in which the halakah is to follow one opinion and in which the other (comp. Frankel, lc pp. 195 et seq.).通常情况下,也限制了他解释或较早Halakah(见也门里亚尔。贺。一46A条),并努力寻求在有争议的halakot情况下妥协,或者他自己决定在何种情况下的Halakah是遵循一种意见认为并在其中其他(可比弗兰克尔,立法会第195起。)。

In addition to the practical purpose of restoring and preserving uniformity of halakic doctrine and of providing for teachers an authority for their decisions, Judah ha-Nasi had another purely theoretical object in view; namely, the preservation of the teachings of the ancients, except those which he regarded as relatively unimportant or which he considered to have been preserved in some other place in his collection.除了恢复和维护的halakic学说的统一性和教师为他们提供了一个实用的目的决定的权威性,犹太公顷,纳西有纯粹的理论中的另一个对象,即古人的教诲保存,除了那些他认为相对不重要或他认为这已在他的收藏在一些其他地方保存。 This fact explains many peculiarities of the Mishnah, which were regarded as shortcomings by those who considered it a legal code.这一事实解释了米示拿,这是因为这些缺点,认为谁认为这是一种合法代码中的许多特点。The following are some of these peculiarities: Judah ha-Nasi quotes the opinion of a single authority even when invalidated, and he quotes the original view of a scholar even after such scholar had himself retracted it (Ḥul. 32b; comp. Oppenheim, lcp 344).下面是其中一些特点:犹大公顷纳西引用了一个单一的机构认为,即使无效,他引用了一位学者的独到见解,即使经过这样的学者曾亲自收回它(Ḥul.32B条;比赛奥本海姆,LCP的。 344)。He quotes also a given halakah in one passage as being controverted ("maḥloket") and in another passage as authoritative ("setam"), or vice versa; and he cites contradictory teachings in different places.他还引用了一个AS是有争议的通道(“maḥloket”)和另一权威通过给予halakah(“setam”),反之亦然;他列举在不同的地方矛盾的教导。 All these peculiarities are due to the fact that Judah wished to preserve the ancient teachings; and to attain this object more completely he included in his Mishnah, in addition to the collections of Akiba and Meïr, which formed his chief sources, the major portion of all the other mishnayot (Yer. Shab. xvi. 15c); according to a later account, he used in all thirteen collections (Ned. 41a).所有这些特点是由于这一事实,即犹太希望保留古老的教义,以及实现这一目标,他更全面地包括在他的米示拿除了秋叶和梅尔,从而形成了他的主要来源,主要部分的集合,所有其他mishnayot(yer.沙巴十六15C条。。),据后来交代,他用在所有13集(Ned. 41A条)。He dealt independently with his material; for while he frequently made no changes in the wording or form of the old Mishnah, and even included old halakot which had long since been refuted, he altered various others (comp. Hoffmann, "Bemerkungen zur Kritik der Mischna," in Berliner's "Magazin," 1881, pp. 127 et seq.).他独立地处理与他的材料;因为尽管他经常作出的措辞或旧米示拿的形式没有变化,甚至包括老halakot这早已被批驳,他改变了各种其他(可比霍夫曼,“Bemerkungen楚Kritik明镜Mischna,“在柏林的”Magazin的,“1881年,第127页起。)。 He expounded many of the old halakot ('Ar. iv. 2; Sanh. ix. 3; Yer. Sanh. 27a; comp. Oppenheim, lcp 347), following certain rules (Yer. Ter. i. 2, 40c), and endeavoring to determine the text of the old Mishnah (Yer. Ma'as. Sh. v. 1, 55d; comp. Letter of Sherira Gaon, lc pp. 9-10; Frankel, lcp 214).他阐述了旧halakot许多人('氩四第2。。葬身九3;。。。也门里亚尔葬身27A条。比赛奥本海姆,LCP的347。),按一定的规则(Yer.泰尔岛2,-40℃。)并努力确定旧米示拿文(Yer. Ma'as SH诉一,55d。。可比信Sherira gaon的,立法会第9-10页。弗兰克尔,LCP的214)。The lessknown halakot, as well as those which the pupils of Akiba had propounded, were interpreted by Judah ha-Nasi according to his conception of them.该lessknown halakot,以及那些学生的秋叶已propounded,被解释犹大公顷,纳西根据他对这些概念。In this way he impressed upon his Mishnah the stamp of uniformity, and gave it the appearance of a work thoroughly revised, if not new; and his compilation displaced its predecessors by its inclusion of the major portion of their contents with the exception of those halakot which appeared to him untenable, or to which he had alluded in some other passage of his Mishnah.就这样,他对他印象深刻的统一性米示拿邮票,并赋予它彻底修订了工作状态,如果不是新的,他的汇编流离失所由其将其内容纳入主要部分与它的前辈的halakot异常这似乎给他站不住脚的,或他曾在他的一些其他通道提到米示拿。

The Authoritative Mishnah.权威米示拿。

Because of his personal prominence and his dignity as patriarch (comp. JS Bloch, "Einblicke," etc., pp. 59 et seq.), his Mishnah soon became the only one used in the schools, and was known to teachers and students alike, Judah thereby attaining his object of restoring uniform teachings.由于他的个人声望和他作为族长的尊严(可比js的布洛赫,“Einblicke”等,第59起。),他的米示拿很快成为国内唯一一家在学校使用,是众所周知的教师和学生同样,他的犹大从而实现统一的教诲恢复对象。 Whereas the exposition of the various halakot given by the Tannaim and called "[Tannaitic] Talmud," had been used hitherto in preference to the dry mishnaic collections (comp. Letter of Sherira Gaon, lc pp. 18-19), most of the teachers now resorted to R. Judah's Mishnah, which included both the halakot themselves and the expository tannaitic Talmud (this fact explains the application of the name "Talmud" to his Mishnah; BM 33a; Yer. Shab. xvi. 15c).鉴于受所谓的Tannaim和“[Tannaitic]塔木德经”,所提供的诸多halakot博览会已优先使用至今的干(可比信Sherira gaon的,立法会第18-19页)mishnaic收藏,大部分教师们都使出河犹大的米示拿,其中包括两个halakot自己和说明性tannaitic塔木德(这一事实说明了命名为“塔木德”中的应用他的米示拿;骨髓33a。也门里亚尔沙巴十六15C条。。)。 Interest in this work was so highly esteemed that a haggadist said: "The study of the Mishnah is equal to sacrifice" (Lev. R. vii.).在这工作的兴趣是如此,一个haggadist高度评价说:(。lev.传译七)“的mishnah研究等于牺牲”。 Every pupil was supposed, as a matter of course, to be familiar with the Mishnah of R. Judah ha-Nasi; and when any one propounded a sentence which was to be found in it, his hearers exclaimed, "What! do we not learn that ourselves from the Mishnah?"每个学生本来,作为一个理所当然的事,必须与R的犹大公顷,纳西米示拿熟悉;!,当任何一个propounded一句话是要在它发现,他的听众喊道:“我们不是什么得知自己的米示拿?“ According to R. Joshua b.根据河约书亚乙Levi, "The Mishnah is a firm iron pillar"; and none may stray from it (ib. xxi.).利维说:“米示拿是一个坚定的铁柱”,并没有任何可能偏离它(同上二十一。)。"The passage, Num. xv. 31, 'He hath despised the word of the Lord,' denotes him who does not consider the Mishnah" (baraita quoted by Isaac Alfasi in his compendium to Sanh. x.). “这一段,序号。十五。31,'他藐视耶和华的话,'是指谁不认为他的米示拿”(baraita的艾萨克Alfasi引述他的概要,葬身。十)。 It was considered the only authority for legal decisions.它被认为是唯一的权威的法律问题的决定。R. Johanan said, "The correct halakic decision is always the one which is declared in the Mishnah to be incontrovertible" ("Halakah ki-setam Mishna"; Yeb. 42b, and parallel passages); and the most conclusive refutation of a sentence was to prove that it was contradicted by the Mishnah.河Johanan说,“正确的halakic决定始终是这是在mishnah宣布为无可争议一”(“Halakah文setam密西拿”;。Yeb 42B条,以及平行通道)和一个句子的最确凿的驳斥是要证明,它是由该mishnah反驳。If a decision was accidentally made contrary to theMishnah, the decision at once became invalid (Sanh. 6a, 33a; Ket. 84a, 100a).如果不小心作出决定违反theMishnah,在一次成为决定无效(Sanh. 6A条,第33A;。酮84A条,100A的)。The Amoraim regarded the Mishnah as the Tannaim did the Scripture; and many of them interpreted and expounded it (comp. Bacher "Ag. Bab. Amor." p. 33, note 207 on Rab).米示拿的亚摩兰视作为圣经的Tannaim做了,其中许多解释和阐述了它(可比巴切尔第33页上,饶注207“银巴布奥马尔。。。”)。 Even subsequently, when the collections which were made by the pupils of Judah ha-Nasi were widely used, his Mishnah remained the sole authority.即使后来,当它被犹大公顷纳西学生作出藏品被广泛使用,他的米示拿仍是唯一的权威。In cases where the Mishnah conflicted with the Baraita, the former was considered decisive (Suk. 19b; B. Ḳ. 96b), while there is but a single example to show that the Gemara preferred the Baraita in such a disputed case (see Jew. Encyc. ii. 516a, sv Baraita).的情况下与该mishnah baraita的冲突,前者被认为是决定性的(淑19B条。乙ḳ96B条),而只是一个简单的例子来表明,革马拉首选在这种情况下,baraita的争议(见犹太人。Encyc。二。516a,希沃特baraita的)。 Some amoraim, such as Ilfa and Simeon b.有些人,如Ilfa和Simeon亚摩兰湾Laḳish, even regarded the later collections as unnecessary and useless, since their entire contents were included by implication in the Mishnah, and all questions could be explained from it without the aid of the subsequent compilations (Yer. Kil. i. 6, 27a; Yer. B. Ḳ. v. 5a; Yer. Ḳid. iii. 64b; Ta'an. 22a; comp. Oppenheim, lc pp. 344-345). Laḳish,甚至认为是不必要的和无用的后来的收藏品,因为它们的全部内容是由在mishnah含义包括在内,所有的问题可以从它没有解释在随后的编译援助(Yer.基尔加丹一6,第27A条。 。也门里亚尔湾K表诉5A条。也门里亚尔孩子第三个64。。。Ta'an 22A条。。比赛奥本海姆,立法会页344-345)。Another sentence, likewise derogatory to these later collections, says: "If Rabbi has not taught it, how does R. Ḥiyya [the collector of the baraitot] know it?"另一句同样贬损这些后来的集合,说:“如果拉比没有教它,如何河Ḥiyya[为baraitot收藏家]知道吗?”

Modifications of the Text.修改的文本。

This Mishnah, however, has not been preserved in the form in which Rabbi redacted it; for, as stated above, it was subjected to many changes, and received numerous additions before it reached its definitive form.这米示拿,但是,并没有被保存在以何种形式拉比节录它,因为,如上所述,它遭到了许多变化,并获得了许多补充之前它已经达到其最终的形式。 Notwithstanding the superiority of Rabbi's Mishnah to its predecessors, it had many defects, some of which may still be seen in the present Mishnah.尽管拉比的米示拿优势,它的前身,它有许多缺陷,其中一些仍可能在目前的米示拿看到。Though Rabbi himself subsequently renounced many of his Mishnaic opinions, as his views changed in the course of time, he retained such discarded opinions in his Mishnah as he had held them in his younger days (BM 44a; 'Ab. Zarah 52b; Yer. 'Ab. Zarah iv. 44a).虽然他后来放弃了拉比他的mishnaic的许多意见,因为他的意见,随着时间的推移发生变化,他保留在他的米示拿这些废弃的意见,他曾于年轻时他们(骨髓44A条。'抗体Zarah 52B条;层。 '抗体。Zarah四。44A条)。Occasionally he recorded one decision as authoritative in one passage of his Mishnah, considering it the correct view, and, deciding later in favor of an opposite opinion, he in another place gave this also as authoritative without retracting or suppressing his former view (Sheb. 4a).他偶尔记录在他的一个米示拿第一代的权威的决定,认为它正确的观点,并决定在一个相反的观点,有后,在另一个地方,他给这也为权威没有收回或压制他的前视图(Sheb. 4A条)。These shortcomings would not have been serious, since Rabbi did not intend to furnish a mere halakic code, if he had not failed to include in his collection many halakot which were taught in his school and which were, therefore, highly important, not only for halakic decision, but also for a knowledge of tradition in general.这些缺点不会有严重,因为拉比不打算提供一个单纯的halakic代码,如果他没有辜负他的藏品中包括许多halakot其中教授在他的学校的,哪些是,因此,非常重要,不仅对halakic决定,而且也为传统的一般知识。 He furthermore excluded his own halakot and the points of divergence between him and his contemporaries.他还排除了自己halakot和他与他同时代的分歧点。These omissions were the most serious defects in his Mishnah for his pupils, since, being a compendium of the entire traditional instruction, it must have seemed incomplete inasmuch as it did not include the teachings of the last tannaim, whose legal decisions should certainly have been incorporated in it if it was to serve as an authoritative code.这些遗漏是在他的米示拿他的学生最严重的缺陷,因为,作为一个对整个传统教学纲要,它必须有似乎不完全的,因为它不包括最后tannaim教导,其当然应该有法律问题的决定在它成立如果它要作为一个权威的代码。 Rabbi's pupils R. Ḥiyya, R. Hoshaiah, Levi, and Bar Ḳappara began, therefore, even during Rabbi's lifetime and with his knowledge, to make additions and emendations to his Mishnah.拉比的学生河Ḥiyya,何沙雅河,利未,酒吧Ḳappara开始,因此,即使在拉比的一生和他的知识,作出补充和emendations他的米示拿。 Rabbi, who was aware of the deficiencies of his work, probably approved many of these corrections (comp. Oppenheim, lc pp. 344 et seq.), and added some himself (Yer. Ket. iv. 29a, b).拉比,谁是他的工作认识不足,很可能批准这些更正许多(comp.奥本海姆,立法会第344起。),并增加了一些自己(Yer.氯胺酮。四。29A条,乙)。 Most of the changes, however, were such as were contrary to his views, and were consequently concealed from him by his pupils (see Megillat Setarim; comp. Weiss, "Dor," ii. 191).大部分的变化,但是,如违背他的看法,并因此掩盖了他的学生从他(见Megillat Setarim。可比魏斯,“多尔,”二191。)。

Thus arose new collections by R. Ḥiyya, R. Hoshaiah, and Bar Ḳappara, which were called "Mishnayot Gedolot," since they were more voluminous than Rabbi's collection.以致出现由R.Ḥiyya,何沙雅河,和酒吧Ḳappara,这被称为“Mishnayot Gedolot”,因为他们更比拉比的收集大量的新的集合。As these new compilations imperiled the uniformity of teaching, which was possible only through the existence of a Mishnah familiar to all teachers, the "Debe Rabbi" (the scholars of Rabbi's school) undertook a revision of his Mishnah, probably long after his death.由于这些新的汇编危及教学的统一性,这是只有通过一米示拿的存在大家都熟悉的老师可能,“Debe拉比”(拉比的学校的学者)进行了他的米示拿的修订,可能在他死后很久。 They made various changes and a large number of additions in agreement with current demands; and in this form the Mishnah has been transmitted to the present time.他们提出的各种变化,增加了大量的协议与当前的需求;并在此形成的mishnah已转发到现在的时间。The majority of the additions made by the Debe Rabbi betray their later origin, although some of them are known to be supplementary only by statements in the Gemara.由拉比的Debe提出的增加大部分背叛他们后来的原产地,虽然其中有些被认为是只有在革马拉陈述作为补充。For instance, the discussion between R. Hezekiah and R. Johanan, in Men.例如,希西家河之间和R.约哈难,在男子的讨论。104b, indicates that the passage in the present Mishnah (Men. xiii. 2), beginning "Rabbi omer," is a later addition of which Hezekiah and Johanan did not know.第104B条,表明在目前的米示拿通道(Men.十三。2),开始“拉比奥马尔,”是一个后来此外其中希西家和加利亚不知道。 The same is true of Mishnah Sanh.同样是米示拿葬身如此。ix.九。2, since the R. Simeon there mentioned is Rabbi's son, as is shown by Yerushalmi (ad loc. 27a, b). 2,自提的是河西麦有拉比的儿子,因为是表现出耶路莎米(广告同上。27A条,二)。Mishnah 'Ab.米示拿'抗体。Zarah ii.Zarah二。6, where a decision of Judah ha-Nasi is quoted, also comes in this category, since it refers to Judah II., grandson of Judah ha-Nasi I., the original redactor of the Mishnah (comp. Tos. 'Ab. Zarah 36a, sv "Asher"). 6,凡犹大公顷纳西决定是引用,也来这一类,因为它指的是犹大二。,犹大公顷纳西岛,米示拿(comp.服务条款。'抗体原redactor的孙子。 Zarah 36A条希沃特“舍”)。In general, all the passages in which something concerning Rabbi is related, or something which he did either alone (Sheb. vi. 4) or together with his colleague (Oh. xviii. 19), must be regarded as later accretions (comp. Frankel, lc pp. 215 et seq.); and the same statement holds good of all the passages in which Rabbi's opinion is quoted after that of other tannaim.一般来说,所有的通道,在这方面的东西拉比是相关的,或者一些被他单独(Sheb.六。四)与他的同事或一起(Oh.十八。19),必须被视为(后添加物视为comp.弗兰克尔,立法会第215页起)。持有的同一声明中所有的拉比的意见后,其他tannaim的引文好。 On the other hand, there are passages concluding with "dibre Rabbi" (the words of Rabbi), which are not necessarily additions; for Rabbi may in such instances have quoted his own opinion anonymously as setam, as he frequently did, and the words "dibre Rabbi" may have been added by later editors.另一方面,有段落与“dibre拉比”(拉比的话),这并不一定是增加的结论,为拉比在这种情况下有可能援引匿名的setam了自己的见解,因为他经常做,而这句话“dibre拉比”可能被后来增加了编辑器。 Various sentences of the Tosefta also found their way into the Mishnah (comp. Hoffmann, lc pp. 156 et seq.).不同的句子的Tosefta也发现他们的方式进入米示拿(可比霍夫曼,立法会第156起。)。Many of these are haggadic in nature, such as those at the end of the treatises Makkot, 'Uḳẓin, Ḳinnim, Ḳiddushin, and Soṭah, as well as many sentences in the treatise Abot, which must be regarded as accretions.其中有许多是属于阿haggadic,例如在论文Makkot年底,'Uḳẓin,Ḳinnim,Ḳiddushin和Soṭah,以及在论文Abot,必须作为添加物视为许多句子。 The later origin of many of these sentences is at once indicated by the name of the author, as in the cases of R. Joshua b.这些句子的许多后来的原产地是在一次表明了作者的名字,如R的约书亚的情况下湾Levi, who belonged to the first generation of Amoraim ('Uḳẓin, end); Simon, son of Judah ha-Nasi (Ab. ii. 2); and Hillel, grandson of Judah ha-Nasi (ib. ii. 4 et seq.; comp. Lipmann Heller in Tos. Yom-Ṭob, ad loc.).利维,谁属于第一代的亚摩兰('Uḳẓin,结束);西门,犹大公顷纳思儿子(Ab.二2。)和希勒尔,犹大公顷纳思孙子(ib.二4起。 。可比李普曼在陶氏海赎罪,尖,广告同上)。。。。Aside from these additions, the Debe Rabbi emended the phraseology and single words of the Mishnah (comp. Yer. Ḳid. iii. 64c), even as Rabbi himself had done (comp. BM iv. 1; 'Ab. Zarah iv. 4, and the Babylonian and Palestinian Gemaras, ad loc.).除了这些新增的Debe拉比emended的用语和简单的词的mishnah(可比也门里亚尔孩子三64c。。。),甚至自己做了拉比(可比骨髓四一。。'抗体Zarah四四。 ,和巴比伦和巴勒斯坦Gemaras,广告同上。)。

Babylonian and Palestinian Mishnah.巴比伦和巴勒斯坦米示拿。

Many of Rabbi's own emendations have been preserved in the different readings of Yerushalmi and Babli, although the differences between these two versions are not all due to his changes, as Rapoport assumes ("Kerem Ḥemed," vii. 157-167); for most of the differences not due to philological causes must be ascribed to the different mishnaic schools.拉比自己emendations许多人都被保存在耶路莎米和Babli不同的读数,虽然这两个版本之间的差异并不都是他的变化而产生的,假定为拉波波特(“凯雷姆Ḥemed,”七157-167。)对于大多数这些差异不是由于语言学的原因必须归因于不同的mishnaic学校。 In addition to the Debe Rabbi, later amoraim also emended the Mishnah if the received reading seemed untenable.除了Debe拉比,后来也emended的mishnah亚摩兰如果收到的阅读似乎是站不住脚的。These emendations were then incorporated into the Mishnah; those made by the Babylonian amoraim into the Mishnah which was taught in the Babylonian schools; and those made by the Palestinian amoraim into the Mishnah as taught in the Palestinian schools.随后,这些emendations纳入米示拿;由进入米示拿巴比伦amoraim这是在巴比伦的学校教所作出的;和进入巴勒斯坦amoraim制成的米示拿在巴勒斯坦学校任教。 Thus, in 'Ab.因此,在'抗体。 Zarah i., the Mishnah in the Palestinian Talmud was corrected according to the Gemara (Yer. 'Ab. Zarah i. 39d), while the Mishnah in the Babylonian Talmud retained its original reading. Zarah岛,在巴勒斯坦塔木德米示拿得到纠正根据革马拉(Yer.'抗体。Zarah一39D条),而在巴比伦塔木德保留了其原有的阅读米示拿。

Sometimes-curiously enough-the Mishnah of the Palestinian Talmud was corrected to harmonize with the results of the discussion in the Babylonian Talmud, and vice versa (comp. OH Schorr in "HeḤaluẓ," vi. 32-47; Frankel, "Mebo," pp. 19a-22a), although only a few of these emendations, of which there are many in the Talmud-introduced by the phrases "sami mi-kan" = "omit from here," or "ḥasuri miḥasra" = "something missing," or "teni kak" = "teach thus"-found their way into the Mishnah itself.有时是奇怪的是,巴勒斯坦犹太法典米示拿得到纠正,以协调同在巴比伦塔木德经讨论的结果,反之亦然(可比氢氧施尔在“HeḤaluẓ,”六32-47。弗兰克尔,“湿润烧伤膏, “第19A条- 22),尽管其中只有emendations,其中有在塔木德由短语引进了许多少数”萨米米根“=”从这里省略“或”ḥasurimiḥasra“=”的东西失踪“或”teni隔“=”教从而“发现的成米示拿自己的道路。 Many of the amoraim objected to corrections in the Mishnah, holding that the phraseology chosen by the ancients in their mishnaic collections should be retained unchanged (Yer. Nazir i. 51a).在许多反对亚摩兰在mishnah更正,认为在其mishnaic收藏古人选择的用语应保留不变(Yer.纳齐尔一51A条)。

The Mishnah is written in a peculiar kind of Hebrew, which is far more different from the Hebrew of the earlier books of the Old Testament than from that of some of the later ones and which is, therefore, correctly designated as "Neo-Hebraic."该mishnah是写在希伯来文,这是一种特殊远远多从旧的比对后来者的一些希伯来文旧约前几部不同的是,因此,正确为“新希伯来指定。 “This language was spoken by the people of Palestine as late as the second century of the common era, but was cultivated especially by the scholars; so that it was called "leshon ḥakamim" = "the speech of the wise."这种语言是口语由巴勒斯坦人民早在公元二世纪的共同时代较晚,但学者,特别是培育的,所以人们把它称做“leshonḥakamim”=“智者的讲话。” It contains many old Hebraic terms which were preserved in popular speech, although they are not found in the Bible, as well as numerous foreign elements, especially from Aramaic, Greek, and Latin; the scholars being forced to adopt these loanwords as terms for objects and concepts which were formerly unknown and for which there were no designations in the Hebrew vocabulary.它包含了许多老,保存在希伯来流行的讲话来看,虽然他们没有发现在圣经中,以及众多的外国势力,特别是从阿拉姆语,希腊语和拉丁语;学者被迫采取的这些外来词的对象条件和概念是以前未知的,并且有在希伯来文词汇没有名称。 Foreign words were especially used to designate implements borrowed from foreign peoples (comp. Weiss, "Mishpaṭ Leshon ha-Mishnah," pp. 1-7; A. Geiger, "Lehrbuch zur Sprache der Mischna," pp. 1-3); and these borrowed terms were so Hebraized as to be taken by many for native words.特别是外来词被用来指实现借用外国人民(可比魏斯,“MishpaṭLeshon公顷米示拿,”页1-7的A.盖格,“Lehrbuch楚Sprache明镜Mischna,”页1-3);而这些借来的条款,以使Hebraized由许多原生的话采取。

The Written Text.书面文字。

From the first there were various opposing opinions regarding the problems when and by whom the Mishnah was reduced to writing.从第一次有各种不同的反对意见,关于何时及由何人的mishnah减少到写作问题。According to the Letter of Sherira Gaon (lc pp. 2, 9, 12), Judah ha-Nasi himself performed this task; and this view is supported by Rabbenu Nissim b.根据Sherira gaon的(立法会第2,9,12)的信,犹大公顷,纳西本人实施这一任务;这一观点是由Rabbenu尼辛支持湾Jacob (in the preface to his "Sefer ha-Mafteaḥ," ed. J. Goldenthal, p. 3a, Vienna, 1847), Samuel Nagid (in his "Mebo ha-Talmud"), Maimonides (in the introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah and in the preface to the Yad ha-Ḥazaḳah), Meïri (in his "Bet ha-Beḥirah"), and a commentary on Pirḳe Abot (pp. 6a, 8b, 9a, Vienna, 1854); and many other medieval authors, as well as some modern scholars (comp. Strack, "Einleitung in den Talmud," p. 54), hold the same opinion.雅各布(序言中对他的“之书公顷Mafteaḥ,”版。j的登泰,第3A条,维也纳,1847年),塞缪尔Nagid(在他的“湿润烧伤膏公顷塔木德”),迈蒙尼德(在介绍到他的评论在mishnah和在向亚得公顷Ḥazaḳah前言),美日(在他的“投注公顷Beḥirah”),以及关于PirḳeAbot(第6A条,第8B,9A条,维也纳,1854)的评注和许多其他中世纪的作家,以及一些(可比施特拉克,“导论在巢穴塔木德经”,第54页)现代学者,持相同意见。 Rashi, on the other hand (see his commentary on Shab. 13b; 'Er. 62b; BM 33a; Suk. 28b; Ket. 19b), with some tosafists and other medieval and modern authors (comp. Strack, lcp 55), held not only that the Mishnah was not reduced to writing by Rabbi himself, but that even the later amoraim did not have it in written form.赖希,另一方面(见他在沙巴评论13B条;。'呃62b。骨髓33a;。淑28B条;氯胺酮19B条。)和其他一些tosafists中世纪和现代作家(可比施特拉克,LCP的55),举行的mishnah不仅没有减少到拉比本人写的,但即使是后来亚摩兰没有采用书面形式。 He maintained that it, together with the Gemara, was written by the Saboraim.他认为,它连同革马拉,是由Saboraim写的。 This view is based principally on the passage Giṭ.这种观点主要基于Git的通道。60b, which declares that it was forbidden to record halakot, as well as on certain other statements of the Amoraim (comp. eg, Tan., Ki Tissa, ed. Buber, pp. 59b et seq.), which draw a distinction between the Bible as being a written doctrine and the Mishnah as a system of teaching which is not and may not be reduced to writing.第60B条,其中宣布,它被禁止纪录halakot,对亚摩兰某些其他报表以及(可比如谈。,奇Tissa,编辑。布伯,第59B条及以下。),其中画一个区别为是一个书面学说,并作为教学体系不,不得以书面记录的mishnah圣经。 It is, however, extremely unlikely that such a systematized collection, dealing with problems so numerous and so diverse, could have been transmitted orally from generation to generation; and this improbability is increased by the fact that in the Talmud remarks concerning "resha" and "sefa" (the "first" and the "last" cases provided for in a single paragraph) are frequently added to Mishnah quotations, a fact explicable only on the assumption that the text of the Mishnah was definitely fixed in writing.它是,但是,这种可能性微乎其微系统化的收集,问题如此之多,所以不同的处理,可能已被传染了一代又一代口服;,这不大可能是增加了一个事实,在塔木德的言论有关“resha”和“sefa”(即“第一”和“最后一次”案件在一个段落中提供的)经常加入到米示拿的报价,这一事实只在该文本的mishnah肯定是固定的假设,以书面形式解释的。

It must be assumed, therefore, that Rabbi himself reduced the Mishnah to writing in his old age, transgressing in a way the interdiction against recording halakot, since he deemed this prohibition liable to endanger the preservation of the doctrine.它必须承担的,因此,拉比本人写的mishnah减少晚年,逾越的方式对录音halakot的拦截,因为他认为这项禁令可危及学说保存。 He did not abrogate this interdiction entirely, however; for the oral method of instruction continued, the teacher using the written Mishnah merely as a guide, while the pupils repeated the lesson orally.他并没有完全废除这一禁令,但是,为教学口头方式继续下去,作为指导老师的书面米示拿只,而学生口头重复了教训。Thus the distinction between "miḳra" (the law to be read) and "mishnah" (the oral teaching) was retained (comp. "Paḥad Yiẓḥaḳ," sv "Mishnah," pp. 219 et seq.; Frankel, "Hodegetica in Mischnam," pp. 217-218; Brüll, "Einleitung," ii. 10-13; Weiss, "Dor," p. 216).因此,与“miḳra”(待读法)和“米示拿”(即口语教学)的区别是保留(可比“帕哈德Yiẓḥaḳ,”希沃特“米示拿”,第219页起。弗兰克尔,“Hodegetica在Mischnam,“页217-218; Brüll,”导论“二10-13。魏斯,”多尔“,第216页)。

The Mishnah has been transmitted in four recensions: (1) the manuscripts and editions of the mishnayot; (2) the Babylonian Talmud, in which the several mishnayot are separated by the Gemara in those treatises which have it, while in the treatises which have no Gemara they follow in sequence; (3) the Palestinian Talmud, in which the Gemara follows each entire chapter of the Mishnah, the initial words of the mishnaic sentences to be expounded being repeated (of this version only the first four orders and chapters i.-iv. of the treatise Niddah of the sixth order are extant); (4) "the Mishnah on which the Palestinian Talmud rests," published by WH Lowe in 1883 after the Mishnah manuscript (Add. 470, 1) in the library of the Universityof Cambridge.该mishnah已发送的recensions四个:(1)的手稿和mishnayot版本;(2)巴比伦犹太法典,其中几个mishnayot是由革马拉分离的论文,其中有它,而在论文,其中有革马拉他们没有按照顺序;(3)巴勒斯坦塔木德,其中革马拉遵循各自的mishnah整章的mishnaic句子中的最初的话是被反复阐述(此版本只有前四项命令和第一章。.-第四到第六论文Niddah是现存的秩序)(4)“的mishnah巴勒斯坦犹太法典上休息,”出版于1883年由瓦洛韦手稿的mishnah后在图书馆(地址470,1)剑桥的Universityof。 On the relation of the first three editions to one another see above (comp. A. Krochmal, "Yerushalayim ha-Benuyah," Introduction, pp. 10-14; Frankel, lc pp. 219-223; Weiss, lc ii. 313).关于前三个版本的关系彼此见上(可比答科罗赫马尔,“Yerushalayim公顷Benuyah,”导言,第10-14;弗兰克尔,信用证页219-223。魏斯,立法会二313 )。The relation of the fourth version to the preceding three has not yet been thoroughly investigated.第四个版本相对于前三个尚未彻底调查。

Division into Orders.司成订单。

The Mishnah is divided into six main parts, called orders (Aramaic, "sedarim," plural of "seder"; Hebr. "'arakin," plural of "'erek"), the (as in BM 85b) or the (Pesiḳ., ed. Buber, 7a; Cant. R. vi. 4) being therefore frequently mentioned.该mishnah分为六个主要部分,称为订单(阿拉姆,“sedarim,”的“逾越节”的复数形式。黑布尔“'arakin,”多元“'erek”),本(如骨髓85B条)或(Pesiḳ 。。,教育署布伯,第7A。。不敢河六4),因此经常被提及。The abbreviated name ("shas") was formed from the initial letters of (Ḥag. 3a, 10a; M. Ḳ. 10b).缩写的名称(“沙斯党”)成立,从最初的字母(Ḥag.的3A,10A条。先生K表10B条)。Each order contains a number of treatises, "massektot" (Mishnah, ed. Lowe, fol. 32a; Midr. Teh. to Ps. civ.) or "massekot" (Mishnah, ed. Lowe, fol. 69a), plural of "masseket," or "massektiyyot" (Cant. R. vi. 9), the singular of which is "massekta."每个订单包含的论文数量,“massektot”(米示拿,教育署洛韦,其次32A条。。。。。。Midr到哀诗)或“massekot”(米示拿,教育署洛韦,其次69A条。。),复数“masseket”或“massektiyyot”(Cant.河六。9),奇异的是“massekta。” Each treatise is divided into chapters, "peraḳim" (singular, "pereḳ") (Ned. 8a; Ḥag. 9a; Men. 99b), and each chapter into paragraphs or sentences, "mishnayot," or "halakot" in the Palestinian Talmud (see above).每个章节论述分为“peraḳim”(奇异,“pereḳ”)(Ned. 8A条。女巫9A条;男子99B章。),每到段落或句子,“mishnayot”,或者在巴勒斯坦“halakot”一章塔木德(见上文)。

The six orders are first mentioned by R. Ḥiyya (BM 85b), and represent the original division.这六个订单首先提到的R.Ḥiyya(骨髓85B条),并代表原来的点名。A division into five orders is nowhere mentioned, although Geiger ("Einiges über Plan," etc., p. 487), misinterpreting the Midrash passage Num.订单一到五师是无处提及,但格尔(“Einiges黚计划”等,第487),曲解米德拉士通过序号。R. xiii., considers only five orders to be enumerated there.河十三。后,认为只有五要枚举有订单。Ulla (Meg. 28b), when he alludes to those who teach and learn only four orders, does not imply that the Mishnah was divided into four orders, but refers merely to those who study only four.乌拉(Meg. 28B款),当他提到了那些谁教和学习只有四个订单,并不意味着该mishnah分为四个订单划分,而是指那些谁研究仅仅只有四个。This conclusion is confirmed by a conversation in which Simeon b.这一结论也证实了一个对话中,西麦乙Laḳish communicates to a man who has studied only the first four orders a sentence belonging to the sixth order (Meg.28b).一个谁研究只有第一四项命令一个句子属于第六秩序(Meg.28b)手册Laḳish通信。The geonic tradition ("Sha'are Teshubah," No. 143) which refers to seven orders of the Mishnah seems to include the "Small Treatises" ("Massektot Ḳeṭannot"; Hoffmann, lc pp.98-99).若尼克传统(“Sha'are Teshubah,”第143号)是指七订单的mishnah似乎包括了“小论文”(“MassektotḲeṭannot”;霍夫曼,立法会pp.98 - 99)。The names of the orders are old, and are mentioned by Simeon b.该命令的名称是旧的,并受西蒙提到湾 Laḳish (Shab. 31a), who enumerates them, according to his interpretation of Isa.Laḳish(Shab. 31A条),谁列举了他们,根据他对伊萨的解释。xxxiii.三十三。6, in the following sequence: Zera'im, Mo'ed, Nashim, Neziḳin, Ḳodashim, Ṭohorot. 6,在以下顺序:Zera'im,Mo'ed,Nashim,Neziḳin,Ḳodashim,Ṭohorot。This is the original order, which is found also in Num.这是原来的秩序,这是发现在序号也。R. xiii.河十三。There are other enumerations with different sequences.有不同的序列与其他枚举。R. Tanḥuma has the following in Yalḳ., Ps.河Tanḥuma已在Yalḳ以下。,聚苯乙烯。xix.: Nashim, Zera'im, Ṭohorot, Mo'ed, Ḳodashim, Neziḳin.十九:。Nashim,Zera'im,Ṭohorot,Mo'ed,Ḳodashim,Neziḳin。He gives another series in Num.他再次在序号系列。R. xiii.: Nashim, Zera'im, Mo'ed, Ḳodashim, Ṭohorot, Neziḳin.河十三:。Nashim,Zera'im,Mo'ed,Ḳodashim,Ṭohorot,Neziḳin。As R. Tanḥuma evidently does not intend to give the actual sequence but only to explain the verses as referring to the orders of the Mishnah, he adapts his enumeration of the orders to the sequence of the verses.为RTanḥuma显然不打算给实际的序列,但只解释为是指订单的mishnah诗句,他适应他的命令枚举到的诗句序列。 That Simeon b.这西麦乙Laḳish's sequence is the correct one may be proved also from other sources.Laḳish的顺序是正确的,可从其他来源也证实。 For example, Ta'an.例如,Ta'an。24b has: "In the days of Rab Judas they went in their studies only as far as the order Neziḳin; but we study all six orders."24B条有:“在饶了犹大的日子里,他们在学业上的顺序Neziḳin只到,但我们的研究所有六个订单。”The parallel passage reads: "We have proceeded in our studies as far as 'Uḳẓin" (the end of the sixth order Ṭohorot).并行段落如下:“我们已经在我们的研究进行尽可能'Uḳẓin”(第六届秩序Ṭohorot结束)。It is clear from Meg.很显然,从梅格。28b that formerly only four orders were studied, of which Neziḳin formed the conclusion (according to Ta'an. 24a, where the shorter course of study in former times is mentioned in another form of expression). 28B款是以前只有四个订单进行了研究,其中Neziḳin形成的结论(根据Ta'an。24A条,其中前时间的研究,在较短的课程是在另一种表现形式提到)。 That the treatise 'Uḳẓin of the order Ṭohorot was the end of the sixth order is shown by Ber.这一订单的Ṭohorot的论文'Uḳẓin是为了结束的第六届是由误码率显示。20a.20A条。It is seen, therefore, that the order Neziḳin is always mentioned as the fourth, and the order Ṭohorot as the sixth and last, thus conforming to the sequence of Simeon b.正是看到了,因此,该命令Neziḳin始终作为第四提及,并作为最后的第六和秩序Ṭohorot,从而顺应西蒙序列湾Laḳish (comp. Brüll, lc ii. 15; Weiss, lc iii. 186).Laḳish(可比Brüll,立法会二15;。。魏斯,立法会三186)。Isaac ibn Gabbai, author of the mishnaic commentary "Kaf Naḥat," has, consequently, no grounds for his reversal of the arrangement of the orders (comp. Lipmann Heller, lc Preface); nor is there any foundation for the attempt of Tobias Cohn to reverse the sequence ("Aufeinanderfolge der Mischna Ordnungen," in Geiger's "Jüd. Zeit." iv. 126 et seq.).伊萨克本Gabbai,笔者的mishnaic评论“KAF卡Naḥat,”有,因此,对于他的命令(可比李普曼海勒,立法会序)安排逆转没有理由,也没有任何企图的托比亚斯科恩基础以相反的顺序(“Aufeinanderfolge明镜Mischna Ordnungen”,在盖格的“士。时代。”四。126起。)。For a justification of the accepted sequence see the introduction of Maimonides to his commentary on the Mishnah; Frankel, lcp 254; Brüll, lc ii.如需接受序列理由看到迈蒙尼德介绍他的评注米示拿,弗兰克尔,LCP的254; Brüll,立法会二。15-16. 15-16。It can not be ascertained whether Rabbi himself originated this sequence, or whether the orders were thus discussed in the academies.它无法确定自己是否源于此序列拉比,还是订单因此,在院校讨论。Isaac Alfasi and Asher b.艾萨克Alfasi和舍湾Jehiel apply the Talmudic passage "En seder le-Mishnah" (= "Rabbi observed no definite sequence in the Mishnah") to the orders as well, and infer that this arrangement did not originate with Rabbi himself.通过应用该塔木德耶歇“恩塞德乐米示拿”(=“拉比没有观察到明确的序列在mishnah”)的订单的欢迎,并推断,这种安排并不是由拉比自己。 Other authorities, however, assert that the passage "En seder le-Mishnah" refers only to the treatises, and not to the orders; for here Rabbi himself observed a definite series (comp. Lipmann Heller, lc; idem, commentary on Soṭah ix. 1).其他机构,然而,断言,通过“恩塞德乐米示拿”只是指论文,而不是向订单;因为在这里他看到一个明确的拉比系列(可比李普曼海勒,立法会;同上,在Soṭah九评1。)。 This view seems to be the correct one, since Simeon b.这种观点似乎是正确的,因为西蒙湾Laḳish, who was in his youth a pupil of Rabbi (Yer. Beẓah v. 2, 63a), refers to this sequence of the orders as being well known. Laḳish,谁在他的青年学生是一个拉比(Yer.Beẓah诉2,63A条),是指这种被称为是众所周知的命令序列。The names of the several orders, which are frequently mentioned in the Talmud (Suk. 4b; Shab. 54b; Meg. 7a; Nid. 8a; Bek. 30b), were selected according to the subject of most of the treatises belonging to them.对几个订单,这是经常提到的名字在塔木德(淑4B条;沙巴54B条。梅格7A条。安居8A条。。Bek 30B条),被选定根据大部分的论文题目属于他们。

Earlier Divisions.此前师。

The division of the Mishnah into treatises is a very old device, the collections upon which Rabbi drew being also arranged in this same way.该论文的mishnah成司是一个很旧的设备,所依据的拉比也被吸引在此相同的方式安排的集合。II Esd.二,公共服务电子化。xiv.十四。44-46 mentions, in addition to the twenty-four written books of the Old Testament, seventy other books which may not be written down, having been given by God to Moses for oral communication to the elders of the people. 44-46提到,除二四书面旧约,第七,未必写下来,被赋予了神的口头沟通,以人民的长老摩西其他书籍的书籍。According to an assumption of Ginsberg's, which is supported by a comparison of the passage in Esdras with its parallel in the Tan., Ki Tissa (ed. Buber, pp. 58b-59a), these seventy books are the seventy treatises of the oral teachings, and hence of the Mishnah.据一位金斯堡的假设,这是支持由该埃斯德拉斯通过比较其在谈平行。,奇Tissa(编辑布伯,第58B条,59A条),这些书是七十第七论文的口头教义,因此的mishnah。 The number seventy may be obtained by counting either the seven small treatises (comp. R. Kirchheim, Preface to his edition of them, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1851), or, as Ginsberg obtains it, the halakic midrashim Sifra and Sifre, the first of which was divided into nine parts.这个数字可能会得到七十票无论是七个小论文(可比河基希海姆,他的版序,其中,法兰克福发表了主,1851年),或如金斯伯格得到它,并halakic米大示Sifra Sifre,其中第一个被分为九个部分。In any case, it is evident that the division into treatises is a very old one, and that Rabbi arranged his Mishnah in conformity with it, although, as has been said, the present division is not the original one which he adopted, but has been subjected to many changes.在任何情况下,很显然,进入论文部是一个非常古老的一个,那拉比安排符合他的米示拿用它,但正如人们所说,现在的划分是不是原来的一,他通过了,但受到了许多变化。

Sixty-three treatises are now extant, although the traditional number is only sixty, as Cant.六十三论文已成为现存的,虽然传统的人数只有六十的斜面。R. vi.河六。9says, "Sixty queens, these are the sixty treatises of the halakot."9says,“六十王后,这些都是halakot第六论文。” The three "babot," or gates, at the beginning of the order Neziḳin formed originally only a single treatise, which also was called "Neziḳin" (B. Ḳ. 102a; BM 10a, b; Lev. R. xix.), and which was divided into three treatises on account of its size.这三个“babot”,或者盖茨在秩序的开始Neziḳin,形成原本只是一个单一的论文,这也被称为“Neziḳin”(乙ḳ102A条。骨髓10A条,乙;。列弗传译十九。)并分为三个论文就其规模帐户。 Makkot was originally a dependent treatise combined with Sanhedrin, of which it formed the end (comp. Maimonides' introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah). Makkot本来是一个依赖论文与公会相结合,形成的,它到底(可比迈蒙尼德'介绍了他的mishnah评注)。The names of the treatises, which were derived mostly from the contents, but occasionally from the initial letter, are old, being known to the Amoraim, and in part even to the Tannaim.的论文,其中大多数是从内容,但偶尔从最初的信派生的,名称是旧的,目前已知的亚摩兰,部分甚至的Tannaim。

The following treatises are mentioned by name in the Talmud: Baba Ḳamma and Baba Meẓi'a (B. Ḳ. 102a); Bekorot (Beẓah 20a); Berakot (B. Ḳ. 30a); 'Eduyot under the name "Beḥirta" (Ber. 27a) as well as under its own name (Ber. 28a); Kelim (Mishnah Kelim, end); Keritot (Sanh. 65a); Ketubot (Soṭah 2a); Ḳiddushin (Ḳid. 76b); Ḳodashim (BM 109b); Makkot (Sheb. 2b); Menaḥot (Men. 7a); Middot (Yoma 16a); Nazir and Nedarim (Soṭah 2a); Oholot under the name "Ahilot" ('Er. 79a); Rosh ha-Shanah (Ta'an. 2a); Shebu'ot (Sheb. 2b); Tamid (Yoma 14b); Terumot (Pes. 34a); 'Uḳẓin (Hor. 13b); Yoma (Yoma 14b); and Zebaḥim under the name "Sheḥitat Ḳodashim" (BM 109b).下面的论文都提到的名字,在塔木德:巴巴业力和巴巴Meẓi'a(。湾K表102A章); Bekorot(Beẓah20A条); Berakot(。湾K表30A条);'Eduyot的名义下“Beḥirta”(苏贝27A条),以及根据其自己的名字(Ber. 28A条)。凯利姆(米示拿凯利姆,结束); Keritot(Sanh.第65A条); Ketubot(Soṭah甲);Ḳiddushin(Ḳid.76b);Ḳodashim(骨髓109B章) ; Makkot(Sheb. 2b干扰素);Menaḥot(Men. 7A)条; Middot(山脉16A条);纳齐尔和Nedarim(Soṭah甲)的名义下“Ahilot”Oholot('呃79A条。);罗斯艾公顷Shanah(助教一甲)。Shebu'ot(Sheb. 2b干扰素); Tamid(山脉14B条); Terumot(Pes. 34A条);'Uḳẓin(Hor. 13B条);山脉(山脉14B条);和Zebaḥim的名义下“SheḥitatḲodashim” (骨髓109B章)。The names of the treatises have, however, been subjected to various changes, and have, in some cases, been replaced by later terms.该论文的名称,不过,受到各种变化,并已在某些情况下,被后来条款所取代。Thus the earlier name "Mashḳin" gave way to the later "Mo'ed Ḳaṭan"; "Zebaḥim" was substituted for "Sheḥiṭat Ḳodashim"; and "Sheḥiṭat Ḥullin" was abbreviated to "Ḥullin" (on the names comp. A. Berliner in "Ha-Misderonah," i. 20 et seq., 40 et seq.; see also Frankel, lcp 255; Brüll, lc ii. 18-20).因此,早期名称为“Mashḳin”让位给后来的“Mo'ed卡坦”,“Zebaḥim”被取代“SheḥiṭatḲodashim。”;和“SheḥiṭatḤullin”被简称为“Ḥullin”(在比赛的名字答:柏林在“哈Misderonah,”岛20起,40起。。又见弗兰克尔,LCP的255; Brüll,立法会二18-20)。。The treatises belonging to each order deal with similar subjects, or have some other bond of relationship which causes them to be placed in a given order.该论文属于用类似的主题,就每一个订单,或有某种关系的其他债券,导致他们在给定的顺序排列。Although there are some tractates, such as Nazir (comp. Naz. 2a) and Berakot, which apparently do not belong to the order in which they are included, a closer examination reveals the reason for their inclusion (comp. Maimonides' introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah; Brüll, lc ii. 17-18; Weiss, lc ii. 207; Geiger, lcp 486).虽然有诸如纳齐尔卡(可比纳兹。2a)和Berakot一些tractates,这显然不属于它们中的优先顺序,仔细观察揭示了其列入(可比迈蒙尼德'介绍他的原因米示拿的评注; Brüll,立法会二17-18;。魏斯,立法会二207;。盖格尔,LCP的486)。

The Treatises.的论文。

It is a harder task to define the principle on which the treatises are arranged within the various orders; and this difficulty is increased by the existence of many different sequences, especially since it is uncertain which of these is the oldest.这是一个困难的任务定义在其上的论文在各种订单安排的原则,这种困难是增加了许多不同的序列存在,特别是因为它是不确定的,这些是历史最悠久。 According to the Letter of Sherira Gaon (lc pp. 12-13), Rabbi observed no definite sequence, but discoursed on each massekta singly without reference to the other treatises, changing their arrangement at will.根据Sherira gaon的(立法会第12-13页)的信,拉比没有观察到明确的顺序,但在每个单独massekta discoursed没有提到的其他论文,改变他们的意愿安排。This statement is supported by 'Ab.这项声明是支持'抗体。Zarah 7a, which states that for two treatises there was no definite order in the Mishnah-an assertion which is all the more trust, worthy since it is recognized as a principle in maing halakic decisions as well.Zarah 7A条,其中规定,对于两个论文没有在mishnah,断言这是所有更多的信任,值得肯定,因为它是为了作为一项原则以及公认maing halakic决定。It appears, on the other hand, from various passages in the Talmud (eg, Sheb. 2b; Soṭah 2a; Ta'an. 2a), that even at an early period a certain arrangement of the several treatises within their respective orders was followed, and it is necessary, therefore, to adopt Hoffmann's view (in Berliner's "Magazin," 1890, pp. 322-323) that a definite sequence was gradually developed and observed in the course of instruction in the Palestinian and Babylonian academies.它的出现,另一方面,从不同通道,在塔木德(例如,帅2b干扰素。Soṭah甲。Ta'an 2A)条,即使在早期期间的几个论文一定安排在其各自的订单之后,这是必要的,因此,采用霍夫曼的观点(在柏林的“Magazin的,”1890年,第322-323)的序列是一个明确的逐步发展,并在教学过程中观察到巴勒斯坦和巴比伦院校。 The teachers of these schools arranged their material on pedagogic lines, and in interpreting an order of the Mishnah they selected the longest treatise for the beginning of the lesson, when the minds of their pupils were still fresh, and then passed on to the smaller tractates.这些学校的教师安排在教学线的材料,并在诠释一个顺序的mishnah选择了教训,当他们的学生的头脑中仍记忆犹新,然后传递到较小tractates最长的论文开始。 Likewise in Maimonides' sequence, which was the one generally adopted, the treatises from the second to the sixth order are arranged according to length, as Geiger has remarked ("Einiges über Plan," etc., in Geiger's "Wiss. Zeit. Jüd. Theol." ii. 480 et seq.); and this principle is evident in the first order likewise (Hoffmann, lcp 323; Geiger, lcp 402).同样,在迈蒙尼德'序列,这是普遍采用,从第二到第六的论文排列顺序按长度之一,盖格曾说过(“Einiges黚计划”等,在盖格的“Wiss。时代。士。Theol“​​二480起);。。。和这个原则是显而易见的,在同样的一阶(霍夫曼,LCP的323;盖格,LCP的402)。 Maimonides' sequence seems, therefore, to have been the same as that adopted in the Palestinian and Babylonian academies, and hence was the original one (for other reasons for this sequence see Maimonides' introduction to his commentary on the Mishnah; Frankel, lc pp. 255-264; Brüll, lc ii. 20-27).迈蒙尼德'序列因此,似乎已被采纳的一样,在巴勒斯坦和巴比伦的院校,因此是原来的一看到这个序列为其他原因迈蒙尼德('介绍了他的米示拿的评注;弗兰克尔术页。255-264; Brüll,立法会二20-27)。。

The Chapters.的章节。

The division of the several treatises into chapters as well as the sequence of these chapters was the work of Rabbi himself (Letter of Sherira Gaon, lcp 13).成章节划分的几个论文以及这些章节顺序是自己的拉比(信Sherira gaon的,LCP的13)的工作。The portion discussed each day constituted an independent pereḳ; and this term was, therefore, applied elsewhere to a single discourse also (Ber. 11b; 'Er. 36b; on a statement in the "Seder Tanna'im we-Amora'im," to the effect that the Saboraim divided the treatises into chapters, see M. Lerner, "Die Aeltesten Mischna-Compositionen," in Berliner's "Magazin," 1886, p. 3, note 1).每天讨论的部分构成一个独立的pereḳ;这词,因此,适用于其他地方的一个话语也(Ber. 11B条;'呃36B条;。以在“塞德Tanna'im我们- Amora'im声明“大意是Saboraim分为章节的论文,看到米勒纳,”模具Aeltesten Mischna - Compositionen,“在柏林的”Magazin的,“1886年,第3页,注1)。Generally speaking, the original division and sequence of the chapters have been preserved, as appears from various passages of the Talmud (RH 31b; Suk. 22b; Yeb. 9a; Ket. 15a; Niddah 68b; Zeb. 15a).一般来说,将原来的点名和已保存的章节顺序,从各代的塔木德出现(相对湿度31B条;淑22B条。Yeb 9A条。氯胺酮15A条。Niddah 68B条。瑞伯15A条)。The names of the chapters taken from the initial letters are likewise old, and some of them are mentioned even in the Talmud (BM 35b; Niddah 48a).从最初的信件作出的章节的名称也同样老了,其中有些人提到,即使在塔木德(骨髓35B条; Niddah 48A条)。In the course of time, however, various changes were made in the division, sequence, and names of the chapters; thus, for example, the division of Tamid into seven chapters is not the original one.在时间的过程中,然而,各种变化,在该师,​​序列和各章节的名称;因此,例如,Tamid分为七章司是不是原来的一。On other variations in sequence see Frankel, lc pp. 264-265, and on the changes in the names see Berliner in "Ha-Misderonah," i.在其他的变化顺序见弗兰克尔,信用证页264-265,以及在名称的变化看在柏林“哈Misderonah,”岛40b.40B条。

There are altogether 523 chapters in the Mishnah, divided as follows: Zera'im 74 (Bikkurim 3), Mo'ed Ḳaṭan 88, Nashim 71, Neziḳin 73 (Abot 5), Ḳodashim 91, Ṭohorot 126.总共有523章在mishnah,分类如下:Zera'im 74(Bikkurim 3),Mo'ed卡坦88 Nashim 71,Neziḳin73(Abot 5),Ḳodashim91Ṭohorot126。Some authorities reckon 524 chapters by adding a sixth chapter to Abot, while others count 525 by adding a sixth chapter to Abot and a fourth chapter to Bikkurim.一些权威人士估计,加入了第六章Abot 524章,而其他罪名,加入了第六章Abot和第四章Bikkurim 525。The division of the chapters into paragraphs, which is likewise very old, has not been preserved in its original form, the different recensions of the present Mishnah having a different division (comp. Frankel, lcp 265).段划分成章节,这同样是很老了,还没有被保存在其原来的形式,本米示拿不同的recensions有不同的划分(可比弗兰克尔,LCP的265)。 The several paragraphs are mostly cast in the form of the fixed Halakah without a Scripture passage (see Midrash Halakah), although Weiss (lc ii. 211, notes 1-6) has enumerated 217 passages in which the Halakah is given togetherwith the Scriptural text on which it is based, hence assuming the form of the Midrash.在几个段落大多投在固定Halakah没有经文的形式(见米德拉士Halakah),虽然魏斯(立法会二。211,说明1-6)列举了217个,其中的Halakah是togetherwith圣经的文字给段落它赖以存在的基础,因此就任米德拉士形式。 Some of these midrashic sentences in the Mishnah have the form of the earliest exegesis of the Soferim (comp. Frankel, lcp 5), and there are also many passages modeled on the tannaitic Talmud (comp. Weiss, lc ii. 209-210).在示拿这些midrashic句的几个具备了Soferim最早的注释(可比弗兰克尔,液晶5)的形式,也有对犹太法典为蓝本的tannaitic许多段落(可比魏斯,立法会二。209-210) 。

The following is the list of the mishnaic orders with their treatises, according to Maimonides, the deviations in both Talmudim being given at the end of each order (for details see separate articles under the names of the respective orders and treatises; and on variations in certain editions of the Mishnah comp. Strack, lc pp. 9-12):以下是与他们的论文的mishnaic订单列表,根据迈蒙尼德,在这两个Talmudim的偏差正考虑在每个订单的结束(详见根据各自的订单和论文的名称单独条款;在变化和某些版本的mishnah比赛施特拉克,立法会页9-12)。:

Orders and Treatises.订单和论述。

I. The order Zera'im ("Seeds") contains the following eleven treatises:一,为了Zera'im(“种子”)包含以下11论文:

(1) Berakot ("Blessings"), divided into nine chapters; deals with the rules for the daily prayer, and other prayers and blessings. (1)Berakot(“祝福”),分为九个章节分成;与规则的日常祈祷,祈祷和祝福及其他交易。

(2) Pe'ah ("Corner"); eight chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the corners of the field (Lev. xix. 9, 10; xxiii. 22; Deut. xxiv. 19-22), and with the rights of the poor in general. (2)Pe'ah(“角”);八个章节;与该领域有关规定处理的角落(利未记十九9,10。二十三22;。申命记二十四19-22。。),并与权利的普遍贫困。

(3) Demai ("Doubtful"); seven chapters; deals chiefly with various cases in which it is not certain whether the offering of the fruit has been given to the priests.(3)Demai(“呆滞”);七个章节;与它是不能肯定是否已提供的水果给祭司主要涉及各种案件。

(4) Kilayim ("Of Two Sorts"; "Heterogeneous"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with rules regarding forbidden mixtures (Lev. xix. 19; Deut. xxii. 9-11). (4)Kilayim(简称“两类”,“异类”);九个章节,主要涉及有关规则禁止混合物(利未记十九19;。。。申二十二9-11)。

(5) Shebi'it ("Sabbatical Year"); ten chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the seventh year (Ex. xxiii. 11; Lev. xxv. 1-8; Deut. xv. 1 et seq.). (5)Shebi'it(“安息年”),十个章节;处理有关规定第七年(出埃及记二十三11;。列弗二十五1-8;。。。申十五1起。。)。

(6) Terumot ("Offerings"); eleven chapters; deals with the laws regarding the offering to be given to the priest (Num. xviii. 8 et seq.; Deut. xviii. 4). (6)Terumot(“奉献”);十一章;与交易有关的法律将提供给祭司(民数记十八8日起。。申十八4。。)。

(7) Ma'aserot or Ma'aser Rishon ("Tithes" or "First Tithes"); five chapters; deals with the prescription regarding the tithe to be given to the Levites (Num. xviii. 21-24). (7)Ma'aserot或Ma'aser里雄(“什一税”或“第一什一税”);五个章节;十分之一的处方就必须考虑到交易的利(民数记十八21-24。)。

(8) Ma'aser Sheni ("Second Tithe"); five chapters; deals with the rules concerning the tithe or its equivalent which was to be eaten at Jerusalem (Deut. xiv. 22-26). (8)Ma'aser Sheni(“第二次捐”);五个章节;与有关什一税或同等规则,是在耶路撒冷吃(。申命记十四22-26)交易。

(9) Ḥallah ("Cake"); four chapters; deals with the laws regarding the heave-offering of dough to be given to the priests (Num. xv. 18-21). (9)Ḥallah(“蛋糕”);四个章节;按照关于隆起,面团提供法律处理必须考虑到的祭司(民数记十五18-21。)。

(10) 'Orlah ("Foreskin of the Trees"); three chapters; deals chiefly with the regulations of Lev.(10)'Orlah(“包皮的树”),三个章节;与列夫规定主要涉及。xix.十九。23-25.23-25​​。

(11) Bikkurim ("First-Fruits"); three chapters; deals with the laws in Ex. (11)Bikkurim(“第一水​​果”);三个章节;与前处理的法律。xxiii.二十三。19; Deut.19;申。xxvi.二十六。1 et seq.1起。In many editions of the Mishnah, even early ones like those of Naples 1492, and of Riva 1559, as well as in most of the editions of the Babylonian Talmud, a fourth chapter to the eleventh treatise, which does not belong to the Mishnah, has been added (comp. the gloss in the Wilna edition of the Talmud, p. 87b).在许多版本的mishnah,就算是早期的,如1492年的那不勒斯,1559年和里瓦,以及在考虑到巴比伦犹太法典,第四章第十一届论文,其中不属于米示拿的版本最多,已添加(可比的光泽在塔木德维尔纳版,第87B条)。 The sequence of the treatises of this first order in both the Talmudim corresponds with that of Maimonides.在本论文的第一顺序均Talmudim序列对应的迈蒙尼德的。

II.二。Mo'ed ("Festivals") includes the following twelve treatises:Mo'ed(“节日”)包括以下十二个论文:

(1) Shabbat ("Sabbath"); twenty-four chapters; deals with the laws regarding the seventh day as a day of rest (Ex. xvi. 23 et seq., xx. 8-11, xxiii. 12, xxxiv. 21, xxxv. 2-3; Deut. v. 12-15). (1)安息日(“安息日”),第二十四章。。。按照关于作为休息日(出十六23起涉及法律的第七天,二十8月11日,二十三十二,三十四。。 21,三十五2-3;。申五12-15)。。

(2) 'Erubin ("Mingling"); ten chapters; deals with the means by which inconvenient regulations regarding the Sabbath may be legally obviated. (2)'Erubin(“媚俗”),十个章节;与其中关于安息日不方便省却规定可合法交易手段。

(3) Pesaḥim ("Passover Festivals"); ten chapters; deals with the prescriptions regarding the Passover and the paschal sacrifice (Ex. xii., xiii. 6-8, xxiii. 15, xxxiv. 15 et seq.; Lev. xxiii. 5 et seq.; Num. ix. 2-14, xxviii. 16 et seq.). (3)Pesaḥim(“逾越节节”),十个章节;。。。。。列弗;与有关规定和逾越节逾越节牺牲(出埃及记第十二,十三6-8,二十三十五,三十四15起交易。二十三,五起。。。编号九2-14,二十八16起)。。。。

(4) Sheḳalim ("Shekels"); eight chapters; treats chiefly of the poll-tax of a half-shekel for each male, prescribed in Ex. (4)Sheḳalim(“谢克尔”);八个章节;把主要的调查,一个半舍客勒每个男性在防爆规定,税。xxx.三十。12-16, and which was devoted to defraying the expenses of the services of the Temple. 12-16,并支付了专门的圣殿的服务费用。

(5) Yoma ("Day"), called also "Kippurim" or "Yom ha-Kippurim" (= "Day of Atonement"); eight chapters; deals with the prescriptions regarding worship and fasting on the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi., xxiii. 26-32). (5)山脉(“日”),也称为“Kippurim”或“赎罪公顷Kippurim”(=“赎罪日”);八个章节,涉及了关于崇拜和在赎罪日(利未记空腹处方十六。,二十三。26-32)。

(6) Sukkah or Sukkot ("Booth"); five chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the Feast of Tabernacles, the Tabernacle, and the garland on it (Lev. xxiii. 34-36; Num. xxix. 12 et seq.; Deut. xvi. 13-16). (6)Sukkah或住棚节(“摊位”);五章;与有关住棚,幕节的规定处理,并在其上​​(利未记二十三34-36花环。序号二十九12起。。。 ;申十六13-16)。。。

(7) Beẓah ("Egg"; so called from the first word, but originally termed, according to its subject, "Yom-Ṭob" = "Feast-Day"); five chapters; deals chiefly with the rules to be observed on the feast-days. (7)Beẓah(“蛋”,所以从第一个字叫,但原本被称为,根据其主体,“赎罪,尖”=“盛宴日”),五个章节,涉及的规则主要是要观察过节天。

(8) Rosh ha-Shanah ("New-Year Feast"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the regulation of the calendar by the new moon, and with the services on the New-Year. (8)罗斯艾公顷Shanah(“新年宴”),四章节;主要涉及的日历的新月规例,并与新的年的服务。

(9) Ta'anit ("Fasting"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the special fast-days in times of drought or other untoward occurrences. (9)Ta'anit(“禁食”);四个章节;主要涉及的特别快,在干旱或其他突发事件时天。

(10) Megillah ("Esther Scroll"); four chapters; contains chiefly regulations and prescriptions regarding the reading of the scroll of Esther at Purim, and the reading of other passages in the synagogue. (10)Megillah(“滚动以斯帖”);四个章节主要包含有关法规和规定的滚动以斯帖在普珥节阅读,以及在其他段落阅读的犹太教堂。

(11) Mo'ed Ḳaṭan ("Half-Feasts"; originally called "Mashḳin," after its initial word); three chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the intermediate feast-days, or the days between the first two and the last two days of Pesaḥ and Sukkah. (11)Mo'ed卡坦(“半节日”;原来所谓的“Mashḳin,”后其最初的字),三个章节;与节日有关的中间天规章之间,或前两个和最后交易日两个Pesaḥ和Sukkah天。

(12) Ḥagigah ("Feasting"); three chapters; deals among other things with the manner of observance of the three principal feasts. (12)Ḥagigah(“盛宴”);三个章节中的三个主要的节日庆祝方式处理其他事情。In the Babylonian Talmud the treatises of the order Mo'ed are arranged as follows: Shabbat, 'Erubin, Pesaḥim, Beẓah, Ḥagigah, Mo'ed Ḳaṭan, Rosh ha-Shanah, Ta'anit, Yoma, Sukkah, Sheḳalim, and Megillah; while the sequence in the Palestinian Talmud is Shabbat, 'Erubin, Pesaḥim, Yoma, Sheḳalim, Sukkah, Rosh ha-Shanah, Beẓah, Ta'anit, Megillah, Ḥagigah, and Mo'ed Ḳaṭan.在巴比伦塔木德的Mo'ed秩序的论文安排如下:安息日,'Erubin,Pesaḥim,Beẓah,Ḥagigah,Mo'ed咯痰,犹太公顷Shanah,Ta'anit,山脉,Sukkah,Sheḳalim和Megillah ,而在巴勒斯坦塔木德顺序是安息日,'Erubin,Pesaḥim,山脉,Sheḳalim,Sukkah,犹太公顷Shanah,Beẓah,Ta'anit,Megillah,Ḥagigah和Mo'ed卡坦。

III.三。Nashim ("Women") contains the following seven treatises:Nashim(“妇女”)包含以下七个论文:

(1) Yebamot ("Widows Obliged to Contract a Levirate Marriage"); sixteen chapters; deals chiefly with the rules for the levirate marriage and of the Ḥaliẓah, whereby the widow is enabled to contract another marriage (Deut. xxv. 5-10). (1)Yebamot(“寡妇被迫签订合同,收继婚的婚礼”),16个章节。主要是与婚姻和娶寡嫂的Ḥaliẓah,即寡妇是启用委托他人婚姻(申命记二十五的规定处理5-10 )。

(2) Ketubot ("Marriage Contracts); thirteen chapters; deals chiefly with the mutual duties and rights of husband and wife. (2)Ketubot(“婚姻合同),13章;与相互义务和权利的丈夫和妻子的交易为主​​。

(3) Nedarim ("Vows"); eleven chapters; deals with the regulations concerning vows (Num. xxx. 2-17).(3)Nedarim(“誓言”);十一章;与有关法规处理誓言(民数记xxx 2-17。)。

(4) Nazir ("Nazarite"; called also "Nezirut" = "Nazariteship"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with the prescriptions regarding the Nazarite vows (Num. vi. 1-21). (4)纳齐尔卡(“拿细耳人”,也称为“Nezirut”=“Nazariteship”);九个章节,主要是与交易有关处方拿细耳誓言(民数记六1-21。)。

(5) Giṭṭin ("Documents"; "Bills of Divorce"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with the laws for the dissolution of marriage (Deut. xxiv. 1-4). (5)Giṭṭin(“文件”,“离婚法案”);九个章节,主要涉及与解除婚约(申命记二十四1-4)。法律。

(6) Soṭah ("Woman Suspected of Adultery"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with rules concerning a woman suspected of infidelity (Num. v. 11-31). (6)Soṭah(“女涉嫌通奸”);九个章节;与有关不忠(民数记诉11-31)涉嫌规则主要涉及一个女人。

(7) Ḳiddushin ("Betrothal"); four chapters; discusses the question how, by what means, and under what conditions a legal marriage may be contracted. (7)Ḳiddushin(“订婚”);四个章节,探讨了如何通过什么手段,以及在什么条件下可以合法婚姻合同的问题。In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises in this order is as follows: Yebamot, Ketubot, Ḳiddushin, Giṭṭin, Nedarim, Nazir, and Soṭah.在巴比伦塔木德经的论文按此顺序顺序如下:Yebamot,Ketubot,Ḳiddushin,Giṭṭin,Nedarim,纳齐尔和Soṭah。 In the Palestinian Talmud the sequence is: Yebamot, Soṭah, Ketubot, Nedarim, Giṭṭin, Nazir, and Ḳiddushin.在巴勒斯坦塔木德的顺序是:Yebamot,Soṭah,Ketubot,Nedarim,Giṭṭin,纳齐尔和Ḳiddushin。

IV.四。Neziḳin ("Injuries"; called also "Yeshu'ot"="Deeds of Help," as in Num. R. xiii.) contains the following ten treatises:Neziḳin(“伤害”,也称为“Yeshu'ot”=“事迹说明”,如序号河十三。。)包含以下十书:

(1) Baba Ḳamma ("First Gate"); ten chapters; deals chiefly with injuries and compensation for damages.(1)巴巴业力(“第一门”),十个章节;伤病和赔偿损失的交易为主​​。

(2) Baba Meẓi'a ("Middle Gate"); ten chapters; deals chiefly with the laws relating to sales, leases, objects found, and usury. (2)巴巴Meẓi'a(“中门”),十个章节,主要是与有关销售,租赁法,对象中找到的,和高利贷的交易。

(3) Baba Batra ("Last Gate"); ten chapters; deals chiefly with the rights of sale, the ownership of real estate, and the rights of succession. (3)巴巴巴特拉(“最后的门”),十个章节,主要是与销售权,不动产所有权和继承权的交易。

(4) Sanhedrin ("Court of Law"); eleven chapters; deals chiefly with judicial procedure and criminal law.(4)公会(“法院”);十一章;与刑事司法程序和法律处理为主。

(5) Makkot ("Blows," "Punishments"); three chapters; deals chiefly with the regulations concerning the number of stripes imposed as punishment by law (Deut. xxv. 1-3). (5)Makkot(“吹”,“处罚”);三个章节;主要涉及有关的法规,作为处罚的法律规定由条纹数(申命记二十五1-3。)。

(6) Shebu'ot ("Oaths"); eight chapters; deals chiefly with the rules regarding different oaths (Lev. v. 4 et seq.). (6)Shebu'ot(“宣誓”);八个章节;(。利未记诉4起),涉及的主要是关于不同宣誓的规则。

(7) 'Eduyot, or 'Ediyyot ("Evidences"); eight chapters; contains the testimony of later teachers regarding statements of earlier authorities, a large part of this material being contained in other portions of the Mishnah as well. (7)'Eduyot,或'Ediyyot(“证据”);八个章节,包含了有关当局的陈述后早期教师的证词,这种材料很大一部分被包含在其他部分的mishnah以及。

(8) 'Abodah Zarah ("Idolatrous Worship"); five chapters; deals chiefly with the regulations concerning the attitude of the Jews toward idolatry and idolaters. (8)'阿布达Zarah(“偶像崇拜”);五章;与有关对偶像崇拜的,拜偶像的犹太人的态度法规主要涉及。

(9) Abot, or Pirḳe Abot ("Sayings of the Fathers"); five chapters; contains maxims and aphorisms.(9)Abot,或PirḳeAbot(“熟语的父亲”),五个章节,包含警句格言和。A sixth chapter called "Pereḳ Ḳinyan ha-Torah" (="Acquisition of the Law") was subsequently added to this treatise, but it does not belong to the Mishnah.第六章一​​个叫做“PereḳḲinyan公顷托拉”(=“法律的收购”)被添加到该论文,但它不属于米示拿。

(10) Horayot, or Hora'ot ("Decisions"); three chapters; deals chiefly with such religious and legal decisions as had been made through error. (10)Horayot,或Hora'ot(“决定”),三个章节,这些宗教和法律问题的决定主要涉及因为已经通过的错误。The sequence of these treatises is as follows in the Babylonian Talmud: Baba Ḳamma, Baba Meẓi'a, Baba Batra, 'Abodah Zarah, Sanhedrin, Makkot, Shebu'ot, Horayot, 'Eduyot, and Abot.这些论文的顺序为在巴比伦塔木德如下:巴巴业力,巴巴Meẓi'a,巴巴巴特拉,'阿布达Zarah,公会,Makkot,Shebu'ot,Horayot,'Eduyot和Abot。 The usual sequence is observed in the Mishnah of the Palestinian Talmud.通常的顺序是观察巴勒斯坦犹太法典米示拿。

V. Ḳodashim ("Holy Things") contains the following eleven treatises:五,Ḳodashim(“圣物”)包含以下11论文:

(1) Zebaḥim ("Sacrifice"; originally called "Sheḥiṭat Ḳodashim" = "Slaughtering of the Holy Animals"; BM 109b); fourteen chapters; deals chiefly with the laws regarding sacrifices (Lev. i. et seq.). (1)Zebaḥim(“牺牲”,原名“SheḥiṭatḲodashim”=“屠宰动物的圣地”;骨髓109B章); 14章,按照关于牺牲法律主要涉及(利未记一起。)。

(2) Menaḥot ("Meat-Offering"); thirteen chapters; deals chiefly with the rules concerning meat-offerings (Lev. ii.; v. 11-13; vi. 7-16; vii. 9-10; xiv. 10-20; xxiii. 13, 16; Num. v. 11 et seq., vi. 13-20, xv. 24, xxviii., xxix.). (2)Menaḥot(“肉祭”),13章;。主要是与有关肉类产品的规则(利未记第二交易;五11-13;六7-16。七9-10。十四。 10-20;二十三,13,16;。序号诉11起,六13-20,十五24,二十八,二十九)。。。。。。。

(3) Ḥullin ("Profane"; called also "Sheḥiṭat Ḥullin" = "Slaughtering of Non-Consecrated Animals"); twelve chapters; deals chiefly with the laws for slaughtering and withother rules relating to the eating of meat. (3)Ḥullin(“亵渎”,也称为“SheḥiṭatḤullin”=“屠宰非献身动物”),十二个章节,主要是与屠宰和withother有关规则吃的肉类交易的法律。

(4) Bekorot ("First-Born"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with the regulations concerning the various firstlings (Ex. xiii. 2, 12 et seq.; Lev. xxvii. 26 et seq.; Num. viii. 16-18, xviii. 15-17; Deut. xv. 19 et seq.). (4)Bekorot(“第一胎”);九个章节,涉及有关的各项规定,主要是生的(出埃及记十三2,12起。。列弗二十七26起。。。。编号八16。 -18,十八15-17。申命记十五19起)。。。。

(5) 'Arakin ("Estimations"); nine chapters; deals chiefly with the prescriptions regarding the ransom of those who have been dedicated to God (Lev. xxvii. 2 et seq.).(5)'Arakin(“估计”);九个章节与关于这些赎金谁一直致力于神处方主要涉及(利未记二十七2起。。)。

(6) Temurah ("Exchange"); seven chapters; deals chiefly with the laws regarding the exchange of a dedicated animal (Lev. xxvii. 10, 33). (6)Temurah(“联交所”),七章;主要涉及的有关建立一个专门的动物交换法(。利未记二十七10,33)。

(7) Keritot ("Extirpations"); six chapters; deals among other subjects with the punishment by excommunication ("karet"), which is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. (7)Keritot(“Extirpations”);六个章节;交易中与其他学科的罚处罚(“karet”),这是经常在旧约提及。

(8) Me'ilah ("Trespass"); six chapters; deals with the rules concerning trespass in the case of a dedicated object (Num. v. 6-8). (8)Me'ilah(“侵入”);六个章节;与有关的专门对象(民数记诉6-8)的情况下侵入规则处理。

(9) Tamid ("The Daily Morning and Evening Burnt Offering"); deals among other subjects with the regulations for the daily sacrifice (Ex. xxix. 38-42; Num. xxviii. 2-8). (9)Tamid(以下简称“每天早上和傍晚燔”);其中与日常牺牲其他科目的规定处理(出二十九38-42;。序号二十八2-8。。)。In the editions of the Mishnah, Tamid is divided into seven chapters, excepting in Lọwe's edition, where it has but six; while Levi b.在米示拿的版本,Tamid分为七个章节,在洛的版本,但其中有六除外;而列维湾Gershon (RaLBaG) enumerates only five chapters for Tamid in the introduction to his commentary on the Pentateuch.葛森(RaLBaG)列举了他的评注五只引进五Tamid章节。

(10) Middot ("Measures"); five chapters; describes the apartments and furniture of the Temple.(10)Middot(“办法”),五个章节,介绍了公寓和圣殿家具。

(11) Ḳinnim ("Birds' Nests"); three chapters; deals with the prescriptions regarding the offering of doves (Lev. i. 14-17, v. 1 et seq., xii. 8). (11)Ḳinnim(“鸟巢”);三个章节;按照关于处方提供的鸽子交易(利未记岛14-17诉1起,十二8。。)。In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises of this order is as follows: Zebaḥim, Menaḥot, Bekorot, Ḥullin, 'Arakin, Temurah, Keritot, Me'ilah, Ḳinnim, Tamid, and Middot.在巴比伦塔木德经本顺序论文顺序如下:Zebaḥim,Menaḥot,Bekorot,Ḥullin,'Ara​​kin,Temurah,Keritot,Me'ilah,Ḳinnim,Tamid和Middot。

VI.六。Ṭohorot ("Purifications") contains the following twelve treatises:Ṭohorot(“净化”)包含以下十二个论文:

(1) Kelim ("Utensils"); thirty chapters; deals chiefly with the regulations concerning the different kinds of uncleanness of vessels (Lev. xi. 32 et seq.; Num. xix. 14 et seq., xxxi. 20 et seq.). (1)凯利姆(“器物”),第三章;主要涉及有关的污秽的船只(利未记十一大的不同规定32起。。。。。。编号十九14起,20起三十一。)。

(2) Oholot, or Ahilot ("Tents"); eighteen chapters; deals chiefly with the laws regarding the defilement occasioned by a corpse (Num. xix. 14-20). (2)Oholot,或Ahilot(“帐篷”); 18章,主要是与有关的一具尸体(。民数记十九14-20)而引起的污辱法律处理。

(3) Nega'im ("Leprosy"); fourteen chapters; deals with the rules concerning the various kinds of leprosy (Lev. xiii., xiv.).(3)Nega'im(“麻风病”); 14章;与麻风病有关的各种交易规则(。利未记十三,十四。)。

(4) Parah ("Red Heifer"); twelve chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the red heifer and the purificative ashes obtained from it (Num. xix.). (4)Parah(“红色小母牛”);十二章;(。民数记十九)与有关法规的红色小母牛,从它获得的purificative骨灰处理。

(5) Ṭohorot ("Purities"; euphemistic for "Impurities"); ten chapters; deals with minor defilements.(5)Ṭohorot(“纯度”,委婉的“杂质”),十个章节;轻微杂染交易。

(6) Miḳwa'ot, or Miḳwot ("Ritual Baths"); ten chapters; deals with the regulations concerning the bathing of the defiled (Lev. xiv. 8, xv. 5 et seq.). (6)Miḳwa'ot,或Miḳwot(“礼浴”),十个章节;(。。。利未记十四八,十五,5起),涉及了有关法规的玷污洗澡。

(7) Niddah ("Menstruous Woman"); ten chapters; deals with the laws concerning the defilement caused by menstruation (Lev. xii., xv. 19 et seq.). (7)Niddah(“不洁”),十个章节;与月经有关的法律所造成的污辱交易(。利未记十二,十五,19起。。)。

(8) Makshirin ("Predisposings"; called also "Mashḳin" = "Liquids"); six chapters; deals with the rule which declares that an object is defiled by contact with anything unclean only in case it was wet beforehand (Lev. xi. 34, 37, 38). (8)Makshirin(“Predisposings”,也称为“Mashḳin”=“液体”);与规则,声明了一个对象是污秽不洁的接触与任何情况下,它只能在湿预(利未记十一交易;六章。34,37,38)。

(9) Zabim ("Sufferers from Discharges"); five chapters; deals with the rules in Lev.(9)Zabim(“从放电受难者”);五个章节;与交易规则在列弗。xv.十五。

(10) Ṭebul Yom ("He Who Has Taken a Ritual Bath on That Same Day"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the effect produced upon an entire object which has come in contact with a "ṭebul yom," who, according to Lev. (10)Ṭebul赎罪(“他是谁已在同一天一大净”);四个章节;与整个对象后,已接触到了“ṭebul赎罪”所产生的效果主要涉及谁,根据列夫。 xv.十五。5, is unclean until sundown, even though this contact has been only partial.5,直到日落不洁的,尽管这只是部分已经联系。

(11) Yadayim ("Hands"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the defilement and cleansing of the hands.(11)Yadayim(“手”);四个章节;主要涉及的污辱和手的清洁工作。

(12) 'Uḳẓin ("Stems"); three chapters; deals chiefly with the relation of the fruit to the stems, skins, and seeds, with reference to defilement, uncleanness of the fruit affecting the stems, skins, and seeds, and vice versa. (12)'Uḳẓin(“茎”);三个章节;与水果的关系主要涉及的茎,皮,并参照污辱,对影响茎,皮,果实和种子污秽的种子,并反之亦然。

In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises in Ṭohorot is as follows: Niddah, Kelim, Oholot, Nega'im, Parah, Ṭohorot, Miḳwa'ot, Makshirin, Zabim, Ṭebul Yom, Yadayim, and 'Uḳẓin.在巴比伦塔木德经的论文中Ṭohorot顺序如下:Niddah,凯利姆,Oholot,Nega'im,Parah,Ṭohorot,Miḳwa'ot,Makshirin,Zabim,Ṭebul赎罪,Yadayim,和'Uḳẓin。

Editions and Commentaries.版本和评论。

The Mishnah is extant in many editions, although only the earlier ones can be mentioned here: first edition, Naples, 1492, fol., with the Hebrew commentary of Maimonides; Venice, Justiniani, 1546-50, fol.; Venice, 1549, 4to, with the commentary of Obadiah Bertinoro; Riva di Trento, 1559, fol., with the commentaries of Maimonides and Obadiah; Sabbionetta and Mantua, 1559-63, 4to; Venice, 1606, fol., with the same two commentaries.该mishnah在许多现存的版本,但只有前面提到的可以在这里:。。第一版,那不勒斯,1492年,其次随着迈蒙尼德希伯来文评;威尼斯,Justiniani,1546至50年,其次,威尼斯,1549年, 4到,随着俄巴底亚Bertinoro评论;里瓦迪特伦托,1559年,其次,与迈蒙尼德和俄巴底亚的评论。Sabbionetta和曼图亚,1559年至1563年,4到。威尼斯,1606年,其次,用同样的两个评论。

Many commentaries on the Mishnah have been written.对mishnah许多评论已被写入。Maimonides wrote one in Arabic with a general introduction on the history, origin, and arrangement of the Mishnah.迈蒙尼德用阿拉伯文写的历史,起源一般介绍,并安排的mishnah之一。This commentary, which was translated into Hebrew several times, is printed in many editions of the text.这篇评论,这是翻译成希伯来语几次,是印在许多版本的文字。The Arabic original of several treatises has recently been published, in addition to that of the entire sixth order, edited by Derenbourg (comp. the enumeration in Strack, lcp 113 and Appendix); the Hebrew translation, which is faulty in many passages, being corrected to agree with it.几个论文阿拉伯语原来已出版,除了由德朗堡这一整个六阶,编辑(可比在施特拉克,LCP的113和附录列举);希伯来文翻译,这是错误的,在许多段落,即更正为赞同。

Asher b.阿舍湾Jehiel of Germany (d. Toledo 1327) wrote a commentary on the first and sixth orders, which was first printed in the Amsterdam edition of the Talmud, 1714-16, and in the Frankfort-on-the-Main edition, 1720-21.耶歇德国(四托莱多1327年)写的第一和第六的订单,这是首次在塔木德,1714年至1716年阿姆斯特丹版印制了评论,并在法兰克福发表了主版,1720年至1721年。 R. Samson of Sens also wrote a commentary on the same orders, which is printed in most of the editions of the Talmud.萨姆森河的灵敏度还写了一本同样的订单,这是在考虑到大多数犹太法典的版本打印评论。R. Obadiah Bertinoro (end of 15th cent.) wrote a commentary on the entire Mishnah, which is printed in most editions.河俄巴底Bertinoro(第15届百分之结束。)写了对整个米示拿,这是印在大多数版本的评论。The commentaries "Tosefot YomṬob" by Yom-Ṭob Lipmann Heller (1579-1654) and "Tif'eret Yisrael" by Israel Lipschütz are likewise printed in many editions of the Mishnah.评注“TosefotYomṬob”的赎罪,尖李普曼海勒(1579年至1654年)和“Tif'eret Yisrael”以色列利普舒茨也同样印在许多版本的mishnah。The following commentaries may also be mentioned: "Kaf Naḥat," by Isaac ibn Gabbai, printed in the Venice edition of the Mishnah, 1609, and in some other editions; "'Eẓ ha-Ḥayyim" (Leghorn, 1653 et seq.), by Jacob Ḥagiz; "Ḳab we-Naḳi," by Elisha b.下面的评论也提到:“KAF卡Naḥat”,由本Gabbai艾萨克在米示拿,1609年威尼斯版印刷,并在其他一些版本;“的EZ公顷Ḥayyim”(里窝那,1653起。) ,由雅各布Ḥagiz,“三甲我们-内基”,由以利沙湾Abraham, in ed.亚伯拉罕,教育署。 Amsterdam, 1697, 1698, etc.; "Zera' Yiẓḥaḳ," by Isaac b.阿姆斯特丹,1697,1698等;“Zera'Yiẓḥaḳ,”由艾萨克湾Jacob Ḥayyut, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1739; "Sefer Bet Dawid," Amsterdam, 1739; "Melo Kaf Naḥat," by Senior Phoebus b.雅各Ḥayyut,法兰克福发表了-奥德,1739年;“之书打赌dawid,”阿姆斯特丹,1739年,“甜瓜KAF卡Naḥat”,由高级菲伯斯湾 Jacob, in ed.雅各,教育署。 Offenbach, 1737; Berlin, 1832-34; "Sefer Mishnat Rabbi Natan," on Zera'im (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1862), by Nathan Adler; and "Liḳḳuṭe ha-Mishnah" (Breslau, 1873), by Shraga Phoebus Frenkel.奥芬巴赫,1737年,柏林,1832年至1834年;“之书Mishnat拉比纳坦,”关于Zera'im(法兰克福发表了主,1862年),由Nathan阿德勒和“Liḳḳuṭe公顷米示拿”(布雷斯劳,1873年),由Shraga菲伯斯弗兰克尔。


Of the translations of the Mishnah the following may be mentioned: (1) "Mischna sive Totius Hebræorum Juris, Rituum, Antiquitatum ac Legum Oralium Systema cum Clarissimorum Rabbinorum Maimonidis et Bartenoræ Commentariis Integris; Quibus Accedunt Variorum Auctorum Notæ ac Versiones in Eos Quos Ediderunt Codices; Latinitate Donavit ac Notis Illustravit Guilielmus Surenhusius," Amsterdam, 1698-1703, 6 vols., fol.; the text in Hebrew and Latin, with the commentaries of Maimonides and Obadiah Bertinoro in a Latin translation.在以下的mishnah翻译可能会提到:(1)“Mischna sive托蒂厄斯Hebræorum法学,Rituum,Antiquitatum交流专攻Oralium Systema暨Clarissimorum Rabbinorum Maimonidis等Bartenoræ Commentariis Integris; Quibus Accedunt集解Auctorum Notæ抄本在EOS Quos Ediderunt交流Versiones ; Latinitate Donavit交流Notis Illustravit Guilielmus Surenhusius,“阿姆斯特丹,1698至1703年,第6卷,其次。。在希伯来文和拉丁文字与拉丁语翻译中的迈蒙尼德和俄巴底亚Bertinoro评论。 (2) "Mishnayot," Berlin, 1832-34, 6 parts, 4to.(2)“Mishnayot,”柏林,1832年至1834年,6个部分,4到。(3) Vocalized Hebrew text of the Mishnah, with German translation in Hebrew letters. (3)发声的希伯来文的mishnah在希伯来字母德语翻译。(4) The commentary "Melo Kaf Naḥat," and (5) a brief German introduction with notes, published by the Gesellschaft von Freunden des Gesetzes und der Erkenntniss, generally known as "Jost's translation." (4)评注“甜瓜KAF卡Naḥat,”和(5)德国引进的简要说明,由Gesellschaft冯Freunden德Gesetzes发表und明镜Erkenntniss,一般被称为“约斯特的翻译。” (6) Johann Jacob Rabe, "Mischnah, oder der Text des Talmuds Uebersetzt und Erläutert," 6 parts, 4to, Onolzbach, 1760-1763.(6)约翰雅各布拉贝“Mischnah,奥德明镜文本德Talmuds Uebersetzt有限公司Erläutert,”6件,4到,Onolzbach,一七六○年至1763年。A new edition of the vocalized Hebrew text with a German translation has been undertaken by D. Hoffmann and E. Baneth, of which several parts have appeared.一个希伯来文的发声与德语翻译文本的新版本已经进行的D.霍夫曼和E.鲍奈特,其中一些地区已经出现。An Italian translation by Vittorio Castiglione is likewise in course of publication (1904).由郎世宁的维托里奥同样在意大利语翻译出版课程(1904年)。

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Jacob Zallel Lauterbach执行委员会的编委会,雅各Zallel劳特巴赫
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版01年至1906年之间。

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