The Occult神秘

Advanced Information先进的信息

The term refers to "hidden" or "secret" wisdom; to that which is beyond the range of ordinary human knowledge; to mysterious or concealed phenomena; to inexplicable events.这个词是指“隐藏”或“秘密”的真理,是超越了普通人类的知识范围;在神秘的或隐蔽的现象;在莫名其妙的事件。It is frequently used in reference to certain practices (occult "arts") which include divination, fortune telling, spiritism (necromancy), and magic.它经常用来指某些做法(隐匿“艺术”),其中包括占卜,算命,招魂术(巫术),和魔术。

Those phenomena collectively known as "the occult" may be said to have the following distinct characteristics: (1) the disclosure and communication of information unavailable to humans through normal means (beyond the five senses); (2) the placing of persons in contact with supernatural powers, paranormal energies, or demonic forces; (3) the acquisition and mastery of power in order to manipulate or influence other people into certain actions.这些现象统称为“神秘”之称,可以说具有以下鲜明特点:(1)无法获得的信息披露和对人类通过正常的手段(超出五感)的沟通;(2)接触的人配售与神通,超自然的力量,或邪恶势力;(3)获取和掌握的权力,以操纵或影响到其他人的某些行动。

In an attempt to achieve legitimization and acceptance from the larger society, advocates of occultism have in recent years portrayed the occult as basically amenable to scientific investigation.在试图实现从更大的社会合法化和验收,神秘提倡近年来描绘成适合进行科学调查,基本上神秘。Parapsychology and graphology are two fields in which the claim to scientific status is often advanced.超心理学和笔迹学是两个领域,从而对科学的地位往往是先进的索赔。There is considerable disagreement in both the academic world and the religious world as to whether parapsychology, for example, is the "scientific" study of occult phenomena.有相当大的分歧在学术界和是否超心理学,例如,是“科学”的神秘现象的研究宗教的世界。It would appear that the very character of the occult indicates that it deals with contradictory or dissonant knowledge claims that are difficult, if not impossible, to investigate or validate.这样看来,对隐匿性非常性质表明,它与矛盾或不和谐的知识声称是困难的,如果不是不可能的,调查或验证协议。

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However, recent developments not only in science but in the arts, politics, psychology, and religion indicate a broad shift in Western culture to increased acceptance of a common set of presuppositions that parallel the occult mystical world view, which is in stark contrast to the biblical world view of historic Christianity.然而,不仅在科学,但在艺术,政治学,心理学,宗教等最近的事态发展表明,以增加一组共同的前提接受西方文化的广泛改变,并行神秘神秘的世界观,这是形成鲜明对比的是历史悠久的基督教圣经的世界观。 The classical systems of occult philosophy and their more recent "new age" variants are fundamentally identical with the "cosmic humanism" that characterizes much of the contemporary world.隐匿性哲学及其最近的“新时代”变种经典系统,基本上与“宇宙以人为本”的,都是当今世界的特点相同。Likewise, these ideas can be linked with such Eastern religious practices as yoga and meditation and an accompanying philosophy which asserts a definition of reality that ultimately denies the personal God of the Bible, promotes the essential divinity of man, and rejects any absolute statement of moral values.同样,这些想法可以作为连接东部等瑜伽和冥想和相应的哲学,主张一个现实的,最终剥夺了个人的圣经神的定义宗教习俗,促进人的基本神性,并拒绝接受任何道德绝对声明值。

The occult mystical world view and its associated religious expression, especially in the Eastern cults presently active in the West, can be analyzed in terms of the following components:隐匿性神秘的世界观及其相关的宗教言论,特别是在东部,目前在西方邪教活动,可以分析以下组件条款:

(1) The promise of godhood, man is a divine being.(1)神性的承诺,人是一个神圣的福祉。All forms of occult philosophy proclaim that the true or "real" self of man is synonymous with God.一切形式的隐性哲学宣布,真正的或“真正的”人的自我是与神的代名词。Such views are all patterned after the archetypal lie of the serpent in Gen. 3:4, "You will be as gods."这些意见都仿照的原型在将军3:4蛇的谎言,“你将被视为神。”

(2) The notion that "all is one", God is everything (pantheism). (2)概念,即“一切即一”,上帝是一切(泛神论)。There is only one reality in existence (monism), and therefore everyone and everything in the material world is part of the Divine.只有一个现实的存在(一元),因此每个人在物质世界的一切都是神圣的一部分。It follows that there is no distinction between supernatural and natural, between good and evil, between God and Satan.因此,有超自然之间没有区别,自然,善良与邪恶之间的上帝和撒旦。

(3) Life's purpose is to achieve awareness of the Divine within, self realization. (3)生命的目的是实现以内,自我实现的神圣意识。The path to salvation ("illumination," "enlightenment," "union") is an experiential one.得救的路径(“照明”,“启蒙”,“联盟”)是一个经验之一。It is the path to gnosis, the seeking of experiential "knowledge" through metaphysical insight.它是对直觉路径,体验“知识”,通过寻求形而上学的见解。

(4) Humankind is basically good, evil is an illusion or imperfection. (4)人类基本上是好的,邪恶是一种幻想或缺陷。Ignorance, not sin, is at the root of the human dilemma.无知,没有犯罪,是在人类困境的根源。An "enlightened" person will transcend moral distinctions.“开明”的人将超越道德区别。There is no need of redemption or forgiveness, only self realization.没有赎回或宽恕,只有自我实现的需求。

(5) Self realization via spiritual technique leads to power, the God - man is in charge.(5)通过技术实现自我精神导致电力,神 - 人负责。By employing spiritual technology such as meditation, chanting, and yoga, and through the application of universal laws, the realized being becomes master of his own reality.通过采用技术,如冥想的精神,诵经,瑜伽,并通过法律的普遍应用,正在成为他实现了自己的现实的主人。He attains the status of guru, or "light bearer," and can influence the lives of others.他达到了大师的地位,或“轻旗手”,并能影响他人的生活。

With this broad occult mystical framework in mind, it can be said that the ultimate objective of psychic occult power is to validate the lie of Satan, that man is God and that death is an illusion.有了这个广阔的心目中神秘的神秘的框架,它可以说是超自然神秘力量的最终目的是验证撒旦的谎言,这名男子是神,死亡是一种幻想。 In the deceptive quest for godhood and power of men and women are brought under the power of Satan himself.在为神性和欺骗性的男子和妇女权力的追求是撒旦纳入自己的权力。They are able to manifest a degree of counterfeit power by engaging in occult experiences.他们能够表现出一种神秘经验,在从事假冒力量的强弱。Such paranormal manifestations represent an imitation of authentic spirituality and demonstrate Satan's true nature as the arch deceiver.这种超常的表现代表了一种真实的模仿和表现出的灵性拱骗子撒旦的真实本质。

Both the OT and the NT proscribe such spiritually impure occultic activities as sorcery, mediumship, divination, and magic.无论是城市旅游局及新台币取缔这种精神上不纯的巫术,通灵,占卜,巫术和魔法活动。In the OT they are referred to as the "abominable practices" of the pagan cultures which coexisted with the Israelites.在加时赛,他们被称为“可恶的做法”的异教文化的并存与以色列人。Involvement with the occult arts was frequently compared to adultery.与隐匿性艺术的参与是比较频繁通奸。Jesus and the NT writers also described the dynamic of Satan's counterfeit spirituality and call for discernment of spiritist activity.耶稣和新台币作家还介绍活动的spiritist古史辨的撒旦的假冒灵性和呼叫动态。

While Scripture acknowledges both the reality and the power of occultic practices, it proclaims that God through Christ has disarmed the principalities and powers.虽然圣经承认的现实和实践力量的巫术,它宣称,上帝通过基督已经解除了公和权力。At the cross of Calvary the works of the devil were destroyed and the powers of darkness were conquered in an ultimate sense.在髑髅地的十字架魔鬼的作品被摧毁,黑暗的势力在终极意义上征服。

RM Enroth马币Enroth
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography: 参考书目:
B Alexander, Occult Philosophy and Mystical Experience; KE Koch, Between Christ and Satan and Satan's Devices; JS Wright, Christianity and the Occult; SCPJ, Winter 1980 - 81.乙亚历山大,隐匿哲学和神秘经验;柯科赫,基督与撒旦和撒旦的设备; js的赖特,基督教和隐匿; SCPJ,冬季1980年至1981年。

Occult Art, Occultism隐匿性艺术,神秘学

Catholic Information天主教新闻

Under this general term are included various practices to which special articles of the Encyclopedia are devoted: ANIMISM; ASTROLOGY; DIVINATION; FETISHISM.根据这一总的任期是包括各种做法,其中的特别条款是专门百科全书:万物有灵论,星象,占卜;拜物教。The present article deals with the form of Occultism known as "Magic".与神秘学的“魔术师”之称的形式存在文章处理。

The English word magic is derived through the Latin, Greek, Persian, Assyrian from the Sumerian or Turanian word imga or emga ("deep", "profound"), a designation for the Proto-Chaldean priests or wizards.神奇的英文单词是根据通过的拉丁,希腊,波斯,从苏美尔人或都兰字imga或emga亚述人(“深”,“深刻”),为原始加尔丁祭司或向导指定。 Magi became a standard term for the later Zoroastrian, or Persian, priesthood through whom Eastern occult arts were made known to the Greeks; hence, magos (as also the kindred words magikos, mageia, a magician or a person endowed with secret knowledge and power like a Persian magus.贤士成为标准的任期为后来的拜火教,或波斯语,神职人员经手东方神秘的艺术提出了著名的希腊人,因此,magos(同时也作为magikos骨肉的话,mageia,魔术师或秘密的知识和权力赋予一个人像波斯大法师。

In a restricted sense magic is understood to be an interference with the usual course of physical nature by apparently inadequate means (recitation of formularies, gestures, mixing of incongruous elements, and other mysterious actions), the knowledge of which is obtained through secret communication with the force underlying the universe (God, the Devil, the soul of the world, etc.); it is the attempt to work miracles not by the power of God, gratuitously communicated to man, but by the use of hidden forces beyond man's control.在限制感神奇的是理解为一个与物理性质,显然手段不足日常干扰(背诵处方,手势,不和谐因素的混合,以及其他神秘的行动),其中的知识获得通过秘密通信警队背后的宇宙(上帝,魔鬼,世界,等等灵魂),它是试图工作不是由上帝的力量传达给男人无偿,奇迹,而是由隐藏的力量超出人的控制使用。 Its advocates, despairing to move the Deity by supplication, seek the desired result by evoking powers ordinarily reserved to the Deity.它的倡导者,绝望到移动祈求的神,寻求以唤起通常保留给神权预期的效果。It is a corruption of religion, not a preliminary stage of it as Rationalists maintain, and it appears as an accompaniment of decadent rather than of rising civilization.这是一个宗教腐败,不是它的初步阶段,保持理性,它作为一种腐朽,而不是文明的伴奏出现上升。There is nothing to show that in Babylon, Greece, and Rome the use of magic decreased as these nations progressed; on the contrary, it increased as they declined.没有什么可以表明,在巴比伦,希腊和罗马的,因为这些国家减少使用魔法的进展,相反,它增加,因为他们拒绝。It is not true that "religion is the despair of magic"; in reality, magic is but a disease of religion.这是不正确的“宗教是绝望的魔术”,在现实中,魔术只是一个宗教的疾病。

The disease has been widespread; but if one land may be designated as the home of magic it is Chaldea, or Southern Babylonia.这种疾病已被普遍;但如果一个人的土地,可以被看作是魔术家是迦勒底,或南部巴比伦指定。The earliest written records of magic are found in the cuneiform incantation inscriptions which Assyrian scribes in 800 BC copied from Babylonian originals.最早的文字记载是神奇的发现,在楔形文字咒语的公元前800年亚述人从巴比伦原件复制的文士铭文。Although the earliest religious tablets refer to divination and in the latest Chaldean period, astrology proper absorbed the energy of the Babylonian hierarchy, medicinal magic and nature magic were largely practiced.虽然最早的宗教片是指在最新的占卜和加尔丁时期,占星术适当吸收了巴比伦层次,药用魔法和自然魔法能量基本上实行。 The Barupriest as the diviner seems to have held the foremost rank, but hardly inferior was the Ashipu-priest, the priest of incantations, who recited the magical formularies of the "Shurpu", "Maklu", and "Utukku".作为占卜师Barupriest似乎已经举行的最重要的排名,但几乎没有劣势是Ashipu -牧师,咒语,谁背诵的“Shurpu”,“Maklu”神奇的处方牧师,“Utukku”。"Shurpu" (burning) was a spell to remove a curse due to legal uncleanness; "Maklu" (consuming) was a counter-spell against wizards and witches; "Utukki limmuti" (evil spirits) was a series of sixteen formulae against ghosts and demons. “Shurpu”(燃烧)是一个咒语诅咒消除由于法律污秽;“Maklu”(消费)是一个反对巫师的法术,“Utukki limmuti”(邪灵)是一个十六岁的公式,对鬼系列和恶魔。The "Asaski marsuti" was a series of twelve formulae against fevers and sickness.在“Asaski marsuti”是十二对抗发烧和疾病公式系列。In this case the evil influence was first transferred to a wax figure representing the patient or an animal carcass, and the formulae were recited over the substitute.在这种情况下,邪恶的影响首先转移到一个蜡像代表病人或动物尸体,以及在替代公式,背诵。Ti'i tablets, nine in number, give recipes against headache.Ti'i片,在数量上九,给对头痛的食谱。The "Labartu" incantations repeated over little figures were supposed to drive away the ogres and witches from children.在“Labartu”过小的数字重复咒语要赶走食人魔和儿童的巫婆。All these formulae pronounced over the figures were accompanied by an elaborate ritual, eg,所有这些数字明显比公式,伴随着一个复杂的仪式,例如,

A table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before the Sun-God (Statue of Shamash), thou shalt place thereon 4 jugs of sesame wine, thou shalt set thereon 3 x 12 loaves of wheat, thou shalt add a mixture of honey and butter and sprinkle with salt: a table thou shalt place behind the censer which is before the Storm-God (Statue of Adad) and behind the censer which is before Merodach.一个表,你后面的香炉面前的太阳神(对沙马什像),你要就此举行4芝麻葡萄酒壶是必的地方,你要将就此3 × 12的小麦面包,你要添加蜂蜜混合物黄油,撒上盐:背后的香炉面前的雨神(对阿达德像)和后面的香炉面前的是一个表米罗达巴拉你要的地方。

The magicians mentioned above were authorized and practiced "white", or benevolent, magic; the "Kashshapi", or unauthorized practitioners, employed "black" magic against mankind.上面提到的魔术师被授权和实行“白”,或仁慈,魔术;的“Kashshapi”,或未经授权的医生用来对付人类的“黑”魔术。 That the latter had preternatural powers to do harm no one doubted; hence the severe punishment meted out to them.后者有超自然的力量做伤害任何人怀疑,因此入狱的严重惩罚他们。The Code of Hammurabi (c. 2000 BC) appointed the ordeal by water for one who was accused of being a sorcerer and for his accuser.汉谟拉比(公元前2000年)代码任命了一个由水考验谁是被一个巫师和他的原告被告。If the accused was drowned, his property went to the accuser; if he was saved, the accuser was put to death and his property went to the accused.如果被告被淹死,他的财产去了原告,若他得救了,原告被处死,他的财产去了被告。This of course took place only if the accusation could not be satisfactorily proven otherwise.当然,这只有在发生指控未能得到令人满意的证明并非如此。The principal god invoked in Chaldean Magic were Ea, source of all wisdom, and Marduk (Merodach) his son, who had inherited his father's knowledge.主要神在迦勒魔术援引了鄂,一切智慧之源,马杜克(米罗达巴拉)他的儿子,谁继承了他父亲的知识。A curiously naive scene was supposed to be enacted before the application of a medicinal spell: Marduk went to Ea's house and said: "Father, headache from the underworld hath gone forth. The patient does not know the reason; whereby may he be relieved?"一个奇怪的天真场面应该是前申请制定了药用咒语:马尔杜克去EA的房子说:“爸爸,从那里出来的黑社会祂所头痛,病人不知道原因;,即5月,他得到缓解。? “Ea answered: "O Marduk, my son, what can I add to thy knowledge? What I know thou knowest also. Go, my son Marduk"; and then follows the prescription.鄂回答:“啊,马尔杜克,我的儿子,我能增加你的知识你知道我所知道的也去,我的儿子马尔杜克?。”然后遵循处方。 This tale was regularly repeated before use of the recipe.这故事是经常重复使用之前的食谱。

Without suggesting the dependence of one national system of magic upon another, the similarity of some ideas and practices in the magic of all peoples must be noted.没有暗示一个神奇的国家制度对另一个依赖,一些想法和做法,对所有人民必须指出的魔法相似。All rely on the power of words, the utterance of a hidden name, or the mere existence of the name on an amulet or stone.都依赖于文字的力量,一个隐藏的名称话语,或名称或石头上的护身符仅仅存在。Magic was supposed to be the triumph of intellect over matter, the word being the key to the mysteries of the physical world: utter the name of a malignant influence and its power is undone; utter the name of a benevolent deity and force goes out to destroy the adversary.魔术应该是理智的胜利战胜物质,这个词是关键的物理世界的奥秘:说出姓名的恶性影响和权力撤消;说出一个仁慈的神的名字和力量外出摧毁对手。 The repeated naming of Gibel-Nusku and his attributes destroyed the evil influence in the wax figure representing the person concerned.对异育银- Nusku和他的属性重复命名摧毁了蜡的数字代表有关的人的邪恶影响。The force of the Gnostic Iota-Alpha-Omega was notorious.的诺斯底约塔-α-欧米茄力量是臭名昭著。In Egyptian magic a mere agglomeration of vowels or of meaningless syllables was supposed to work good or evil.在埃及神奇的元音或无意义的音节仅仅团聚是要工作好或邪恶。Their barbarous sounds were the object of ridicule to the man of common sense.他们的野蛮的声音是嘲笑的对象到常识的人。In many cases they were of Jewish, or Babylonian, or Aramaic origin and because unintelligible to Egyptians, the words were generally corrupted beyond recognition.在许多情况下,他们都是犹太人,或巴比伦,或阿拉姆来源,因为不懂的埃及人,一般的话是面目全非损坏。Thus on a demotic papyrus is found the prescription: "in time of storm and danger of shipwreck cry Anuk Adonai and the disaster will be averted"; on a Greek papyrus the name of the Assyrian Ereskihal is found as Eresgichal.因此,在一个通俗的莎草纸是找到了药方:“在风暴和海难哭安克阿多奈危险和避免灾难发生时将”;上的亚述Ereskihal名称为Eresgichal希腊发现纸莎草。 So potent is a name that if an inscribed amulet be washed and the water drunk or the charm written on papyrus be soaked in water and this taken, or if the word be written on hard-boiled eggs without shell and these eaten, preternatural powers come into play.如此强大是一个名字刻护身符,如果一洗,水莎草纸醉酒或书面的魅力被浸泡在水中,这采取或如果单词写在煮鸡蛋壳,这些没有吃过,超自然的力量来发挥作用。 Another prevalent idea in magic is that of substitution: the person or thing to be affected by the spell is replaced by his image, or, like the "ushabtiu" figures in Egyptian tombs, images replace the protective powers invoked, or lastly some part (hair, nailparings, garments, etc.) take the place of the whole person.另一个神奇的普遍想法是,替代:人或事情而受到影响的法术是由他的形象所取代,或像“ushabtiu”在埃及陵墓的数字,图像取代调用的保护权力,或最后一些部分(头发,nailparings,服装等)采取整个人的地方。 The almost universal "magic circle" is only a mimic wall against the wicked spirits outside and goes back to Chaldean magic under the name of usurtu, made with a sprinkling of lime and flour.几乎普遍的“魔圈”只是一个模仿反对邪恶的精神外墙壁,然后退回下usurtu名称以洒石灰和面粉制成,以迦勒魔术。 If the medical wizard or the Indian sorcerer surrounds himself or others with a rampart of little stones, this is again but the make-believe of a wall.如果医疗向导或印度巫师围绕自己或与别人的小石头垒,而这又是化妆的墙壁相信。After Babylonia, Egypt was foremost in magic; the medieval practice of alchemy shows by its name its Egyptian origin.经过巴比伦,埃及是最重要的魔术;中世纪的炼金术显示其名称的做法,它起源于埃及。Coptic exorcisms against all sorts of diseases abound amongst the papyri pertaining to magic, and magic claims a great part of ancient Egyptian literature.对各种疾病的科普特驱魔比比皆是跻身纸莎草纸有关魔术,魔术声称古埃及文学的很大一部分。Unlike Babylonian magic however, it seems to have retained to the last its medicinal and preventive character; it rarely indulged in astrology or prediction.然而不同的巴比伦魔术,​​似乎保留到最后它的药用和预防性质,它很少在占星术或预测的纵容。Egyptian legend spoke of a magician Teta who worked miracles before Khufu (Cheops) (c. 3800 BC), and Greek tradition tells of Nectanebus, last native King of Egypt (358 BC), as the greatest of magicians.埃及传说谈到了一个魔术师泰塔谁工作过的胡夫(基奥普斯)奇迹(约3800年),希腊传统Nectanebus告诉,最后本土埃及国王(358年),作为最伟大的魔术师。

That the Jews were prone to magic is evidenced by the strict laws against it and the warnings of the Prophets (Exodus 22:18; Deuteronomy 18:10; Isaiah 3:18, 20; 57:3; Micah 5:11; cf. 2 Kings 21:6).这犹太人容易魔法攻击他们的严格的法律和先知(出埃及记22点18分的警告证;申命记18:10;以赛亚3时18分,20; 57:3;米卡11分;比照。列王纪下21:6)。Nevertheless, Jewish magic flourished, especially just before the birth of Christ, as appears from the Book of Enoch, the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, and the Testament of Solomon.然而,犹太魔术蓬勃发展,特别是就在基督诞生,从以诺书,全书的十二始祖,和所罗门约出现。Origen testifies that in his day to adjure demons was looked upon as specifically "Jewish", that these adjurations had to be made in Hebrew and from Solomon's books (In Math., xxvi, 63, PG, XIII, 1757).奥利证明,在他的一天指着恶魔被看作为特别“犹太人”之地,这些adjurations必须要在希伯来文和从所罗门的书籍成(数学。,26,63,前列腺素,十三,1757年)。 The frequency of Jewish magic is also corroborated by Talmudic lore.神奇的犹太频率也证实了塔木德绝杀。

The Aryan races of Asia seem somewhat less addicted to magic than the Semitic or Turanian races.亚洲的雅利安种族似乎有点不上瘾比犹太人或都兰魔术比赛。The Medes and the Persians, in the earlier and purer period of their Avesta religion, or Zoroastrianism, seem to have a horror of magic.玛代和波斯人,在其早期和纯洁的宗教阿维斯塔期间或拜火教,似乎有一个神奇的恐怖。 When the Persians after their conquest of the Chaldean Empire, finally absorbed Chaldean characteristics, the magi had become more or less scientific astronomers rather than sorcerers.当波斯人征服后的加尔丁帝国,最后吸收加尔丁特点,法师已成为巫师,而不是更多或更少的科学天文学家。The Indians, likewise, to judge from the Rigveda, were originally free from this superstition.印度人,同样,从梨俱吠陀判断,原先从这种迷信自由。In the Yajurveda, however, their liturgical functions are practically magic performances; and the Atharvaveda contains little else than magical recitations against every ill and for every happening.在夜柔吠陀,然而,他们的礼仪功能实际上是魔术表演,以及阿闼婆吠陀包含几乎没有什么比对每一个病人和每发生神奇的复习课。 The Sutras, finally, especially those of the Grihya and Sautra ritual, show how the higher aspects of religion had been overgrown by magical ceremonies.佛经,最后,特别是那些Grihya和Sautra仪式,展示了如何更高层面的宗教已被神奇的仪式杂草丛生。 Against this degeneration the Vedanta makes a vigorous stand and attempts to bring the Indian mind back to earlier simplicity and purity.在这种变性的韦丹塔作出了积极的立场,企图把印度回想起早期的简单和纯洁性。Buddhism, which at first disregarded magic, fell a prey to the universal contagion, especially in China and Tibet.佛教,这是在第一无视魔法,下降了猎物的普遍蔓延,特别是在中国和西藏。

The Aryans of Europe, Greeks, Romans, Teutons, and Celts were never so deeply infected as the Asiatics.欧洲,希腊人,罗马人,日尔曼雅利安人,和凯尔特人从来没有这么深深感染的亚洲人。The Romans were too self-reliant and W practical to be terrified by magic.罗马人也自力更生和W实际被魔术吓坏了。Their practice of divination and auguries seems to have been borrowed from the Etruscans and the Marsi; the latter were considered experts in magic even during the empire (Verg., "Æn.", VII, 750, sqq.; Pliny, VII, ii; XXI, xii).他们的预言和预兆的做法似乎已经从伊特鲁里亚和Marsi借用,后者被认为在魔术即使在帝国(Verg.,专家,第七,750,sqq“Æn。”;。普林尼,七,二;二十一,十二)。 The Dii Aurunci, to avert calamities, used magical power, but they were not native Roman deities.要素收益Aurunci,为了避免灾难,用神奇的力量,但他们不是本地罗马神。The Romans were conscious of their common sense in these matters and felt themselves superior to the Greeks.罗马人在这些问题上的意识和常识认为自己优于希腊人。In the first century of our era Oriental magic invaded the Roman Empire.在我们这个时代的东方魔一世纪侵入罗马帝国。 Pliny in his "Natural History" (AD 77) in the opening chapters of Bk.普林尼在他的“自然史”在浅滩的开篇章节(公元77)。XXX, gives the most important extant discussion on magic by any ancient writer, only to brand all magic as imposture.三十,为按任何古代作家对魔术现存最重要的讨论中,只有以品牌为所有冒用魔术。None the less his book is a storehouse of magic recipes, eg: "Wear as an amulet the carcass of a frog minus the claws and wrapped in a piece of russet-coloured cloth and it will cure fever" (Bk. XXXII, xxxviii).尽管如此他的书是一个神奇的配方库,例如:“穿作为护身符青蛙的爪子胴体减去,其中有赤褐色色的布片包好,它可以治好发烧”(墨子经三十二,三十八) 。Such advice argues at least a belief in medicinal magic.这些意见认为,至少在药用魔术一种信念。 But among the Romans it may be said that magic was condemned in every age by many of the best spirits of their day: Tacitus, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, and Cicero who even demurred against divination.但在罗马人可以说,神奇的是在每一个年龄谴责对他们一天的最佳精神很多:塔西佗,Favorinus,塞克图斯Empiricus和西塞罗甚至对占卜谁反对。 Officially by many laws of the empire against "malefic" and "mathematici" magic was forbidden under Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius, and even Caracalla; unofficially, however, even the emperors sometimes dabbled in magic.正式的帝国的许多法律对“凶星”和“mathematici”神奇正在奥古斯都,提比略,克劳迪斯,甚至卡拉卡拉禁止;内定,但是,即使是皇帝有时在魔术涉足。 Nero is said to have studied it; but failing to work miracles, he abandoned it in disgust.尼禄据说一直在学习研究,但未能创造奇迹,他放弃了厌恶。Soon after the magicians found an imperial supporter in Otho, and tolerance under Vespasian, Hadrian, and M. Aurelius, and even financial aid under Alexander Severus.魔术师发现后不久,在奥索帝国的支持者,在维斯帕先,哈德良和M.奥里利厄斯和容忍,即使在亚历山大塞维鲁的财政援助。

The Greeks regarded Thessaly and Thrace as the countries especially addicted to magic.希腊人视为特别是沉迷于魔法色萨利和色雷斯的国家。The goddess Hecate, who was thought to preside over magical functions, was originally a foreign deity and was probably introduced into Greek mythology by Hesiod.女神赫卡特,谁被认为是主持神奇的功能,原本是外国神,很可能是希腊神话中介绍到赫西奥德。She is not mentioned in the Iliad or Odyssey though magic was rife in Homeric times.她没有提到伊利亚特或奥德赛虽然魔术在荷马时代盛行。The great mythical sorceress of the Odyssey is Circe, famous for the well-known trick of changing men into beasts (Od., X-XII).伟大的奥德赛神秘女巫喀耳刻是,为了改变成野兽男子(Od.,第十至十二)著名技巧而闻名。In later times the foremost magician was Medea, priestess of Hecate; but the gruesome tales told of her express the Greek horror for, as well as belief in, black magic.在稍后的时间,最重要的是美狄亚魔术师,女祭司的赫卡特,但可怕的故事,表达了她对希腊的恐怖,以及信仰,巫术。Curse formulae or magic spells against the lives of one's enemies seem to have found no mightier name than Hermes Chthonios.诅咒的公式或对一个人的生命魔法的敌人似乎没有发现比爱马仕Chthonios更强大的名字。As earth-god he was a manifestation of the world-soul and controlled nature's powers.由于地球的上帝,他是一个世界的灵魂和控制自然的力量的显现。In Egypt he was identified with Thoth, the god of hidden wisdom, became the keeper of magic secrets and gave his name to Trismegistic literature.在埃及,他与托提,隐藏的智慧之神,确定成为魔术秘密的守护者,给了他的名字Trismegistic文学。 Greece, moreover, welcomed and honoured foreign magicians.希腊,而且,欢迎外国魔术师和荣幸。Apuleius, by education an Athenian, in his "Golden Ass" (c. AD 150), satirized the frauds of contemporary wonder-workers but praised the genuine magi from Persia. Apuleius,通过教育,在他的“金驴”雅典,(公元150),讽刺当代难怪工的欺诈但赞扬来自波斯的真正法师。When accused of magic, he defended himself in his "Apology" which shows clearly the public attitude towards magic in his day.当魔术被告,他捍卫在他的“道歉”,这清楚地表明,他在​​一天对公众的态度自己的魔力。He quoted Plato and Aristotle who gave credence to true magic St. Hippolytus of Rome (A Refutation of All Heresies, Bk. IV) gives a sketch of the wizardry practiced in the Greek-speaking world.他引用柏拉图,亚里士多德是谁给轻信真正的魔力圣西波吕罗马(所有异端驳,浅滩。四)给出了在希腊为母语的世界实行巫术的素描。

Teutons and Celts also had their magic though less is known of it.日尔曼和凯尔特人也有他们的魔法,虽然它是已知的少。The magical element in the First Edda and in the Beowulf is simple and closely connected with nature phenomena.在第一埃达和贝奥武夫神奇的元素是简单和自然现象密切相连。Woden (Wodan) who invented the runes, was the god for healing and good charms.沃登(Wodan)谁发明了符文,是很好的医治和魅力的神。Loki was a malignant spirit who harassed mankind and with the witch Thoeck caused the death of Baldur (Balder).洛基是一个恶性的精神,谁骚扰人类,与巫婆Thoeck造成博德之门(巴尔德)死亡。The magic of the mistletoe seems to be an heirloom from earliest Teutonic times.该槲寄生魔术似乎是从最早的日尔曼时代的传家宝。 The magic of the Celts seems to have been in the hands of the druids, who, though perhaps mainly diviners, appear also as magicians in Celtic heroic literature.作者:凯尔特人魔术似乎已经在德鲁伊,谁,但也许主要占卜,出现在凯尔特英雄主义文学魔术师也手中。As they wrote nothing, little is known of their magical lore.当他们说什么,很少有人知道他们的神奇传说。For modern magic amongst uncivilized races consult especially Skeat's "Malay Magic" (London, 1900).对于现代魔术的比赛当中不文明的咨询,特别是Skeat的“马来魔”(伦敦,1900年)。Magic as a practice finds no place in Christianity, though the belief in the reality of magical powers has been held by Christians and individual Christians have been given to the practice.作为实践魔术认为,没有基督教的地方,但在现实的法力信念已被基督徒和基督教徒都举行了个人给予的做法。Two main reasons account for the belief: first, ignorance of physical laws.主要原因有两个帐户的信念:第一,物理规律的无知。 When the boundary between the physically possible and impossible was uncertain, some individuals were supposed to have gained almost limitless control over nature.当身体之间的可能和不可能的边界是不确定的,有些人被认为已经具备了几乎对自然无限的控制。Their souls were attuned to the symphony of the universe; they knew the mystery of numbers and in consequence their powers exceeded the common understanding.他们的灵魂是适应了宇宙的交响乐,他们知道的数字之谜,而由于他们的权力超过了共识。This, however, was natural magic.然而,这是自然的神奇。But, secondly, belief in the frequency of diabolical interference with the forces of nature led easily to belief in real magic.但是,其次,在恶魔干扰频率自然力量的信念容易导致现实生活中的神奇的信仰。The early Christians were emphatically warned against the practice of it in the "Didache" (v, 1) and the letter of Barnabas (xx, 1).早期的基督徒都强烈警告不要在“十二使徒遗训”实践它(五,1)和巴拿巴(XX条,1)信。In fact it was condemned as a heinous crime.事实上,它被谴责为一个滔天罪行。The danger, however, came not only from the pagan world but also from the pseudo-Christian Gnostics.的危险,然而,不仅来自异教徒的世界,也从伪基督教Gnostics。Although Simon Magus and Elymas, that child of the devil (Acts 13:6 sqq.) served as deterrent examples for all Christians, it took centuries to eradicate the propensity to magic.虽然西蒙空气和Elymas,那魔鬼的儿子(使徒13:6 sqq。)作为威慑担任所有基督徒的例子,它消除了百年来神奇的倾向。St. Gregory the Great, St. Augustine, St. Chrysostom, and St. Ephraem inveighed against it.圣格雷戈里大,圣奥古斯丁,圣金口和圣塞拉斯E猛烈抨击它。A more rational view of religion and nature had hardly gained ground, when the Germanic nations entered the Church and brought with them the inclination for magic inherited from centuries of paganism.是宗教与自然的理性看待几乎没有抬头,当日耳曼民族进入教堂,并与他们带来了从异教世纪继承魔术倾向。No wonder that during the Middle Ages wizardry was secretly practiced in many places notwithstanding innumerable decrees of the Church on the subject.难怪在中世纪巫术秘密教会中虽有无数法令关于这一主题的许多地方实行。Belief in the frequency of magic finally led to stringent measures taken against witchcraft.在信仰,最终导致了对魔法巫术采取严厉措施的频率。

Catholic theology defines magic as the art of performing actions beyond the power of man with the aid of powers other than the Divine, and condemns it and any attempt at it as a grievous sin against the virtue of religion, because all magical performances, if undertaken seriously, are based on the expectation of interference by demons or lost souls.天主教神学的定义魔幻般的表演超出了人与神的权力比其他救援力量的行动艺术,并谴责它,任何在它作为反对宗教道德罪孽的尝试,因为所有的神奇表演,如果进行认真,是基于干扰或丢失的恶魔灵魂的期望。 Even if undertaken out of curiosity the performance of a magical ceremony is sinful as it either proves a lack of faith or is a vain superstition.即使出于好奇进行了一个神奇的仪式表演是有罪的,因为它证明了无论是缺乏信心,或者是徒劳的迷信。The Catholic Church admits in principle the possibility of interference in the course of nature by spirits other than God, whether good or evil, but never without God's permission.天主教会在原则上承认了干扰的自然过程有可能通过其他比上帝的精神,无论是好或邪恶的,但从来没有没有上帝的许可。 As to the frequency of such interference especially by malignant agencies at the request of man, she observes the utmost reserve.至于这种干扰尤其是在人的请求恶性机构的频率,她观察到的最大的储备。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息的书面由JP Arendzen。Transcribed by Matthew Daniel Eddy.转录由Matthew丹尼尔艾迪。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全书,第十一。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约


R. CAMPBELL THOMPSON, Semitic Magic (London, 1908); THORNDYKE, The Place of Magic in the intellectual history of Europe in Stud.坎贝尔河汤普森,反犹魔术(伦敦,1908年);索恩代克,魔术中的地位在欧洲猛男思想史。Hist.历史。Econom.的经济性。of Columbia University XXIV (New York, 1905); BUDGE, Egyptian Magic (London, 1899), SCHERMAN Griechische Zauberpapyri (Leipzig, 1909): KIESEWETTER Gesch.哥伦比亚大学二十四(纽约,1905年);让步,埃及魔术(伦敦,1899年),施尔曼Griechische Zauberpapyri(莱比锡,1909年):基塞韦特Gesch。des neuren Okkultismus (Leipzig, 1891); WIEDEMANN Magic und Zauberei im alten Egypten (Leipzig, 1905), LANG, Magic and Religion (London 1910), HABERT, La religion des peuples non cirilises (Paris, 1907 IDEM, La Magic (Paris, 1908); ABT, Die Apologie des Apulejus ud antike Zauberei (1908), WEINEL, Die Wirkung des Geistes . . . bis auf Irendus (Freiburg, 1899); DU PREL, Magic ale Naturewissenshaft (2 vole., 1899); MATHERS, The Book of Sacred Magic (1458), reprinted (London, 1898); FRASER, The Golden Bough: a Study in Magic and Religion (3 volt., London, 1900). This last-mentioned work is indeed a storehouse of curious information, but is to be used with the utmost caution as it is vitiated by the author's prejudices. Readers are warned against the following works, which are either books on oonjuring or produotions of the RATIONALIST PRESS AGENCY CONYBEARE Myth, Magic and Morals; EVANS, The Old and New Magic; THOMPSON, Magic and Mystery.德neuren Okkultismus(莱比锡,1891年);威德曼魔术有限公司Zauberei即时滕Egypten(莱比锡,1905年),语文,魔法和宗教(伦敦1910),HABERT,香格里拉宗教德peuples非cirilises(巴黎,1907年同上,香格里拉魔术(巴黎,1908年); ABT生根粉,模具辩护万Apulejus乌德antike Zauberei(1908年),魏内尔,模具Wirkung德Geistes二奥夫Irendus(弗赖堡,1899年);。。。。杜PREL,魔术啤酒Naturewissenshaft(2田鼠,1899年);马瑟斯中,圣魔(1458)重印,(伦敦,1898年)的书;弗雷泽金枝:(3。伏,伦敦,1900年)。一个魔法,宗教研究,这最后提到的工作确实是一个好奇的仓库信息,但要以最大的谨慎使用,因为它是作者的偏见而无效读者对下列建设工程,都是oonjuring或理性主义新闻社科尼比尔神话,魔术和道德produotions或书籍警告;。埃文斯旧的和新的魔术;汤普森,魔法和神秘。

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