Moses摩西

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Moses was a leader of the ancient Hebrews who brought them out of Egypt in the so-called Exodus (c.1250 BC), mediated the covenant between them and Yahweh at Sinai, and guided them through the desert to the borders of Canaan.摩西是一个古老的希伯来领导人谁领他们出埃及在所谓的出埃及记(c.1250年),介导了它们之间在西奈耶和华的约,并引导通过对迦南的边界沙漠他们。 The biblical tradition assigns him a life span of 120 years, but the reliability of this figure is questioned.圣经中的传统赋予他一个120年的寿命,但这个数字的可靠性受到质疑。

The books of Exodus through Deuteronomy in the Bible are the only available sources for details about Moses' life. 在申命记圣经出埃及记通过书籍是摩西的生命只有大约可用来源的详细信息。No contemporary Egyptian documents yet found mention him, and the later traditions about him recorded in the work of Philo of Alexandria and in Josephus and rabbinic sources appear to be mere elaborations of the biblical story. Moreover, the biblical story is a composite of sources, the earliest of which postdates Moses by more than 200 years and allows ample time for legendary accretions. 当代埃及的文件没有提到他还发现,和传统的关于他的记录后约瑟夫在斐洛工作和拉比的亚历山大和来源似乎是圣经故事仅仅是阐述的。此外,圣经故事,是一个复合的来源,最早postdates其中200年以上,并允许摩西传奇添加物充足的时间。 The story of the baby Moses in the reed basket on the Nile, for example, is a typical legend about a famous man's childhood.在尼罗河上的芦苇篮中的婴儿摩西的故事,例如,是一部关于一位著名的童年典型的传奇人物。The same basic story is also told about Sargon, king of Akkad (c.2350 BC).相同的基本故事也告诉了萨尔贡,对阿卡德(c.2350 BC)的国王。

According to the biblical account, Moses grew up at the pharaoh's court but was forced to flee to Midian after killing an Egyptian whom he had seen strike an Israelite.据圣经中的帐户,摩西长大,法老的法院,但被迫逃离埃及后,杀害他的人看到了罢工的以色列人米甸。Moses' presence at the pharaoh's court may be explained by the Egyptian practice of taking hostages from their Semitic vassals, giving them Egyptian training, and sending them back to lead their people with an ingrained Egyptian point of view.摩西在法老的法院存在可能被解释为非法从他们的附庸人质犹太人,埃及人给他们培训,并送他们回导致一种根深蒂固的观点与角度埃及埃及人民的做法。 Such a background might also explain the story of Moses' adoption by the pharaoh's daughter.这样的背景下也可能解释摩西通过了法老的女儿的故事。

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In exile Moses married the daughter of the high priest of Midian.在流亡摩西娶了米甸的大祭司的女儿。While he was keeping his father-in-law's flock, God spoke to him at a burning bush and commissioned him to lead Israel out of Egypt.虽然他保住了他的岳父岳母的羊群,上帝以他在燃烧的灌木丛,并委托他带领以色列人出埃及。After the Exodus, Moses met again with his father-in-law, who performed sacrifices and advised him regarding an improved judicial system.以色列人出埃及后,摩西再次会见了他的岳父岳母,谁劝他牺牲和执行关于改进司法系统。 These traditions suggest that certain aspects of Moses' religious and legislative reforms, perhaps even God's new name, Yahweh, were derived from beliefs of the Midianites.这些传统表明,摩西的宗教和立法改革,甚至可能是上帝的新名称,雅威,某些方面是从米甸人的信仰而得。

Moses returned to Egypt to confront the pharaoh with Yahweh's demand.摩西回到埃及对抗与雅威的需求法老。After a long struggle involving ten plagues and culminating in the slaying of the first-born of the Egyptians, the pharaoh permitted Israel to leave.经过长期的斗争,涉及10个瘟疫和在第一出生的埃及人杀死高潮,法老允许以色列离开。He then changed his mind, but God drowned the pursuing Egyptians in the Reed (traditionally, Red) Sea.然后,他改变了主意,但上帝淹没在里德(传统上,红色)海追赶的埃及人。The ancient poem in Exodus 15 celebrates this victory, but the actual event cannot be reconstructed from this poetic account.在出埃及记15古诗庆祝这一胜利,但实际发生的事件不能从这种诗帐户重建。

After the Israelites experienced Yahweh's deliverance in the Exodus, Moses led them to the sacred mountain--named Sinai in one source, Horeb in another.以色列人经历后雅威在出埃及解脱,摩西带领他们到圣山 - 在一个名为源,何烈西奈另一个。There God appeared to them in a frightening display of thunder and lightning.有上帝似乎他们在一个可怕的雷电显示。 Moses went up into the mountain and returned with God's instructions including the Ten Commandments.摩西上升到山区和与上帝的指示,包括十诫返回。Thus Moses mediated the Covenant God made with the people of Israel.因此,摩西介导的盟约上帝与以色列人民。As covenant mediator Moses was a lawgiver, and his status became such that all of Israel's laws were attributed to him, even much later ones (see Torah).由于约的中保摩西是一个立法者,他的地位变得这样,以色列的法律都被归因于他,甚至更晚的(见圣经)。

Israel remained in the desert under Moses' leadership for a number of years, camping at Qadesh and other oases.根据以色列仍然在摩西的领导多年的沙漠,绿洲在Qadesh和其他露营。The Old Testament tells of many conflicts between Moses and the people during this time.旧约在这段时间告诉摩西和人民之间的许多冲突。The most dramatic one concerned the Golden Calf set up by Moses' brother Aaron while Moses was on Mount Sinai (or Horeb).最戏剧性的一宗涉及金犊由摩西的兄弟亚伦注册而摩西在西奈山(或何烈山)了。

Although this was a trying period, these stories of conflict were probably shaped in part by much later struggles, making it difficult to determine how much of the story belongs to the Mosaic age and how much was added later.虽然这是一个艰难的时期,这些故事的冲突很可能形成部分由更晚的斗争,因此很难确定有多少故事多少属于马赛克的年龄,又有多少是以后补上。 Moses died before Israel crossed into Canaan.摩西死在以色列进入迦南划线。

JJM Roberts朱镇模罗伯茨

Bibliography 参考书目
Beegle, DM, Moses: The Servant of Yahweh (1972); Bright, John, A History of Israel, rev.比格尔,糖尿病,摩西:耶和华的仆人(1972年);明亮,约翰,以色列的历史,恢复。ed.教育署。(1972); Buber, Martin, Moses: The Revelation and the Covenant, new ed.(1972年);布伯,马丁,摩西:启示和盟约,新的海关。 (1958; repr. 1987); Childs, Brevard, The Book of Exodus (1974); Daiches, David, Moses: The Man and His Vision (1975); Hermann, Siegfried, Israel in Egypt (1973); Maimonides, Moses, The Reason of the Laws of Moses, ed.(1958年; 1987年再版。);蔡尔兹,出埃及记(1974)布里瓦德;戴希斯,大卫,摩西:男人和他的远见(1975年);赫尔曼,齐格弗里德,以色列在埃及(1973年);迈蒙尼德,摩西,作者:摩西的法律,教育署的原因。 by J. Townley (1827; repr. 1975); Noth, Martin, A History of Pentateuchal Traditions (1972); Wellek, Rene, ed., The Divine Legation of Moses Demonstrated, 4 vols., 2d ed.由J.汤利(1827年,1975年再版。),北,马丁,一个pentateuchal的传统(1972年)的历史;。韦勒克,勒内,海关,摩西的神圣示范使馆,4卷,第2版。。 (1978); Zeligs, DF, ed., Moses: A Psychodynamic Study (1986).。(1978年); Zeligs,东风,教育署,摩西:一个心理动力研究(1986年)。


Moses摩西

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Moses is often called the founder of the religion of Israel; one of the most striking and important figures of the OT.摩西是通常被称为以色列的宗教创始人的催产素的最引人注目和重要的人物之一。 The Pentateuch attests to his central role in the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and in the giving of the law on Mount Sinai.在五证明他的核心作用,在以色列人从埃及出走,并在法律上给予西奈山。

Although Moses is not mentioned in historical sources outside the Bible, the OT traditions form a rich tapestry of interpretation of his life and mission.虽然摩西不是圣经以外的史料中提到,催产素的传统形成了他的生活和使命的解释丰富多彩。His name (derived from the Egyptian ms, "to give birth" or "to bear"; cf. Thutmose, "Thoth is born") and the Egyptian provenance of the Exodus account are incontrovertible evidence of the historical basis of Moses' role; and the biblical tradition, while complex, focuses on Moses and no one else for this portion of sacred history.他的名字(来自埃及毫秒派生,“生出”或“熊市”。比照图特摩斯,“托提出生”)和埃及的出埃及记帐户的出处是摩西的作用,历史基础无可辩驳的证据;和圣经的传统,而复杂的,侧重于摩西,没有人对这种神圣的历史其他部分。

Traditionally Moses' life has been divided into three forty-year stages (Acts 7:20-34).传统摩西的生命被划分为三个四十年阶段(徒7:20-34)。Moses was threatened at birth by Pharaoh's decree aimed at annihilation of the people of Israel; his mother's daring ploy to save him led to his adoption into the Egyptian royal family (Exod. 2:1-10).摩西的威胁在出生时通过的旨在消灭以色列人民法老的旨意,他的母亲的大胆策略救他引到埃及王室(出2:1-10),他通过。 The young man Moses, now a man of two national identities, defended a Hebrew slave, killed an Egyptian officer, and fled into exile from Egypt.这位年轻的摩西,现在是两个国家身份的人,捍卫希伯来奴隶,杀死了一名埃及军官,流亡逃离埃及。During the second period of his life Moses was adopted into the Midianite (Kenite) family of Jethro (or Reuel) as a "stranger in a strange land" (Exod. 2:11-22).在他生命的第二个时期是通过摩西将米甸人(基尼人)的杰思罗(或流珥)家庭作为一个“陌生人在一个陌生的土地”(出2:11-22)。

God, however, had not forgotten his covenant with the patriarchs and called Moses in the burning bush to be his spokesman before Pharaoh and agent of deliverance for Israel (Exod. 3:1-10).上帝,但是,并没有忘记他的先祖与在燃烧布什称摩西立约,是法老和他的发言人之前对以色列的解脱(出3:1-10)代理。 God revealed his sacred name (YHWH) to Moses and equipped him with miraculous powers (Exod. 3:11-7:13).上帝发现他的神圣的名字(耶和华)摩西和配备(出3:11-7:13)神奇的力量了。After calling down God's judgment against Egypt in plagues and passover (Exod. 7:14-13:16), Moses led the people out of Egypt, and the Lord saved Israel by the miracle at the Red Sea (Exod. 14-15).在调用了在瘟疫和逾越节(出7:14-13:16)神的判决对埃及,摩西带领出埃及人民,主救了这个奇迹在红海(出14-15)以色列。 Thus the people "believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses."因此,人“的主,在他的仆人摩西相信。”Then at Mount Sinai the Lord revealed himself in a theophany and dictated the Decalogue (Exod. 19:16-20:17); however, the people demanded that Moses conclude God's covenant with them (Exod. 20:18-24).然后在西奈山的显现在主透露自己和支配的十诫(出19:16-20:17),但是,人民要求结束神,摩西与他们(出20:18-24)约。 Moses prescribed the law of God (Torah) for Israel: its sanctuary and priesthood (Exod. 25-31; 35-40), its sacrifices and laws of purity (Leviticus), and a census of its tribes (Num. 1:1-10:10).摩西规定了神为以色列(圣经)法律:它的圣殿和祭司(出25-31,35-40),其牺牲和纯度法规(利未记),和其部落人口普查(民数记1:1 -10:10)。Moses led the people in the wilderness for forty years (Num. 10:11-36) and uttered a final exhortation to obey the Torah as the people gathered on the verge of the promised land (Deuteronomy).摩西带领在旷野四十年(民数记10:11-36)人民发出了最后的嘱咐,以遵守律法的人就应许之地(申命记)边缘聚集。 Moses himself was not allowed to enter Canaan (cf. Num. 20:2-13; Deut. 1:37; 3:27; 4:21; Ps. 106:32-33) and was buried somewhere in Moab (Deut. 34).摩西本人不得进入迦南(见序号20:2-13。申命记1:37。3:27,4:21,诗106:32-33。)和被埋葬在摩押地(申某处34)。

Although Moses is mentioned remarkably infrequently elsewhere in the OT (Josh. 24:5; I Sam. 12:6, 8; Hos. 12:13; Mic. 6:4; Isa. 63:11; Pss. 77, 105-7), his preeminent status and foundational mission are assumed.虽然摩西是很少提及其他方面的显着催产素(Josh. 24:5;我心12时06分,8个;居屋12:13;麦克风6:4;赛63:11。。。。。诗篇77,105 - 7),他的卓越地位和基本任务是承担。 No other OT figure can compare with Moses (cf. Joshua, Josh. 1:10-11; Elijah, I Kings 19; the prophets, Deut. 34:10).没有其他城市旅游局的数字可以比较与摩西(见约书亚,乔什1:10。利亚,我国王19;先知,申命记34:10)。。 Indeed he is the type par excellence of OT expectation.事实上,他是OT的期望型出类拔萃。He is the "servant of the Lord" (Num. 12:7-8; Deut. 34:5; Josh. 1:1).他是“耶和华的仆人”(民数记12:7-8;申命记34:5。乔希1:1。)。He alone spoke "mouth to mouth" with God; therefore, he is the first and greatest of the prophets (Exod. 33:7-23; Num. 12:6-8; Deut. 18:15-18).他独自以“嘴对嘴”与上帝,因此,他是第一个和最伟大的先知(出33:7-23;数量12:6-8。申命记18:15-18。)。 As lawgiver he dominates the Pentateuch, which can thus be called "the law of Moses" (I Kings 2:3; Neh. 8:1; Mal. 4:4).作为立法者,他主宰了五,从而可以被称为“摩西律法”(我国王2:3;尼8:1;。玛4:4)。。His voice is not only authoritative for the wilderness generation, but resounds throughout Israel's history (Deut. 6:20-25; 31:16-22).他的声音不仅是旷野一代权威,而且在整个以色列的历史回响(申命记6:20-25; 31:16-22)。

Moses is a man zealous for the Lord (Num. 16-17); yet he is also described as "the meekest man on earth" (Num. 12:3).摩西是一个男人的主(民数记16-17日)热心,但他又称为“地球上meekest人”(民数记12:3)中所述。He intercedes on Israel's behalf when it sins, risking his own election for the sake of the people (Exod. 32:32; Num. 11:10-15).他祈求以色列的代表时,罪孽,冒着为人民着想自己的选举(出32:32;数量11:10-15。)。He even sets up the bronze serpent as a perpetual sign of God's saving mercy (Num. 21:4-9).他甚至建立了作为上帝的拯救怜悯永久标志(民数记21:4-9)铜蛇。Finally, Moses is the founder of the cultic system by which Israel was to seek reconciliation with God, and he and his brother Aaron functioned as priests before the tabernacle (Exod. 40:31-38).最后,摩西是邪教制度,使以色列寻求和解与上帝的创始人,他和他的兄弟亚伦作为前幕(出40:31-38)祭司运作。

In postbiblical Jewish tradition the role of Moses is extended to that of sage and founder of civilization.在犹太传统中postbiblical摩西的作用是扩大到圣人和文明的创始人。Moses is thought to have ascended directly into heaven.摩西被认为是直接升天。For the Jewish halakah Moses was giver of the oral law which authoritatively interprets the Pentateuch (cf. Jub; M. Aboth 1:1).对于犹太halakah摩西送礼者的口头法律,权威性解释五(参见Jub;米Aboth 1:1)。

The NT assumes the role of Moses as mediator of the covenant (John 1:17; Gal. 3:19) and author of the Pentateuch (Luke 24:27).新台币承担着为约的中保摩西的作用(约翰1:17;。加拉太3:19)和五(路加福音24:27)的作者。Numerous passages compare or allude to Moses and Jesus as type and antitype (eg, Mark 9:2-10; John 3:14; I Cor. 10).许多段落比较或暗示摩西和antitype的类型和耶稣(例如,马克9:2-10,约翰福音3:14,我肺心病10。)。 Paul's typology emphasizes the inferiority of the revelation to Moses.保罗的类型学强调了对摩西启示自卑。At other times Paul likens his own apostleship to the mission of Moses (II Cor. 3:7-18; cf. Rom. 9:3).在其他时候他自己比作使徒的保罗,摩西的使命(二肺心病3:7-18。。比照罗9:3)。。John likewise sees Jesus as the prophet like Moses (John 6:14); he also sees Moses (and Abraham) as the father of "the Jews" who reject Jesus' revelation (John 9:28).约翰也把自己看作像摩西(约翰福音6:14)先知耶稣,他也看到摩西(亚伯拉罕)作为“犹太人”谁反对耶稣的启示(约翰福音9:28)的父亲。 For the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Mosaic covenant is merely a shadow of the true reality, but Moses himself is a model of faith (Heb. 3:1-6; 11:24-28).对于书信的希伯来人,花叶公约仅仅是一个真正的现实的影子,但摩西本人是一个信仰模型(希伯来书3:1-6; 11:24-28)。

SF Noll科幻诺尔
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
WF Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; EJ, VII, 371-411; R. deVaux, The Early History of Israel; DM Beegle, Moses, The Servant of Yahweh; JG Griffiths, "The Egyptian Derivation of the Name Moses," JNES 12:225-31.永丰奥尔布赖特,从石器时代到基督教;对EJ,七,371-411;,以色列的早期历史河deVaux;糖尿病比格尔,摩西,耶和华的仆人JG格里菲思说:“摩西在埃及名导, “JNES 12:225-31。


Moses摩西

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Moses, drawn (or Egypt. mesu, "son;" hence Rameses, royal son).摩西,拉制(杂项调查或埃及。“儿子”,因此拉美西斯皇家儿子)。On the invitation of Pharaoh (Gen. 45:17-25), Jacob and his sons went down into Egypt.在法老(创45:17-25)的邀请,雅各布和他的儿子下了埃及。This immigration took place probably about 350 years before the birth of Moses.这可能发生的移民约350年前的摩西的诞生。 Some centuries before Joseph, Egypt had been conquered by a pastoral Semitic race from Asia, the Hyksos, who brought into cruel subjection the native Egyptians, who were an African race.约瑟夫几个世纪前,埃及已经征服了一个田园来自亚洲,希克索斯,谁进入残酷的征服带来的本土埃及人,谁是犹太人的一个非洲种族的比赛。 Jacob and his retinue were accustomed to a shepherd's life, and on their arrival in Egypt were received with favour by the king, who assigned them the "best of the land", the land of Goshen, to dwell in. The Hyksos or "shepherd" king who thus showed favour to Joseph and his family was in all probability the Pharaoh Apopi (or Apopis).雅各布和他的随从被习惯了牧羊人的生活,以及他们在抵达埃及进行的青睐由国王,谁赋予他们的,歌珊地,“最好的土地”,以英寸的希克索斯或“住牧羊人“王谁从而表明赞成,约瑟夫和他的家人在所有的概率法老Apopi(或Apopis)了。 Thus favoured, the Israelites began to "multiply exceedingly" (Gen. 47:27), and extended to the west and south.因此青睐,以色列人开始“乘极”(创47:27),并扩展到西部和南部。At length the supremacy of the Hyksos came to an end.最后,这个至高无上的希克索斯宣告结束。

The descendants of Jacob were allowed to retain their possession of Goshen undisturbed, but after the death of Joseph their position was not so favourable.雅各的后裔被允许保留他们的歌珊原状占有,而是约瑟夫去世后,他们的立场是不那么有利。The Egyptians began to despise them, and the period of their "affliction" (Gen. 15:13) commenced.埃及人开始鄙视他们,他们的“痛苦”开始(创15:13)时期。They were sorely oppressed.他们是非常压迫。They continued, however, to increase in numbers, and "the land was filled with them" (Ex. 1:7).他们继续,但是,为了增加在数量上和“土地充满了他们”(出埃及记1:7)。The native Egyptians regarded them with suspicion, so that they felt all the hardship of a struggle for existence.本土埃及人认为是与猜疑他们,使他们感到所有的生存斗争的困难。In process of time "a king [probably Seti I.] arose who knew not Joseph" (Ex. 1:8).在时间进程“国王[可能塞提一]谁不晓得约瑟的兴起”(出埃及记1:8)。The circumstances of the country were such that this king thought it necessary to weaken his Israelite subjects by oppressing them, and by degrees reducing their number.该国的情况是这样的,这国王认为有必要削弱以色列压迫他们,他的主体,他们的人数逐渐减少。

They were accordingly made public slaves, and were employed in connection with his numerous buildings, especially in the erection of store-cities, temples, and palaces.他们因此而公开的奴隶,而被雇用与他的许多建筑物连接,特别是在商店的城市,庙宇和宫殿勃起。The children of Israel were made to serve with rigour.以色列的儿童进行了服务与严谨。Their lives were made bitter with hard bondage, and "all their service, wherein they made them serve, was with rigour" (Ex. 1:13, 14).会上提出了他们的生活苦工苦,“所有的服务,使他们成为他们其中,有严格的”(出埃及记1:13,14)。 But this cruel oppression had not the result expected of reducing their number.但是,这种残酷的压迫并没有减少其数量的预期结果。 On the contrary, "the more the Egyptians afflicted them, the more they multiplied and grew" (Ex. 1:12).相反,“越埃及人折磨他们,他们就越成倍增长”(出埃及记1:12)。The king next tried, through a compact secretly made with the guild of midwives, to bring about the destruction of all the Hebrew male children that be born.未来的国王试图通过一个紧凑的秘密与助产士公会,向带来的所有希伯来男孩的破坏,这就要诞生了。But the king's wish was not rigorously enforced; the male children were spared by the midwives, so that "the people multiplied" more than ever.但是国王的愿望并没有严格执行,男性儿童幸免于助产士,使“人乘”比以往任何时候都多。Thus baffled, the king issued a public proclamation calling on the people to put to death all the Hebrew male children by casting them into the river (Ex. 1:22).因此感到困惑,国王发表了公开宣布在呼吁人们把死刑铸造成河(出埃及记1:22)他们所有希伯来男孩。

But neither by this edict was the king's purpose effected.但是,无论这个法令是国王的目的影响。 One of the Hebrew households into which this cruel edict of the king brought great alarm was that of Amram, of the family of the Kohathites (Ex. 6:16-20), who with his wife Jochebed and two children, Miriam, a girl of perhaps fifteen years of age, and Aaron, a boy of three years, resided in or near Memphis, the capital city of that time.进入家庭的希伯来语此法令的国王带来了极大的恐慌残忍之一是暗兰的哥辖(出6:16-20),家庭,谁与他的妻子和两个孩子约基别为妻,仪,一个女孩也许十五年的年龄,和亚伦,在附近的孟菲斯,当时的首都城市居住三年,孩子。 In this quiet home a male child was born (BC 1571).在这个宁静的家里孩子出生的男性(公元前1571年)。His mother concealed him in the house for three months from the knowledge of the civic authorities.他的母亲藏在三从公民当局知识几个月的房子。But when the task of concealment became difficult, Jochebed contrived to bring her child under the notice of the daughter of the king by constructing for him an ark of bulrushes, which she laid among the flags which grew on the edge of the river at the spot where the princess was wont to come down and bathe.但是,当隐蔽任务变得困难,约基别为妻做作,使下的国王的女儿为他兴建通知书的香蒲方舟,这是她的标志之一是在河边长大的孩子,当场把她那里的公主是不会下来和洗澡。 Her plan was successful.她的计划是成功的。The king's daughter "saw the child; and behold the child wept."国王的女儿“看见孩子,不料孩子哭了。”The princess (Pharaoh's daughter) sent Miriam, who was standing by, to fetch a nurse.公主(法老王的女儿)发送仪,谁是站在旁边,以获取一个护士。She went and brought the mother of the child, to whom the princess said, "Take this child away, and nurse it for me, and I will give thee thy wages."她就去把孩子的母亲,给谁,公主说,“对我把这孩子抱去,和护士,而我必给你工资。”

Thus Jochebed's child, whom the princess called "Moses", ie, "Saved from the water" (Ex. 2:10), was ultimately restored to her.因此,约基别为妻的孩子,就是所谓的“摩西”,即“救了水”(出埃及记2:10)公主,最终恢复了她。As soon as the natural time for weaning the child had come, he was transferred from the humble abode of his father to the royal palace, where he was brought up as the adopted son of the princess, his mother probably accompanying him and caring still for him.只要对孩子断奶自然时间到了,他转移到了他父亲的寒舍的皇家宫殿,在那里他被带到作为公主养子起来,他的母亲很可能伴随他,仍然关心他。 He grew up amid all the grandeur and excitement of the Egyptian court, maintaining, however, probably a constant fellowship with his mother, which was of the highest importance as to his religious belief and his interest in his "brethren."他成长在所有的庄严和激动的埃及法庭,维护,但是,与他的母亲,其中最重要的是,以他的宗教信仰以及他在他的利益可能是一个常数奖学金“兄弟”。 His education would doubtless be carefully attended to, and he would enjoy all the advantages of training both as to his body and his mind.他的教育无疑会细心照顾,他将享受所有的培训优势,都以他的身体和心灵。He at length became "learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22).终于,他变成了“学会了所有埃及人的智慧”(徒7:22)。 Egypt had then two chief seats of learning, or universities, at one of which, probably that of Heliopolis, his education was completed.埃及曾在其中一则两年的学习,或大学,首席座位,也许在于赫利奥波利斯,他的教育已经完成。Moses, being now about twenty years of age, spent over twenty more before he came into prominence in Bible history.摩西,现在是大约二十周岁,二十多前,他在圣经历史进入突出来度过的。

These twenty years were probably spent in military service.这些大概花了二十年的军事服务。 There is a tradition recorded by Josephus that he took a lead in the war which was then waged between Egypt and Ethiopia, in which he gained renown as a skilful general, and became "mighty in deeds" (Acts 7:22).有记载的约瑟夫说,他参加了战争,当时埃及和埃塞俄比亚之间,他在获得作为一个熟练的发动一般名声,并成为“在行动雄师”(徒7:22)牵头的传统。 After the termination of the war in Ethiopia, Moses returned to the Egyptian court, where he might reasonably have expected to be loaded with honours and enriched with wealth.后在埃塞俄比亚的战争结束,摩西回到埃及法院,在那里他可以合理地预计将与荣誉加载和财富丰富。But "beneath the smooth current of his life hitherto, a life of alternate luxury at the court and comparative hardness in the camp and in the discharge of his military duties, there had lurked from childhood to youth, and from youth to manhood, a secret discontent, perhaps a secret ambition. Moses, amid all his Egyptian surroundings, had never forgotten, had never wished to forget, that he was a Hebrew."但“下了他人生迄今为止,一个备用的豪华法院在营里和他的军事职务硬度生活比较平稳的电流,出现了从童年到青年潜藏着,从青年到成年,一个秘密不满,也许是秘密的野心。摩西,在所有他的埃及环境,从来没有忘记,从来没有想忘记,他是一个希伯来文。“ He now resolved to make himself acquainted with the condition of his countrymen, and "went out unto his brethren, and looked upon their burdens" (Ex. 2:11).现在,他决心使自己与他的同胞了解情况,和“走出去到他弟兄那里,看他们的重担,并呼吁”(出埃及记2:11)。

This tour of inspection revealed to him the cruel oppression and bondage under which they everywhere groaned, and could not fail to press on him the serious consideration of his duty regarding them.这种考察透露,他的残酷压迫和奴役下,他们无处不在呻吟,不能对他不按他们的职责,他就认真考虑。The time had arrived for his making common cause with them, that he might thereby help to break their yoke of bondage.时机已经到来使他与他们共同的事业,他可以借此帮助打破他们被奴役的枷锁。He made his choice accordingly (Heb. 11:25-27), assured that God would bless his resolution for the welfare of his people.他做出相应的选择(希伯来书11:25-27),放心,上帝会保佑他为他的人民的福利的决议。He now left the palace of the king and took up his abode, probably in his father's house, as one of the Hebrew people who had for forty years been suffering cruel wrong at the hands of the Egyptians.他现在离开了王宫,并讨论了他的住宅,可能是在他父亲的房子,因为希伯来人谁四十年有一个遭受在埃及人的手残酷的错误。 He could not remain indifferent to the state of things around him, and going out one day among the people, his indignation was roused against an Egyptian who was maltreating a Hebrew.他不能无动于衷,对身边事物的状态,走出去的人当中有一天,他的愤怒是针对埃及激起了谁是虐待一个希伯来文。He rashly lifted up his hand and slew the Egyptian, and hid his body in the sand.他轻率地举起手,埃及人打死了,藏在沙土他的身体。Next day he went out again and found two Hebrews striving together.第二天,他又出去了,发现两个希伯来人共同奋斗。He speedily found that the deed of the previous day was known.他迅速发现了前一天被称为契约。

It reached the ears of Pharaoh (the "great Rameses," Rameses II.), who "sought to slay Moses" (Ex. 2:15).它达到了法老的耳朵(下称“,伟大的拉美西斯”拉美西斯二世。),谁“5:16摩西”(出埃及记2:15)。 Moved by fear, Moses fled from Egypt, and betook himself to the land of Midian, the southern part of the peninsula of Sinai, probably by much the same route as that by which, forty years afterwards, he led the Israelites to Sinai.被恐惧感动,摩西逃离埃及,betook自己米甸,在西奈半岛南部的部分土地,因为这可能由许多相同的路线,其中,第四年后,他带领以色列人西奈。 He was providentially led to find a new home with the family of Reuel, where he remained for forty years (Acts 7:30), under training unconsciously for his great life's work.他providentially导致找到与流珥,他在那里仍然四十年(徒7:30)系列的新家园,在训练他的伟大一生的工作是无意识的。 Suddenly the angel of the Lord appeared to him in the burning bush (Ex. 3), and commissioned him to go down to Egypt and "bring forth the children of Israel" out of bondage.突然,有主的使者向他显现在燃烧灌木(例如3),并委托他去到埃及和“带出以色列人”的束缚了。He was at first unwilling to go, but at length he was obedient to the heavenly vision, and left the land of Midian (4:18-26).他起初不愿意去,但是最后他还是顺从了天上的视野,离开了甸(4:18-26)。On the way he was met by Aaron (qv) and the elders of Israel (27-31).在他被亚伦(请参阅)会见的方式和以色列的长老(27-31)。He and Aaron had a hard task before them; but the Lord was with them (ch. 7-12), and the ransomed host went forth in triumph.他和亚伦面前有一个艰巨的任务,但主与他们(7-12章)的,和赎主得意地出来。(See Exodus.) After an eventful journey to and fro in the wilderness, we see them at length encamped in the plains of Moab, ready to cross over the Jordan into the Promised Land. (见出埃及记。)经过忙碌的旅程,来回在旷野中,我们看到在摩押平原,他们驻扎的长度,准备在约旦越界进入应许之地。

There Moses addressed the assembled elders (Deut. 1:1-4; 5:1-26:19; 27:11-30: 20), and gives the people his last counsels, and then rehearses the great song (Deut. 32), clothing in fitting words the deep emotions of his heart at such a time, and in review of such a marvellous history as that in which he had acted so conspicious a part.讨论了装配有长老摩西(申命记1:1-4; 5:1-26:19; 27:11-30:20),并给出了他最后的忠告市民,然后排练宋朝(申命记32 ),在服装配件的话,他在这个时候的心深处的情感,而在这样一个了不起的历史中,他已经做出了这样的conspicious一部分检讨。Then, after blessing the tribes (33), he ascends to "the mountain of Nebo (qv), to the top of Pisgah, that is over against Jericho" (34:1), and from thence he surveys the land.然后,在祝福的部落(33),他上升到“尼波山(请参阅),到毗斯迦山顶,即与耶利哥”(34:1),并从那里,他调查的土地。 "Jehovah shewed him all the land of Gilead, unto Dan, and all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim, and Manasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the utmost sea, and the south, and the plain of the valley of Jericho, the city of palm trees, unto Zoar" (Deut. 34:2-3), the magnificient inheritance of the tribes of whom he had been so long the leader; and there he died, being one hundred and twenty years old, according to the word of the Lord, and was buried by the Lord "in a valley in the land of Moab, over against Beth-peor" (34:6). “耶和华曾向他所有的基列,直到丹,所有拿弗他利,土地和以法莲,玛拿西的土地,所有的犹大地,你们的最大海,南部,以及杰里科河谷平原中,棕榈树,直到琐珥城“(申命记34:2-3),在其中他已经这么久的领导人的部落宏伟的继承,以及在那里,他死了,正一百二十年岁,根据到了耶和华的话,被埋葬在主“在摩押地的谷,在对伯毗珥”(34:6)。 The people mourned for him during thirty days.人们悼念他在三十天。Thus died "Moses the man of God" (Deut. 33:1; Josh. 14:6).因此,死了“摩西的神的人”(申命记33:1;乔希14:6。)。

He was distinguished for his meekness and patience and firmness, and "he endured as seeing him who is invisible."他是尊敬他的温柔和耐心,坚定,和“他如同看见那谁是看不见的经历。” "There arose not a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the Lord knew face to face, in all the signs and the wonders, which the Lord sent him to do in the land of Egypt to Pharaoh, and to all his servants, and to all his land, and in all that mighty hand, and in all the great terror which Moses shewed in the sight of all Israel" (Deut. 34:10-12). “没有兴起先知像摩西因为,其中主面对面所认识的所有标志和奇迹,这是主把他送到了埃及法老做土地,以色列,和所有他的仆人,和他的一切土地,并在所有大能的手,并在所有伟大的恐怖摩西在以色列众人“(申命记34:10-12)视线施展。 The name of Moses occurs frequently in the Psalms and Prophets as the chief of the prophets.摩西的名字出现在诗篇和先知经常作为先知的首领。In the New Testament he is referred to as the representative of the law and as a type of Christ (John 1:17; 2 Cor. 3:13-18; Heb. 3:5, 6).在新约,他被称为法律的代表和作为一个类型的基督(约翰1时17分,2肺心病3:13-18。希伯来书3:5,6。)。Moses is the only character in the Old Testament to whom Christ likens himself (John 5:46; comp. Deut. 18:15, 18, 19; Acts 7:37).摩西是旧约中的基督比喻自己对谁的唯一字符(约翰5:46;。。比赛申命记18:15,18,19,徒7:37)。 In Heb.在河北。3: 1-19 this likeness to Moses is set forth in various particulars.3:1-19这个酷似摩西是提出各种资料。In Jude 9 mention is made of a contention between Michael and the devil about the body of Moses.在裘德9提到的是迈克尔和之间关于摩西的尸首与魔鬼争夺。This dispute is supposed to have had reference to the concealment of the body of Moses so as to prevent idolatry.这项争议应该有参考的摩西,以防止盲目崇拜机构隐瞒。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary)(伊斯顿图解词典)


Moses - The Close of His Life摩西 - 他的生活密切

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From: Home Bible Study Commentary by James M. Gray来自:主页圣经M灰色研究评论詹姆斯

DEUTERONOMY CHAPTERS 31:1-32:43章和申命记31:1-32:43

Encouragement鼓励

Deut.申。31:1-8 The law has been rehearsed and Moses' exhortation is drawing to a conclusion. 31:1-8法律已经排练和摩西的告诫行将结束。Several days may have been occupied in the review covered by Deuteronomy thus far.几天可能已经占领了覆盖申命记迄今审查。 And now, Israel, by its leaders, having been gathered together at the place of meeting, Moses is apprising them of his departure.现在,以色列,其领导人,并曾聚集在会议地点在一起,摩西是apprising他离开他们。Though advanced in years (2), was he conscious of mental or physical decay (34:7)?虽然上了年纪(2),是他的精神或身体衰减(34:7)意识吗?Can you perceive a reason for the mention of this fact?你能感觉到了这个事实提起的原因吗?Has it any bearing on the truth and virility of the divine messages Moses was chosen to communicate?有没有任何对真理和摩西的神圣消息壮阳轴承被选为沟通?What indicates that it was by revelation he knew of his approaching separation?表明,它是由什么启示,他知道他的到来分离是什么?Name three or four elements of the encouragement Moses gives Israel in verses 3-6.名三,四元素的鼓励给了摩西的诗句3-6以色列。

Responsibility责任

Deut.申。vv.维维。9-13 What provision was made for the perpetuity of the law (9)?9-13什么规定是为法律的永久(9)?Note the allusion to the bearing of the ark by the priests, which they did on extraordinary occasions (Joshua 3:3-8; 1 Chron. 15:11, 12), although commonly it was borne by the Levites.注意针对由祭司的方舟,在特殊情况下,他们这样的(约书亚3:3-8; 1。专栏15:11,12),虽然它通常是由利未人承担。While the people were to be instructed in the law in their homes, what public rehearsal of it was here provided for (10-11)?而人民的选择应该在法律的指示在自己的家,什么市民对资讯科技彩排在这里规定(10-11)?We appreciate how this guaranteed the preservation of the sacred oracles from generation to generation, and can thank God for remembering us in this obligation upon them.我们赞赏如何保证了一代又一代人的神圣神谕保存,并能在此感谢记住我们的义务后,他们的神。

Prediction预测

Deut.申。vv.维维。14-30 In what language is the infidelity of Israel foretold (16)?14-30在什么语言是预言以色列不忠(16)?What would cause this apostasy?是什么造成这个叛教?What consequence would follow (17, 18)?将遵循什么后果(17,18)?When God says, "I will forsake them," "I will hide My face," etc., He refers to that withdrawal of His protection as symbolized by the cloud of glory, the shekinah.当上帝说,“我会放弃他们”,“我将隐藏我的脸”等等,他提到,他的保护撤回的荣耀,象征的Shekinah云。 This never appeared in the second temple, ie, after the Babylonian captivity, and, "its non-appearance was a prelude of 'all the evils that came upon them, because their God was not among them.'" Where was the book of the law placed (26).这从来没有出现在第二圣殿,即被掳巴比伦后,和“其非的出现是一个前奏'所有的邪恶是到他们身上了,因为他们的神不在其中。”书是在哪里法律置于(26)。 In the Revised Version "in" is "by."在修订版“中的”是“经”。It is thought that it was deposited in a receptacle by the side of the ark which contained nothing but the tables of stone (1 Kings 8:9).据认为,这是存放在一个容器由方舟载有任何一边,但石的表(1国王8:9)。But some, guided by Hebrews 9:4, believe it was placed within, and that this was the copy found in the time of Josiah (2 Kings 22:8).但是,一些由希伯来9:4的指导下,相信这是放置在,并认为这是一份在约西亚时发现(2国王22时08分)。

Inspiration启示

32:1-43 In verse 19 of the preceding chapter Moses is commanded to write a song and teach it to Israel, and get them singing it as a witness for God against them in the day of their unfaithfulness.在诗的前19章摩西吩咐32:1-43是写一首歌曲,并教给以色列,并让他们唱歌作为对他们见证神在他们的不忠一天。 "National songs take deep hold of the memories and have a powerful influence in stirring the deepest feelings of a people," and because of this God causes this song to be composed, and is indeed Himself the composer of it. “全国歌曲采取深举行的回忆,有一个人在搅拌感受最深的强大的影响力”,并因为这个上帝使这首歌曲所组成,不愧是自己为它作曲。In the Revised Version the whole chapter down to verse 44 is arranged as poetry.在修订的版本,整章44节到布置诗歌。 (1) After the exordium (1), notice the comparison of the divine instruction to what gentle, useful and beautiful feature of nature (2)?(1)在绪论(1),注意的神圣什么指令比较温和,有益的和美丽的自然特征(2)? What gives this instruction this character (3)?是什么让这个指令这个人物(3)?Point out the seven attributes of God indicated in the ascription of praise that follows (3, 4).指出神的七属性显示在后面的好评归属(3,4)。

Notice that these attributes constitute the proclamation of His name.请注意,这些属性构成了他的名字宣讲。Preachers and Christian workers will find the outline of a rich discourse here.传教士和基督教的工人会发现这里丰富的话语轮廓。 (2) After the exordium we come to an indictment of the people (5, 6).(2)在绪论,我们走到了人民的起诉书(5,6)。It is predictive as indicating what they would do in the future, and yet also a historic record of what they had already done.它是预测为表明他们会在未来做,但也是一个什么样的,他们已经做了历史纪录。These verses, especially 5, are clearer in the Revised Version.这些经文,尤其是5,在修订版更清晰。(3) The indictment leads to a reminiscence of God's goodness to them, to deepen their repentence in that day as it shall quicken their gratitude (7-14). (3)起诉书导致对神的善良缅怀他们,加深他们在这一天悔改,因为它应当加快他们的感激之情(7-14)。With verse 8, compare Acts 17:26, 27 in the light of chapter 2:5-9 of the present book, and Genesis 10:5, and observe that God has from the beginning reserved Palestine for this people, through whom He would show forth His wonders to the other nations.随着第8节,比较行为17:26,27章的2:5-9本书,和创世纪10:5光,并观察神已经从预留这个巴勒斯坦人开始,通过他们,他会显示出他的奇事到其他国家。 And admirably suited is the locality for the purpose.而且非常适合为宗旨,是局部性。

In Ezekiel it is described as "the middle of the earth," and as from a common center the glad tidings were, and shall be, "wafted to every part of the globe."在以西结它被称为“地球的中间”,而从一个共同的中心是喜讯,并应“,飘荡到全球的每一个部分。”Notice the figure in verses 11 and 12.请注意在图11和12节。When the eaglets are sufficiently grown, the mother bird at first supports them on the tip of her wing, encouraging and aiding their feeble efforts to higher flight.当eaglets有足够的增长,在第一鸟妈妈在她的支持翼尖他们,鼓励和帮助他们的微弱努力提高飞行。(4) This reminiscence of God's goodness is followed by another indictment, fuller than the former, and showing the aggravation of the people's sin. (4)神的善良怀旧其次是由另一起诉书,比前更充分,并显示了人民的罪恶恶化。"Jeshurun" is a poetic name for Israel.“Jeshurun​​”是以色列诗意的名字。Notice the reference to "demons" of verse 17 (RV), and observe that such beings exist and are the real objects of the worship of false religions.注意对“魔”的17节(右),并观察这种人存在,而且是假宗教崇拜的实物参考。(5) This second indictment is followed by an announcement of punishment (19-28). (5)第二份起诉书后跟一个处罚公告(19-28)。

Note the allusion to the calling out of the Gentiles into the Church in verse 21 (third clause).注意针对调用出来的外邦人进入了21节(第三条款)教会。What are God's arrows (23)?什么是上帝的箭头(23)?See for answer the following verse, famine, pestilence, wild beasts, the sword, fear, captivity, etc. Why would He not altogether destroy such a faithless people (26,27)?见回答下列诗句,饥荒,瘟疫,野兽,剑,恐惧,圈养,等他为什么会没有完全摧毁这样一个背信弃义的人(26,27)? (6) The announcement of punishment leads to a promise of forgiveness and restoration in the latter time (29-43).(6)公布的处罚导致了宽恕的承诺并在后者的时间(29-43)恢复。When will the Lord lift His hand from off His people (36)?电梯何时会从他的主人们(36)他的手?How shall He afflict them who afflicted Israel (41)?怎样将他折磨折磨他们谁以色列(41)?What shows that the day of Israel's blessing will be that of the whole earth (43)?什么表明,以色列的祝福一天将是整个地球(43)?Compare Psalm 65.比较诗篇65。


Moses摩西

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part of the twelfth century, BC希伯来语解放者,领导者,立法者,先知,和历史学家,在十二世纪,公元前十三和早期生活

NAME名称

Moshéh (MT), Mouses, Moses.Moshéh(吨),鼠标,摩西。In Ex., ii, 10, a derivation from the Hebrew Mashah (to draw) is implied.在特惠。第一,二,10日,从希伯来语Mashah(画)推导是不言而喻的。Josephus and the Fathers assign the Coptic mo (water) and uses (saved) as the constituent parts of the name.约瑟夫和父亲指定的科普特人月(水)和作为名称的组成部分使用(储存)。Nowadays the view of Lepsius, tracing the name back to the Egyptian mesh (child), is widely patronized by Egyptologists, but nothing decisive can be established.时下莱普修斯认为,追查名回埃及网(儿童),广泛光顾的埃及学家,但没有决定性才能建立。

SOURCES来源

To deny or to doubt the historic personality of Moses, is to undermine and render unintelligible the subsequent history of the Israelites.否认或怀疑的摩西历史人物,是破坏和渲染不知所云的以色列人随后的历史。Rabbinical literature teems with legends touching every event of his marvellous career: taken singly, these popular tales are purely imaginative, yet, considered in their cumulative force, they vouch for the reality of a grand and illustrious personage, of strong character, high purpose, and noble achievement, so deep, true, and efficient in his religious convictions as to thrill and subdue the minds of an entire race for centuries after his death.他的每一个感人的神奇传说,犹太教文学生涯事件盛产:个儿,这些流行的故事是纯粹的想象力,但考虑其累积的力量,他们在我们的一个伟大,杰出人物的坚强的性格,崇高的目标,现实的戏,和崇高的成就,做深,真实和有效地在他的宗教信念,以刺激和征服的一个世纪后,他的死整场比赛的头脑。 The Bible furnishes the chief authentic account of this luminous life.圣经furnishes这个发光寿命长地道的帐户。

BIRTH TO VOCATION (EXODUS 2:1-22)从出生到职业(出埃及记2:1-22)

Of Levitic extraction, and born at a time when by kingly edict had been decreed the drowning of every new male offspring among the Israelites, the "goodly child" Moses, after three months' concealment, was exposed in a basket on the banks of the Nile.在Levitic提取,并以王道时已颁布法令,在以色列人的每一个新出生的雄性后代溺水时间的“优美的孩子”摩西,经过三个月的隐蔽性,被暴露在篮子上的银行尼罗河。 An elder brother (Exodus 7:7) and sister (Exodus 2:4), Aaron and Mary (AV and RV, Miriam), had already graced the union of Jochabed and Amram.一个哥哥(出埃及记7:7)和妹妹(出埃及记2:4),阿伦和玛丽(AV和风疹病毒,仪),已经登上了Jochabed和阿姆拉姆联盟。 The second of these kept watch by the river, and was instrumental in inducing Pharaoh's daughter, who rescued the child, to entrust him to a Hebrew nurse.第二,这些在河边守着,并在诱导法老的女儿,谁救了孩子,委托他到一个希伯来护士作用。The one she designedly summoned for the charge was Jochabed, who, when her "son had grown up", delivered him to the princess.也就是她特意为充召见了Jochabed,谁时,她的“儿子长大了”,发表他的公主。In his new surroundings, he was schooled "in all the wisdom of the Egyptians" (Acts 7:22).在他的新环境,他的理念与“在所有埃及人的智慧”(徒7:22)。Moses next appears in the bloom of sturdy manhood, resolute with sympathies for his degraded brethren.摩西下次出现在开花结实的男子气概,与他的弟兄们的同情坚决退化。Dauntlessly he hews down an Egyptian assailing one of them, and on the morrow tries to appease the wrath of two compatriots who were quarrelling.他不屈不挠的人道主义预警系统,其中埃及下来调戏之一,并在明天试图安抚两名同胞谁是吵架的愤怒。He is misunderstood, however, and, when upbraided with the murder of the previous day, he fears his life is in jeopardy.他是误解了,然而,当与前一天谋杀责备,他担心他的生命处于危险之中。Pharaoh has heard the news and seeks to kill him.法老听到这个消息,并寻求将他杀死。Moses flees to Madian.摩西逃到马甸。An act of rustic gallantry there secures for him a home with Raguel, the priest.一个质朴的英勇行为有固定为他与拉古尔,牧师的家。Sephora, one of Raguel's seven daughters, eventually becomes his wife and Gersam his first-born.丝芙兰的拉古尔的七个女儿之一,最终成为他的妻子和他的第一Gersam出生的。His second son, Eliezer, is named in commemoration of his successful flight from Pharaoh.他的第二个儿子,埃利泽,它的名字在他从法老的成功飞行的纪念活动。

VOCATION AND MISSION (EXODUS 2:23-12:33)职业与使命(出埃及记2:23-12:33)

After forty years of shepherd life, Moses speaks with God.经过四十多年的牧羊生活,摩西与神说话。To Horeb (Jebel Sherbal?) in the heart of the mountainous Sinaitic peninsula, he drives the flocks of Raguel for the last time.为了何烈山(杰贝尔Sherbal?)在山区西乃半岛半岛的中心,他开了最后一次拉古尔羊群。A bush there flaming unburned attracts him, but a miraculous voice forbids his approach and declares the ground so holy that to approach he must remove his shoes.未燃烧的火焰有吸引他的布什,而是一个奇迹般的声音他的做法,并宣布禁止在地面,让神圣的,要他把这种方法必须消除他的鞋。 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob designates him to deliver the Hebrews from the Egyptian yoke, and to conduct them into the "land of milk and honey", the region long since promised to the seed of Abraham, the Palestine of later years.亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各的神指定他提供从埃及的希伯来人的枷锁,并进行到“牛奶和蜂蜜之地”的,该地区早已许给亚伯拉罕,种子为后来巴勒斯坦。 Next, God reveals to him His name under a special form Yahweh as a "memorial unto all generations".接着,上帝揭示他也以他的名字“的纪念,直到万代”下的一种特殊形式雅威。He performs two miracles to convince his timorous listener, appoints Aaron as Moses's "prophet", and Moses, so to speak, as Aaron's God (Exodus 4:16).他执行两个奇迹说服他的胆怯听众,任命亚伦为摩西的“先知”,摩西,可以这么说,因为阿伦的神(出埃及记4:16)。 Diffidence at once gives way to faith and magnanimity.疑心马上让位给信念和高尚的行为。Moses bids adieu to Jethro (Raguel), and, with his family, starts for Egypt.摩西出价告别了杰思罗(拉古尔),并与他的家人,开始对埃及。He carries in his hand the "rod of God", a symbol of the fearlessness with which he is to act in performing signs and wonders in the presence of a hardened, threatening monarch.他随身携带着他手中的“神杆”,一个无畏的与他​​是在表演神迹奇事的行为在一种坚硬的,威胁君主存在的象征。His confidence waxes strong, but he is uncircumcised, and God meets him on the way and fain would kill him.他的信心蜡强劲,但他未受割礼,上帝满足的途径及欣然将他杀死了他。Sephora saves her "bloody spouse", and appeases God by circumcising a son.丝芙兰节省了她的“血腥的配偶”,并安抚了割礼一个儿子的神。 Aaron joins the party at Horeb.亚伦加入党在何烈山。The first interview of the brothers with their compatriots is most encouraging, but not so with the despotic sovereign.在与他们的同胞兄弟第一次采访是最令人鼓舞的,但不与专制君主的。Asked to allow the Hebrews three days' respite for sacrifices in the wilderness, the angry monarch not only refuses, but he ridicules their God, and then effectually embitters the Hebrews' minds against their new chiefs as well as against himself, by denying them the necessary straw for exorbitant daily exactions in brick making.当被问及让希伯来三天在旷野牺牲喘息,愤怒的君主不仅拒绝,但他嘲笑他们的神,然后有效地embitters希伯来人的首领对他们的新思维以及对自己被剥夺他们的,为高昂的日常勒索必要稻草制砖。 A rupture is about to ensue with the two strange brothers, when, in a vision, Moses is divinely constituted "Pharaoh's God", and is commanded to use his newly imparted powers.一个即将破裂随之而来的两个怪兄弟的时候,在异象中,摩西是神构成了“法老的神”,是利用他的新命令传授权力。He has now attained his eightieth year.他现在已经达到了他的八十年。The episode of Aaron's rod is a prelude to the plagues.作者:亚伦的杖事件是对瘟疫的序幕。Either personally or through Aaron, sometimes after warning Pharaoh or again quite suddenly, Moses causes a series of Divine manifestations described as ten in number in which he humiliates the sun and river gods, afflicts man and beast, and displays such unwonted control over the earth and heavens that even the magicians are forced to recognize in his prodigies "the finger of God".亲自或通过亚伦,有时后再次警告法老或相当突然,摩西会导致一系列的神圣的表现形容为十个数字在他侮辱了太阳和河流的神,折磨着人与牲畜,并显示在地球上不同寻常的控制等而即使魔术师不得不承认他的天才“上帝的手指”的天堂。 Pharaoh softens at times but never sufficiently to meet the demands of Moses without restrictions.法老软化次,但从未在充分满足摩西也没有受到限制的要求。He treasures too highly the Hebrew labour for his public works.他也非常珍惜为他的公共工程希伯来语劳动。A crisis arrives with the last plague.到达一个危机与上瘟疫。The Hebrews, forewarned by Moses, celebrate the first Pasch or Phase with their loins girt, their shoes on their feet, and staves in their hands, ready for rapid escape.希伯来人,由摩西事先警告,庆祝他们的腰girt第一Pasch或阶段,他们的鞋上脚,并在他们手中杠,快速逃生准备。 Then God carries out his dreadful threat to pass through the land and kill every first-born of man and beast, thereby executing judgment on all the gods of Egypt.然后,上帝履行他的可怕的威胁,通过土地和杀死每一位大学人兽出生,从而执行的所有埃及诸神的判断。Pharaoh can resist no longer.法老不再能抵抗。He joins the stricken populace in begging the Hebrews to depart.他加入乞讨希伯来人离开受灾群众。

EXODUS AND THE FORTY YEARS (EXODUS 12:34 AND AFTER)流亡和四十年(出埃及记12:34之后)

At the head of 600,000 men, besides women and children, and heavily laden with the spoils of the Egyptians, Moses follows a way through the desert, indicated by an advancing pillar of alternating cloud and fire, and gains the peninsula of Sinai by crossing the Red Sea.以60万人,除了妇女和儿童,头重与埃及人的战利品拉丹,摩西在沙漠中遵循的方式,由云和火交替前进的支柱表示,并获得越过西奈半岛的红海。 A dry passage, miraculously opened by him for this purpose at a point today unknown, afterwards proves a fatal trap for a body of Egyptian pursuers, organized by Pharaoh and possibly under his leadership.干燥的通道,奇迹般地打开了他为此目的而今日在一个点不明,后来证明为一个机构,由埃及法老的追兵,并可能在他领导下举办的,致命的陷阱。 The event furnishes the theme of the thrilling canticle of Moses.本次活动furnishes了惊险的摩西颂歌主题。For upwards of two months the long procession, much retarded by the flocks, the herds, and the difficulties inseparable from desert travel, wends its way towards Sinai.对于两个月长长的游行,很多的羊群,牛群,和沙漠旅行的困难分不开的智障向上,文德其对西奈半岛的方式。To move directly on Chanaan would be too hazardous because of the warlike Philistines, whose territory would have to be crossed; whereas, on the south-east, the less formidable Amalacites are the only inimical tribes and are easily overcome thanks to the intercession of Moses.要移动Chanaan直接将太因好战的非利士人,其境内就必须越过危险,然而,在东南,越强大Amalacites是唯一不利于部落,很容易克服由于摩西的代​​祷。 For the line of march and topographical identifications along the route, see ISRAELITES, subsection The Exodus and the Wanderings.对于游行,沿途地形标识线,看到以色列人出埃及和款的浪迹。The miraculous water obtained from the rock Horeb, and the supply of the quails and manna, bespeak the marvellous faith of the great leader.神奇的水从岩石得到何烈山,和鹌鹑和甘露供应,预示着伟大领袖神奇的信心。The meeting with Jethro ends in an alliance with Madian, and the appointment of a corps of judges subordinate to Moses, to attend to minor decisions.会议结束与杰思罗在接受马甸联盟,以及下属的法官对摩西,军参加对未成年人的任命决定。At Sinai the Ten Commandments are promulgated, Moses is made mediator between God and the people, and, during two periods of forty days each, he remains in concealment on the mount, receiving from God the multifarious enactments, by the observance of which Israel is to be moulded into a theocratic nation (cf. MOSAIC LEGISLATION).在西奈半岛的颁布十诫,摩西是由上帝和人民之间的调解人,并在两个各四十天期间,他仍然在隐蔽的山上,接受来自上帝的五花八门的成文法则的遵守,其中以色列被塑造成一个神权国家(参见花叶立法)。 On his first descent, he exhibits an all-consuming zeal for the purity of Divine worship, by causing to perish those who had indulged in the idolatrous orgies about the Golden Calf; on his second, he inspires the deepest awe because his face is emblazoned with luminous horns.在他的首后裔,他表现出一种纯洁,神圣的崇拜所有消费热情所造成的灭亡那些谁曾在对金犊盲目崇拜狂欢沉迷;在他的第二次,他启发最深的敬畏,因为他面对的是上面印有夜光角。 After instituting the priesthood and erecting the Tabernacle, Moses orders a census which shows an army of 603,550 fighting men.提起后神职人员和架设幕,摩西订单人口普查显示了603550人的军队战斗。These with the Levites, women, and children, duly celebrate the first anniversary of the Pasch, and, carrying the Ark of the Covenant, shortly enter on the second stage of their migration.与利,妇女和儿童这些,正式庆祝一周年的Pasch,并携带着约柜,不久进入其迁移的第二阶段。They are accompanied by Hobab, Jethro's son, who acts as a guide.他们是伴随着Hobab,叶忒罗的儿子,谁是指导行为。Two instances of general discontent follow, of which the first is punished by fire, which ceases as Moses prays, and the second by plague.两个实例遵循普遍感到不满,其中第一个是火,它作为摩西祈祷不再处罚,由鼠疫第二。When the manna is complained of, quails are provided as in the previous year.当甘露是抱怨,鹌鹑提供的上一年。Seventy elders -- a conjectural origin of the Sanhedrin -- are then appointed to assist Moses.七十个长老 - 一个公会推测起源 - 然后委任协助摩西。Next Aaron and Mary envy their brother, but God vindicates him and afflicts Mary temporarily with leprosy.下一步亚伦和玛丽羡慕他们的兄弟,但他和上帝vindicates与麻风病折磨着玛丽暂时的。From the desert of Pharan Moses sends spies into Chanaan, who, with the exceptions of Joshue and Caleb, bring back startling reports which throw the people into consternation and rebellion.从Pharan摩西沙漠发送到Chanaan,谁,与Joshue和迦勒例外,带回的投入叛乱的人们惊愕和令人吃惊的报告间谍。 The great leader prays and God intervenes, but only to condemn the present generation to die in the wilderness.伟大领袖祈祷,上帝介入,但只谴责这一代死在旷野。The subsequent uprising of Core, Dathan, Abiron, and their adherents suggests that, during the thirty-eight years spent in the Badiet et-Tih., habitual discontent, so characteristic of nomads, continued.该核心,大坍,Abiron,以及他们的追随者随后起义表明,在三八在Badiet等,悌花了几年时间。,习惯性的不满,所以游牧民族的特点,继续进行。 It is during this period that tradition places the composition of a large part of the Pentateuch.正是在这一时期,传统的地方一个大的五部分组成。Towards its close, Moses is doomed never to enter the Promised Land, presumably because of a momentary lack of trust in God at the Water of Contradiction.实现其关闭,摩西是注定永远不会进入大概是因为在上帝的信任一时缺乏的矛盾在水的乐土。When the old generation, including Mary, the prophet's sister, is no more, Moses inaugurates the onward march around Edom and Moab to the Arnon.当老一代人,包括玛丽,先知的妹妹,也没有了,摩西到亚嫩举行落成典礼周围以东,摩押前进。After the death of Aaron and the victory over Arad, "fiery serpents" appear in the camp, a chastisement for renewed murmurings.死亡后,阿伦和过度阿拉德的胜利,“火蛇”出现在营地,一个新的怨言了惩罚。Moses sets up the brazen serpent, "which when they that were bitten looked upon, they were healed".摩西建立了厚颜无耻的蛇“,这时候他们被咬伤后,他们被治愈看”。The victories over Sehon and Og, and the feeling of security animating the army even in the territory of the hostile Balac, led to presumptuous and scandalous intercourse with the idolatrous Moabites which results, at Moses's command, in the slaughter of 24,000 offenders.围绕Sehon和噩的胜利,在动画,即使在敌对Balac境内的军队安全的感觉,以这样的盲目崇拜摩押人的结果,在摩西的命令在24000罪犯杀戮,使狂妄和丑闻性交。 The census, however, shows that the army still numbers 601,730, excluding 23,000 Levites.普查结果则显示,军队人数仍然六十万一千七百三十,不包括23,000利。Of these Moses allows the Reubenites, Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasses to settle in the east-Jordan district, without, however, releasing them from service in the west-Jordan conquest.这些摩西允许流便,迦得人,和半定居的玛东,约旦部落地区,但不,释放和西方,约旦征服他们的服务。

DEATH AND POSTHUMOUS GLORY死亡与死后的荣誉

As a worthy legacy to the people for whom he has endured unparalleled hardships, Moses in his last days pronounces the three memorable discourses preserved in Deuteronomy.作为一个有价值的遗产给他,他忍受了他最后的日子无比艰辛,摩西在申命记发音人保留了三个令人难忘的话语。 his chief utterance relates to a future Prophet, like to himself, whom the people are to receive.他的主要话语涉及到未来的先知,喜欢自己,谁的人接受。He then bursts forth into a sublime song of praise to Jahweh and adds prophetic blessings for each of the twelve tribes.然后,他绽放成一个崇高的赞美歌,亚威,并增加了十二个部落的每一个预言的祝福。From Mount Nebo -- on "the top of Phasga" -- Moses views for the last time the Promised Land, and then dies at the age of 120 years.从尼波山 - 关于“Phasga顶” - 这是最后一次的乐土摩西的意见,然后在120岁去世。 He is buried "in the valley of Moab over against Phogor", but no man "knows his sepulchre".他被安葬“在摩押对危害Phogor谷”,但没有人“知道他的坟墓。”His memory has ever been one of "isolated grandeur".他的记忆力曾经被“孤立庄严”之一。He is the type of Hebrew holiness, so far outshining other models that twelve centuries after his death, the Christ Whom he foreshadowed seemed eclipsed by him in the minds of the learned.他是圣洁的希伯来文的类型,至今风头甚至盖过对十几个世纪后,他的死,基督人,他似乎预示他掩盖在心中的教训等机型。 It was, humanly speaking, an indispensable providence that represented him in the Transfiguration, side by side with Elias, and quite inferior to the incomparable Antitype whose coming he had predicted.这是,力所能及来说,是一个不可或缺的普罗维登斯代表他的变形,通过与埃利亚斯并肩,相当逊色于antitype的无比曾预言他的未来。

Publication information Written by Thomas A K. Reilly.出版信息撰稿托马斯一个光赖利。Transcribed by Sean Hyland.转录由Sean海仑。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.天主教百科全书,卷十,1911年出版。New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


Moses摩西

Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

The glorious Prophet Moses , God-seer, is the pinnacle of the lovers of wisdom, the supremely wise lawgiver, the most ancient historian of all.光荣的先知摩西 ,神预言家,是所有的历史学家巅峰爱好者的智慧,无比聪明的最古老的立法者。His name means one who draws forth , or is drawn from , that is, from the water.他的名字引出谁的手段之一 ,或者是来自 ,就是从水中。His life is narrated in the Bible (Exodus 2 through Deuteronomy 34:12).他的一生是叙述在圣经(出埃及记通过申命记34:12 2)。 The Orthodox Church celebrates his feast day on September 4.东正教会庆祝他的节日,9月4日。

Life生活

Birth出生

The Burning Bush燃烧的灌木丛

Pharaoh and the Plagues of Egypt法老和埃及的瘟疫

Passover and the Parting of the Red Sea逾越节和红海的离别

Wandering in the Desert徘徊在沙漠

The Ten Commandments and the Ark of the Covenant十诫和约柜

Seeing the Promised Land看着乐土

Theological considerations神学思考

Moses' role as a prophet is complex and diverse, but one of the predominant themes of relevance to the Early Church is prefigured in Deut 18:15.摩西是先知的角色是复杂多样,但相关的早期教会的主要议题之一是在申命记18:15预示。The Gospel writers make an effort at several points to highlight the role of Jesus as the "new Moses," the fulfillment of the prophecy.福音作家在几个点作出努力,突出了耶稣的“新摩西”的预言方面的作用。

Hymns赞美诗

Russian: 俄语:

Troparion (Tone 2)Troparion(二声)

The memory of Your prophet Moses,你的先知摩西的记忆,
We celebrate today, O Lord.我们今天庆祝,主啊。
By his prayers, we beseech You,根据他的祈祷,我们求求你,
O Christ God, save our souls!基督啊上帝,拯救我们的灵魂!

Kontakion (Tone 2)Kontakion(二声)

The company of the prophets rejoices with Moses and Aaron,对摩西和亚伦的先知庆幸公司,
For their prophecy is fulfilled因为他们的预言应验
As the Cross by which you have saved us shines forth.由于十字,你救了我们闪耀。
Save our souls by their prayers, O Christ our God!为了节省他们的祈祷,基督我们的上帝我们的灵魂!

Greek:希腊:

Apolytikion (Third Tone)Apolytikion(三声)

As we celebrate the memory of Thy Prophet Moses,当我们庆祝你的先知摩西的记忆,
O Lord, through him we beseech Thee to save our souls.主啊,通过他,我们求你拯救我们的灵魂。

Kontakion (Fourth Tone)Kontakion(四声)

With the divine and righteous Moses and Aaron, the Prophets' choir today rejoiceth with gladness,与神和正义的摩西,亚伦,先知合唱团今天欢乐与喜悦,
seeing their prophecy fulfilled now in our midst;现在看到他们的预言应验在我们中间;
for Thy Cross, O Christ our God, whereby Thou hast redeemed us,为你的十字架,噢基督我们的上帝,即你所救赎我们,
shineth in the sight of all as the end and fulfilment of that which they foretold in ancient times.在结束作为对那些为实现众人眼前照耀在远古时代,他们的预言。
By their entreaties, have mercy upon us all.通过他们的请求,都要求我们所有的怜悯。


This subject presentation in the original English language这在原来的主题演讲, 英语



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