Neo - Thomism新-托马斯主义

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Early in the 19th century in Italy certain Catholic professors of philosophy began to see in Thomas Aquinas's teaching basic principles that might resolve the problems associated with Kantian and Hegelian Idealism, British Empiricism, current Rationalism, Skepticism, and Liberalism. By 1850, neo Thomism or neoscholasticism began to be heard through the writings of Gaetano Sanseverino in Naples, Matteo Liberatore in Rome, and the Jesuit periodical Civilita Cattolica founded in Naples in 1850.早在哲学 19世纪,在天主教教授,意大利的某些开始看到在托马斯阿奎那的教学基本原则,可能会解决和自由主义的问题,与康德和黑格尔的唯心主义,英国经验主义,当前的理性主义,怀疑主义。到1850年,新托马斯主义或neoscholasticism开始通过加埃塔诺Sanseverino在那不勒斯,利玛窦Liberatore在罗马的著作听到了,耶稣期刊Civilita Cattolica的成立于1850年在那不勒斯。These efforts were brought to a head by Josef Kleutgen in Germany, Henri LaCordaire in France, Zeferino Gonzales in the Philippines and Spain, and Tommaso Zigliara and Pope Leo XIII in Italy.这些努力被带到一个由约瑟夫Kleutgen在德国,亨利拉科代尔在法国,zeferino冈萨雷斯在菲律宾和西班牙,和托马索齐利亚拉和教皇利奥十三世在意大利头。 The charter of this neo Thomism was Leo's Aeterni Patris (1879).这一新Thomism宪章是狮子座的Aeterni Patris(1879)。 Through subsequent encyclicals, Leo exemplified the applicability of Thomistic ideas to contemporary problems. All subsequent popes, including John Paul II, reiterated the need for a Christian philosophy based on Thomistic principles.通过以后的通谕, 利奥体现适用性托马斯主义的思想对当代的问题。其后所有的教皇,包括约翰保罗二世,重申需要的原则基础上thomistic理念,为基督徒。

The rise of Modernism in the Roman Catholic church after 1900, however, resulted in a multiplicity of ecclesiastical condemnations, a legislated Thomism, and a failure to realize the hopes of Leo XIII.对现代主义在罗马天主教会上升后,1900年,但是,导致了教会的谴责,法定thomism,并未能实现的希望利奥十三世的多样性。 Despite this and two world wars, much fruitful work was accomplished by outstanding scholars, numerous periodicals, and editors of historical texts, including the critical edition of the works of Aquinas (the Leonine Edition).尽管这和两次世界大战,许多卓有成效的工作是由杰出的学者,许多期刊和历史文本编辑,包括对阿奎那(在leonine版)有关工程的关键版本。 Among the great number of modern scholars who called themselves Thomists (but not neo Thomists or neoscholastics) were Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson, Martin Grabmann, and Yves Congar.其中的人称自己是谁,大量的现代学者Thomists(但不是新Thomists或neoscholastics)为雅克马里丹,艾蒂安吉,马丁Grabmann,和Yves琼加尔。

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For reasons still not fully understood, a decided reaction against Aquinas and neoscholasticism occurred in the 1960s.原因还不完全明白,一个决定对阿奎那反应和neoscholasticism发生在20世纪60年代的原因。Some have erroneously associated this with the Second Vatican Council, which turned people's minds toward social rather than doctrinal issues.有些人错误地与梵蒂冈第二次会议,其中转向社会,而不是理论问题,人们的实际行动。Aquinas was, however, the only scholastic doctor mentioned by name in all the conciliar documents.阿奎那,但是,只有在学术上的医生在所有conciliar文件名称提及。The real reasons for the decline of neoscholasticism must be sought in the wider sociological and psychological concerns of contemporary society.对于neoscholasticism下降的真正原因,必须寻求在更广泛的社会和心理的当代社会的关注。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Y Congar, A History of Theology (1968); E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of Saint Thomas Aquinas (1957); RM McInerny, ed., New Themes in Christian Philosophy (1968); B Smalley, The Becket Conflict and the Schools: A Study of Intellectuals in Politics (1973) Ÿ琼加尔,历史,神学(1968年),电子商务吉尔松,基督教哲学的圣托马斯阿奎那(1957年);室McInerny,版,新的主题在基督教哲学(1968年);乙斯莫利,贝克特的冲突和学校。:一个知识分子在政治学研究(1973)


Neo - Thomism新 - 托马斯主义

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Neo-Thomism is a twentieth century revival of the thought of Thomas Aquinas.新托马斯主义是一种思想的托马斯阿奎那二十世纪复兴。Thomism had been the dominant philosophy undergirding Roman Catholic theology from the fifteenth century.托马斯主义一直占主导地位的哲学undergirding十五世纪的罗马天主教神学。Under the pace setting interpretations of such thinkers as Cajetan in the early sixteenth century a complex system which spoke to the needs of both theology and contemporary philosophical questions developed.根据速度设定在16世纪初作为cajetan等思想家诠释一个复杂的系统,既采访了神学和哲学问题的当代发展的需要。 Thomism appeared to have triumphed in 1880 when Pope Leo XIII declared it to be the official (though not exclusive) philosophy of Catholic schools.托马斯主义似乎已在1880年取得胜利时,教皇利奥十三世宣布它是官方(虽然不是唯一的)哲学的天主教学校。

However, at the same time it became clear that Thomism's posture was threatened by the increasing popularity of Kantian philosophical principles.然而,在同一时间很显然,托马斯主义的姿态是由康德哲学原则的日益普及威胁。In the twentieth century the movement bifurcated.在二十世纪的运动岔。Transcendental Thomism, represented by Joseph Marechal, Bernard Lonergan, and Karl Rahner, self consciously adapted itself to Kantian thought.先验托马斯主义,由约瑟夫马雷夏尔,郎尼根,代表和卡尔拉内,自康德自觉适应自己的思想。But another wing, under the leadership of Etienne Gilson and Jacques Maritain, sought to recover a pure version of the teachings of Aquinas himself.但另一位下艾蒂安吉雅克马里丹领导和机翼,想追回了自己的教诲,阿奎那纯净版。 Eventually this understanding crossed confessional boundaries to include such Protestants as EL Mascall.最终跨越教派界限这样的认识,包括如El马斯科尔新教徒。This article will concentrate on this latter movement.这篇文章将集中在后者的运动。

The metaphysical distinctive of neo Thomism may be found in its insistence on the maxim that "existence precedes essence."新托马斯主义的形而上学可以找到独特的格言:“存在先于本质。”在其坚持 For that reason Maritain has claimed that Thomism is the original existentialism.出于这个原因旦声称Thomism是原始的生存。Put simply, this means that one has to know that something exists before one knows what it is, and before one knows that something exists, one has to accept that anything exists.简单来说,这意味着人们必须知道的东西存在之前人知道它是什么,知道前一个东西存在,人们必须接受任何存在。This latter conviction is not the result of a rational deduction; it is an immediate awareness.这后一种信念,是不是一个合理的推论结果,它是一种直接的认识。Thus the act of being, apprehended in a direct intuition, precedes its various modalities.因此,正在采取行动,拘捕了直接的直觉,先于它的各种方式。

This apprehension of being leads the Thomist to posit the existence of God via the cosmological argument.这被逮捕托马斯主义来断定领导通过宇宙论论证上帝的存在。For even though the reality of being is an inescapable fact, it is not a logically necessary truth.对于即使被现实是一个不可避免的事实,它不是一个逻辑上必然的真理。Being exists, but need not exist.作为存在,但不必存在。Thus being is inherently contingent, and its contingency makes it finite.因此,目前是天生队伍,其应变使得有限的。If it exists in view of having no inherent necessity to do so, it must be caused to exist.如果它在有没有内在的必要性,这样做视图存在,它必须引起存在。Also, the very forms which being assumes are due to the interplay of various causes; and the fact of change, so characteristic of being, must be the result of causal actions as well.此外,它被假定非常形式由于各种原因的相互作用;和变化的事实,因此被的特点,必须是因果关系以及行为的结果。Thus being is bounded by causes wherever it appears.因此,目前是有界的任何地方出现的原因。

However, since it is a logical absurdity for anything to cause itself, there must be an external cause of being.然而,由于它是一个什么事业本身的逻辑荒谬,就必须有一个被外部原因。Now if that cause is also finite, we have not grounded finite being yet, and it still should not exist.现在,如果说事业也是有限的,我们没有接地有限被然而,它仍然不应该存在。A chain of finite causes would carry the same problem with it.对有限的原因链将带着它同样的问题。Hence the Thomist posits an original uncaused cause of all being, viz.因此,托马斯主义假定了所有,即原始uncaused事业。 God.神。It must be noted that this argument is based on the metaphysical necessity for a cause of being, not on a need for explanation, as would be the case with Leibniz's principle of sufficient reason.必须指出,这种说法是基于对一种存在的原因不是一个需要解释的,形而上学的必要性,如将与莱布尼茨的充足理由原则的情况。

The understanding of God as unconditioned necessary existence goes far in providing the basis for Thomistic natural theology.上帝作为必要的生存无条件理解远远在提供了托马斯主义的自然神学的基础。 For if God is uncaused, he is unlimited.因为如果上帝是uncaused,他是无限的。Then he contains all perfections infinitely; eg, he is all - good, omnipresent, omniscient, all - loving, perfect person, etc. There can be only one such God, since a God who possesses all perfections cannot differ from any other God who would also possess all the identical possessions.然后,他包含了所有完善无限的,例如,他是所有 - 好,无所不在,无所不知,所有的 - 爱,完美的人等只能有一个这样的上帝,因为上帝,谁拥有所有完善不能不同于其他任何上帝谁还拥有所有相同的东西。Thus Thomists feel confident that their philosophical arguments concern the same God whom they worship in church.因此Thomists非​​常自信,他们的哲学论点关注同一个神人,他们在教堂里做礼拜。

Thomism understands the relationship between God the Creator and the created order to be analogical.托马斯主义理解造物主和上帝之间的关系是创建顺序类推。God is the source of all being, and finitude participates in his being, but only with limitations.上帝是一切的源泉,并在他的有限性存在,但只限制参与。In the matter of applying language to God, predication proceeds analogically as well.在运用语言的上帝,以及预测收益类比的问题。Language is derived from the finite world.语言是来自有限的世界。But then it is applied to God with the understanding that he is the source of all named properties and that he posseses all those properties without limitation.但后来将它应用到上帝的理解是,他是所有命名属性源,并且他拥有所有这些属性没有限制。For example, one may apply the word "love" to God, even though it is a word learned within human finite relationships, because God is pure love and the originator of all human love.例如,一个可申请改为“爱”为上帝,即使它是在人类有限的关系,学会一个字,因为上帝是纯洁的爱和所有人类的爱的鼻祖。

The insistence on being over essence also makes itself felt in Thomism's understanding of the human person.在本质上是坚持,也使得自己在托马斯主义的人的理解感受。Thomism avoids both a Platonic mind - body dualism and a reductive materialism.托马斯主义既避免了柏拉图精神 - 身体的二元论和还原性​​物质。With the understanding of the soul as the form of the body, the human is seen as a unit, composed of soul and body in mutual dependence.随着作为灵魂的身体形态的认识,人类被看作是灵魂和身体组成一个相互依存的单位。Thus, for instance, cognition combines both the physical / empirical (sensation) and the spiritual (abstraction).因此,例如,认知结合了物理/经验(感觉)和精神(抽象)。Thomistic writings have consistently defended the dignity and integrity of human personhood, particularly against totalitarian ideologies.托马斯主义著作一贯捍卫了人的人格尊严和完整性,特别是对极权主义意识形态。

In theology Thomism has usually been linked to conservative expressions of orthodox doctrines, partially due to the close dependence on Aquinas's own formulations.在神学托马斯主义通常也被联系到正统教义,部分原因是对阿奎那的密切依赖保守自己的配方表达。Since the Second Vatican Council it has lost much ground in Catholic circles to philosophies of more recent origin, eg, phenomenology or process thought, due to a certain impatience with Thomism's supposedly outmoded Aristotelianism.自第二次梵蒂冈会议已经失去了很多,在天主教界地面更近的起源哲学,例如,现象或过程的思想,由于与托马斯主义的所谓过时的亚里士多德某种不耐烦。 At the same time there has been some movement in evangelical Protestantism to adopt Thomistic philosophical principles for purposes of apologetics and theological enhancement, eg, by Norman L Geisler.在同一时间出现了一些福音派新教运动,通过关于加强护和神学目的托马斯主义哲学原理,例如由诺曼L格斯勒。

W Corduan W Corduan
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
NL Geisler, Philosophy of Religion; E Gilson, The Christian Philosophy of St. Thomas Aquinas; J Maritain, The Degrees of Knowledge and Scholasticism and Politics; EL Mascall, Existence and Analogy.国联盖斯勒,宗教哲学,电子商务吉尔松,基督教哲学多瑪斯; J旦,知识和士林与政治度;发光马斯科尔,存在和类比。



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