Moral Theology道德神学

General Information一般资料

Moral theology, or ethics, explores the moral dimensions of the religious life.道德神学,或道德,探讨了宗教生活的道德层面。

Practical theology, interprets the forms of worship, styles of organization, and modes of interpersonal relationship within religious communities.实践神学,解释形式的崇拜,组织风格和人际关系模式在宗教团体。

Although different questions have preoccupied theologians at different times, certain topics have established themselves as basic to theological study.虽然不同的问题都在不同的时间专注于神学家,某些议题已经确立了自己的基本神学研究。These include the basis for humans' knowledge of God, the being and attributes of God, the relation of God to the world and of the world to God.这包括人类对神,知识基础上的福利和神,神的关系到世界和上帝的世界属性。

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Moral Theology道德神学

Advanced Information先进的信息

Moral Theology is the Roman Catholic equivalent to what Protestants commonly call Christian ethics.道德神学是罗马天主教相当于什么新教徒俗称基督教伦理。It is related to dogmatic theology and moral philosophy in Catholic tradition in ways parallel to the Protestant relationship of Christian ethics to systematic theology and philosophical ethics.它关系到教条式的神学和天主教的传统道德哲学的方式平行的有系统的神学和哲学伦理基督教新教伦理的关系。General moral theology deals with the broad questions of what, from the point of view of moral agency and moral action, it means to live as a Christian.一般用什么,从道德机构和道德行为的角度来看,这意味着广泛的问题涉及到道德神学活得像一个基督徒。Its questions address methods of moral discernment, the definitions of good and evil, right and wrong, sin and virtue, and the goal or end of the Christian life.其问题解决的道德识别方法,善恶,是非,罪恶和美德,和目标或基督教生命结束的定义。Special moral theology addresses specific issues of life such as justice, sexuality, truth telling, and the sanctity of life.特别道德神学的地址,如司法,性,真理的具体问题讲的生活,和生命的神圣性。

While the first five centuries of the church provided important guidance (above all in the works of Augustine) in the development of Catholic moral theology, even more influential was the rise in importance during the sixth century of the sacrament of reconciliation.而前五个世纪的教会提供了重要的指导(以上的所有作品,奥古斯丁)在天主教道德神学的发展,甚至是较具影响力的重要性,在圣事的和解六世纪上升。 A series of compendiums known as penitential books was prepared to assist priest - confessors in determining appropriate penance for various individual sins.作为一个著名悔罪书汇编了一系列准备协助神父 - 在​​确定适当的各种个人的罪孽忏悔坦白。Despite the great achievement of Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century in developing a systematic, unified philosophy and theology, the tendency to treat morality as a discipline separate from dogmatics was continued and confirmed by the Counter Reformation, which emphasized the connection between moral teaching and canon law.尽管在文德和托马斯阿奎那在制定一个系统的,统一的哲学和神学,倾向把教义学作为一门学科,从不同的道德十三世纪的伟大成就是继续并证实了反改革,它强调了德育教学的衔接和教会法。

During the seventeenth and eighteenth century debates about Jansenism and the precise meaning of the law, Alphonsus Liguori emerged as the most famous and influential moral theologian.有关詹森在十七和十八世纪的辩论和法律的准确含义,阿方liguori成为最知名的,有影响的道德神学家。 Liguori's manuals noted the various alternatives and then urged a prudent, reasonable middle course on various questions.郭利的手册指出,各种替代方案,然后敦促审慎,合理的中间道路上的各种问题。Casuistry in the style of these manuals, aimed primarily toward the preparation of priests for their role as confessors, remained the dominant approach to moral theology in Catholic circles into the 20th century.诡辩在这些手册的风格,主要是对他们的牧师准备为目的的师的角色,仍然是进入20世纪的道德神学,在天主教界占主导地位的做法。

The renewal and reformation of Catholic moral theology that has become so visible since Vatican II is the fruition of the work of such moral theologians as John Michael Sailor (1750 - 1832), John Baptist Hirscher (1788 - 1865), Joseph Mausbach (1861 - 1931), Th.更新和改造的天主教道德神学,已成为自梵二这样明显的是对这种道德神学家约翰迈克尔水手(1750 - 1832)的工作成果,施洗的约翰希尔社(1788 - 1865),约瑟夫毛斯巴赫(1861 - 1931年),钍。Steinbuchel (1888 - 1949), and contemporaries Bernard Haring and Josef Fuchs.Steinbuchel(1888 - 1949),和同时代伯纳德Haring和约瑟夫福克斯。The new spirit in moral theology since Vatican II is represented by scholars such as Fuchs, Haring, Charles Curran, Timothy O'Connell, Edward Schillebeeckx, and Rudolf Schnackenburg.自从梵蒂冈第二中新的精神道德神学的代表,如福克斯,哈林,查尔斯柯伦,蒂莫西奥康奈尔,爱德华施雷贝克和鲁道夫施诺肯保学者。

Traditionally moral theology was based on the authority of reason, natural law, canon law, and the tradition and authority of the Roman Catholic Church and its magisterium.传统的道德神学是基于理性,自然法,教会法,其传统和罗马天主教教会和其训导的权威机构。While Scripture has always been acknowledged as divine revelation, it is only in the new Catholic moral theology that the whole shape as well as specific content of moral theology has been aggressively reworked in relationship to authoritative Scripture.虽然一直被视为圣​​经的神圣启示承认,它只是在新的天主教道德神学,整个形状以及具体内容的道德神学一直积极在关系到权威的经文返工。 Natural law (or general revelation) continues to be important but is now supplemented by attention to the human and social sciences.自然法(或一般启示)仍然是重要的,但是现在我们注意的人文和社会科学的补充。

The parochialism and separatism of the past have given way to ongoing ecumenical dialogue with Protestant ethicists.的本位主义和过去分裂主义已让位给正在进行的对话与基督教新教伦理学家。The traditional preoccupation with specific sins and the role of moral guidance in the confessional have been subsumed in a broader inquiry about the total and positive meaning of the Christian life.具有特定的罪孽和忏悔的道德指导作用的传统的当务之急已归纳在一个关于基督徒生活的总的正面意义更广泛的调查。The legalism, formalism, rationalism, and traditionalism which used to characterize Catholic ethics are no longer present in anything to the same degree.法家,形式主义,理性主义,和传统的天主教伦理用来表征不再存在于任何与此相同的程度。The prospects have never been better and the need more urgent for Protestants and Catholics to work together on a biblical base, informed by the whole history of the church and responsive to the massive challenges of a secular world.前景从未较好,需要更多的新教徒和天主教徒迫切的工作基地在圣经的教会的全部历史,并回应了一个世俗世界的巨大挑战获悉,在一起。

DW Gill德国之声吉尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
CC Curran, New Perspectives in Moral Theology; JM Gustafson, Protestant and Roman Catholic Ethics; B Haring, Free and Faithful in Christ; TE O'Connell, Principles for a Catholic Morality.消委会柯伦,在道德神学的新观点; JM古斯塔夫森,新教和罗马天主教的职业道德;乙哈林,自由,在基督忠心的TE奥康奈尔,一个天主教道德原则。


Moral Theology道德神学

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Moral theology is a branch of theology, the science of God and Divine things.道德神学是神学,上帝和神圣的东西一门学科。The distinction between natural and supernatural theology rests on a solid foundation.自然和超自然的神学之间的区别在于在坚实的基础。Natural theology is the science of God Himself, in as far as the human mind can by its own efforts reach a definite conclusion about God and His nature: it is always designated by the adjective natural.自然神学是科学的上帝,在尽可能人类的头脑可以通过自己的努力达成一个关于上帝和他的性质明确的结论:它始终是由形容词自然指定。 Theology, without any further modification, is invariably understood to mean supernatural theology, that is, the science of God and Divine things, in as far as it is based on supernatural Revelation.神学,没有任何进一步的修改,是必然理解为超自然的神学,就是上帝和神圣的东西尽量科学,因为它是基于对超自然的启示。 Its subject-matter embraces not only God and His essence, but also His actions and His works of salvation and the guidance by which we are led to God, our supernatural end.它的标的物不仅包括上帝和他的本质,也是他的行动和拯救他的作品和由我们所导致的上帝,我们的超自然结束指导。Consequently, it extends much farther than natural theology; for, though the latter informs us of God's essence and attributes, yet it can tell us nothing about His free works of salvation.因此,它比自然神学延伸更远,因为,尽管后者告知上帝的本质和属性的我们,但它可以告诉我们关于他的救赎自由运作的。 The knowledge of all these truths is necessary for every man, at least in its broad outlines, and is acquired by Christian faith.所有这些真理的​​知识是需要每一个男人,至少在其广泛的纲要,是由基督教信仰收购。But this is not yet a science.但是这还不是一门科学。The science of theology demands that the knowledge won through faith, be deepened, expanded, and strengthened, so that the articles of faith be understood and defended by their reasons and be, together with their conclusions, arranged systematically.神学的要求获得通过信仰的科学知识,深化,扩大和加强,使信仰的文章都能够理解和他们的理由辩护,并与他们共同的结论,系统地安排。

The entire field of theology proper is divided into dogmatic and moral theology, which differ in subject-matter and in method.正确的神学整场分为教条式的道德神学,它在题材和方法不同。Dogmatic theology has as its end the scientific discussion and establishment of the doctrines of faith, moral theology of the moral precepts.教条式的神学作为其最终的科学讨论的信仰,道德戒律的道德神学的教义和编制。The precepts of Christian morals are also part of the doctrines of faith, for they were announced or confirmed by Divine Revelation.基督教道德的法则,也是信仰的教义的一部分,因为他们被宣布或确认,以神的启示。The subject-matter of dogmatic theology is those doctrines which serve to enrich the knowledge necessary or convenient for man, whose destination is supernatural.的主题事项的教条式的神学是那些学说,以丰富的知识为必要或男子,他们的目的地是超自然的方便。Moral theology, on the other hand, is limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end.道德神学,另一方面,仅限于那些学说,讨论关系的男子和他的自由行动,以上帝和他的超自然的目的,并提出指由神设立的这一目标的实现。 Consequently, dogmatic and moral theology are two closely related parts of universal theology.因此,教条式的道德神学,是两个密切相关的普及神学部分。Inasmuch as a considerable number of individual doctrines may be claimed by either discipline, no sharp line of demarcation can be drawn between the subject-matter of dogma and morals.因为就个人的教义相当数量可由纪律要求,没有尖锐的分界线,可以区分的主题的教条和道德的问题。In actual practice, however, a division and limitation must be made in accordance with practical needs.在实际操作中,但是其中一个部门和限制必须在根据实际需要。Of a similar nature is the relation between moral theology and ethics.一个类似的性质,是神学和伦理道德之间的关系。The subject-matter of natural morals or ethics, as contained in the Decalogue, has been included in positive, Divine Revelation, and hence has passed into moral theology.该标的物的自然道德或伦理,如十诫中,已被列入积极的,神圣的启示,因此已成为道德神学通过。Nevertheless, the argumentative processes differ in the two sciences, and for this reason a large portion of the matter is disregarded in moral theology and referred to ethics.然而,议论过程的两个不同的科学,基于这个原因,这些问题有一个大的一部分是无视道德神学,并提到道德。For instance, the refutation of the false systems of the modern ethicists is generally treated under ethics, especially because these systems are refuted by arguments drawn not so much from faith, as from reason.例如,在现代伦理学家假系统驳斥一般被下道德,尤其是因为这些系统的反驳画从信仰没有这么多参数,从理性的。Only in as far as moral theology requires a defence of revealed doctrines, does it concern itself with false systems.只有在尽可能道德神学教义需要防御的揭示,它涉及以虚假的系统本身。However, it must discuss the various requirements of the natural law, not only because this law has been confirmed and defined by positive revelation, but also because every violation of it entails a disturbance of the supernatural moral order, the treatment of which is an essential part of moral theology.但是,它必须讨论的自然法的各项规定,不仅是因为这项法律已确认,并以积极的启示的定义,而且还因为它的每一违反需要一个超自然的道德秩序的紊乱,其中的治疗是一个重要的部分道德神学。

The field of moral theology, its contents, and the boundaries which separate it from kindred subjects, may be briefly indicated as follows: moral theology includes everything relating to man's free actions and the last, or supreme, end to be attained through them, as far as we know the same by Divine Revelation; in other words, it includes the supernatural end, the rule, or norm, of the moral order, human actions as such, their harmony or disharmony with the laws of the moral order, their consequences, the Divine aids for their right performance.的道德神学,其内容和界线,脱离骨肉科目IT领域,可能是简单地表示如下:道德神学,包括有关的一切人的自由行动,最后,还是最高法院,最终要达到的,通过它们,因为据我们了解以神的启示一样,换句话说,它包含了超自然的目的,规则,或规范,道德秩序,因此,他们的和谐或与法律的道德秩序,人的行动及其后果的不和谐,神圣的权利艾滋病的表现。 A detailed treatment of these subjects may be found in the second part of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica", a work still unrivalled as a treatise of moral theology.对这些事项进行了详细的治疗可能会发现在圣托马斯的“神学大全”,仍然作为一个无与伦比的道德神学论文工作的第二部分。

The position of moral theology in universal theology is briefly sketched by St. Thomas in the "Summa theol.", I, Q. i, a.在普及神学的道德神学的立场是简单地勾画出由圣托马斯在“总结theol。”,我,问我答7 and Q. ii in the proemium and in the prologus of I-II; likewise by Fr. 7,问:二中proemium并在第一和第二的prologus,同样神父。Suàrez in the proemium of his commentaries on the I-II of St. Thomas.苏亚雷斯在他的评论在第一和第二的圣托马斯proemium。The subject-matter of the entire second part of the "Summa theol."该标的物的整个第二部分“总结theol。”is, man as a free agent.就是作为一个自由球员的人。"Man was made after the image of God, by his intellect, his free will, and a certain power to act of his own accord. Hence, after we have spoken of the pattern, viz. of God, and of those things which proceeded from His Divine power according to His will, we must now turn our attention to His image, that is, man, inasmuch as he also is the principle or his actions in virtue of his free will and his power over his own actions." “人是经过神的形象,他的智慧,他的自由意志,并有一定的权力,他自己的行为一致。因此,在我们发言的格局,即。上帝,和这些东西进行从他的神圣权力,根据他的意愿,我们现在必须把注意力放在他的形象,那就是人,因为他又是原则,还是在他的自由意志和他对自己行动的力量凭借他的行动。“ He includes all this in theology, not only because it is viewed as the object of positive Divine Revelation (I, Q. i, a. 3), but also because God always is the principal object, for "theology treats all things in their relation to God, either in as far as they are God Himself or are directed towards God as their origin or last end" (I, Q. i, a. 7).他包括在神学,这一切,不仅是因为它被视为是积极的神圣启示录(一,问:我,答3)对象,而且还因为上帝始终是主要的对象“,神学在他们对待一切事物无论是在关系到神的地步,因为他们是上帝或神的指示对他们的原籍或最后的终结“(我,问我答:7)。 "Since it is the chief aim of theology to communicate the knowledge of God, not only as He is in Himself but also as the beginning and end of all things and particularly of rational creatures . . ., we shall speak first of God, secondly of the tendency of the rational creature towards God", etc. (I, Q. ii, proem.). “既然是神学的主要目的是传达知识的神,不仅是因为他是对他自己,但也开始和结束的一切事物,尤其是理性的动物。。。,我们讲神的第一个,其次对上帝的倾向,理性的动物“等(我,问:二,诸言。)。 These words point out the scope and the subject-matter of the moral part of theology.这些话指出的范围和主题的神学道德部分的问题。Francisco Suárez, who pregnantly calls this tendency of the creatures towards God "the return of the creatures to God", shows that there is no contradiction in designating man created after the image of God, endowed with reason and free will and exercising these faculties, as the object of moral theology, and God as the object of entire theology.弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,谁pregnantly称这对上帝的生物倾向“的动物回到上帝”,显示有没有在指定后,神的形象创造了人的矛盾,有理性和自由意志和行使这些院系赋,作为道德神学的对象,并作为整个神学对象的神。 "If we are asked to name the proximate object of moral theology, we shall undoubtedly say that it is man as a free agent, who seeks his happiness by his free actions; but if we are asked in what respect this object must be treated chiefly, we shall answer that this must be done with respect to God as his last end." “如果我们问到的道德神学近因对象,我们将毫无疑问说,这是人作为一个自由经纪人,他要求他的自由行动,他的幸福,但如果我们在哪些方面必须处理这个对象主要问,我们会回答,这必须尊重他的最后下场上帝做。“

A detailed account of the wide range of moral theology may be found in the analytical index of Pars Secunda of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica".作者范围广泛的道德神学详细的帐户可能会发现,在帕尔斯塞康达分析指数的圣托马斯的“神学大全”。We must confine ourselves to a brief summary.我们必须局限于一个简要总结。The first question treats of man's last end, eternal happiness, Its nature and possession.第一个问题对待人类的最终目的,永恒的幸福,其性质和拥有。Then follows an examination of human acts in themselves and their various subdivisions, of voluntary and involuntary acts, of the moral uprightness or malice of both interior and exterior acts and their consequences; the passions in general and in particular; the habits or permanent qualities of the human soul, and the general questions about virtues, vices, and sins.然后如下一个人的行为对自己和自己不同的分支,自愿和非自愿行为的道德正直或内部和外部行为及其后果的恶意,检查;一般,特别是激情;的习惯或永久的品质人的灵魂,以及有关的美德,邪恶,和罪孽的一般性问题。 Under this last title, while enquiring into the causes of sin, the author embodies the doctrine on original sin and its consequences.在这最后的冠军,而把罪恶的根源探究,体现了作者对原罪及其后果学说。This portion might, however, be with equal right assigned to dogmatic theology in the stricter meaning of the word.这部分可能,但是,与分配到这个词的严格意义的教条式的神学的平等权利。Although St. Thomas regards sin chiefly as a transgression of the law, and in particular of the "lex æterna" (Q. ii, a. 6), still he places the chapters on the laws after the section on sin; because sin, a free human act like any other human act, is first discussed from the standpoint of its subjective principles, viz.虽然圣托马斯罪方面,主要是作为法律的过犯,在“永恒之法”(问:二A 6)特别是,他还是地方上的法律条文后,对罪的章节,因为罪,像其他任何一个自由人的行为人的行为,首先讨论了其主观原则,即立场。knowledge, will, and the tendency of the will; only after this are the human actions viewed with regard to their objective or exterior principles, and the exterior principle, by which human actions are judged not merely as human, but as moral actions, either morally good or morally bad, is the law.知识,意志和意志的倾向,只有在此之后,是人的行动就其目的或外部的原则看,和外部的原则,以判断哪些人类行为是人类不只是,但作为道德行动,要么道义上的好或坏的道德,就是法律。 Since morality is conceived by him as supernatural morality, which exceeds the nature and the faculties of man, Divine grace, the other exterior principle of man's morally good actions, is discussed after the law.由于道德是由他视为超自然的道德,这超过了自然与人的院系,神的恩典,其他人外表的原则的道义上的好行为,是法律的讨论之后。 In the exordium to Q. xc, St. Thomas states his division briefly as follows: "The exterior principle which moves us to good actions is God; He instructs us by His law and aids us with His grace.问:在对越野绪论,圣托马斯州他的师简述如下:“它的外观原则,激励我们以良好的行动是上帝,他的律师,他指示我们,艾滋病与他的恩典。

Hence we shall speak first of the law, secondly of grace.因此,我们应讲的法律的第一,第二的宽限期。 "

The following volume is wholly devoted to the special questions, in the order given by St. Thomas in the prologue: "After a cursory glance at the virtues, vices, and the moral principles in general, it is incumbent on us to consider the various points in detail. Moral discussions, if satisfied with generalities, are of little value, because actions touch particular, individual things. When there is question of morals, we may consider individual actions in two ways: one, by examining the matter, ie, by discussing the different virtues and vices; another, by inquiring into the various avocations of individuals and their states of life."下列音量是完全致力于特殊问题,由圣托马斯给出了序幕顺序为:经过粗略地看一眼“,在品德,邪恶,和一般的道德原则,它是我们有义务考虑各项。道德的讨论,详细点,如果与一般性的满意,是没有多大价值,因为触摸操作,特别是个人的事情当有道德问题,我们可以考虑个人行为方式有两种:。一个通过审查的问题,即,通过讨论不同的美德和恶习。通过把个人和国家生活的各种爱好,询问另一个“ St. Thomas then goes on to discuss the whole range of moral theology from both these standpoints.圣托马斯接着来讨论这两种立场的道德神学的整个范围。First, he closely scrutinizes the various virtues, keeping in view the Divine aids, and the sins and vices opposed to the respective virtues.首先,他密切审视各种美德,同时牢记神圣艾滋病,捷联惯导系统和虎钳反对各自的优点。 He examines first the three Divine virtues which are wholly supernatural and embrace the vast field of charity and its actual practice; then he passes to the cardinal virtues with their auxiliary and allied virtues.他考察了三个神圣的第一美德是完全超自然,拥抱广阔领域的慈善机构,其实际操作能力;然后,他通过与他们的辅助和专职美德基本力量。 The volume concludes with a discussion of the particular states of life in the Church of God, including those which suppose an extraordinary, Divine guidance.该卷最后提出了特定国家的生活在上帝的教会,包括那些假设一个非凡的,神圣的指导讨论。This last part, therefore, discusses subjects which specifically belong to mystical or ascetical theology, such as prophecy and extraordinary modes of prayer, but above all the active and the contemplative life, Christian perfection, and the religious state in the Church.这最后一部分,因此,讨论预言科目,如专属于神秘或ascetical神学,以及非凡的祈祷方式,但最重要的是积极和沉思的生活,基督教完善,并在教会宗教的国家。 The contents of a modern work on moral theology, as, for instance, that of Slater (London, 1909), are: Human acts, conscience, law, sin, the virtues of faith, hope, charity; the precepts of the Decalogue, including a special treatise on justice; the commandments of the Church; duties attached to particular states or offices; the sacraments, in so far as their administration and reception are a means of moral reform and rectitude; ecclesiastical laws and penalties, only in so far as they affect conscience; these laws forming properly the subject-matter of canon law, in so far as they govern and regulate the Church as an organization, Its membership, ministry, the relations between hierarchy, clergy, religious orders, laity, or of spiritual and temporal authority.一个现代的道德神学工作,因为,例如,斯莱特(伦敦,1909年),内容是:人的行为,良心,法律,罪恶,信仰,希望,慈善的美德;戒律的十诫,包括对司法的特殊论文;教会的诫命;重视特定国家或办事处的职责;圣礼,使他们在管理和接待远,是道德改革和正直的手段;教会的法律和惩罚,只有在迄今因为它们影响到的良心,这些法律形成正确的主题教会法的问题,在目前为止,因为它们制约和规范,教会作为一个组织,其成员,部,层次之间,神职人员,宗教命令,俗人的关系,或精神和时间上的权威。

One circumstance must not be overlooked.一个不容忽视的情况。Moral theology considers free human actions only in their relation to the supreme order, and to the last and highest end, not in their relation to the proximate ends which man may and must pursue, as for instance political, social, economical.道德神学认为,只有在其有关自由人的最高秩序的行为,并最后和最高端的,而不是在其有关的近因完这名男子可能和必须追求的,例如,政治,社会,经济实惠。 Economics, politics, social science are separate fields of science, not subdivisions of moral science.经济学,政治学,社会科学是独立的科学领域,而不是道德的科学分支。Nevertheless, these special sciences must also be guided by morals, and must subordinate their specific principles to those of moral theology, at least so far as not to clash with the latter.然而,这些特殊的科学也必须遵循道德,必须服从他们的具体原则,以道德神学的人,至少到目前为止,尽量不要与后者发生冲突。 Man is one being, and all his actions must finally lead him to his last and highest end.人是一个是,他的一切行动必须最终导致他在他最后和最高端。Therefore, various proximate ends must not turn him from this end, but must be made subservient to it and its attainment.因此,各近因完不能打开他从这个目的,但必须屈从于它和它的实现。Hence moral theology surveys all the individual relations of man and passes judgment on political, economical, social questions, not with regard to their bearings on politics and economy, but with regard to their influence upon a moral life.因此,道德神学调查所有的人通过个人关系,对政治,经济,社会问题的判断,而不是关于政治,经济的轴承,但就其对道德生活的影响。 This is also the reason why there is hardly another science that touches other spheres so closely as does moral theology, and why its sphere is more extensive than that of any other.这也是为什么几乎没有另一种科学,触及其他领域一样如此密切的道德神学,以及为什么它的范围比任何其他广泛。This is true inasmuch as moral theology has the eminently practical scope of instructing and forming spiritual directors and confessors, who must be familiar with human conditions in their relation to the moral law, and advise persons in every state and situation.因为这是真正的道德神学的指示精神,形成董事及师,谁必须在其有关人权法条件下的道德熟悉,及提供意见,每一个国家和境况的人非常实用的范围。

The manner in which moral theology treats its subject-matter, must be, as in theology generally, chiefly positive, that is, drawing from Revelation and theological sources.以何种方式对待自己的道德神学的主题事项,必须是,在神学普遍,主要是正面的,这就是从启示和神学来源绘图。Starting from this positive foundation, reason also comes into play quite extensively, especially since the whole subject-matter of natural ethics has been raised to the level of supernatural morals.从这个基础出发,积极,理智也开始发挥作用相当广泛,尤其是因为整个主题的自然伦理问题已提升到超自然的道德水平。 It is true reason must be illumined by supernatural faith, but when illumined its duty is to explain, prove, and defend most of the principles of moral theology.这是真正的原因必须由超自然的信仰照亮,但是当灯光照亮其任务是解释,证明,并捍卫道德神学大多数原则。From what has been said it is manifest that the chief source of moral theology is Sacred Scripture and Tradition together with the teachings of the Church.从已表示,这是体现的道德神学的主要来源是神圣的经文和传统与教会的教义在一起。however, the following points must be observed regarding the Old Testament.但是,必须注意以下几点关于旧约。Not all precepts contained in it are universally valid, as many belong to the ritual and special law of the Jews.并非所有的戒律载于它是普遍有效的,因为很多属于祭祀和犹太人的特别法。These statutes never obliged the non-Jewish world and have simply been abrogated by the New Covenant, so that now the ritual observances proper are illicit.这些法规从来没有迫使非犹太世界,都被简单地废除了新的盟约,所以,现在的祭祀纪念活动适当是非法的。The Decalogue, however, with the sole change in the law enjoining the celebration of the Sabbath, has passed Into the New Covenant a positive Divine confirmation of the natural law, and now constitutes the principal subject matter of Christian morality.十诫,然而,随着法律的唯一变化责令安息日的庆祝活动,通过成为新盟约了对自然的积极的神圣法律的确认,现已成为基督教道德的主要题材。 Moreover, we must remember that the Old Covenant did not stand on the high moral level to which Christ elevated the New Covenant.此外,我们必须记住,旧约没有站在高道德水平,以基督提升了新的盟约。Jesus Himself mentions things which were permitted to the Jews "on account of the hardness of their hearts", but against which He applied again the law at first imposed by God.其中提到耶稣自己允许犹太人“对他们的心刚硬帐户”,但对其中他再次申请按上帝的法律规定第一的东西。Hence, not everything that was tolerated in the Old Testament and its writings, is tolerated now; on the contrary, many of the usages approved and established there would be counter to Christian perfection as counselled by Christ.因此,并不是所有在旧约和容忍的著作,是不能容忍的现在,相反,许多的用途批准设立将有完善的反基督教的基督辅导。 With these limitations the writings of the Old Testament are sources of moral theology, containing examples of and exhortations to heroic virtues, from which the Christian moralist, following in the footsteps of Christ and His Apostles, may well draw superb models of sanctity.这些限制的旧约神学著作是道德的来源,含有实例和嘱托,向英雄的美德,从基督教道德,继在基督和他的门徒的脚步,很可能得出的神圣精湛的模型。

Apart from Sacred Scripture, the Church recognizes also Tradition as a source of revealed truths, and hence of Christian morals.除了圣经,教会的传统,又认识到一个揭示的真理之源,因此基督教道德。 It has assumed a concrete shape chiefly in the writings of the Fathers.它承担了主要是在著作的父亲一个具体的形状。Furthermore, the decisions of the Church must be regarded as a source, since they are based on the Bible and Tradition, they are the proximate source of moral theology, because they contain the final judgment about the meaning of Sacred Scripture as well as the teachings of the Fathers.此外,教会的决定必须被视为一个来源,因为它们是基于圣经和传统的基础上,他们的道德神学近因源,因为它们包含了有关圣经的意义,以及最终判决的教诲的父亲。 These include the long list of condemned propositions, which must be considered as danger signals along the boundary between lawful and illicit, not only when the condemnation has been pronounced by virtue of the highest Apostolic authority, but also when the congregation instituted by the pope has issued a general, doctrinal decision in questions bearing on morals.这些措施包括谴责主张,它必须被视为危险信号沿界限认为一长串合法和非法的,不仅谴责的时候已经宣布由最高使徒权威的美德,而且还当了教皇提起聚集了发出一般情况下,决定对道德问题的理论影响。 What Pius IX wrote concerning the meetings of scholars in Munich in the year 1863 may also be applied here: "Since there is question of that subjection which binds all Catholics in conscience who desire to advance the interests of the Church by devoting themselves to the speculative sciences; let the members of this assembly recall that it is not sufficient for Catholic scholars to accept and esteem the above-mentioned dogmas, but that they are also obliged to submit to the decisions of the papal congregations as well as to those teachings which are, by the constant and universal consent of Catholics, so held as theological truths and certain conclusions that the opposite opinion even when not heretical, still deserves some theological censure."比约九说什么关于在1863年在慕尼黑会议的学者也可以用在这里:“既然是有约束力的隶属在良心谁愿意提前投身投机的所有天主教教会的利益问题科学,让这次大会的回顾,这是不足够的天主教学者接受和尊重上述教条的成员,但他们也有责任向作为以及那些教义教会是罗马教皇的决定通过不断的天主教徒和普遍同意,从而为神学的真理,而相反的意见,即使不是异端,但仍是值得一些神学谴责某些结论进行。“ If this is true of the dogmatic doctrines in the strict sense of the word, we might say that it is still more true of moral questions, because for them not only absolute and infallibility certain, but also morally certain decisions must be accounted as obligatory norms.如果这是在严格意义上的真正的教条式的理论,我们可以说,这是道德问题,更真实,因为他们不仅绝对和infallibility确定的,但也是道义上的某些决定必须被视为强制性规范占。

The words of Pius IX just quoted, point to another source of theological doctrines, and hence of morals, viz., the universal teachings of the Catholic schools.比约九刚才的话,点到另一个神学教义的来源,因此,道德,即。,天主教学校的普遍教义。For these are the channels by which the Catholic doctrines on faith and morals must be transmitted without error, and which have consequently the nature of a source.因为这些都是由于信仰和道德的传播天主教的教义,必须没有错误,并因此对渠道来源的性质。From the unanimous doctrine of the Catholic schools follows naturally the conviction of the universal Church.从天主教学校一致遵循自然主义的普世教会的信念。But since it is a dogmatic principle that the whole Church cannot err in matters of faith and morals, the consent of the various Catholic schools must offer the guarantee of infallibility in these questions.但由于它是一个教条式的原则,整个教会不能在信仰和道德犯错,各个天主教学校同意必须提供在这些问题犯错误的保证。

Moral theology, to be complete in every respect, must accomplish in moral questions what dogmatic theology does in questions pertaining to dogma.道德神学,要完成在各方面都必须做到在什么教条式的神学教条的有关问题做道德问题。The latter has to explain clearly the truths of faith and prove them to be such; it must also, as far as possible, show their accordance with reason, defend them against objections, trace their connection with other truths, and, by means of theological argumentation, deduce further truths.后者已清楚解释真理的信仰,并证明他们是这样的,它必须也尽可能,显示他们与理由的规定,抵御反对他们,追寻真理与其他的连接,以神学的手段,论证,进一步推导出的真理。 Moral theology must follow the same processive questions of morals.道德神学必须遵循同样的processive道德问题。-- It is evident that this cannot be done in all branches of moral theology in such a way as to exhaust the subject, except by a series of monographs.- 很显然,这不能在这样一种方式,以排气除非由专着一系列的问题,道德神学各分公司完成。It would take volumes to sketch but the beauty and the harmony of God's dispositions, which transcend the natural law, but which God enacted in order to elevate man to a higher plane and to lead him to his supernatural end in a future life -- and yet all this is embraced in the subject of supernatural morals.它将采取素描,但美和上帝的性情,这超越了自然法则和谐册,但上帝制定的,以提升人往高层次上,并导致他在未来的生活对他的超自然的结束 - 与然而,所有这是拥抱的超自然道德问题。Nor is moral theology confined to the exposition of those duties and virtues which cannot be shirked if man wishes to attain his last end; it includes all virtues, even those which mark the height of Christian perfection, and their practice, not only in the ordinary degree, but also in the ascetical and mystical life.也不是道德神学局限于那些职责,不能推卸的,人类如果要达到他的最后下场美德博览会,它包括所有的美德,甚至那些纪念基督教完善的高度,他们的做法不仅在普通,度,而且在ascetical而神秘的生活。 Hence, it is entirely correct to designate asceticism and mysticism as parts of Christian moral theology, though ordinarily they are treated as distinct sciences.因此,它是完全正确的,指定的基督教禁欲主义和神秘主义的道德神学部分,虽然通常他们被视为独特的科学处理。

The task of the moral theologian is by no means completed when he has explained the questions indicated.的道德神学家任务完成时,他已解释的问题绝不是表示。Moral theology, in more than one respect, is essentially a practical science.道德神学,在多个方面,在本质上是实践科学。 Its instructions must extend to moral character, moral behaviour, the completion and issue of moral aspirations, so that it can offer a definite norm for the complex situations of human life.它的指令必须扩大到道德品质,道德行为,完成和道德诉求的问题,因此它可以提供一个对人类生活的复杂情况明确规范。For this purpose, it must examine the individual cases which arise and determine the limits and the gravity of the obligation in each.为此,它必须研究它产生的个别案件,确定限制和在每个义务的严重性。Particularly those whose office and position in the Church demand the cultivation of theological science, and who are called to be the teachers and counsellors, must find in it a practical guide.尤其是那些办公室和供求情况,在教会的神学科学种植,谁被称为是教师和辅导员,必须找到它的实用指南。As jurisprudence must enable the future judge and lawyer to administer justice in individual cases, so must moral theology enable the spiritual director or confessor to decide matters of conscience in varied cases of everyday life; to weigh the violations of the natural law in the balance of Divine justice; it must enable the spiritual guide to distinguish correctly and to advise others as to what is sin and what is not, what is counselled and what not, what is good and what is better; it must provide a scientific training for the shepherd of the flock, so that he can direct all to a life of duty and virtue, warn them against sin and danger, lead from good to better those who are endowed with necessary light and moral power, raise up and strengthen those who have fallen from the moral level.作为判例,必须使未来的法官及律师管理在个别情况下正义,所以必须道德神学使董事或忏悔的精神,决定在不同情况下的日常生活良心的事项;来衡量,在平衡的自然法则的侵犯神圣的正义,它必须使精神为指导正确区分和建议,以别人什么是罪,什么不是,什么是辅导,并没有什么,什么是好,什么是更好的,它必须提供一个科学训练牧羊人羊群的,这样他就可以直接到所有的责任和美德的生活,提醒他们从良好的打击罪恶和危险,带来更好的人谁是必要的光线和道德力量赋予,提高和加强这些谁已经从道德水平。 Many of these tasks are assigned to the collateral science of pastoral theology; but this also treats a special part of the duties of moral theology, and falls, therefore, within the scope of moral theology in its widest sense.许多这些任务分配给牧区神学抵押品科学,但是这也把一对特殊的道德神学的职责的一部分,瀑布,因此属于道德神学的范围,在其最广泛的意义。 The purely theoretical and speculative treatment of the moral questions must be supplemented by casuistry.对纯理论的道德问题和投机性的治疗,还必须辅之以诡辩。Whether this should be done separately, that is, whether the subject matter should be taken casuistically before or after its theoretical treatment, or whether the method should be at the same time both theoretical and casuistical, is unimportant for the matter itself; the practical feasibility will decide this point, while for written works on moral theology the special aim of the author will determine it.这是否应单独进行,也就是标的物是否应采取之前或之后,其理论处理casuistically,或方法是否应在同一时间既有理论和casuistical,对于事件本身并不重要的现实可行性将决定这一点,而对道德神学著作的作者,将决定其特殊目的。 However, he who teaches or writes moral theology for the training of Catholic priests, would not do full justice to the end at which he must aim, if he did not unite the casuistical with the theoretical and speculative element.然而,谁教他或写的天主教神职人员培训的道德神学,不会做充分的正义,最终在他的目标必须是,如果他不团结的理论和投机因素的诡辩的。 What has been said so far, sufficiently outlines the concept of moral theology in its widest sense.什么有人说,到目前为止,充分勾勒出道德神学,在其最广泛意义上的概念。Our next task is to follow up its actual formation and development.我们下一步的任务是跟进其实际形成和发展。

Moral theology, correctly understood, means the science of supernaturally revealed morals.道德神学,正确理解,是指超自然揭示道德的科学。Hence, they cannot speak of moral theology who reject supernatural Revelation; the most they can do is to discourse on natural ethics.因此,他们可以不讲道德的神学谁拒绝超自然的启示,最能够做的是对自然伦理话语。 But to distinguish between moral theology and ethics is sooner or later to admit a science of ethics without God and religion.但要区分道德神学和道德是迟早要承认,没有上帝和宗教的道德的科学。That this contains an essential contradiction, is plain to everyone who analyzes the ideas of moral rectitude and moral perversion, or the concept of an absolute duty which forces itself with unrelenting persistency on all who have attained the use of reason.这包含了一个基本的矛盾,大家谁是显而易见的分析,​​道德感和道德的歪曲,或者是一个绝对的责任,这与不屈不挠的力量已达到所有谁使用的原因持续性概念本身的想法。 Without God, an absolute duty is inconceivable, because there is nobody to impose obligation.如果没有上帝,一个绝对的责任,是不可想象的,因为没有人强加的义务。I cannot oblige myself, because I cannot be my own superior; still less can I oblige the whole human race, and yet I feel myself obliged to many things, and cannot but feel myself absolutely obliged as man, and hence cannot but regard all those who share human nature with me as obliged likewise.我不能强迫自己,因为我不能成为我自己的优势,更不能本人迫使整个人类,但我觉得自己有义务很多事,不能不感到自己绝对作为人有义务,因此不能不认为,所有这些谁与我共享人类的天性,也有义务。 It is plain then that this obligation must proceed from a higher being who is superior to all men, not only to those who live at present, but to all who have been and will be, nay, in a certain sense even to those who are merely possible, This superior being is the Lord of all, God.这是平原那么,这个责任必须从更高的生命,谁是优于所有的人,不仅是为了那些目前住谁,而是谁所有已经和将是,在一定意义上不仅如此,甚至那些谁是仅仅是可能的,这优越的是所有主神。 It is also plain that although this Supreme lawgiver can be known by natural reason, neither He nor His law can be sufficiently known without a revelation on His part.它也清楚,虽然这个最高lawgiver可以被称为自然的原因,无论是他还是他没有足够的法律可以对他的一部分启示而闻名。 Hence if is that moral theology, the study of this Divine law is actually cultivated only by those who faithfully cling to a Divine Revelation, and by the sects which sever their connection with the Church, only as long as they retain the belief in a supernatural Revelation through Jesus Christ.因此,如果是,道德神学,这个神圣的法律研究,实际耕种只有那些谁忠实地坚持一个神圣的启示,其中由教派与教会断绝他们的连接,只保留,只要他们在一个超自然的信仰通过耶稣基督的启示。

Wherever Protestantism has thrown this belief overboard, there the study of moral theology as a science has suffered shipwreck.无论这种信仰新教已抛出船外,那里的道德神学研究作为一门科学遭受海难。Today it would be merely lost labour to look for an advancement of it on the part of a non-Catholic denomination.今天,将仅仅是徒劳寻找它的一个对一个非天主教面额的一部分的地位。In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries there were still men to be found who made an attempt at it.在十七和十八世纪仍然有被发现的男子是谁在它的一个尝试。JA Dorner states in Herzog, "Real-Encyklopädie", IV, 364 sqq.司法机构政务长多纳国在赫尔佐格,“实时Encyklopädie”,四,364 sqq。(sv "Ethik"), that prominent Protestant writers upholding "theological morals" have grown very scarce since the eighteenth century. (希沃特“Ethik”),即著名的新教作家坚持“道德神学”已经变得非常稀少自十八世纪。However, this is not quite correct.但是,这并不正确。Of those who still cling to a positive Protestantism, we may name Martensen, who recently entered the lists with deep conviction for "Christian Ethics"; the same, though in his own peculiar manner, is done by Lemme in his "Christliche Ethik" (1905); both attribute to it a scope wider and objectively other than that of natural ethics.这些谁仍然坚持积极的新教,我们可能会名称马敦生,谁最近进入了“基督教伦理学”深定罪的名单;相同的,虽然在他自己特有的方式,是由做让我和他的“Christliche Ethik”( 1905年);既给它一个范围更广泛,比其他自然伦理的客观属性。A few names from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries may here suffice: Hugo Grotius (d. 1645), Pufendorf (d. 1694) and Christian Thomasius (d. 1728), all see the difference between theological and natural morals in that the former is also positive, ie Divinely revealed, but with the same subject matter as the latter.从十七世纪和十八世纪几个名字,可在这里就足够了:雨果格劳秀斯(草1645),普芬道夫​​(卒于1694年)和基督教托马(草1728),都看到了自然神学和道德之间的区别在于前者是也是阳性,即神透露,但与后者相同的题材。 This last assertion could spring only from the Protestant view which has staked its all on the "fides fiducialis"; but it can hardly acknowledge a range of duties widened by Christ and Christianity.去年春天,这说法可能只有从新教阵营的看法,其对“惹人fiducialis”所有,但它也很难承认一个由基督和基督教扩大职责范围。 Other writers of a "theologia moralis" based on this "fides fiducialis", are Buddeus, Chr.一个“神学莫拉利斯”其他作家在此基础上“惹人fiducialis”,是Buddeus,染色体。A. Crusius, and Jerem.答:克鲁修斯和Jerem。Fr.神父。Reuss.罗伊斯。A logical result of Kantianism was the denial of the very possibility of moral theology, since Kant had made autonomous reason the only source of obligation.康德哲学的一个合乎逻辑的结果是非常的道德神学的可能性的否定,因为康德的原因作出了自主的义务的唯一来源。 On this point Dorner says (loc. cit.): "It is true that the autonomy and the autocracy of the moral being separates morals and religion"; he would have been nearer the mark, had he said: "they destroy all morals".在这一点上多纳说,(如上。):“这是真正的自主性和道德是道德与宗教分离专制”,他会被临近的标志,如果他说:“他们摧毁一切道德” 。Generally speaking the modern Liberal Protestants hardly know any other than autonomous morals; even when they do speak of "religious" morals, they find its last explanation in man, religion, and God or Divine Revelation being taken in their Modernistic sense, that is subjective notions of whose objective value we have no knowledge and no certainty.一般来说,现代自由新教徒几乎不知道任何其他比自治区道德,甚至当他们讲的“宗教”道德,他们发现在人,宗教的最后解释,上帝或神的启示,他们正在采取的现代意义,这是主观的概念的,其目标价值,我们没有知识,没有确定性。

This being the case, there remains only one question to be discussed: What has been the actual development and method of moral theology in the Church?在这种情况下,仍然存在着只有一个问题要讨论:什么是在教会的实际发展和道德神学的方法吗?and here we must first of all remember that the Church is not an educational institution or a school for the advancement of the sciences.在这里,我们首先必须记住,教会是不是一个教育机构,或者是在学校的科技进步。 True, she esteems and promotes the sciences, especially theology, and scientific schools are founded by her; but this is not her only, or even her chief task.诚然,她推崇和促进科学,特别是神学和科学学校是由她创立,但是这不是她的唯一,甚至她的首要任务。She is the authoritative institution, founded by Christ for the salvation of mankind; she speaks with power and authority to the whole human race, to all nations, to all classes of society, to every age, communicates to them the doctrine of salvation unadulterated and.她是权威机构,成立由基督为人类的救赎,她有能力,有权力,使整个人类说话,使所有国家,所有的社会阶层,每一个时代,向他们传达救恩的教义和纯正。 offers them her aids.她为他们提供艾滋病。It is her mission to urge upon educated and uneducated persons alike the acceptance of truth, without regard to its scientific study and establishment.这是她的使命,在教育和未受过教育的人都接受的真理,督促,而不考虑其科学的研究和编制。After this has been accepted on faith, she also promotes and urges, according to times and circumstances, the scientific investigation of the truth, but she retains supervision over it and stands above all scientific aspirations and labours.在这之后一直接受的信仰,她还推动和敦促,根据时代和环境,对真理的科学调​​查,但她仍保持着它最重要的是科学的愿望和劳动站的监督。 As a result, we see the subject matter of moral theology, though laid down and positively communicated by the Church, treated differently by ecclesiastical writers according to the requirements of times and circumstances.因此,我们看到了道德神学的题材,虽然制定了积极沟通,由教会,治疗根据时代和环境的要求教会作家有所不同。

In the first years of the early Church, when the Divine seed, nourished by the blood of the martyrs, was seen to sprout in spite of the chilling frosts of persecution, when, to the amazement of the hostile world, it grew into a mighty tree of heavenly plantation, there was hardly leisure for the scientific study of Christian doctrine.在早期的教会,当神圣的种子,由烈士的鲜血滋养,被认为萌芽的迫害时,对敌对世界吃惊的是,它成为一个强大的低温霜冻增长的最初几年,尽管天上的种植树木,几乎没有对基督教教义的科学研究休闲。 Hence morals were at first treated in a popular, parenetic form.因此,道德是首先在一个流行的,parenetic形式处理。Throughout the Patristic period, hardly any other method for moral questions was in vogue, though this method might consist now in a concise exposition, now in a more detailed discussion of individual virtues and duties.在整个教父期间,几乎没有任何道德问题的其他方法盛行,虽然这种方法可能包括现在在一个简洁的论述,在个人美德和职责更详细的讨论了。 One of the earliest works of Christian tradition, if not the earliest after the Sacred Scripture, the "Didache" or "Teaching of the Apostles", is chiefly of a moral-theological nature.传统的基督教最早的著作之一,如果不是神圣的经文后,最早的“十二使徒遗训”或“使徒教学”,主要是一个道德的神学本质。 It Is hardly more than a code of laws an enlarged decalogue, to which are added the principal duties arising from the Divine institution of the means of salvation and from the Apostolic institutions of a common worship -- in this respect valuable for dogmatic theology in its narrow sense.这是很难超过的法律扩大十诫代码,这是增加了从救恩,从一个共同的崇拜神圣的使徒机构是指所产生的机构主要职责 - 在这方面的宝贵的教条式的神学狭义之分。The "Pastor" of Hermas, composed a little later, is of a moral character, that is, it contains an ascetical exhortation to Christian morality and to serious penance if one should have relapsed into sin. “牧师”的hermas,谱写了过了一会儿,一个品德高尚,也就是,它包含一个苦修嘱咐,以基督教道德,并认真忏悔,如果每个人都应该有复发成罪。

There exists a long series of occasional writings bearing on moral theology, from the first period of the Christian era; their purpose was either to recommend a certain virtue, or to exhort the faithful in general for certain times and circumstances.存在一个偶然的著作在道德神学长系列轴承从公元第一期;其目的是不是一定美德建议,或劝诫在某些时候,一般情况下的忠实。 Thus, from Tertullian (d. about 240) we have: "De spectaculis", "De idololatria", "De corona militis", "De patientia", "De oratione", "De poenitentia", "Ad uxorem", not to take into consideration the works which he wrote after his defection to Montanism and which are indeed of interest for the history of Christian morals, but cannot serve as guides in it.因此,从良(四约240),我们有:“德spectaculis”,“德idololatria”,“德电晕militis”,“德patientia”,“德oratione”,“德poenitentia”,“广告uxorem”,而不是考虑到他的作品写在他叛逃到孟他努,哪些是确实为基督教道德历史的兴趣,但不能作为在它指导。 Of Origen (d. 254) we still possess two minor works which bear on our question, viz., "Demartyrio", parenetic in character, and "De oratione", moral and dogmatic in content; the latter meets the objections which are advanced or rather reiterated even today against the efficacy of prayer.奥利(四254),我们仍然拥有对我们的两个问题,即承担小型工程,“Demartyrio”,parenetic的性格,“德oratione”,道德和教条式的内容。后者符合该先进的反对或者更确切地说,即使在今天重申反对祷告的功效。 Occasional writings and monographs are offered to us in the precious works of St. Cyprian (d. 258); among the former must be numbered: "De mortalitate" and "De martyrio", in a certain sense also "De lapsis", though it bears rather a disciplinary and judicial character; to the latter class belong: "De habitu virginum", "De oratione", "De opere et eleemosynis", "De bono patientiæ", and "De zelo et livore".偶尔的著作和专着提供给我们的圣塞浦路斯(四258)珍贵的作品,其中前者必须编号为:“德mortalitate”和“德martyrio”,在一定意义上也是“德lapsis”,虽然它带有相当的纪律和司法性质;在后一类属于:“德habitu virginum”,“德oratione”,“德opere等eleemosynis”,“德博诺patientiæ”,“德zelo等livore”。 A clearer title to be classed among moral-theological books seems to belong to an earlier work, the "Pædagogus" of Clement of Alexandria (d. about 217).一个更清晰的标题是其中的道德神学书籍归类似乎是属于早期的工作,“Pædagogus”克莱门特的亚历山德里亚(四约217页)。 It is a detailed account of a genuine Christian's daily life, in which ordinary and everyday actions are measured by the standard of supernatural morality.这是一个真正的基督徒的生活中,在其中普通和日常行动是由超自然的道德标准来衡量详细的介绍。The same author touches upon Christian morals also in his other works, particularly in the "Stromata"; but this work is principally written from the apologetic standpoint, since it was intended to vindicate the entire Christian doctrine, both faith and morals, against pagan and Jewish philosophies.一经基督教道德在他的其他作品还特别在“基质”,同一作者触动,但这项工作的主要书面致歉的立场,因为它的目的是维护整个基督教对异教的教义,都信仰和道德,犹太哲学。 In subsequent years, when the persecutions ceased, and patristic literature began to flourish, we find not only exegetical writings and apologies written to defend Christian doctrine against various heresies, but also numerous moral-theological works, principally sermons, homilies, and monographs.在随后的几年,当迫害停止了,教父文学开始蓬勃发展,我们发现不仅训诂著作,并书面抵御各种异端邪说的基督教教义道歉,但还有很多道德的神学著作,主要是布道,讲道,和专着。 First of these are the orations of St. Gregory of Nazianzus (d. 391), of St. Gregory of Nyssa (d. 395), of St. John Chrysostom (d. 406), of St. Augustine (d. 430), and above all the "Catecheses" of St. Cyril of Jerusalem (d. 386).其中第一项是圣格雷戈里的nazianzus(四391),圣格雷戈里的nyssa(四395),圣约翰金口(四406),圣奥古斯丁(四430)的演说,以上所有的“要理”的圣西里尔耶路撒冷(四386)。 Of St. John Chrysostom we have "De sacerdotio"; of St. Augustine, "Confessiones", "Soliloquia", "De cathechizandis rudibus", "De patientia", "De continentia", "De bono coniugali", "De adulterinis coniugiis", "De sancta virginitate", "De bono viduitatis", "De mendacio", "De cura pro mortuis gerenda", so that the titles alone suffice to give an intimation of the wealth of subjects discussed with no less unction than originality and depth of thought.圣约翰金口,我们有“德sacerdotio”,圣奥古斯丁“忏悔录”,“Soliloquia”,“德cathechizandis rudibus”,“德patientia”,“德continentia”,“德博诺coniugali”,“德adulterinis coniugiis“,”德sancta virginitate“,”德博诺viduitatis“,”德mendacio“,”德城联盟亲mortuis gerenda“,这样的标题,足以让一个的题材,没有比原创少基讨论财富暗示和深度思考。A separate treatment of the supernatural morality of Christians was attempted by St. Ambrose (d. 397) in his books "De officiis", a work which, imitating Cicero's "De officiis", forms a Christian counterpart of the pagan's purely natural discussions.一种超自然的基督徒道德单独处理是企图由圣刘汉铨(四397)在他的著作“德officiis”,一个作品的,模仿西塞​​罗的“德officiis”,形成了一个异教的基督教对口纯天然的讨论。 A work of an entirely different stamp and of larger proportions is the "Expositio in Job, seu moralium lib. XXV", of Gregory the Great (d. 604).一个完全不同的邮票和较大比例的作品是“在就业博览会的,东南大学moralium lib中。二十五”的格雷戈里,大(四604)。It is not a systematic arrangement of the various Christian duties, but a collection of moral instructions and exhortations based on the Book of Job; Alzog (Handbuch der Patrologie, 92) calls it a "fairly complete repertory of morals".这不是一个基督教的职责的各种制度安排,而是一种道德教育和对约伯记的嘱托,收集;阿尔措格(handbuch明镜Patrologie,92)称这是“相当完整的道德剧目”。 More systematic is his work "De cura pastorali" which was intended primarily for the pastor and which is considered even today a classical work in pastoral theology.更系统的就是他的作品“德城联盟pastorali”其目的主要是为牧师,甚至认为这是今天在牧区神学的经典作品。

Having broadly outlined the general progress of moral theology during the Patristic era proper, we must supplement it by detailing the development of a very special branch of moral theology and its practical application.经广泛概述​​了在教父时代正确的道德神学普遍进步,我们必须补充详细介绍了一种道德神学和其实际应用的发展是非常特殊的分支。 For moral theology must necessarily assume a peculiar form when its purpose is restricted to the administration of the Sacrament of Penance.为道德神学必须承担一定特殊形式时,其目的是限制在圣事的忏悔管理。The chief result to be attained was a clear notion of the various sins and their species, of their relative grievousness and importance, and of the penance to be imposed for them.的主要结果是要达到的各种罪孽和他们的物种的相对grievousness和重要性,明确的概念,和忏悔是为他们的罚款。 In order to ensure uniform procedure, it was necessary for ecclesiastical superiors to lay down more detailed directions; this they did either of their own accord or in answer to inquiries.为了确保统一的程序,它是为教会上级要放下更详细的指示;他们这样做,或者他们自己的协议,或在回答查询。Writings of this kind are the pastoral or canonical letters of St. Cyprian, St. Peter of Alexandria, St. Basil of Cappadocia, and St. Gregory of Nyssa; the decretals and synodal letters of a number of popes, as Siricius, Innocent, Celestine, Leo I, etc.; canons of several oecumenical councils.这类著作的圣塞浦路斯,圣彼得的亚历山德里亚,圣卡帕多西亚薄荷,圣格雷戈里的nyssa牧区或规范字母;的decretals和教皇的一个数目Siricius,无辜,主教会议的信件,天青石,狮子座我等;几个oecumenical议会大炮。 These decrees were collected at an early date and used by the bishops and priests as a norm in distinguishing sins and in imposing ecclesiastical penance for them.这些法令收集早日由主教和作为区分罪和实施规范祭司为他们教会忏悔使用。

The ascendancy of the so-called "penitential books" dated from the seventh century, when a change took place in the practice of ecclesiastical penance.对所谓的从第七世纪,当变化发生在教会忏悔执业地点过时“悔罪书”的优势地位。Till then it had been a time-honoured law in the Church that the three capital crimes: apostasy, murder, and adultery, were to be atoned for by an accurately determined penance, which was public at least for public sins.直到那时,它已在教会一个由来已久的法律,这三个资本罪:叛教,谋杀和通奸,分别是由一有血气准确确定忏悔,这是罪孽,至少在公众公开。 This atonement, which consisted chiefly in severe fasts and public, humiliating practices, was accompanied by various religious ceremonies under the strict supervision of the Church; it included four distinct stations or classes of penitents and at times lasted from fifteen to twenty years.这赎罪,其中包括严重的斋戒和公众,羞辱的做法主要是,陪同下,严格监督的教会各种宗教仪式,它包括四个不同的地点或忏悔者和从十五到二十年持续时间类。 At an early period, however, the capital sins mentioned above were divided into sections, according as the circumstances were either aggravating or attenuating;, and a correspondingly longer or shorter period of penance was set down for them.在较早的时期,然而,上述资本罪被划分为几部分,根据情况要么作为加重或减轻,以及相应的忏悔或长或短的时间也为他们了。 When in the course of centuries, entire nations, uncivilized and dominated by fierce passions, were received into the bosom of the Church, and when, as a result, heinous crimes began to multiply, many offences, akin to those mentioned above, were included among sins which were subject to canonical penances, while for others, especially for secret sins, the priest determined the penance, its duration and mode, by the canons.当在几个世纪,整个国家,不文明和激烈的情感为主,课程分为教会的胸前,当作为一个结果,收到的滔天罪行开始繁殖,很多罪行,就像上面提到的那些,被列入其中罪孽都受到规范的修行,而对他人,特别是秘密罪,祭司决定了忏悔,其持续时间和模式的大炮。 The seventh century brought with It a relaxation, not indeed in canonical penance, but in the ecclesiastical control; on the other hand, there was an increase in the number of crimes which demanded a fixed penance if discipline was to be maintained; besides, many hereditary rights of a particular nature, which had led to a certain mitigation of the universal norm of penance, had to be taken into consideration; substitutes and so-called redemptiones, which consisted in pecuniary donations to the poor or to public utilities, gradually gained entrance and vogue; all this necessitated the drawing up of comprehensive lists of the various crimes and of the penances to be imposed for them, so that a certain uniformity among confessors might be reached as to the treatment of penitents and the administration of the sacraments.第七世纪带来了一个放松,不确实的典型忏悔,但在教会的控制,另一方面,有一个数目的罪行忏悔,如果要求一个固定的纪律是保持增加;此外,不少特定的性质,这导致了在一定的普遍规范的忏悔缓解,世袭权利必须考虑;代用品和所谓的redemptiones,这给穷人或公共事业捐赠包括金钱,逐渐取得入口和时尚,所有这需要对各种犯罪和补赎制订全面列出了要实行对他们来说,这样坦白之间可能达成某种一致,以对忏悔者的待遇和圣礼的管理。

There appeared a number of "penitential books" Some of them, bearing the sanction of the Church, closely followed the ancient canonical decrees of the popes and the councils, and the approved statutes of St. Basil, St. Gregory of Nyssa, and others; others were merely private works, which, recommended by the renown of their authors, found a wide circulation, others again went too far in their decisions and hence constrained ecclesiastical superiors either to reprehend or condemn them.似乎有一种“悔罪书”,其中有的其中,承载着制裁的教会,紧随其后的教皇和议会,和圣罗勒,果树高利圣古代典型法令核准的章程和其他;其他人仅仅是私人的作品,其中,由著名的作家,他们的建议,找到了一个广泛流通,人又走得太远在他们的决定,因此无论是限制教会上级申斥或谴责他们。 A more detailed account of these works will be found in another article.这些工程的详细情况将在另一篇文章中找到。

These books were not written for a scientific, but for a practical juridical purpose.这些课本不写一个科学,但实际司法的目的。Nor do they mark an advance in the science of moral theology, but rather a standing-still, nay, even a decadence.他们也不标志着在道德神学科学的进步,而是一个常设的,但是,不仅如此,甚至颓废。Those centuries of migrations, of social and political upheavals, offered a soil little adapted for a successful cultivation of the sciences, and though in the ninth century a fresh attempt was made to raise scientific studies to a higher level, still the work of the subsequent centuries consisted rather in collecting and renewing treasures of former centuries than in adding to them.对社会和政治动乱的迁移,这几百年,提供小一适应的科学培育成功一种土壤,虽然在第九世纪的新尝试将提高到一个更高的科学研究水平,仍是后续工作几个世纪以来包括在收集和更新,而不是增加他们在几个世纪前的宝藏。 This is true of moral-theological questions, no less than of other scientific branches.这是道德的神学问题属实,没有比其他科学分支少。From this stagnation theology in general and moral theology in particular rose again to new life towards the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century.从这个一般停滞神学和道德神学再次上升,特别是对新生活的第十二次结束,十三世纪初。A new current of healthy development was noticeable in moral theology and that in two directions: one in the new strength infused into the practice of the confessors, the other in renewed vigour given to the speculative portion.一个健康发展的新的电流是在道德神学明显,在两个方向:在进入的师的做法,在考虑到其他投机部分注入新的活力的新的力量之一。 With the gradual dying out of the public penances, the "penitential books" lost their importance more and more.随着市民逐渐消亡修行的那样,“悔罪书”,失去了其重要性也越来越多。The confessors grew less concerned about the exact measure of penances than about the essential object of the sacrament, which is the reconciliation of the sinner with God.长大的师少对修行比约的圣餐,这是与上帝的罪人和解的关键对象的精确测量问题。Besides, the "penitential books" were by far too defective for teaching confessors how to judge about the various sins, their consequences and remedies.此外,“悔罪书”是由缺陷的教学过于坦白如何判断对各罪,其后果和补救措施。In order to meet this need, St. Raymond of Peñafort wrote towards the year 1235 the "Summa de poenitentia et matrimonio".为了满足这种需要,圣Peñafort雷蒙德说对1235年的“总结德poenitentia等matrimonio”。 Like his famous collection of decretals, it is a repertory of canons on various matters, ie important passages from the Fathers, councils, and papal decisions.喜欢他decretals著名的集合,它是建立在各种事项,从父亲,议会,和罗马教皇的决定,即重要通道大炮剧目。 More immediately adapted for actual use was the "Summa de casibus conscientiæ", which was written about 1317 by an unknown member of the Order of St. Francis at Asti in Upper Italy, and which is, therefore, known as "Summa Astensana" or "Summa Astensis".更直接的实际使用改编,是“总结德casibus conscientiæ”,这是写在1317年由圣弗朗西斯在意大利​​阿斯蒂令上未知的成员,并因此,作为“总结Astensana”已知或“总结Astensis”。 Its eight books cover the whole subject matter of moral theology and the canonical decrees, both indispensable for the pastor and confessor: Book I, the Divine commandments; II, virtues and vices; III, contracts and wills; IV-VI, sacraments, except matrimony; VII, ecclesiastical censures; VIII, matrimony.其八个书籍封面的道德神学和典型法令,无论是不可缺少的牧师和忏悔整个主题的问题:第一册,神圣的诫命;二,品德和恶习;三,合同,遗嘱;四,六,圣礼,除了婚姻;七,教会指责,八,婚姻。 The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries produced a number of similar summoe for confessors; all of them, however, discarded the arrangement in books and chapters, and adopted the alphabetical order.第十四和第十五个世纪产生了类似的summoe坦白数目;所有这些,然而,放弃了在书本上和章节安排,并通过了字母顺序排列。 Their value is, of course, widely different.他们的价值,当然,广泛不同。The following are the most important and most popular among them: The "Summa confessorum" of the Dominican Johannes of Freiburg (d. 1314) which was published a few years previous to the "Summa Astensis"; its high reputation and wide circulation was due to its revision by another member of the Dominican Order, Bartholomæus of Pisa (d. 1347) who arranged it alphabetically and supplemented its canonical parts; it is commonly known as the "Summa Pisana".以下是其中最重要和最流行的:“总结confessorum”的弗莱堡多米尼加约翰内斯(卒于1314年),它是出版前,以“总结Astensis”数年,其较高的声誉和广泛流传的原因它的另一名多米尼加令,比萨Bartholomæus(草1347)谁是按字母顺序排列的规范和补充修订部分成员,这就是俗称的“总结Pisana”之称。 This work served as the foundation for the "Summa. angelica", a clear and concise treatise, composed about 1476 by the Franciscan Angelus Cerletus, called "Angelus a Clavasio" after his native city, Chiavasso.作为这项工作的基础“总结。当归”,明确和简洁的论述,关于1476年组成的济钟Cerletus故乡后,他叫,Chiavasso“钟一Clavasio”。 Its great popularity is attested by the fact that it went through at least thirty-one editions from 1476 to 1520.其大受欢迎的事实是证明了,它从1476年通过至少三十一个版本,以1520。A like popularity was enjoyed by the "Summa casuum" of the Franciscan, JB Trovamala, which appeared a few years later (1484) and, after being revised by the author himself, in 1495, bore the title of "Summa rosella".像流行是享有“总结casuum”的方济,巴顿Trovamala,其中出现了几年后(1484),并在被作者自己修改,在1495年,承担了“总结罗塞拉”称号。 One of the last and most renowned of these summoe was probably the "Summa Silvestrina" of the Dominican Silvester Prierias (d. 1523), after which moral theology began to be treated in a different manner.最后,也是最知名的这些summoe之一是可能的“总结Silvestrina”的多米尼加西尔维斯特Prierias(卒于1523年)后,道德神学开始被以不同的方式对待。 The summoe here mentioned, being exclusively written for the practical use of confessors, did not spurn the more elementary form; but they represented the results of a thorough, scientific study, which produced not only writings of this kind, but also other systematic works of a profound scholarship.这里提到的summoe,作为专供实际使用的师写的,没有更多的初级形式的唾弃,但他们代表了一个彻底的,科学的研究,生产的不是这个独一无二的著作的结果,而且还包括其他系统的工程一个博大精深。

The twelfth century witnessed a busy activity in speculative theology, which centered about the cathedral and monastic schools.十二世纪见证了投机神学,其中约大教堂和修道院学校繁忙的活动中心。These produced men like Hugh and Richard of St. Victor, and especially Hugh's pupil, Peter the Lombard, called the Master of the Sentences, who flourished in the cathedral school of Paris towards the middle of the century, and whose "Libri sententiarum" served for several centuries as the standard text-book in theological lecture-halls.像休和圣维克多,特别是理查德休的弟子,彼得大帝伦巴第,这些所谓的制作人句,是谁在巴黎教会学校蓬勃发展对本世纪中叶主人,而且其“利布里sententiarum”送达作为标准文本,在神学讲座,厅的书好几个世纪。 In those days, however, when dangerous heresies against the fundamental dogmas and mysteries of the Christian faith began to appear, the moral part of the Christian doctrine received scant treatment; Peter the Lombard incidentally discusses a few moral questions, as eg, about sin, while speaking of creation and the original state of man, or more in particular, while treating of original sin.在那些日子里,但是,当对基本教条和信仰基督教的奥秘开始出现危险的异端邪说,对基督教教义的道义上的部分受到足够的待遇;彼得大帝伦巴第顺带讨论了一些道德问题,因为如对罪,而谈到创作和人的原始状态,或在特别多,而治疗的原罪。 Other questions, eg, about the freedom of our actions and the nature of human actions in general, are answered in the doctrine on Christ, where he discusses the knowledge and the will of Christ.其他问题,例如,对我们的行动自由和一般人的行动的性质,是在基督,在那里他讨论了理论知识和基督会回答。Even the renowned commentator of the "Sentences", Alexander of Hales, O. Min., does not yet seriously enter into Christian morals.即使是“服刑”著名评论员,黑尔斯,澳分钟。,亚历山大还没有认真地进入基督教道德。The work of constructing moral theology as a speculative science was at last undertaken and completed by that great luminary of theology, St. Thomas of Aquin, to whose "Summa theologica" we referred above.兴建科学道德作为一种投机神学是在去年开展的工作和杰出人物的伟大的神学,圣托马斯阿奎那人,他们的“神学大全”我们上文提到完成。 Aside from this masterpiece, of which the second part and portions of the third pertain to morals, there are several minor works extant which bear a moral and ascetical character; the last-named branch was cultivated with extraordinary skill by St. Bonaventure of the Franciscan Order, though he did not equal the systematic genius of St. Thomas.除了这一杰作,其中第二部分和第三部分涉及到道德,有几个小型工程现存负有道义和ascetical性格;最后命名分公司培养具有非凡的技巧,由圣方济文德令,但他并没有等于圣托马斯系统天才。

This and the subsequent centuries produced a number of prominent theologians, some of whom contested various doctrines of Aquinas, as Duns Scotus and his adherents, while others followed in his footsteps and wrote commentaries on his works, as Ægidius Romanus and Capreolus.这和以后的几个世纪产生了突出的神学家,其中一些有争议的邓司各脱和他的追随者阿奎那各种学说,数量,而在他的后尘和其他人说的埃吉迪乌斯罗曼努斯和狍对他的作品的评论。 Nevertheless, purely moral-theological questions were rarely made the subject of controversy during this time; a new epoch in the method of moral theology did not dawn until after the Council of Trent.然而,纯粹的道德的神学问题,很少在此期间提出的有争议的问题,一个在道德神学法的新时代并没有等到安理会的遄达的曙光。 However, there are two extremely fertile writers of the fifteenth century who not only exerted a powerful influence on the advancement of theology but raised the standard of practical life.但是,有两个非常肥沃的十五世纪谁不仅产生了对神学的进步强大的影响力,但提高了实际生活标准的作家。They are Dionysius the Carthusian and St. Antoninus, Bishop of Florence.他们是卡尔特狄奥尼修斯和圣安东尼,佛罗伦萨主教。The former is well known for his ascetical works, while the latter devoted himself to the practice of the confessional and the ordinary work of the pastor.前者是众所周知的,他苦修的作品,而后者则投身于实践的自白和普通工作的牧师。His "Summa theologica" belongs specially to our subject.他的“神学大全”属于特别向我们的主题。It went through several editions, and A. Ballerini's revision of it, which appeared in 1740 at Florence, contains four folios.它经历了几个版本,并答巴莱里尼,对它的修改,这在1740年出现在佛罗伦萨,包含四个黹。The third volume treats chiefly of ecclesiastical law; it discusses at great length the legal position of the Church and its penal code.第三卷主要由教会法对待,它在很大篇幅论述了教会和其刑法典的法律地位。A few chapters of the first volume are devoted to the psychological side of man and his actions.第一个量的几章是致力于人与他的行为心理方面。The remainder of the whole work is a commentary, from the purely moral standpoint, on the second part of St. Thomas's "Summa theologica", to which it constantly refers.在余下的整个工作是一个评论,从纯粹道德角度来看,在圣托马斯的“神学大全”第二部分,因为它需要不断地提到。It is not a mere theoretical explanation, but is so replete with juridical and casuistical details that it may be called an inexhaustible fountain for manuals of casuistry.它不是一个纯粹的理论解释,但这样的法律和casuistical,它可被称为取之不尽,用之不竭的诡辩手册喷泉充满细节。 How highly the practical wisdom of Antoninus was esteemed even during his lifetime is attested by the surname "Antoninus consiliorum", Antoninus of good counsel, given to him in the Roman Breviary.有多高的安东尼实践智慧是尊敬,甚至在他的一生是由姓“安东尼consiliorum”证明,良好的律师给予他的罗马祈祷,安东尼。

A new life was breathed into the Catholic Church by the Council of Trent.一种新的生活注入了天主教教会,安理会的遄达。Reformation of morals gave a fresh impetus to theological science.道德改革进行了新的动力,神学的科学。These had gradually fallen from the high level to which they had risen at the time of St. Thomas; the desire of solid advancement had frequently given place to seeking after clever argumentations on unimportant questions.这些已逐渐下降,从高层次的,他们已在圣托马斯时间增加;欲望的扎实稳步推进了经常给地方上不重要的问题后寻求聪明论证。 The sixteenth century witnessed a complete change.十六世纪见证了彻底的改变。Even before the council convened, there were eminent scholars of a serious turn of mind as Thomas of Vio (usually called Cajetanus), Victoria, and the two Sotos, all men whose solid knowledge of theology proved of immense benefit to the Council itself.即使是在安理会召开,有一种心态严重之交的紫罗兰托马斯(通常称为Cajetanus),维多利亚州和两个索托斯著名学者,所有的人,其坚实的知识神学莫大裨益证明安理会本身。 Their example was followed by a long series of excellent scholars, especially Dominicans and members of the newly-founded Society of Jesus.他们的例子,其次是一个优秀的学者,特别是多米尼加和新成立的耶稣会成员长期系列。It was above all the systematic side of moral theology which was now taken up with renewed zeal.这是高于一切的道德神学系统的一边,现在是采取以新的热情了。In former centuries, Peter the Lombard's "Sentences" had been the universal text-book, and more prominent theological works of subsequent ages professed to be nothing else than commentaries upon them; henceforth, however, the "Summa theologica" of St. Thomas was followed as guide in theology and a large number of the best theological works, written after the Council of Trent, were entitled "Commentarii in Summam Sti. Thomæ''. The natural result was a more extensive treatment of moral questions, since these constituted by far the largest portion of St. Thomas's "Summa". Among the earliest classical works of this kind is the "Commentariorum theologicorum tomi quattuor" of Gregory of Valentia. It is well thought out and shows great accuracy; vols. III and IV contain the explanation of the "Prima Secundæ" and the "Secunda Secundæ" of St. Thomas. This work was succeeded, at the end of the sixteenth and the beginning of the seventeenth century, by a number of similar commentaries; among them stand out most prominently those of Gabriel Vásquez", Lessius, Francisco Suárez, Becanus, and the works of Thomas Sanchez "In decalogum" as well as "Consilia moralia", which are more casuistical in their method; the commentaries of Dominic Bánez, which had appeared some time before; and those of Medina (see MEDINA, BARTHOLOMEW, PROBABILISM).在前几个世纪,彼得大帝伦巴第的“句”已被普遍课本,以后的年龄和更加突出的神学著作声称要在他们身上没有别的比评论,从今以后,但是,“总结theologica”圣托马斯其次为指导,在神学和最好的神学作品数量众多,安理会的遄达后写了题为“Summam性传播疾病。Thomæ '' Commentarii。自然的结果是一个道德问题,更广泛的治疗,因为这些构成了。到目前为止,圣托马斯的“总结”最大的部分之中,这种最早的经典作品是“Commentariorum theologicorum托米quattuor”对瓦伦西亚格雷戈里它是经过深思熟虑的,并显示很准确。。第三和第四卷包含。的“表面Secundæ”和“塞康达Secundæ”圣托马斯这项工作是成功的,在第十六结束和十七世纪初,受了很多类似的评论数量,解释;站出来,其中最突出巴斯克斯那些加布里埃尔“,Lessius,弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,Becanus,以及托马斯桑切斯工程”decalogum“以及”Consilia moralia“,这是对他们更诡辩的方法;的多米尼克Bánez,这已经出现一段时间的评论之前和麦地那的措施(见麦地那,巴塞洛缪,盖然)。

Prominent among all those mentioned is Francis Francisco Suárez, SJ, in whose voluminous works the principle questions of the "Seounda" of St. Thomas are developed with great accuracy and a wealth of positive knowledge.在所有提到的那些最突出的是弗朗西斯弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,律政司司长,在其工程浩繁的“Seounda”圣托马斯的原则问题是拥有很高的精度和知识财富的积极发展。 Almost every question is searchingly examined, and brought nearer its final solution; the most varied opinions of former theologians are extensively discussed, subjected to a close scrutiny, and the final decision is given with great circumspection, moderation, and modesty.几乎每一个问题是searchingly审查,并接近其最终的解决办法提出;前神学家最广泛讨论的不同意见,受到了密切关注,最终决定是非常谨慎,节制,和谦虚给出。 A large folio treats the fundamental questions of moral theology in general:一个大对开待人的一般道德神学的基本问题:

(1) De fine et beatitudine;(1)德等beatitudine罚款;

(2) De voluntario et involuntario, et de actibus humanis; (2)德voluntario等involuntario,等德actibus humanis;

(3) De bonitate et malitia humanorum actuum;(3)德bonitate等malitia humanorum actuum;

(4) De passionibus et vitiis.(4)德passionibus等vitiis。

Another volume treats of "Laws": several folio volumes are devoted to treatises which do indeed belong to morals, but which are inseparably connected with other strictly dogmatic questions about God and His attributes, viz., "De gratia divina"; they are today assigned everywhere to dogma proper; a third series gives the entire doctrine of the sacraments (with the exception of matrimony) from their dogmatic and moral side.另一个卷对待“法律”:几个页码卷致力于论文,其中确实属于道德,但它是不可分割地与其他严格教条式的对上帝和他的属性,即连接的问题,“德特惠神曲”,他们的今天。分配给各地的教条适当的;三分之一系列给人的从他们的教条式的道德方面的圣礼(与婚姻除外)的全部学说。 Not all of the various virtues were examined by Francisco Suárez; besides the treatise on the theological virtues, we possess only that on the virtue of religion.并非所有的各种美德检查旧金山苏亚雷斯,除了对论文的神学的美德,我们拥有对宗教的美德不仅如此。But if any of Francisco Suárez's works may be called classical it is the last-named, which discusses in four volumes the whole subject "De religione" Within the whole range of "religio", including its notion and relative position, its various acts and practices, as prayers, vows, oaths, etc., the sins against it, there can hardly be found a dogmatic or casuistic question that has not been either solved or whose solution has not at least been attempted.但是,如果弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯的作品,否则可被称为经典,是最后的命名,其中讨论范围内的“宗教化”的整个范围四卷整个课题“德religione”,包括其概念和相对位置,它的各种行为和做法,祈祷,发誓,宣誓等,得罪它,有难以发现的教条或诡辩的问题还没有得到任何解决或解决的,至少还没有尝试过。 Of the last two volumes one treats of religious orders in general, the other of the "Institute" of the Society of Jesus.在过去两册一对待宗教订单一般情况下,“研究所”耶稣的社会其他。

In the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth century, there appeared a number of similar, though conciser, works which treat moral-theological questions as a part of universal theology with the genuine spirit of Scholastic science.在十七和十八世纪的进程中,出现了类似的数字,虽然conciser,工程,当作一种普遍的学术神学与科学的真正精神的一部分道德的神学问题。 There are those of Tanner, Coninck, Platel, Gotti, Billuart, and many others, the mere enumeration of whom would lead us too far afield.还有的坦纳,Coninck,Platel,戈蒂,Billuart,和许多其他人,仅仅列举其中将导致我们太遥远了。 We must, however, mention one to whom nobody can deny the honour of having advanced both speculative and practical theology, and especially practical morals, John de Lugo.我们必须,然而,提及一个人,没有人能否认拥有先进的了投机性和实用神学,特别是实际的道德,约翰德卢戈荣誉。Endowed with uncommon, speculative genius and clear, practical judgment, he in many instances pointed out entirely new paths towards the solution of moral questions.与罕见的,投机天才和明确的,实际的判断赋,在许多情况下,他指出,对道德问题的解决完全新的道路。Speaking of his moral theology, St. Alphonsus styles him "by all odds leader after St. Thomas".在谈到他的道德神学,圣阿方风格“的所有可能性后圣托马斯领袖”他。The works that have come down to us are: "De fide", "De Incarnatione", "De justitia et jure", "De sacramentis", viz., "De sacramentis in genere", "De baptismo et eucharistia", and "De poenitentia".那些已回落到我们的作品有:“德有诚意”,“德incarnatione”,“德justitia等法律上”,“德sacramentis”,即,“德中genere sacramentis”,“德baptismo等eucharistia”,和。 “德poenitentia”。It is above all the volume "De poenitentia" which, through its sixteenth disputation, has become the classical handbook for casuistical moral theology and particularly for the specific distinction of sins; to the same subject belong the posthumous "Responsa moralia", a collection of answers given by de Lugo in complicated cases of conscience.它首先是数量的“德poenitentia”为主,通过其第十六争论,已成为特别为罪的具体区别的诡辩的道德神学,古典手册;同一事项属于谥“Responsa moralia”,一个集合答案给予德卢戈在良心复杂的案件。This is not the place to point out his eminence as a dogmatist; suffice it to say that many far-reaching questions receive original solutions, which, though not universally accepted, have yet shed considerable light on these subjects.这不是地方,指出他作为一个教条主义者的重要地位,我只想说,许多影响深远的问题得到原来的解决方案,其中,虽然没有被普遍接受,尚未阐明这些问题相当轻。

The method which Lugo applies to moral theological questions, may well be called mixed, that is, it is both speculative and casuistical.卢戈的方法,适用于道德神学问题,很可能是所谓的混合,也就是说,它既是投机和casuistical。 Such works of a mixed character now grow common, they treat the whole subject-matter of moral theology, in as far as it is serviceable for the confessor and the pastor, in this mixed manner, though they insist more on casuistry than did Lugo.一个混合性质的这类作品现在共同成长,他们对待整个主题的道德神学-事情,就因为它是为忏悔和牧师在这种混合方式,维修,但他们坚持诡辩也多卢戈。 A type of this kind is the "Theologia moralis" of Paul Laymann (d. 1635); in this category may also be numbered the "Theologia decalogalis" and "Theologia sacramentalis" of Sporer (d. 1683), the "Conferentiæ" of Elbel (d. 1756), and the "Theologia moralis" of Reuter (d. 1762).一个这种类型是“神学莫拉利斯”保Laymann(草1635),在这一类也可编号的“神学decalogalis”和“神学sacramentalis”的Sporer(四1683年)中,“Conferentiæ”的埃尔贝尔(草1756),和“神学莫拉利斯”的罗伊特(四1762)。 Almost numberless are the manuals for confessors, written in a simple casuistical form, though even these justify their conclusions by internal reasons after legitimatizing them by an appeal to external authority.几乎是为无数的师手册,在一个简单的诡辩的形式写的,但即使这些理由合法化后,由外部权威呼吁他们,他们的结论是由内部原因。 They are not unfrequently the fruit of thorough, speculative knowledge and extensive reading.他们不是在充分相仿,理论知识和广泛的阅读成果。One of the most solid is probably the "Manuale confessariorum et poenitentium" of Azpilcueta (1494-1586), the great canonist, commonly known as "Doctor Navarrus"; furthermore, the "Instructio sacerdotum" or "Summa casuum conscientiæ" of Cardinal Tolet (d. 1596), which was highly recommended by St. Francis of Sales.最坚实的一个可能就是“Manuale confessariorum等poenitentium”的Azpilcueta(1494年至1586年),大canonist,俗称“医生Navarrus”之称,此外,“教学的sacerdotum”或“总结casuum conscientiæ”红衣主教Tolet (四1596),这是非常推荐的圣弗朗西斯的销售。One other work must also be mentioned, viz., the so-called "Medulla theologiæ moralis" of Hermann Busenbaum (d. 1688), which has become famous on account of its very extensive use (forty editions in less than twenty years during the lifetime of the author) and the number of its commentators.另外一个工作还必须提到,即。,所谓的“延髓theologiæ莫拉利斯”赫尔曼Busenbaum(草1688),这成为其非常广泛的使用(在不到二十年第四版本在帐户名一生的作者)和其评论员。 Among these are included Claude Lacroix, whose moral theology is considered as one of the most valuable of the eighteenth century, and St. Alphonsus Liguori, with whom, however, an entirely new epoch of moral theology commences.其中包括克劳德拉克鲁瓦,其道德神学是为十八世纪最有价值的考虑,并与圣阿方liguori,谁,但是,如果对道德神学开始全新的时代。

Before entering upon this new phase, let us glance at the development of the so-called systems of morals and the controversies which sprang up among Catholic scholars, as well as at the casuistical method of treating moral theology in general.在此之前进入新的阶段,让我们浏览一下的道德和争议的兴起,其中天主教学者组成所谓的系统开发,以及在治疗一般道德神学casuistical方法。 For it is precisely the casuistry of moral theology around which these controversies centre, and which has experienced severe attacks in our own day.因为这恰恰是决疑的道德神学围绕这些争论的中心,并已在我们自己的一天经历了严重的攻击。These attacks were for the most part confined to Germany.这些攻击是对限于德国最一部分。The champions of the adversaries are JB Hirscher (d. 1865), Döllinger, Reusch, and a group of Catholic scholars who, in the years 1901 and 1902, demanded a "reform of Catholic moral theology", though all were not moved by the same spirit.在对手的冠军是巴顿希尔社(草1865),多林格,Reusch,以及天主教学者谁,在1901年和1902年组,要求一个“天主教道德神学的改革”,但均没有被感动同样的精神。 In Hirscher it was the zeal for a supposedly good cause, though he was implicated in theological errors; Döllinger and Reusch attempted to cover their defection from the Church and their refusal to acknowledge the papal infallibility by holding up to the ridicule of the world ecclesiastical conditions and affairs which they thought militated against that infallibility; the latest phase of this opposition is mainly the result of misunderstandings.在希尔社,这是一个被认为是良好的事业的热情,尽管他在神学上的错误牵连;多林格和reusch企图掩饰他们从教会和他们拒绝承认通过举办叛逃到世界嘲笑教会的条件下,教皇犯错误而他们认为针对该犯错误militated事务;了这种对立的最新阶段主要是误解的结果。 In order to elucidate the accusations brought against casuistry, we use the wholly unjustifiable criticism which Hirscher launched against Scholastic theology in general in his work of 1832, "On the Relation between the Gospel and Theological Scholasticism"; it is quoted approvingly by Döllinger and Reusch (Moralstreitigkeiten, 13 sqq.):为了阐明对诡辩带来的指责,我们使用的全无理的批评,希尔社发起反对学术神学一般在他的作品1832年,“在福音与神学之间的关系士林”,是引述多林格和reusch赞许(Moralstreitigkeiten,13 sqq。):

(1) "Instead of penetrating into the spirit which makes virtue what it is and underlies everything that is good in this world, in other words, instead of beginning with the one indivisible nature of all goodness, they begin with the material of the various moral precepts and prohibitions without adverting to where these originate, on what foundation they rest, and what is their life-giving principle." (1)“而不是进入这使得美德的精神是什么,背后的一切,在这个世界上良好的穿透性,换句话说,而不是与所有善良的一个不可分割的性质开始,他们开始用各种材料没有adverting道德的内容与这些来自哪里,在什么基础就休息,什么是他们赋予生命的原则禁令。“ This means that Scholastics and casuists know only individual things, see nothing universal and uniform in the virtues and duties.这意味着scholastics和casuists知道,只有个别的东西,什么也看不到普遍和美德和义务的统一。

(2) "Instead of deriving these precepts and prohibitions from the one, individual essence of all goodness and thereby creating certainty in the moral judgments of their audience, they, rejecting principles, string 'shalt' to 'shalt', provide them with innumerable statutes and clauses, confuse and oppress the hearer by the overflowing measure of duties, half-duties, non-duties." (2)“,而不是从一产生,所有这些戒律善良个体本质和禁令,从而创造自己的道德判断观众的肯定,他们,拒绝的原则,字符串'必'到'必',他们提供了无数章程和条款,以混淆视听,压迫四溢措施的职责,半职务,非职务的听者。“ In other words, the Scholastics oppress and confuse by an unnecessary multiplication of duties and non-duties.换句话说,该scholastics压迫和混淆的关税和非关税不必要的乘法。

(3) "It is more in accordance with the spirit of Mosaism than with that of Christianity when Christian morality is treated less as a doctrine of virtues than of laws and duties, and when by adding commandment to commandment, prohibition to prohibition, it gives us a full and shaken measure of moral rules instead of building up on the Christian spirit, deriving everything from it and pointing out all particular virtues in its light." (3)“这是更按照Mosaism比基督教的精神,当基督教道德被视为一个比法律和义务,美德学说少,加上戒律戒律,禁止禁止的时候,它给我们,而不是建立在基督教精神的道德规则的全部注册和动摇的措施,从它产生的一切并指出了它的光所有特定的美德。“ Or briefly, casuistry promotes exterior sanctimoniousness without the interior spirit.或者简单地说,诡辩促进内部的精神没有外部sanctimoniousness。

(4) "Those who treat morals from the standpoint of casuistry, assign an important part to the distinction between grave and light laws grave and light duties, serious and slight transgressions, mortal and venial sins. . . . Now, the distinction between grievous and venial sins is not without a solid foundation, and if it is chiefly based on the different qualities of the will, and if, besides, the various degrees of goodness and malice are measured by the presence, eg, of a purely good and strong will, of one less pure and less strong, of a weak, inert, impure, malicious, perverted will, then nobody will raise his voice against it. But it is wholly different when the distinction between mortal and venial sins is taken objectively, and based on the gravity and lightness of the commandments. . . . Such a distinction between mortal and venial sins, founded on the material differences of the commandments and the prohibitions, is a source of torment and anxiety for many. . . . True morality cannot be advanced through such an anxiety. . . . The mass of the people will derive only this one profit from such a method: many will refrain from what is forbidden under pain of mortal sin and will do what is commanded under the same penalty, but they will care little for what is commanded or forbidden under pain of venial sin only; on the contrary they will seek a compensation in the latter for what they sacrificed to the grave commandments. But can we call the lives of such men Christian?" (4)“谁把从道德的角度来看决疑,分配的重要组成部分之间的严重和严重的法律和轻轻职责,严重和轻微的罪过,凡人venial罪的区别。。。。现在,两者的区别严重and venial罪孽,是不是没有一个坚实的基础,如果它主要是对不同质量会为基础,如果,此外,善良和邪恶之测量了不同程度的存在,例如,一个纯粹的好强会,少了一个纯洁和少强,弱,惰性,不纯,恶意的,变态的意志,那么没有人会提出他的反对的声音。但它是完全不同的时间凡人venial罪的区别是采取客观,根据严重性和诫命的光辉。。。。之间的这种凡人,venial罪孽的诫命和禁令的重大差异成立,区别是一个痛苦的来源和许多焦虑。。。。真正的道德不能通过这样的焦虑推进了人民群众将得到只有这从这样的方法之一利润:。。。。很多的,什么是痛下的弥天大罪,并禁止将不再会做什么指挥下,同样的刑罚,但他们会关心什么是指挥或根据禁止venial单只有痛苦小,相反,他们将寻求在后者为他们牺牲到坟墓诫命补偿,但我们可以调用基督教这样的人的生命“。? In other words, casuistry falsifies the consciences by distinguishing objectively between mortal and venial sins, leads to a contempt of the latter, and renders a genuinely Christian life impossible.换句话说,疑伪造的区分凡人venial罪客观的良知,导致了后者的蔑视,并呈现一个真正的基督徒的生活是不可能的。

It is not difficult to refute all these accusations.这是不难反驳这些指控。One glance at the "Summa theologica" of St. Thomas will prove how incorrect is the first charge that Scholasticism and casuistry know only individual good acts and individual virtues, without inquiring into the foundation common to all virtues.一是在“总结theologica”圣托马斯一眼将证明是第一个多么不正确指控士林和诡辩知道没有进入地基共同所有的美德,只有个别的查询良好行为和个人品德。 Before treating the individual virtues and the individual duties, St. Thomas gives us a whole volume of discussions of a general nature, of which we may note the profound speculations on the last end, the goodness and malice of human actions, the eternal law.治疗前的个人美德和个人职责,圣托马斯为我们提供了一个一般性质,其中我们可以注意到在去年年底的深刻揣测讨论整个体积,善与人的行动,恶意的永恒规律。

The second accusation, that the Scholastic casuistry confuses the mind by its mass of duties and non-duties, can only mean that the Scholastic casuistry sets these up arbitrarily and contrary to truth.第二个指控,认为其学术诡辩混淆的职务和非职务,大众的头脑可以只意味着在学术上的诡辩设置这些注册随意违背真理。The complaint can only refer to those works and lectures which aim at the instruction of the clergy, pastors, and confessors.投诉只能是指那些作品和演讲,目的在神职人员,牧师,和confessors指令。The reader or hearer who is confused or oppressed by this "mass of duties etc."读者或听者谁是混淆或本“的职责等群众性的”被压迫者 shows by this very fact that he has not the talent necessary for the office of confessor or spiritual guide, that he should therefore choose another vocation.显示了这个事实,他并没有为人才的忏悔或精神指导办公室必要的,因此,他应该选择另外的职业。

The third charge, directed against Judaical hypocrisy which neglects the fostering of the interior life, is refuted by every work on casuistry, however meagre, for every one of them states most emphatically that, without the state of grace and a good intention, all external works, no matter how difficult and heroic, are valueless in the sight of God.第三项控罪,对犹太教虚伪而忽略了生活的室内培养,定向是每个驳斥诡辩的工作,但微薄的为他们每个人,大多数国家强调,如果没有国家的宽限期和良好的意愿,所有外部作品,无论多么困难和英雄,都在神面前毫无价值。 Can the necessity of the internal spirit be brought out more clearly?才能使内在精神有必要被带出更清楚?And even if, in some cases, the external fulfilment of a certain work is laid down as the minimum demanded by God or the Church, without which the Christian would incur eternal damnation, yet this is not banishing the internal spirit, but designating the external fulfilment as the low-water mark of morality.而且,即使在某些情况下,一个外部的建成是某些工作的最低规定由上帝或教会,没有永恒的基督教会招致诅咒,但这不是驱逐的内在精神要求,但指定的外部履行作为道德的低水位。

Lastly, the fourth charge springs from a very grave theological error.最后,第四费从一个非常严重的神学错误弹簧。There can be no doubt that, in judging the heinousness of sin and in distinguishing between mortal and venial sins, the subjective element must be taken into consideration, However, every compendium of moral theology, no matter how casuistical, meets this requirement.不可能有任何的是,在判断罪heinousness以及两者之间的区分凡人venial罪,主观因素必须加以考虑,但是,每一个汇编的道德神学,无论多么诡辩的,无疑符合这一要求。 Every manual distinguishes sins which arise from ignorance, weakness, malice, without, however, labelling all sins of weakness as venial sins, or all sins of malice as mortal sins; for there are surely minor acts of malice which cannot be said to cause the death of the soul.每个手册区分罪恶是无知,软弱,有恶意出现变化,但是,标签为可原谅的罪,或作为罪的恶意所有的罪孽弱点所有的罪,因为有很多恶意肯定轻微,不能说是导致行为死亡的灵魂。 Every manual also takes cognizance of sins which are committed without sufficient deliberation, knowledge, or freedom: all these, even though the matter be grave, are counted as venial sins.每个手册还注意到罪孽是没有足够的讨论,知识,或自由致力于认定:所有这些,即使是严重的问题,为venial罪孽计算。 On the other hand, every manual recognizes venial and grievous sins which are such by the gravity of the matter alone.另一方面,每一个人工确认可宽恕的罪和严重此类由单独的问题严重性的。Or who would, abstracting from everything else, put a jocose lie on a par with the denial of faith?或谁会,从一切抽象,把一杆与信仰否定一个诙谐的谎言吗?But even in these sins, mortal or venial according to their object, the casuists lay stress on the personal dispositions in which the sin was actually committed.但即使在这些罪孽,凡人或可原谅的根据自己的对象,casuists躺在其中实际犯的罪是个人气质的影响。Hence, their universal principle: the result of a subjectively erroneous conscience may be that an action which is in itself only venial, becomes a mortal sin, and vice versa, that an action which is in itself mortally sinful, that is, constitutes a grave violation of the moral law, may be only a venial sin.因此,他们普遍的原则:一个主观错误的良心,可能是一个行动,这本身就是只可原谅的,结果变成了弥天大罪,反之亦然,即一个行动,这本身就是致命罪孽深重,即构成了严重违反了道德律,也许只是一个venial单。 Nevertheless, all theologians, also casuists, consider a correct conscience a great boon and hence endeavour, by their casuistic discussions, to contribute towards the formation of correct consciences, so that the subjective estimate of the morality of certain actions may coincide, as far as possible, with the objective norm of morality.然而,所有的神学家,也casuists,考虑一个正确的良心是一个喜讯和诡辩的讨论,因此他们的努力,以有助于实现正确的良心的形成,使某些行为道德主观估计可能一致,尽可能可能,客观的道德准则。

When, lastly, various opponents of the casuistical method object that the moralist occupies himself exclusively with sins and their analysis, with the "dark side" of human life, let them remember that it is physically impossible to say everything in one breath, that, just as in many other arts and sciences, a division of labour may also be advantageous for the science of moral theology, that the particular purpose of manuals and lectures may be limited to the education of skilled confessors and that this purpose may very well be fulfilled by centering attention on the dark side of human life.当最后,casuistical方法的对象,完全占据了道德的罪孽和他们的分析与“阴暗面”人的生命,自己不同的对手,让他们记住,这是实际上不可能一口气说一切,,正如在许多其他艺术和科学,分工也可能是科学的道德神学优势,即特殊用途的手册和讲座可能仅限于教育的熟练的师,而这个目的很可能是履行通过围绕人类生活的阴暗面的重视。 Nevertheless, it must be granted that this cannot be the only purpose of moral theology: a thorough discussion of all Christian virtues and the means of acquiring them is Indispensable.不过,它必须被理所当然地认为这不能成为道德神学的唯一目的:所有的基督教美德的深入讨论,并取得他们的手段是必不可少的。 If at any time this part of moral theology should be pushed to the background, moral theology would become one-sided and would need a revision, not by cutting down casuistry, but by devoting more time and energy to the doctrine of virtues in their scientific, parenetical, and ascetical aspect.如果在任何时候这种道德神学的一部分,应推到了幕后,道德神学,将成为一个片面的,需要进行修订,以削减决疑,而是通过投入更多的时间和精力的美德在他们的科学理论,parenetical,和ascetical方面。 In all these branches of moral theology, a great advance was noticeable at the time of the Council of Trent.在所有这些分支机构的道德神学,一个伟大的进步是在安理会的遄达时间明显。That more stress was laid on casuistry in particular, finds its explanation in the growing frequency of sacramental confession.这更多的压力,尤其是放在决疑,发现其在圣供认日益频繁的解释。This is freely conceded by our adversaries.这是自由地承认我们的对手。Döllinger and Reusch say (op. cit., 19 sqq.): "The fact that casuistry underwent a further development after the sixteenth century, is connected with further changes in the penitential discipline. From that time on the custom prevailed of approaching the confessional more frequently, regularly before Communion, of confessing not only grievous, but also venial sins, and of asking the confessor's advice for all troubles of the spiritual life, so that the confessor became more and more a spiritual father and guide."多林格和reusch说(同前,19 sqq。。):“事实上,疑十六世纪后接受进一步的发展,是与该penitential纪律进一步改变连接在自定义时间上的接近忏悔占了上风。更加频繁,经常在共融,不仅严重的承认,也可原谅的罪孽,并要求所有的精神生活困扰忏悔的意见,让忏悔成为越来越多的精神之父和引导。“ The confessor needed this schooling and scientific training, which alone could enable him to give correct decisions in complex cases of human life, to form a correct estimate of moral goodness or defect, duty or violation of duty, virtue or vice.忏悔需​​要这种教育和科学训练,只有这样可以使他放弃在人类生活的复杂情况下,正确决策,形成了道德上的善或缺陷,责任或义务,违反道德或副正确的估计。 Now, it was inevitable that the confessor should meet cases where the existence or exact measure of the obligation remained obscure even after careful examination, where the moralist was therefore confronted by the question what the final decision in these cases should be: whether one was obliged to consider oneself bound when the duty was obscure and doubtful, or how one could remove this doubt and arrive at the definite conclusion that there was no strict obligation.现在,这是不可避免的忏悔应满足的情况下的义务的存在或精确测量模糊不清,甚至经过仔细检查,因此,那里的道德面临的问题是什么,在这些案件的最终决定应该是:一个人是否有责任要考虑自己的职责时,必然是含糊和可疑的,或如何可以消除这种疑虑,并在明确的结论得出,有没有严格的义务。 That the former could not be the case, but that an obligation, to exist, must first be proved, had always been known and had been variously expressed in practical rules: "In dubiis benigniora sequenda", "odiosa sunt restringenda", etc. The basic principle, however, for solving such dubious cases and attaining the certitude necessary for the morality of an action was not always kept clearly in view.前者可能并非如此,而是一种义务,存在,必须首先证明,一直被称为,并已在实际各种不同规则表示:“在dubiis benigniora sequenda”,“odiosa必须遵守restringenda”等的基本原则,但是,对于解决这些可疑个案,并实现确定性的必要道德的行动并不总是保持清楚的看法。 To establish this universal principle, was equivalent to establishing a moral system; and the various systems were distinguished by the principle to which each adhered.要建立这样的普遍原则,相当于建立一个道德体系,以及各系统是由著名的原则,而每个坚持。

The history of Probabilism is given under this title, suffice it to say here that from the middle of the seventeenth century when the violent discussion of this question begins, the development of moral theology coincides with that of Probabilism and of other Probabilistic systems; although these systems touch only a small portion of morals and of moral truths and nothing is farther from the truth than the opinion, so wide-spread among the adversaries of Catholic morals, that Probabilism gave a new shape and a new spirit to the whole of moral theology.规范数学史的下给出这个称号,我只想说从十七世纪时,这个问题的激烈讨论中开始在这里,道德神学的发展恰好与probabilism和其他概率系统,虽然这些系统触摸远离真理,比认为,如此之广,在天主教的传播道德的对手,这给了一个新的形状规范数学和新的精神,以道德神学整只一小部分道德和道德的真理,没有什么。 Probabilism and the other systems of morals are concerned only about cases which are objectively doubtful; hence they abstract entirely from the wide sphere of certain, established truths. probabilism和其他系统的道德只关心案件,在客观上值得怀疑,因此他们完全从抽象肯定,宽领域建立真理。Now, the latter class is by far the larger in moral theology also; were it not so, human reason would be in a sorry plight, and Divine providence would have bestowed little care on the noblest of its visible creatures and on their highest goods, even in the supernatural order, in which a full measure of gifts and graces was showered upon those ransomed in Christ.现在,后一类是目前在道德神学也越大,如果不是这样,人类的理性会在一个抱歉的困境,天意会赐予其有形的生物对他们的最高尚,商品很少照顾,即使在超自然的秩序,其中的礼品和风度的措施是对那些在基督赎洗澡。 The certain and undoubted portion includes all the fundamental questions of Christian morals; it comprises those principles of the moral order by which the relations of man to himself, to God, to his neighbour, and to the various communities are regulated; it embraces the doctrine of the last end of man and of the supernatural means of attaining this end.一定的和不容置疑的部分包括所有的基督教道德的基本问题,它包括道德秩序,其中的关系人对自己,对上帝,他的邻居,并以各社区的规管这些原则,它包含了教义在最后结束的男子和对实现这个目标,超自然的手段。 There is only a comparatively small number of objectively obscure and doubtful laws or duties that appeal to Probabilism or Antiprobabilism for a decision.只有一个客观含糊和可疑的法律或职责,决定呼吁probabilism或Antiprobabilism比较小的数目。 However, as has been said, since the middle of the seventeenth century, the interest of moral theologians centered in the question about Probabilism or Antiprobabilism.然而,正如人们所说,自十七世纪,在有关问题probabilism或Antiprobabilism利益为中心的道德神学家中。

Just as far from the truth is the second opinion of the adversaries of Probabilism, vix., that this system induces people to evade the laws and hardens them into callousness.正如目前是从真理的规范数学对手,波动率指数。第二种观点,该系统引起人们逃避到无情的法律和变硬他们。 On the contrary, to moot the question of Probabilism at all, was the sign of a severely conscientious soul.相反,以模拟法庭在所有的规范数学问题,是一种极为认真的灵魂的迹象。He who proposes the question at all knows and confesses by that very fact: first, that it is not lawful to act with a doubtful conscience, that he who performs an action without being firmly convinced of its being allowed, commits sin in the sight of God; secondly, that a law, above all the Divine law, obliges us to take cognizance of it and that, therefore, whenever doubts arise about the probable existence of an obligation we must apply sufficient care in order to arrive at certainty, so that a frivolous disregard of reasonable doubts is in itself a sin against the submission due to God.他是谁提出了这个问题都知道并承认这一事实本身:第一,它是不合法的行为和可疑的良心,他谁没有被坚决执行其被允许相信一个动作,犯罪的视线上帝;第二,一项法律,首先是神圣的法律,迫使我们考虑到它认定和,因此,只要有所怀疑时对可能存在的义务,我们必须将足够的照顾,以得出确定性,使轻浮无视合理的怀疑是对提交之神罪本身。 In spite of all this, it may happen that all our pains and inquiries do not lead us to certainty, that solid reasons are found both for and against the existence of an obligation: under these circumstances, a conscientious man will naturally ask whether he must consider himself bound by the law or whether he can, by further reflections -- reflex principles, as they are called -- come to the plain conclusion that there is no obligation either to do or to omit the act in question.尽管在这一切,有可能发生,我们所有的痛苦和查询不使我们的确定性,这有确凿的理由是支持和反对的一个义务的存在发现:在这种情况下,一个有良心的人自然会问,他是否必须认为自己受到法律的约束,或他是否可以通过进一步的思考 - 反射原理,因为他们是所谓 - 得出的结论是平原,没有义务,要么做或省略有关行为。Were we obliged to consider ourselves bound in every doubt, the result, obviously, would be an intolerable severity.如果我们不得不考虑自己在每一个疑问的约束,其结果,很明显,将是一个无法忍受的程度。But since before performing an action the final verdict of our conscience must be free from doubt, the necessity of removing in one way or another such doubts as may have arisen, is self-evident.但由于在执行一项行动,我们的良知最终裁决必须从怀疑自由的,消除这种或那种方式可能有这种怀疑出现的必要性,是不言而喻的。

At first there was a lack of clearness with regard to Probabilism and the questions connected with it.起初,有一个关于probabilism和与它相连的问题缺乏清晰。Conflicting definitions of opinion, probability, and certitude, could not but cause confusion.冲突的意见,概率和确定性的定义,不能不引起混淆。When works on moral theology and practical manuals began to multiply, it was inevitable that some individuals should take the word "probable" in too wide or in too lax a sense, although there can be no doubt that in itself it means "something acceptable to reason", in other words, since reason can accept nothing unless it has the appearance of truth, "something based on reasons which generally lead to the truth".当道德神学和实用手册作品开始增多,这是不可避免的一些个人应采取过于广泛或过于宽松,从某种意义上说这个词“可能”,虽然毫无疑问,这本身就意味着“可以接受的东西原因“,换句话说,因为没有什么理由可以接受,除非它具有真理的外观,”关于原因,通常导致真理“为基础的东西。 Hence it is that opinions were actually advanced and spread as practicable which were little in accord with the demands of the Christian Faith, and which brought down upon them the censure of the Holy See.因此,它是先进和意见实际上是切实可行的传播在这不大符合基督教信仰的需求,并带来了他们下山后,罗马教廷谴责。We refer particularly to the theses condemned by Alexander VII on 24 Sept., 1665, and on 18 March, 1666, and by Innocent XI on 2 March, 1679.我们特别指谴责亚历山大七九月24日,1665年的论文,并于1666年3月18日,由无辜于1679年3月2日十一。 It is not Probabilism that must be made responsible for them, but the vagaries of a few Probabilists.这不是规范数学必须为他们负责,但几个Probabilists的变幻莫测。

As a result of these condemnations, some theologians thought themselves obliged to oppose the system itself and to side with Probabiliorism.由于这些谴责,一些神学家认为自己有义务反对制度本身并与Probabiliorism一边。Previous to this turn of affairs, the Jansenists had been the most pronounced adversaries of Probabilism.在此之前的事务之交,詹森主义者曾是规范数学最明显的对手。But they, too, had received a setback when Innocent X condemned (31 May, 1653) in the "Augustinus" of Jansenius, then recently deceased, the proposition: "Just men, with the strength now at their disposal, cannot keep certain commandments of God even if they wish and endeavour to do so; besides, they are without the help of grace which might make it possible for them", was taken from the work and rejected as heretical and blasphemous.但是,他们也收到了,当无辜x谴责(1653年5月31日)在“奥古斯丁”的Jansenius,那么最近去世的挫折,命题:“义人与他们所掌握的力量现在,不能保持一定的诫命即使他们的神的愿望和努力这样做,再说,他们是没有帮助的宽限期,这可能使他们“可能是从工作采取和为异端邪说和亵渎拒绝。 Now Probabilism was least reconcilable with this Jansenistic thesis, which could be maintained the easier, the stricter the moral obligations laid upon man's conscience were and the severer the system proclaimed as solely justified was.现在是最不规范数学与此Jansenistic论文,这可以保持协调一致的更容易,更严格的在人的良知奠定了道义上的义务都和系统的理由仅仅是为了宣布严厉了。 Consequently, the adherents of the Jansenistic doctrine endeavoured to attack Probabilism, to throw suspicion on it as an innovation, to represent it even as leading to sin.因此,本Jansenistic学说的追随者竭力攻击规范数学,来推翻它怀疑作为一项创新,代表甚至为龙头,以罪过。The exaggerations of a few Probabilists who went too far in their laxity, gave an opportunity to the Jansenists to attack the system, and soon a number of scholars, notably among the Dominicans abandoned Probabilism, which they had defended till then, attacked it and stood up for Probabiliorism; some Jesuits also opposed Probabilism.少数Probabilists谁去了他们的懈怠太远,夸张了一到詹森教徒攻击系统的机会,很快一些学者,尤其是其中多米尼加人遗弃规范数学,因为他们已经到那个时候防守,攻击它,站注册Probabiliorism;一些耶稣会士也反对规范数学。 But by far, the majority of the Jesuit writers as well as a vast number of other orders and of the secular clergy, adhered to Probabilism.但是,到目前为止,大多数的耶稣会的作家以及其他命令和广大世俗的神职人员,坚持规范数学。 An entire century was taken up with this controversy, which probably has not its equal in the history of Catholic theology.一个世纪被带到了这个争议,这可能并没有在历史的天主教神学的平等。

Fortunately, the works on either side of this controversy were not popular writings.幸运的是,这场争论的任一侧作品没有通俗读物。Nevertheless, exaggerated theories caused a glaring inequality and much confusion in the administration of the Sacrament of Penance and in the guidance of souls.不过,夸张的理论引起了忏悔圣事的管理和指导的灵魂在一个明显的不平等和许多混乱。This seems to have been the case particularly in France and Italy; Germany probably suffered less from Rigorism.这似乎已,特别是在法国和意大利的情况,德国可能遭受Rigorism少。Hence it was a blessing of Divine Providence that there arose a man in the middle of the eighteenth century, who again insisted on a gentler and milder practice, and who, owing to the eminent sanctity which he combined with solid learning, and which raised him soon after his death to the honour of the altar, received the ecclesiastical approbation of his doctrine, thereby definitively establishing the milder practice in moral theology.因此,它是一个神圣的普罗维登斯祝福,有出现在了十八世纪,谁再坚持一个温和,较温和的做法,谁中间一人,由于他杰出的神圣性与实学相结合,并提出了他不久后,他死亡的祭坛上的荣誉,他的学说得到了教会的赞许,从而最终确立了在道德神学较温和的做法。

This man is Alphonsus Maria Liguori, who died in 1787 at the age of 91, was beatified in 1816, canonized in 1839, and declared Doctor Ecclesiæ in 1871.此人是阿方玛丽亚郭利,谁在1787年去世,享年91岁,是在1816年宣福,于1839年册封,并宣布于1871年,该书医生。 In his youth Liguori had been imbued with the stricter principles of moral theology; but, as he himself confesses, the experience which a missionary life extending over fifteen years gave him, and careful study, brought him to a realization of their falseness and evil consequences.在他的青年郭利已经充满了道德神学的严格的原则,但是,正如他自己承认,这种经验是一个传教士延长寿命超过十五年,给了他,并仔细研究,带他到了他们的虚假和邪恶的后果实现。 Chiefly for the younger members of the religious congregation which owed its existence to his fervent zeal, he worked out a manual of moral theology, basing it on the widely used "Medulla" of the Jesuit Hermann Busenbaum, whose theses he subjected to a thorough examination, confirmed by internal reasons and external authority, illustrated by adverse opinions, and here and there modified.主要是为宗教众,其中欠它的存在对他的热切的热情年轻的成员,他摸索出一套道德神学手册,立足于广泛使用的“延髓”赫尔曼Busenbaum的耶稣会,其他受到了彻底的检查它的论文证实是由内部原因和外部的权威,不利的意见说明,并在这里和那里修改。 The work, entirely Probabilistic in its principles, was first published in 1748.这项工作,完全在其原则概率,在1748年首次出版。 Received with universal applause and lauded even by popes, it went through its second edition in 1753; edition after edition then followed, nearly every one showing the revising hand of the author; the last, ninth, edition, published during the lifetime of the saint, appeared in 1785.收到了普遍的掌声和赞扬甚至由教皇,它经历了其第二版于1753年,版版后,再其次,几乎每个人都显示了作者修改的手,最后,第九版,在圣人的一生出版,出现在1785年。 After his beatification and canonization his "Theologia moralis" found an even wider circulation.之后,他的列品和封他的“神学莫拉利斯”找到一个更广泛的流通。Not only were various editions arranged, but it almost seemed as though the further growth of moral theology would be restricted to a reiteration and to compendious revisions of the works of St. Alphonsus.不仅有各种版本的安排,但它几乎仿佛的道德神学的进一步增长将受到限制,并重申了对圣阿方工程简明修订。 An excellent critical edition of the "Theologia moralis Sti. Alphonsi" is that of Léonard Gaudé, C.SS.R.一个优秀的“神学莫拉利斯性病。Alphonsi”关键版是伦纳德Gaude的,C.SS.R.(Rome, 1905), who has verified all the quotations in the work and illustrated it with scholarly annotations. (罗马,1905年),谁在工作中已核实所有的报价,并说明它与学术注释。

No future work on practical moral theology can pass without ample references to the writings of St. Alphonsus.没有实际的道德神学今后的工作中可以传递到圣阿方没有著作充分参考。Hence it would be impossible to gain a clear insight into the present state of moral theology and its development without being more or less conversant with the system of the saint, as narrated in the article PROBABILISM.因此,它不可能获得对道德神学及目前发展状态,没有被更多或较少圣人的制度,在文章中叙述盖然,精通一敏锐的洞察力。 The controversy, which is still being waged about Probabilism and Æquiprobabilism, has no significance unless the latter oversteps the limits set to it by St. Alphonsus and merges into Probabiliorism.这场争论,现在还在发动约probabilism和Æquiprobabilism,没有任何意义,除非后者超越的设置,由圣阿方给它的限制,并把Probabiliorism合并。 However, though the controversy has not yet been abandoned theoretically, still in everyday practice it is doubtful if there is any one who follows other rules in deciding doubtful cases than those of Probabilism.然而,尽管争论尚未被遗弃在理论上,还是在日常实践中它是令人怀疑,如果有任何一个谁如下决定比Probabilism那些可疑病例的其他规则。 This ascendancy of the milder school in moral theology over the more rigorous gained new impetus when Alphonsus was canonized and when the Church pointed out in particular that Divine Providence had raised him up as a bulwark against the errors of Jansenism, and that by his numerous writings he had blazed a more reliable path which the guides of souls might safely follow amid the conflicting opinions either too lax or too strict.这个学校在道德神学在较温和的优势获得了更严格的新的动力时,阿方被册封和当堂指出特别指出,他曾提出神意作为一个对詹森主义的错误的堡垒,而他的许多著作他开辟了更可靠的路径是灵魂的导板可能安全地跟随在一片要么太松或过紧相互矛盾的意见。 During his lifetime the saint was forced to enter several literary disputes on account of his works on moral theology; his chief adversaries were Concina and Patuzzi, both of the Dominican Order, and champions of Probabiliorism.在他的一生圣被迫进入道德神学对他的作品占几个文学纠纷;他的主要对手是孔奇纳和帕图齐,令双方的多米尼加和Probabiliorism冠军。

The last decades of the eighteenth century may well be called a period of general decadence as far as the sacred sciences, moral theology included, are concerned.十八世纪的最后十年很可能被称为至于神圣的科学,道德神学在内,是一个普遍关注颓废的时期。The frivolous spirit of the French Encyclopedists had infected, as it were, the whole of Europe.法国Encyclopedists轻浮的精神已经感染了,因为它是整个欧洲。The Revolution, which was its offspring, choked all scientific life.革命,这是它的后代,哽咽一切科学的生活。A few words about the state of moral theology during this period may suffice.对一个国家的道德神学在此期间,几句话就足够了。 Italy was torn asunder by the dispute about Rigorism and a milder practice; in France, Rigorism had received the full rights of citizenship through the Jansenistic movement and held its own till late in the nineteenth century; Germany was swayed by a spirit of shallowness which threatened to dislodge Christian morals by rationalistic and natural principles.意大利被拆除,由有关Rigorism争端和较温和的做法,各行其是,在法国,Rigorism收到通过Jansenistic运动公民的充分权利,保留至十九世纪后期在它自己的,德国是由一个肤浅的精神,威胁动摇赶走了理性和自然法则基督教道德。 The "general seminaries" which Joseph II established in the Austrian states, engaged professors who did not blush to advance heretical doctrines and to exclude Christian self-restraint from the catalogue of moral obligations. “一般神学院”,这在奥地利的约瑟夫二世州成立,从事教授谁不脸红推进邪教的教义和排斥基督教自我从道德义务目录克制。Other German institutions, too, offered their chairs of theology to professors who had imbibed the ideas of "enlightenment", neglected to insist on Catholic doctrines of faith and putting aside the supernatural life, sought the end and aim of education in a merely natural morality.德国其他机构,也提供他们的椅子的神学谁曾吸胀的“启蒙”被忽视的坚持的信念和撇开超自然的生命天主教的教义,教授的想法,寻求一个纯粹的自然道德的结束和教育的目的。 But in the second decade of the nineteenth century the French Revolution had spent itself, quiet had again followed the turmoil, the political restoration of Europe had been begun.但在十九世纪法国大革命本身花了第二个十年,安静之后再次动荡,欧洲的政治已经开始恢复。A restoration also of the ecclesiastical spirit and learning was also inaugurated and the gradual rise of moral theology became noticeable.恢复也是一个教会精神,学习也宣誓就职,并逐渐崛起的道德神学成为引人注目。Apart from the purely ascetical side there are three divisions in which this new life was plainly visible: catechism, popular instruction, pastoral work.除了纯粹的苦修面有三个部门在这个新的生活清晰可见:问答,流行的指示,开展牧灵工作。

Though it is the purpose of catechetical teaching to instruct the faithful in the entire range of Christian religion, in the doctrines of faith no less than in those of morals, yet the former may also be conceived and discussed with respect to the duties and the way by which man is destined to obtain his last end.虽然它是问答教学目的,指导在整个范围内的基督教信徒在信仰的教义,不低于在道德的人,但前者也可以设想,并与有关的职责和讨论的方式其中男子是注定要获得他的最后下场。 Hence, the catechetical treatment of religious questions may be regarded as a portion of moral theology.因此,在处理宗教问题问答可能被视为一种道德神学的一部分。During the period of "enlightenment", this branch had been degraded to a shallow moralizing along natural lines.在“启蒙”期间,这个分公司已经退化到浅说教沿线自然线条。But that it rose again in the course of the past century to a lucid explanation of the sum-total of the Christian doctrine, is attested by numerous excellent works, both catechisms and extensive discussions.但它上升了过去一个世纪的总和,总的基督教教义中再次清晰的解释,是证明了众多的优秀作品,无论catechisms和广泛的讨论。 To these may be added the more thorough manuals of Christian doctrine intended for higher schools, in which the apologetical and moral portions of religious instruction are treated scientifically and adapted to the needs of the time.这些可能会增加对高校拟基督教的教义,宗教教育在其中的道德apologetical和部分被视为科学,适应时代的需要更彻底手册。 There is nothing, however, which prevents us from placing these writings in the second of the above-mentioned classes, since their aim is the instruction of the Christian people, though principally the educated laymen.没有什么,但是,以防止将其放置在上述提到的这些著作第二类我们,因为他们的目标是基督教的人的指令,虽然主要是受过教育的外行。 It is true these works belong exclusively, even less than the catechetical, to moral theology, since their subject-matter embraces the whole of the Christian doctrine, yet the morally destructive tendencies of Atheism and the new moral questions brought forward by the conditions of our times, impressed upon writers the importance of moral instruction in manuals of Catholic faith.这是这些作品只属于真正的,甚至低于问答,道德神学,因为它们的标的物包含了整个基督教教义,但在道德上的无神论破坏性倾向和新的道德问题所带来的提出我们的条件有时,留下深刻印象后作家的天主教信仰,道德手册教学的重要性。 The last decades in particular prove that this side of theology has been well taken care of.特别是过去几十年中证明,这种神学方面得到良好的照顾。Various questions bearing on Christian morals were extensively treated in monographs, as eg, the social question, the significance of money, the Church's doctrine on usury, the woman question, etc. To quote single works or to enter on the different subjects in detail would exceed the limits of this article.基督教道德轴承各种问题进行了广泛的治疗专着,如如社会问题,金钱的意义,教会对高利贷的教义,妇女问题等,以报价单篇作品或进入在不同的科目会详细超出本文的范围。

The third line along which we noted an advance was called the pastoral, that is, instruction which has as its special aim the education and aid of pastors and confessors.第三行,沿此,我们注意到一个被称为提前牧区,即指令作为其特殊目的的教育和牧师和confessors援助了。 That this instruction is necessarily, though not exclusively, casuistic, was mentioned above.此指令是必然的,虽然不完全是诡辩,如上所述。The scarcity of priests, which was keenly felt in many places, occasioned a lack of time necessary for an all-round scientific education of the candidates for the priesthood.司铎,这是深切感受到,在许多地方,稀缺性引起一时间缺乏全面对司铎的候选人科学教育必要的。This circumstance explains why scientific manuals of moral theology, for decades, were merely casuistic compendia, containing indeed the gist of scientific investigations, but lacking in scientific argumentation.这种情况解释了为什么科学手册的道德神学,几十年来,仅仅是诡辩汇编,确实包含了科学的调查依据,但缺乏科学的论证。 The correctness of ecclesiastical doctrine had been insured and facilitated by the approbation with which the Church distinguished the works of St. Alphonsus.根据教会的学说的正确性已投保并经认可与该教会的圣阿方杰出的作品提供便利。Hence, many of these compendia are nothing else than recapitulations of St. Alphonsus's "Theologia moralis", or, if following a plan of their own, betray on every page that their authors had it always ready at hand.因此,这些汇编只不过许多其他的recapitulations圣阿方的“神学莫拉利斯”,或者,如果下面的每一页上都背叛了他们自己的计划,他们的作者们总是在手边准备。 Two works may here find mention which enjoyed a wider circulation than any other book on moral theology and which are frequently used even today: the Scavini's "Theologia moralis universa", and the shorter "Compendium theologiæ moralis" by Jean-Pierre Gury, together with the numerous revisions which appeared in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and North America.两项工程可在这里找到一提其中享有比任何道德神学其他书更广泛的流通,这是经常使用的,即使今天:Scavini的“神学莫拉利斯universa”,而且越短“纲要theologiæ莫拉利斯”由Jean - Pierre Gury,连同在这在法国,德国,意大利,西班牙和北美出现了许多修改。

We must not, however, deceive ourselves by concluding that, owing to the ecclesiastical approbation of St. Alphonsus and his moral writings, moral theology is now settled forever and, so to speak, crystallized.我们一定要,但不能欺骗自己得出结论认为,由于阿方的圣教会的著作和他的道德认同,道德神学,现定居永远,可以这么说,结晶。 Nor does this approbation assure us that all individual questions have been solved correctly, and therefore the discussion of certain moral questions remains still open.这也不认同向我们保证,所有的个人问题已经解决了正确的,因此在一定的道德问题的讨论仍在继续开放。The Apostolic See itself, or rather the Sacred Penitentiary, when asked, "Whether a professor of moral theology may quietly follow and teach the opinions which St. Alphonsus Liguori teaches in his Moral Theology", gave indeed an affirmative answer on 5 July, 1831; it added, however, "but those must not be reprehended who defend other opinions supported by the authority of reliable doctors".使徒见本身,或者更确切地说,神圣的监狱,当记者问,“是否有道德神学教授可能悄悄地跟踪和教导的意见,圣阿方liguori他的道德神学教导”,确实给了对1831年7月5日肯定的回答它补充说,不过,“但这些不能reprehended谁保卫了医生的权威可靠的支持的其他意见”。 He who would conclude the guarantee of absolute correctness from the ecclesiastical approbation of the saint's works, would make the Church contradict herself.他谁就会结束,从圣人的作品教会认可的绝对正确性的保证,就会使自己的教会矛盾。St. Thomas of Aquin was at least as solemnly approved for the whole field of theology as St. Alphonsus for moral theology.圣托马斯阿奎那至少是那样庄严的圣阿方的神学作为整个领域的道德神学批准。Yet, e.然而,大肠杆菌g, on the subject of the efficacy of grace, which enters deeply into morals, St. Thomas and St. Alphonsus defend wholly contradictory opinions; both cannot be right, and so may be freely discussed.克,对有效性的恩典,其中进入深入的道德问题,圣托马斯和阿方完全矛盾的辩护意见,都不可能是正确的,因此可以自由讨论。 The same may be said of other questions.同样可以说,其他的问题。In our own days, Antonio Ballerini above all made a simple use of this freedom of discussion, first in his annotations to Gury's "Compendium", then in his "Opus theologicum morale", which was recast and edited after his death by Dominic Palmieri.在我们自己的日子,安东尼奥最重要的是巴莱里尼提出来在他的“天主theologicum士气”,这是改写后他被多米尼克帕尔迈死亡编辑了一本讨论自由,在他的批注Gury的“汇编”,第一个简单的使用。 It rendered an eminent service to casuistry; for though we cannot approve of everything, yet the authority of various opinions has been carefully sifted and fully discussed.它提供了杰出的服务,以决疑,因为虽然我们不能认同的一切,然而,各种意见都经过精心筛选的权威和充分讨论。

Lately, attempts have been made to develop moral theology along other lines.最近,曾尝试开发其他线路沿线的道德神学。The reformers assert that the casuistical method has choked every other and that it must give place to a more scientific, systematic treatment.改革者断言casuistical方法已哽咽所有其他的,必须让位给一个更科学,系统的治疗。It is evident that a merely casuistical treatment does not come up to the demands of moral theology, and as a matter of fact, during the last decades, the speculative element was more and more insisted on even in works chiefly casuistic.显而易见的是,一个纯粹的诡辩的处理不上来的道德神学的要求,并作为事实上,在过去的几十年中,投机因素是越来越多,甚至在作品主要是诡辩坚持。 Whether the one or the other element should prevail, must be determined according to the proximate aim which the work intends to satisfy.无论是一个或其他元素应占上风,必须下大决心按照近因该工作计划旨在满足。If there is question of a purely scientific explanation of moral theology which does not intend to exceed the limits of speculation, then the casuistical element is without doubt speculative, systematic discussion of the questions belonging to moral theology; casuistry then serves only to illustrate the theoretical explanations.如果是一个纯粹的道德神学的科学解释不打算超过投机的界限问题,那么诡辩的因素无疑是投机性的,属于道德的神学问题,系统地讨论,那么只会诡辩的理论说明解释。 But if there is question of a manual which is intended for the practical needs of a pastor and confessor and for their education, then the solid, scientific portion of general moral-theological questions must be supplemented by an extensive casuistry.但如果有问题的手册这对于一个牧师和忏悔的实际需要,为他们的教育目的,那么扎实,一般道德神学问题,科学的一部分,还必须辅之以广泛的诡辩。 Nay, when time and leisure are wanting to add ample theoretical explanations to an extensive casuistical drill, we should not criticize him who would under these circumstances insist on the latter at the expense of the former; it is the more necessary in actual practice.不仅如此,当时间和休闲,是想补充充足的理论解释,以广泛的诡辩的演练中,我们不应该批评他谁就会在这种情况下坚持在后者牺牲前者,它是在实践中更需要。

Publication information Written by Aug. Lehmkuhl.出版信息写在8月Lehmkuhl。Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.转录由道格拉斯j.波特。Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.献给耶稣基督的圣心天主教百科全书,体积十四。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年7月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

SLATER, A Short History of Moral Theology (New York. 1909); BOUQUILLON, Theologia moralis fundamentalis, (3rd ed., Bruges, 1903), Introductio; BUCCERONI, Commentar.斯莱特,一个道德神学简史(纽约1909年。); BOUQUILLON,神学莫拉利斯fundamentalis,(第3版,布鲁日,1903年。),引; BUCCERONI,注的。de natura theologioe moralis (Rome, 1910); SCHMITT, Zur Gesch.德的Natura theologioe莫拉利斯(罗马,1910);施密特,祖尔Gesch。des Probabilismus (1904); MAUSBACH, Die kathol.德Probabilismus(1904);毛斯巴赫,模具kathol。Moral, ihre Methoden, Grundsätze und Aufgaben (2nd ed. 1902); MEYENBERG, Die kath.道德,ihre Methoden,Grundsätze有限公司Aufgaben(1902年第二版。); MEYENBERG,模具与Kath。Moral als Angeklagte (2nd ed. 1902); KRAWUTZKI, Einleitung in das Studium der kath.道德的ALS Angeklagte(1902年第二版。)KRAWUTZKI,在DAS导论Studium明镜与Kath。Moraltheologie (2nd. ed. 1898); GERIGK, Die wissenschaftliche Moral und ihre Lehrweisc (1910). Moraltheologie(2nd. 1898年版。); GERIGK,模具wissenschaftliche道德有限公司ihre Lehrweisc(1910)。



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