Missiology 传教学

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term has been variously defined as "the science of the cross cultural communication of the Christian faith," as "preeminently the scholarly discipline underlying the task of world evangelization," and as "the field of study which researches, records and applies data relating to the biblical origins and history of the expansion of the Christian movement to anthropological principles and techniques for its further advancement."这个词已经不同程度定义为“十字架的基督信仰文化传播学的,”作为“坦白,勇敢的学术基础,世界福传工作纪律”和“的研究,研究,数据记录和有关领域的应用对圣经的起源和基督教运动扩展到人类学的原则和它的进一步发展技术史“。

If missiology is described as a science, it must be recognized as an applied science.如果missiology作为科学所说的,它必须被承认为一门应用科学。The underlying dynamic of the missiological process starts with an actual field situation confronting a church or mission, in which its problems, successes, and failures are clearly known; it ends with the application of missiological perspectives to this same field situation.该missiological过程的基本动力场开始面临一个实际的教堂或使命,是其问题,成功和失败都清楚知道情况;它与missiological观点应用到同一个领域的情况结束。

The three major disciplines whose input is essential to the missiological process are theology (mainly biblical), anthropology (mainly social, applied, and theoretical but including primitive religion, linguistics, cultural dynamics, and cultural change), and history.这三个主要学科的投入是必不可少的missiological过程神学(主要是圣经),人类学(主要是社会,应用和理论,但包括原始宗教,语言学,文化动态,文化变化),和历史。 Other contributing disciplines include psychology, communication theory, and sociology.其他导致学科包括心理学,传播理论,社会学。All these disciplines interact within the specific structures and problems of the given field situation and with the motivation of the gospel as the driving force of that interaction.在所有这些学科互动的具体结构和特定领域的情况,并与作为这种交流的动力福音的动机问题。Therefore, basic components that later become "missiology" are neither theology nor history, neither anthropology nor psychology, nor the sum total of these fields of study.因此,基础件,后来成为“missiology”既不是神学,也没有历史,无论是人类学或心理学,也不是研究这些领域的总和。 Hence ethnotheology, ethnohistory, and ethnopsychology emerge.因此ethnotheology,ethnohistory和ethnopsychology出现。The discipline of missiology then comes into its own, enriched and influnced by suchingredients as ecumenics, non Christian religion, and even economics.纪律的missiology然后是到自己,丰富和作为ecumenics,非基督教的宗教,甚至经济suchingredients influnced。

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Major Issues主要问题

Missiology is a new discipline with a long history.Missiology是一个有着悠久历史的新学科。At no period in its history has the church either totally forgotten its missionary task or failed to engage in a measure of serious reflection on the basic questions which this has raised.在任何历史时期中有不是完全忘记了自己的传教任务或未能进行了关于此提出的基本问题,认真思考的措施教堂。In one way or another Christians in every generation have debated these five issues:以某种方式在每一代另一个基督徒辩论这五个问题:

Apostolic Practice使徒实践

How is the apostolicity of the church to be expressed if it is conceived as embracing the evangelistic practice of the apostles as well as their "received" teaching?如何教会的apostolicity来表达,如果把它拥抱在使徒传福音的实践以及他们的“收到”的教学设想?What is the church's collective responsibility touching the sending forth of laborers to "bring about the obedience of faith. . . among all the nations" (Rom. 1:5)?什么是教会的集体责任,感人的劳动者派遣前去,“实现服从的信念。。。在所有的国家”(罗马书1:5)?

Church Structure and Mission教会的架构和使命

What is the relation between the church's structured congregations, ruled by its ecclesiastical authorities, and those mission structures within its life directed by others, whether voluntary or authorized, whereby the gospel is shared with non Christians and new congregations are planted?什么是教会之间的结构化的毕业典礼由教会当局裁定,并在其结构的任务生活的关系被别人指示,无论是自愿或授权,即福音是与非基督徒和种植新教友分享?

The Gospel and the Religions福音和宗教

What is the relation between the good news about jesus Christ and other religious systems which do not acknowledge his lordship?之间有什么好消息关于耶稣基督和其他宗教制度的关系,并不承认他的贵族身份?Is there validity to the religious experience of their devotees, or do these religions represent unrelieved God forsakenness and human rebellion?是否有效力,他们的信徒的宗教经验,还是这些宗教代表长此以往上帝遗弃和人类的叛逆?

Salvation and non Christians救亡与非基督徒

What is the eternal destiny of those who through no fault of their own have died without ever hearing the gospel?什么是那些永恒的命运谁非因自己的过错都没有听到过福音死了吗?What is the relation between Christ's redemptive work and those who, while ignorant of it, have perceived the divine through nature, conscience, and history and have cried out: "God, be merciful to me a sinner."?之间有什么基督救赎的工作和那些谁,而它的无知,都认为透过大自然,良知,和历史的神圣关系,并大叫:“。神啊,开恩可怜我这个罪人”?

Christianity and Culture基督教与文化

If God is the God of the nations and is at work in all the epochs of human history, what is the validity of each separate culture?如果上帝是上帝和国家在人类历史上所有的时代工作是什么,是每一个独立的文化的有效性?Should its elements be "possessed" or "accommodated" or "replaced" when the Christian movement enters and local congregations are being structured?如果它的元素是“拥有”或“安置”或“取代”当基督教运动进入和地方教会正在构成的?

History历史

These issues have been discussed for almost two thousand years, because the church has always been aware to some degree of its duty to be missionary.这些问题已经讨论了近二千年,因为教堂一直认识到它的一些职责是传教士的程度。One can hardly have a living congregation that is not to some extent missionary, even if its outreach is only along kinship lines and within racial boundaries.人们很难有一个教会的生活是不是在一定程度上传教士,即使它的宣传只能沿着亲属线和种族的界限之内的。But it was two Roman Catholic writers, the Jesuit Jose de Acosta in 1588 and the Carmelite Thomas a Jesu in 1613, who were the first to develop comprehensive theories of mission, primarily with reference to Latin America.但这是两个罗马天主教作家,耶稣会在1588年何代阿科斯塔和加尔默罗托马斯的耶稣在1613年,谁是第一个开发主要参考拉美全面理论的使命。 Their writings greatly stimulated a succession of seventeenth century Dutch Protestants largely concerned with the evangelization of the East Indies: Hadrianus Saravia, Justus Heurnius, Gisbertus Voetius, and Johannes Hoornbeeck.他们的著作极大地刺激了十七世纪荷兰主要与东印度传教有关新教徒继承:Hadrianus Saravia,贾斯特斯Heurnius,Gisbertus Voetius,和Johannes Hoornbeeck。In turn, the writings of these men influenced John Eliot, early missionary to the Indians of New England, and William Carey, the "father of modern missions."反过来,这些人的著作影响约翰艾略特,早期传教士到新英格兰的印第安人,以及威廉凯,“现代特派团的父亲。” Through Jan Amos Comenius, bishop of the Moravians in the Low Countries, their influence reached Count von Zinzendorf, who was prominent in the transformation of the Moravians into a dynamic missionary movement.通过扬阿莫斯夸美纽斯,主教的摩拉维亚低的国家,其影响力达到计数冯辛生铎夫,谁是成为一个充满活力的传教运动在摩拉维亚改造突出。

However, it was not until the nineteenth century that missiology really came into its own as an academic discipline.然而,直到十九世纪,missiology真正成为自己之际,一门学科。Two German Lutherans were responsible: Karl Graul, director of the Leipzig Mission, was (according to Otto Lehmann) "the first German to qualify himself for higher academic teaching in this field"; and Gustav Warneck, who today is regarded as the founder of Protestant missionary science.两名德国lutherans负责人:卡尔Graul,在莱比锡团主任,(根据奥托莱曼)“的第一个德国有资格在这个领域的学术较高自学”;和古斯塔夫Warneck,谁是今天的奠基人新教传教士的科学。 His Evangelische Missionslehre (1892) abundantly confirms this designation.他Evangelische Missionslehre(1892)充分证实了这一称号。Warneck significantly influenced the great Catholic missiologist Josef Schmidlin (1876 - 1944) and thereby initiated the sort of stimulating interaction between the two major segments of the church that has continued to the present. Warneck显着影响的伟大的天主教missiologist约瑟夫密林(1876年 - 1944年),从而启动了促进两国主要的教会,一直延续到本段的相互作用排序。

Warneck's death virtually coincided with the World Missionary Conference at Edinburgh in 1910.Warneck的死亡几乎同时发生于1910年在爱丁堡与世界教会会议。Since then, the gatherings of this conference's stepchildren, the International Missionary Council (until Ghana, 1958) and the Commission on World Mission and Evangelism of the World Council of Churches (after New Delhi, 1961), have continued to reflect on a great variety of aspects of the science of mission.从那时起,本次会议的继子女的集会,国际宣教协会(至加纳,1958年)和世界的使命和世界基督教协进会(后新德里,1961年)布道委员会,继续反映种类繁多对科学方面的任务。 In recent years nonconciliar evangelicals have increasingly participated in this scholarly debate because of their concern that a biblical theology of the church must make central its missionary calling, a postulate that has been heavily challenged from 1960 onward with the radicalization of ecumenical theology and the increasing secularization of most World Council of Churches member churches in their service in the world.近年来nonconciliar福音派越来越多地参与这一学术争论,因为他们关注的是教会的圣经神学必须使各国的传教致电的话,一个已经受到严重挑战,从1960年起与激进的基督教神学和世俗化的假设增加大多数世界基督教教会理事会成员,它们在世界服务。

In recent decades literature on mission theory has greatly increased, with popular polarizations of competing philosophies of mission dominating the scene.近几十年来执行任务的理论文献,大大增加了,竞争的理念占据了上风使命流行极化。Evangelicals are still chided for a mission theology that ignores the kingdom of God and focuses almost entirely on eternal life.福音派的任务仍然指责神学,无视神的国度,侧重于永恒的生命几乎完全。Catholics have been charged with triumphalism, allegedly because all they had to advocate was a theology with a single focus: the expansion of the church.天主教徒被指控犯有必胜信念,据称是因为他们都主张是一个单一的集中神学:教会的扩张。(However, during the 1970s large sections of this church have been a dominant force in the struggle for social justice in the Third World.) Conciliar Protestants are accused of being so captured by the immediate social and human issues that they take unwarranted liberty with the Bible and bend its texts until evangelism is reconceptualized to mean politics, the church's obligation to evangelize "unreached peoples" is dismissed as irrelevant, and religious encounter is confined to the sort of friendly conversation that eschews all thoughts of conversion and church planting. (然而,在20世纪70年代这个教会大部份已在社会正义的斗争,在第三世界的主导力量。)大公新教徒指责因此受到直接的社会和人的问题,他们采取被俘的无理自由圣经和弯曲,直至其文传福音是reconceptualized指政治,教会的传福音的义务“未得人民”是斥为无关紧要,宗教遇到的是局限于那种友好的交谈避开转换和植堂所有的思想。

Evangelicals and the Contemporary Debate福音派与当代论争

In an effort to reduce this cacophony of discordant diversity and develop a coherent basis for a valid scholarly discipline, evangelicals played a prominent role in the organizing of the American Society of Missiology (ASM) at Scarritt College, Nashville, Tennessee, in June of 1972.在努力减少这种不协调的不和谐的多样性和发展一个有效的学术学科一致的基础上,福音派起到1972年六月在对Missiology(ASM)的美国协会在斯卡里特学院,田纳西州纳什维尔,组织重要作用。 They recognized the validity and essentiality of the perspectives of all segments of the Christian movement; the study of missiology would lack balance and be impoverished if any one perspective were denied a fair and full hearing.他们认识到了各个阶层的基督教运动的观点的有效性和必要性,对missiology研究会失去平衡,陷入贫困,如果任何一个角度被剥夺了公正和全面聆讯。 Hence ASM became a community of scholars drawn from conciliar Protestants, Roman Catholics, the Orthodox, and nonconciliar evangelicals.因此,ASM的社会成为一个学者从conciliar的新教徒,罗马天主教,东正教,福音派和nonconciliar绘制。

Within this forum evangelicals seek to stabilize this emerging discipline with their biblical stress on the Christological center: the gospel has at its heart the affirmation that Jesus Christ alone is Lord and that he offers to enter the lives of all who come to him in repentance and faith.在这个论坛上寻求稳定与福音派他们对圣经​​的基督中心强调这门新兴学科:福音在其心的肯定仅是主耶稣基督,他提供进入所有的生命谁进来向他忏悔信心。 Their overriding concern is the evangelistic task of proclaiming Christ and persuading all peoples everywhere to become his disciples and responsible members of his church.他们最关心的是宣讲基督和说服世界各国人民,成为他的弟子和他的教会负责人传福音的任务。They regard this as a cheif and irreplaceable objective in Christian mission.他们认为作为基督徒的使命和不可替代的主要目标这一点。They accent the priority of multiplying structured expressions of the Christian community in which worship can be performed and a supporting koinonia deepened and extended.他们的口音的成倍的基督教社区中进行礼拜式词语可优先事项和支持科诺尼亚深化和扩大。And they encourage the multiplication of voluntary associations (mission structures) to carry out the great variety of tasks God has given to his people.他们鼓励志愿协会(任务结构)进行了上帝给他的人民的任务种类繁多倍增。

In addition, evangelicals are increasingly responsive, in the face of the contemporary debate and the anguished cries of the oppressed, to the issues stressed by conciliar Protestants as they call all Christians everywhere to take those priority steps that will demonstrate their authenticity before the world as "salt and light."此外,福音派越来越敏感,在现代争论的脸和痛苦的呼喊被压迫,要强调的问题,因为他们由conciliar新教徒呼吁所有基督徒各地采取的优先措施,将在全世界面前展示他们的真实性“盐和光。” Their focus is inevitably ecclesiological.其重点是不可避免ecclesiological。They contend that the development of individual and inward faith must be accompanied by a corporate and outward obedience to the cultural mandate broadly detailed in Holy Scripture.他们争辩说,个人和外来信仰的发展必须由公司及离港服从文化使命大致圣经详细陪同。The world is to be served, not avoided.世界要送达,不能避免。Social justice is to be furthered, and the issues of war, racism, poverty, and economic imbalance must become the active, participatory concern of those who profess to follow Jesus Christ.社会正义是要进一步推动,战争,种族主义,贫困和经济失衡的问题必须成为活跃,那些谁自称跟随耶稣基督的参与关注。 It is not enough that the Christian mission be redemptive; it must be prophetic as well.这是不够的基督徒的使命是救赎的,它必须先知也。And it must stress the obligation to express before the world the unity of the people of God.它必须强调的义务,在世界面前表达了神的人民的团结。The Christian movement must focus on consolidation while reaching out in expansion.基督教运动必须把重点放在巩固,同时达到扩张了。

Roman Catholic and Orthodox missiologists stress the sacramental, liturgical, and mystical ethos that has enriched the church over the centuries.罗马天主教和东正教missiologists强调圣礼,礼仪,以及神秘的民族精神,丰富了数百年的教堂。The issues that most concern them are how the church is to fulfill the Vatican II mandate and its essential function as the "Divine Gift," through manifesting and actualizing in this world the eschaton, the utlimate reality of salvation and redemption; how to guarantee that the state, society, culture, and even nature itself are within the real objects of mission; how to achieve truly indigenous congregations; how to enter into the sequence that produces genuine spiritual formation; how to participate in significant and spiritually productive dialogue with the Asian faiths; and how to guard the uniqueness and finality of Jesus Christ while at the same time recognizing that the Christian movement at its best represents what Berdyaev terms "an unfinished revelation about the absolute significance and calling of man."的问题,他们最关心的是如何教会,是体现和落实,通过在这个世界上actualizing的eschaton,对拯救和赎回utlimate现实梵二任务和其作为“神的礼物”的基本职能,如何保证国家,社会,文化,甚至大自然本身的任务范围内的真正对象,如何实现真正的土著教会,如何进入序列,产生真正的精神的形成,如何在重大和精神上的富有成果的对话与亚洲参加信仰,以及如何防范,同时也认识到在其最好的基督教运动代表着什么别尔佳耶夫按时间耶稣基督的独特性和终局“的有关未完成的绝对意义的启示和人的要求。”

Missiologists of these three streams of insight into biblical obligation are committed to listen honestly to each other.这三个Missiologists流致力于倾听彼此诚实地把圣经的义务的了解。And this bodes well for missiology as a still developing "science," "discipline," and "separate field of study."这预示着missiology作为一个仍处于发展阶段“科学”,“纪律”和“独立的研究领域。”As it becomes more sharply differentiated, and its concepts and tools are better mastered, it will become an increasingly useful instrument to further the understanding and performance of the Christian mission in our day.当它变得更加尖锐区别,它的概念和工具,更好地掌握,就会变成一个越来越有用的工具,进一步的理解和在我们那个时代的基督教使命的表现。

Outstanding American evangelical missiologists have been Rufus Anderson, the nineteenth century popularizer of the indigenous church ("Missions are instituted for the spread of a Scriptural, self propagating Christianity"); Kenneth Scott Latourette and R Pierce Beaver, two outstanding authorities on the history of missions and younger churches; Donald A McGavran, the founder of the Church Growth movement; Eugene A Nida, the expert on Bible translation and the cross cultural communication of the Christian faith; J Herbert Kane, the prolific writer of primary texts on all aspects of the Christian mission; and George W Peters, the creative biblical theologian in the Mennonite tradition.杰出的美国福音派missiologists已鲁弗斯安德森的土著教会十九世纪的普及(“使命是为传播提起的圣经,自我宣传基督教”);肯尼斯斯科特拉图尔特和R皮尔斯海狸,​​历史上的两位杰出当局特派团和年轻的教堂;唐纳德A组中,在教会增长运动的创始人McGavran;尤金一个奈达,对圣经翻译和跨文化的基督教信仰的通信专家; Ĵ赫伯特凯恩,初级文本的所有方面的多产作家基督徒的使命;和乔治W彼得斯,创造性,在门诺传统圣经的神学家。

AF Glasser自动对焦格拉瑟
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
CW Forman, "A History of Foreign Mission Theory in America," in American Missions in Bicentennial Perspective ed.连续福尔曼,在美国代表团的二百周年纪念版透视:“在美国外交团理论,历史”。 RP Beaver; AF Glasser, "Missiology, What's It all About?"反相比弗;自动对焦格拉瑟“Missiology,怎么回事?”Miss Rev 6:3 - 10; J Glazik, "Missiology," in Concise Dictionary of the Christian World Mission; OG Myklebust, The Study of Missions in Theological Education; J Verkuyl, Contemporary Missiology: An Introduction.吴牧师6:3 - 10; Ĵ Glazik,“Missiology,”简明词典中的基督教世界团;奥运Myklebust,在神学教育代表团研究; Ĵ Verkuyl,当代Missiology:介绍。



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