Major World Philosophers世界主要哲学家

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Abelard, Peter阿贝拉尔,彼得
(1079 - 1142).(1079至1142年)。French philosopher.法国哲学家。One of the most influential medieval logicians and theologians.其中最有影响力的中世纪的逻辑学家和神学家。Around 1113, while teaching theology in Paris, Abelard fell in love with his student Heloise, whom he secretly married; he was condemned for heresy a few years later because of his nominalist views about universals.大约1113年,而教学神学在巴黎,阿贝拉尔爱上了他的学生埃洛伊丝,其中他秘密结婚,他被谴责为异端几年,由于对他nominalist共性的意见后。
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Anaxagoras 阿那克萨哥拉
(c. 500 - 428 BC).(公元前500 - 公元前428)。Greek Presocratic philosopher who is said to have made Athens the center of philosophy and to have been Socrates' teacher; he rejected the four elements theory of Empedocles and posited instead an infinite number of unique particles of which all objects are composed.希腊哲学家谁Presocratic据说已取得雅典奥运会的中心哲学,并已苏格拉底的老师,他拒绝了四个要素理论的恩培多克勒和假定而不是无限的独特粒子数目,所有的对象组成。
Anselm, St.安瑟伦,圣
(1033 - 1109).(一〇三三年至1109年)。Italian monk and Scholastic theologian who became archbishop of Canterbury.意大利僧人与文人神学谁成为坎特伯雷大主教。St. Anselm founded Scholasticism, integrated Aristotelian logic into theology, and believed that reason and revelation are compatible.圣安瑟伦成立到神学经院​​哲学,亚里士多德的逻辑综合,并认为原因及启示是相容的。He is most famous for his influential ontological argument for God's existence.他是最有名的,他影响力的神的存在本体论的论点。
Aquinas, St. Thomas阿奎那,圣托马斯
(1225 - 74).(1225 - 74)。The greatest thinker of the Scholastic School.学校的最伟大的思想家,在学术上。His ideas were, in 1879, made the official Catholic philosophy.他的想法是,在1879年,使官方天​​主教哲学。He incorporated Greek ideas into Christianity by showing Aristotle's thought to be compatible with church doctrine.他纳入基督教所显示亚里士多德的思想要与希腊思想统一教会的教义。In his system, reason and faith (revelation) form two separate but harmonious realms whose truths complement rather than oppose one another.在他的系统,理性与信仰(启示)形成两个独立而又和谐的境界,其真理补充而不是互相反对。He presented influential philosophical proofs for the existence of God.他提出了有影响力的哲学证明上帝存在。
Aristotle 亚里士多德
(384 - 322 BC).(384 - 322年)。Greek philosopher, scientist, logician, and student of many disciplines.希腊哲学家,科学家,逻辑学家,和许多学科的学生。Aristotle studied under Plato and became the tutor of Alexander the Great.亚里士多德师从柏拉图,并成为亚历山大大帝的老师。 In 335 he opened the Lyceum, a major philosophical and scientific school in Athens.在335他打开了学园,一个重要的哲学和科学的雅典学院。Aristotle emphasized the observation of nature and analyzed all things in terms of "the four causes."亚里士多德强调了自然的观察和分析了所有的东西,“四大原因。”In ethics, he stressed that virtue is a mean between extremes and that man's highest goal should be the use of his intellect.在伦理,他强调说,德是极端之间,并认为人的最高目标应该是他的智力使用的意思。Most of Aristotle's works were lost to Christian civilization from the fifth through the twelfth centuries.亚里士多德的作品大部分是从第五到失去了基督教文明通过第12世纪。
Augustine of Hippo, St.奥古斯丁的河马,圣
(354 - 430).(354 - 430)。The greatest of the Latin church fathers and possibly the most influential Christian thinker after St. Paul.与拉丁教会的父亲也可能是最有影响力的基督教圣保罗之后最伟大的思想家。St. Augustine emphasized man's need for grace.圣奥古斯丁强调人的需要为宽限期。His Confessions and The City of God were highly influential.他的口供,并在上帝的圣城高度的影响力。
Averroes 阿威罗伊
(1126 - 98).(1126 - 98)。Spanish-born Arabian philosopher, lawyer, and physician whose detailed commentaries on Aristotle were influential for over 300 years.西班牙出生的阿拉伯哲学家,律师,医师,其详细的评论对亚里士多德超过300年的影响力。He emphasized the compatibility of faith and reason but believed philosophical knowledge to be derived from reason.他强调了信仰与理性哲学知识的相容性,但认为必须从理性而得。The Church condemned his views.教会谴责了他的看法。
Avicenna 阿维森纳
(980 - 1037).(980 - 1037)。Islamic medieval philosopher born in Persia.伊斯兰出生于波斯中世纪哲学家。His Neoplatonist interpretation of Aristotle greatly influenced medieval philosophers, including St. Thomas Aquinas.柏拉图,亚里士多德的解释,他极大地影响了包括圣托马斯阿奎那中世纪的哲学家。Avicenna was also a physician; his writings on medicine were important for nearly 500 years.阿维森纳也是一名医生,在医学上他的著作近500年来的重要。
Bacon, Sir Francis培根,柯罗马蒂
(1561 - 1626).(1561年至1626年)。English statesman, essayist, and philosopher, one of the great precursors of the tradition of British empiricism and of belief in the importance of scientific method.英国政治家,散文家和哲学家,一对英国经验主义传统的伟大先驱,并在科学方法的重要性的信念。He emphasized the use of inductive reasoning in the pursuit of knowledge.他强调了归纳推理在追求知识的使用。
Boethius 波爱修斯
(c. 475 - 535).(公元前475 - 535)。Roman statesman, philosopher, and translator of Aristotle, whose Consolation of Philosophy (written in prison) was widely read throughout the Middle Ages; it showed reason's role in the face of misfortune and was the link between the ancient philosophers and the Scholastics.古罗马政治家,哲学家和亚里士多德,他们感到安慰的哲学(写在监狱)被广为整个中世纪阅读翻译,它表明原因的,在面对不幸的角色,是古代哲学家和经院学者的联系。
Descartes, Rene笛卡尔,勒内
(1596 - 1650).(1596至1650年)。French philosopher and scientist, considered the father of modern philosophical inquiry.法国哲学家和科学家,认为现代哲学探究的父亲。Descartes tried to extend mathematical method to all knowledge in his search for certainty.笛卡儿试图扩大在他的数学方法来确定搜索所有的知识。Discarding the medieval appeal to authority, he began with "universal doubt," finding that the only thing that could not be doubted was his own thinking.扬弃中世纪呼吁权力后,他开始与“普遍怀疑,”发现的唯一一件事不能被怀疑是他自己的想法。The result was his famous "Cogito, ergo sum," or "I think, therefore I am."结果是他著名的“我思,ETM总之,”或“我思故我在。”
Dewey, John杜威,约翰
(1859 - 1952).(1859年至1952年)。Leading American philosopher, psychologist, and educational theorist.美国领先的哲学家,心理学家和教育理论家。 Dewey developed the views of Charles S. Peirce (1839 - 1914) and William James into his own version of pragmatism.杜威发达的查尔斯皮尔士的观点 - 在他自己版本的实用主义(1839 1914)和威廉詹姆斯。He emphasized the importance of inquiry in gaining knowledge and attacked the view that knowledge is passive.他强调,在获取知识的重要性,把调查和攻击,认为知识是被动的。
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich黑格尔,格奥尔格威廉弗里德里希
(1770 - 1831).(1770年至1831年)。German philosopher whose idealistic system of metaphysics was highly influential; it was based on a concept of the world as a single organism developing by its own inner logic through trios of stages called "thesis, antithesis, and synthesis" and gradually coming to embody reason.德国哲学家的理想主义的形而上学体系的高度影响力,它是基于对世界作为一个单一的由它自己的内在逻辑的发展阶段,通过所谓的三重奏生物体“的论文,对偶,与合成”的概念,并逐步来体现的原因。 Hegel held the monarchy to be the highest development of the state.黑格尔举行的君主制是国家最高的发展。
Heidegger, Martin海德格尔,马丁
(1889 - 1976).(1889年至1976年)。German philosopher who studied with Husserl.德国哲学家胡塞尔研究了谁。Heidegger's own philosophy, which was influenced by Kierkegaard, emphasized the need to understand "being," especially the unique ways that humans act in and relate to the world.海德格尔自己的理念,是由克尔凯郭尔的影响,强调有必要了解“存在”,特别是独特的方式,人类的行为,并涉及到整个世界。
Hobbes, Thomas霍布斯,托马斯
(1588 - 1679).(1588年至1679年)。English materialist and empiricist, one of the founders of modern political philosophy.英国唯物主义和经验主义,现代政治哲学的奠基人之一。In the Leviathan, Hobbes argued that because men are selfish by nature, a powerful absolute ruler is necessary.在利维坦,霍布斯认为,由于男人是自私的本质,一个强大的绝对统治者,是必要的。In a "social contract," men agree to give up many personal liberties and accept such rule.在“社会契约”,男子同意放弃许多个人自由和接受这样的规则。
Hume, David休谟,大卫
(1711 - 76).(1711 - 76)。British empiricist whose arguments against the proofs for God's existence are still influential.英国经验主义的论据反对神的存在的证据仍然是有影响的。Hume held that moral beliefs have no basis in reason, but are based solely on custom.休谟认为,道德,信念都没有依据的理由,但仅仅是基于习惯。
James, William詹姆斯,威廉
(1842 - 1910).(1842年至1910年)。American philosopher and psychologist, one of the founders of Pragmatism, and one of the most influential thinkers of his era.美国哲学家和心理学家,一个实用主义的创始人,和他那个时代最有影响力的思想家之一。James viewed consciousness as actively shaping reality, defined truth as "the expedient" way of thinking, and held that ideas are tools for guiding our future actions rather than reproductions of our past experiences.詹姆斯认为,意识是积极塑造现实,作为“权宜之计”的思维方式定义的真相,并认为这想法是指导,而不是复制过去的经验我们今后的行动工具。
Kant, Immanuel康德伊曼努尔
(1724 - 1804).(1724年至1804年)。German philosopher, possibly the most influential of modern times.德国哲学家,可能是最有影响力的现代倍。He synthesized Leibniz's rationalism and Hume's skepticism into his "critical philosophy": that ideas do not conform to the external world, but rather the world can be known only insofar as it conforms to the mind's own structure.他合成为他的“批判哲学”莱布尼茨的理性主义和休谟的怀疑:即思想不符合外部世界,而是世界,可只知道,因为它符合心灵的自己的结构。 Kant claimed that morality requires a belief in God, freedom, and immortality, although these can be proved neither scientifically nor by metaphysics.康德声称,道德需要上帝,自由和不朽的信念,虽然这些可以既不科学也不是形而上学证明。
Kierkegaard, Soren克尔凯郭尔,索伦
(1813 - 55).(1813 - 55)。Danish philosopher, religious thinker, and extraordinarily influential founder of existentialism.丹麦哲学家,宗教思想家,而且非常有影响力的存在主义的创始人。Kierkegaard held that "truth is subjectivity," that religion is an individual matter, and that man's relationship to God requires suffering.克尔凯郭尔认为,“真理是主观性”,即宗教是个人的事,那人的关系,上帝要求的痛苦。
Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm莱布尼茨,戈特弗里德威廉
(1646 - 1716).(1646 - 1716)。German philosopher, diplomat, and mathematician, one of the great minds of all time.德国哲学家,外交家,数学家,对所有时代最伟大的思想家之一。Leibniz was an inventor (with Sir Isaac Newton) of the calculus and a forefather of modern mathematical logic.莱布尼茨是一个(与艾萨克牛顿)发明的微积分和现代数理逻辑的祖先。He held that the entire universe is one large system expressing God's plan.他认为,整个宇宙是一个大系统,表达上帝的计划。
Locke, John洛克,约翰
(1632 - 1704).(1632 - 1704)。Highly influential founder of British empiricism.极具影响力的创始人英国的经验主义。Locke believed that all ideas come to mind from experience and that none are innate.洛克认为,所有的想法浮现在脑海中的经验和没有一个是天生的。He also held that authority derives solely from the consent of the governed, a view that deeply influenced the American Revolution and the writing of the US Constitution.他还认为,权力源于单从被统治者的同意,一种观点认为,深深地影响了美国革命和美国宪法的写作。
Machiavelli, Niccolo马基雅弗利,尼可罗马基
(1469 - 1527).(1469年至1527年)。Italian Renaissance statesman and political writer.意大利文艺复兴时期的政治家和政治作家。In The Prince, one of the most influential political books of modern times, Machiavelli argues that any act of a ruler designed to gain and hold power is permissible.在王子,现代史上最有影响的政治书籍之一,马基雅维利认为,任何旨在争取握有权力的统治者的行为是允许的。 The term Machiavellian is used to refer to any political tactics that are cunning and power-oriented.这个词是权谋用来指任何被狡猾和电力为主的政治策略。
Maimonides 迈蒙尼德
(1135 - 1204).(1135年至1204年)。Spanish-born medieval Jewish philosopher and thinker.西班牙出生的中世纪犹太哲学家和思想家。Maimonides tried to synthesize Aristotelian and Judaic thought.迈蒙尼德试图综合亚里士多德和犹太思想。His works had enormous influence on Jewish and Christian thought.他的作品对犹太教和基督教思想的巨大影响力。
Marx, Karl马克思,卡尔
(1818 - 83).(1818 - 83)。German revolutionary thinker, social philosopher, and economist.德国的革命思想家,社会哲学家和经济学家。His ideas, formulated with Engels, laid the foundation for nineteenth-century socialism and twentieth-century communism.他的想法,与恩格斯制定,奠定了十九世纪的社会主义与二十世纪共产主义的基础。Although Marx was initially influenced by Hegel, he soon rejected Hegel's idealism in favor of materialism.虽然马克思最初是受黑格尔的影响,他很快就拒绝了唯物主义赞成黑格尔的唯心主义。His Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital are among the most important writings of the last 200 years.他的共产党宣言和资本论,是其中的近200年来最重要的著作。
Mill, John Stuart密尔,约翰斯图尔特
(1806 - 73).(1806 - 73)。English empiricist philosopher, logician, economist, and social reformer.英国经验主义哲学家,逻辑学家,经济学家和社会改革家。His System of Logic described the basic rules for all scientific reasoning.他的逻辑系统描述了所有的科学推理的基本规则。 As a student of Jeremy Bentham, he elaborated on utilitarian ethics; in On Liberty, he presented a plea for the sanctity of individual rights against the power of any government.由于边沁的学生,他阐述了功利主义伦理学,在论自由,他提出了对个人权利的任何政府的权力神圣认罪。
Moore, GE (George Edward)摩尔,通用电气(乔治爱德华)
(1873 - 1958).(1873年至1958年)。British philosopher who emphasized the "common sense" view of the reality of material objects.英国哲学家谁强调,“常识”的现实的物质对象的看法。In ethics, Moore held that goodness is a quality known directly by moral intuition and that it is a fallacy to try to define it in terms of anything else.在伦理,穆尔认为,善是已知的道德直觉的质量和直接,这是一个谬论,试图界定它的任何其他条款。
More, Sir Thomas此外,托马斯爵士
(1478 - 1535).(1478年至1535年)。A leading Renaissance humanist and statesman, Lord Chancellor of England.一个文艺复兴时期的人道主义者和政治家领导,主校长英格兰。More was beheaded for refusing to accept the king as head of the Church.更多被斩首拒绝接受该教会的头王。Influenced by Greek thinking, he believed in social reform and drew a picture of an ideal peaceful state in his Utopia.受希腊思想,他认为在社会改革,制定了一个理想的乌托邦在和平状态的图片。
Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm尼采,弗里德里希威廉
(1844 - 1900).(1844 - 1900)。German philosopher, philologist, and poet.德国哲学家,语言学家,诗人。As a moralist, he rejected Christian values and championed a "Superman" who would create a new, life-affirming, heroic ethic by his "will to power."作为一个道德家,他拒绝了基督教的价值观和倡导的“超人”谁创造一个新的,生命的肯定,他的英雄伦理“权力意志”。
Pascal, Blaise帕斯卡尔,布莱斯
(1623 - 62).(1623 - 62)。French philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and theologian.法国哲学家,数学家,科学家和神学家。His posthumous Pensees ("Thoughts") argues that reason is by itself inadequate for man's spiritual needs and cannot bring man to God, who can be known only through mystic understanding.他(“思想”)追授pensees认为,原因是对人类本身的精神需求不足,并不能带来人的上帝,谁可以被称为只有通过神秘的理解。
Plato柏拉图
(c. 428 - c. 348 BC).(公元前428 - 公元前348角)。Athenian father of Western philosophy and student of Socrates, after whose death he traveled widely.西方哲学和苏格拉底的学生雅典的父亲,经过他的逝世,他走过广泛。On returning to Athens, he founded an Academy, where he taught until he died.在返回雅典,他创立了一个学院,在那里他教,直到他去世。His writings are in the form of dialogues between Socrates and other Athenians.他的著作是在其他的苏格拉底和雅典之间对话的形式。Many of Plato's views are set forth in The Republic, where an ideal state postulates philosopher kings, specially trained at the highest levels of moral and mathematical knowledge.柏拉图的许多意见中规定的共和国,而一个理想的状态假设哲学家国王,特别是在道德和数学知识的最高水平的培训。 Plato's other works analyzed moral virtues, the nature of knowledge, and the immortality of the soul.柏拉图的其他作品分析,道德品德,知识性质和灵魂的不朽。His views on cosmology strongly influenced the next two thousand years of scientific thinking.他的观点对宇宙论的强烈影响未来的科学思想两千年。
Plotinus 普罗提诺
(205 - 270).(205 - 270)。Egyptian-born founder of Neoplatonism, who synthesized the ideas of Plato and other Greek philosophers.埃及出生的柏拉图主义的创始人,谁综合了柏拉图和其他希腊哲学家的思想。Plotinus believed all reality is caused by a series of outpourings (called emanations) from the divine source.普罗提诺认为所有的现实是由一个从神源澎湃(所谓emanations)系列造成的。Although not himself a Christian, he was a major influence on Christianity.虽然不是自己是一个基督徒,他是一个对基督教产生重大影响。
Rousseau, Jean Jacques卢梭,卢梭
(1712 - 78).(1712 - 78)。Swiss-French thinker, born in Geneva.瑞士和法国思想家,在日内瓦出生。Rousseau has been enormously influential in political philosophy, educational theory, and the Romantic movement.卢梭一直有很大影响力的政治哲学,教育理论,浪漫主义运动。In The Social Contract (1762), he viewed governments as being expressions of the people's "general will," or rational men's choice for the common good.在社会契约论(1762),他认为是人民的“总意志”或的理性选择,表达对男人的共同利益的政府。Rousseau emphasized man's natural goodness.卢梭强调人的自然善良。
Russell, Bertrand罗素伯特兰
(1872 - 1970).(1872年 - 1970年)。English philosopher and logician influential as an agnostic and a pacifist.英国哲学家,逻辑学家有影响力作为一个不可知和和平主义者。Early work with Alfred North Whitehead gave birth to modern logic.早期与怀特海工作诞生了现代逻辑。Russell changed his views numerous times but always sought to establish philosophy, especially epistemology, as a science.罗素改变了他的意见,多次,但总是设法建立一个科学哲学,特别是认识论。
Santayana, George桑塔亚纳,乔治
(1863 - 1952).(1863 - 1952)。Spanish-born American philosopher and poet; a student of William James.西班牙裔美国哲学家和诗人威廉詹姆斯的学生。Santayana attempted to reconcile Platonism and materialism, studied how reason works, and found "animal faith," or impulse, to be the basis of reason and belief.桑塔亚纳试图调和柏拉图主义和唯物主义,研究如何产生原因,并发现“动物信仰”,或者冲动,是理性和信仰的基础。
Sartre, Jean-Paul萨特,让保
(1905 - 80).(1905 - 80)。French philosopher, novelist, and dramatist; one of the founders of existentialism.法国哲学家,小说家,戏剧家;存在主义的创始人之一。Sartre was a Marxist through much of his life.萨特是一个马克思主义通过他的生活了。He held that man is "condemned to be free" and to bear the responsibility of making free choices.他认为,人是“注定是自由的”,并承担责任作出自由选择。
Schopenhauer, Arthur 叔本华,亚瑟
(1788 - 1860).(1788 - 1860)。German post-Kantian philosopher who held that although irrational will is the driving force in human affairs, it is doomed not to be satisfied.德国后哲学家康德认为,虽然不合理谁将会是在人类事务中的动力,它是注定不能得到满足。He believed that only art and contemplation could offer escape from determinism and pessimism.他认为,只有艺术和沉思可以提供从宿命论和悲观逃脱。Schopenhauer strongly influenced Nietzsche, Freud, Tolstoy, Proust, and Thomas Mann.叔本华的强烈影响尼采,弗洛伊德,托尔斯泰,普鲁斯特,托马斯曼。
Scotus, John Duns司各脱,约翰邓
(c. 1266 - 1308).(公元前1266年至1308年)。Scottish-born Scholastic philosopher who tried to integrate Aristotelian ideas into Christian theology.苏格兰出生的士林哲学家谁试图融入基督教神学亚里士多德的思想。Scotus emphasized that all things depend not just on God's intellect but on divine will as well.司各脱强调,所有的事情要靠不仅是对上帝的智慧,但对神的意志为好。
Smith, Adam史密斯,亚当
(1723 - 1790).(1723年至1790年)。Scottish philosopher and economist.苏格兰哲学家和经济学家。He believed that if government left the marketplace to its own devices, an "invisible hand" would guarantee that the results would benefit the populace.他认为,如果政府在离开市场以自己的设备,一个“看不见的手”将保证这些成果将惠及民众。Smith has had enormous influence on economists into the present day.史密斯已成为现今对经济学家巨大的影响。
Socrates 苏格拉底
(464 - 399 BC).(464 - 399年)。Athenian philosopher who allegedly wrote down none of his views, supposedly from his belief that writing distorts ideas.雅典哲学家谁据称写下他的意见都没有,从他的信念,据说写歪曲的想法。His chief student, Plato, is the major source of knowledge of what is known of his life.他的主要学生,柏拉图,是对什么是知道他的生命知识的主要来源。Socrates questioned Athenians about their moral, political, and religious beliefs, as depicted in Plato's dialogues; his questioning technique, called dialectic, has greatly influenced western philosophy.苏格拉底的质疑,对他们的道德,政治和宗教信仰雅典人,如柏拉图的对话描写,他的问话技巧,所谓辩证,极大地影响了西方哲学。 Socrates is alleged to have said that "the unexamined life is not worth living."苏格拉底被指控犯有的说,“浑浑噩噩的生活不值得过。”In 399 BC, he was brought to trial on charges of corrupting the youth and religious heresy.在公元前399年,他被带到法庭受审,败坏青年和宗教异端邪说的指控。Sentenced to die, he drank poison.被判死,他喝了毒药。
Spinoza, Benedict (Baruch)斯宾诺莎,本笃(巴鲁)
(1623 - 77).(1623 - 77)。Dutch-born philosopher expelled from the Amsterdam Jewish community for heresy in 1656; he was attacked by Christian theologians 14 years later.荷兰出生的哲学家从阿姆斯特丹犹太社区为异端,在1656年被驱逐,他被基督教神学家14年后的攻击。In Ethics, Spinoza presents his views in a mathematical system of deductive reasoning.在伦理,斯宾诺莎提出一套演绎推理数学系统的看法。A proponent of monism, he held-in contrast to Descartes-that mind and body are aspects of a single substance, which he called God or nature.一元论的支持者,他持相反,笛卡尔,即身体和精神是一个单一的物质,他所谓的上帝或性质方面。
Voltaire (Francois Marie Arouet)伏尔泰(弗朗索瓦玛丽Arouet)
(1694 - 1778).(1694 - 1778)。French philosopher, essayist, and historian; one of the major thinkers of the Enlightenment.法国哲学家,散文家和历史学家,对启蒙运动的主要思想家之一。A Deist who was anti-Christian, Voltaire widely advocated tolerance of liberal ideas and called for positive social action.一个戴斯特谁是反基督教,伏尔泰广泛提倡宽容和自由的思想,积极的社会采取行动。His novel Cyandide is a parody of the optimism of Leibniz.他的小说Cyandide是莱布尼茨模仿乐观。
Whitehead, Alfred North白石,阿尔弗雷德北
(1861 - 1947).(1861 - 1947)。British philosopher and mathematician who worked with Bertrand Russell.英国哲学家和数学家谁与罗素。Whitehead tried to integrate twentieth-century physics into a metaphysics of nature.白石试图融入大自然的形而上学二十世纪物理学的。
William of Ockham (Occam)奥卡姆的威廉(奥卡姆)
(c. 1285 - c. 1349).(公元前1285 - 角1349)。Franciscan monk and important English theologian and philosopher.方济各会修士和重要的英语神学家和哲学家。In his nominalism, he opposed much of the thought of St. Thomas Aquinas and of medieval Aristotelianism; he also rejected the Pope's power in the secular realm.在他的唯名论,反对他的许多思想和圣托马斯阿奎那中世纪的亚里士多德,他还拒绝了教皇的世俗领域的权力。

Famous Quotes名言

How to Argue Logically如何论辩逻辑

We like to think that we speak logically all the time, but we are aware that we sometimes use illogical means to persuade others of our point of view. In the heat of an impassioned argument, or when we are afraid our disputant has a stronger case, or when we don't quite have all the facts we'd like to have, we are prone to engage in faulty processes of reasoning, using arguments we hope will appear sound.我们喜欢认为我们说话逻辑上的所有时间,但我们都知道,我们有时使用不符合逻辑的手段来说服别人的观点我们的观点。 在激烈的争论中的慷慨激昂,或当我们害怕我们的争论者具有较强的情况,或当我们不太所有的事实,我们希望有,我们很容易进行错误的推理过程中,使用论据,我们希望会出现声音。

Such defective arguments are called fallacies by philosophers who, starting with Aristotle, have catalogued and classified these fallacious arguments. There are now over 125 separate fallacies, most with their own impressive-sounding names, many of them in Latin.这种有缺陷的论点论据被称为哲学家谁与谬误,从亚里士多德,已编目和分类 ​​这些荒谬的。 有很多,其中在拉美现在他们的超过125个独立的谬论,用自己最冠冕堂皇冠冕堂皇的名称。

Some arguments have easily recognizable defects.有些论点很容易辨认的缺陷。For instance, in the argument ad hominem, a person's views are criticized because of a logically irrelevant personal defect: "You can't take Smith's advice on the stock market; he's a known philanderer."例如,在广告人身攻击的说法一个人的意见是批评,因为一个逻辑无关的个人缺陷:“你不能把史密斯的市场咨询于股票,他的一个已知的调戏女人。” In the genetic fallacy, something is mistakenly reduced to its origins: "We know that emotions are nothing more than physiology; after all, medical research has shown emotions involve the secretion of hormones."遗传的谬误,什么是错误减少到它的起源:“我们知道,情感是什么生理以上,毕竟,医学研究表明情绪涉及荷尔蒙的分泌了。” Another illogical argument is named for the erroneous thinking a wagering person may fall prey to, the gambler's fallacy (also called the Monte Carlo fallacy ): "I'm betting on heads; it's got to come up since we've just had nine straight tails."另一个不合逻辑的说法是属于命名为错误思想的人可能受骗下注, 赌徒的谬论 (也称为蒙特卡罗谬论 ):“我赌头,它的得上来,因为我们已经连续九刚尾巴。“

Some fallacies may not be recognized as erroneous reasoning because they are such commonly used forms of argument.一些谬论可能不被识别为错误的推理,因为他们是这样的常用形式的论点。For instance, if we say, "I'm sure my cold is due to the weather; I started sneezing right after it went from 60 degrees to 31 degrees in three hours," we are committing the fallacy with the Latin name of post hoc ergo propter hoc ("after this, therefore because of this").举例来说,如果我们说,“我敢肯定,我的感冒是由于天气,我开始打喷嚏权后,从60度至31度三个小时,”我们正在实施的临时谬论的拉丁名称测功propter责 (“在此之后,因此,由于这种”)。Many a political argument exemplifies the fallacy of arguing in a circle ; for instance: "Only wealthy men are capable of leading the country; after all, leadership can be learned only if you have had money to exercise power."许多政治争论体现了循环谬误的争论中 ,比如:“只有有钱的男人是有能力领导国家,毕竟,领导可以学到只有当你有金钱行使权力。”Many prejudicial or stereotypical arguments commit the fallacy of division , or of applying to the part what may be true of the whole: "North Dakota has wide-open spaces; since Jack's farm is there, it must be quite large."许多偏见或刻板的论点犯下的分裂谬论 ,或适用的部分可能是整个什么真正的:“北达科他州有开阔的空间,因为杰克的农场已经存在,它必须相当大。”The converse of this is the fallacy of composition , where properties of the parts are erroneously attributed to the whole: "Every apple on this tree is rotten; therefore, the tree itself is hopelessly diseased."在此相反的是整个谬误组成 ,当物业的部分错误地归结为:“每一个树上的苹果,这是烂,因此,树本身是无可救药的病。”

It may be a surprise to realize that some widely accepted forms of argument are just as fallacious as the most logically defective reasoning.它可能是一个惊喜意识到,一些被广泛接受的形式参数是一样的最有缺陷的推理逻辑谬误。When we appeal to the beliefs or behavior of the majority to prove the truth of something, we are committing the fallacy of consensus gentium : "Imbibing alcohol cannot be bad for people, since all cultures studied have used alcohol."当我们呼吁广大的信仰或行为的事实来证明的东西,我们正在实施的gentium谬误共识 :“酒棍酒精不能坏的人,因为所有的文化研究已经使用酒精。”Or consider the person who argues that "Tragedy is the highest form of literature; after all, didn't Aristotle consider it such?"或考虑谁的人认为,“悲剧是文学的最高形式,毕竟,没有亚里士多德认为这样吗?”This is a form of the fallacy of arguing from authority .这是一个权威的形式从争论谬误There is also the fallacy of ignoratio elenchus , which has nothing to do with ignorance; its name means that the point made is irrelevant to the issue at hand, as in the untenable view of a lawyer who says, "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, you cannot convict my client of manslaughter while driving under the influence; after all, advertisements for alcohol exist everywhere in our culture."也有无知谬误ignoratio诡辩 ,这没有任何关系,它的名字意味着提出的观点是不相关的问题在陪审团的手,如不成立的的一位律师说谁,先生们:“女士们, ,你不能判定我的当事人的过失杀人罪,而酒后驾车,毕竟,对于酒类广告存在于我们的文化无处不在“。

Fallacy谬论

In logic, a fallacy is a form of reasoning that is illogical or that violates the rules of valid argumentation.在逻辑上,一个谬论是一种形式的推理是不合逻辑的,或者违反规则的有效论证。A formal fallacy makes strict violations of the rules of logic.一个正式的谬论使得严格的逻辑规则的行为。An informal fallacy does not violate the rules of logic, but it violates the rules of valid reasoning or arrives at unsound conclusions, because of unsound reasoning.一个非正式的谬论并不违反逻辑规则,但它违反规则的有效推理或到达不合理的结论,因为不健全的推理。

A common formal fallacy involves affirming the consequent or denying the antecedent in hypothetical reasoning.一个共同的正式谬论涉及申明由此或否认在假设的推理前提。That is, if A, then B, affirming B as the proof of A, or denying A as the basis for denying B. In either case, it does not follow that the affirmation or the denial proves what is claimed.也就是说,如果A,那么B,肯定作为一个证明B,或否认作为乙否认在这两种情况的基础上,它并不表示肯定或否定证明什么是索赔。 Thus, if all Americans are bald (A), then all Americans require no hairdressers (B)--the affirmation of A, that is, saying it is true, does not prove B; neither does the denial of B prove the denial of A.因此,如果所有美国人都秃(A),则所有的美国人不需要理发店(二) - 一个肯定,那就是,说这是事实,并不能证明乙,也没有拒绝的B拒绝证明答:

Two other kinds of formal fallacies that are important are the argument from the undistributed middle and the conversion of a universal positive proposition.这是两个重要的其他种类的正式谬论从未分配利润中的参数和一个普遍的积极主张转换。In the first, it is argued that "all A is B" and "all C is B"; therefore, "all A is C."在第一,有人认为,“所有A是B”和“所有C是B”,因此,“所有A是C”If "Americans" is substituted for "A", "human beings" for "B", and "Hungarians" for "C", it is easily seen that the argument is fallacious.如果“美国人”为“A”,“人”为“B”和“匈牙利人”的“C”取代,这是很容易看到,该参数是错误的。In the other case, it is argued that if "all A is B," then "all B is A"; this is obviously fallacious if the same substitutions are made.在其他情况下,有人认为,如果“所有A是B”,那么“所有的B是A”,这显然是荒谬的,如果同样的替换而作出调整。

Because informal fallacies occur much more frequently in ordinary discussions, in political speeches, and in advertising, they are, in some ways, more important.由于非正式谬论更加频繁地出现在普通的讨论,在政治演说,并在广告,他们在某些方面,更重要的。Some of these fallacies are a result of the ambiguity of the terms used; people often slip unconsciously from one meaning of a term to another.这些谬论有人是对所使用的术语含糊不清的结果,人们往往不自觉地滑从一个到另一个词的含义。Other major informal fallacies are the ignoratio elenchi, that is, arguing for something different from the question asked; and the tu quoque argument, in which an unsound argument is justified by claiming the unsoundness of another.其他主要的非正式的谬论是ignoratio elenchi,也就是说,对一些问题的不同主张的要求,以及涂quoque争论,其中一个说法是不健全的,声称不健全的另一个理由。These soon degenerate into the argument ad hominem, in which the argument of an opponent is countered by pointing to his or her personal faults rather than by considering the substance of the argument; and the argument from authority, which appeals to famous or important people who agree with a particular point of view.这些很快沦为广告人身攻击的说法,其中一个对手论点是指着他或她的个人错误,而不是考虑的参数的物质反击,以及从权威论据,呼吁知名或重要的人谁同意采用特定的观点。

Richard H Popkin波普金理查德ħ

Bibliography 参考书目
Engel, S. Morris, With Good Reason: An Introduction to Informal Fallacies, 3d ed.恩格尔,美国莫里斯,有很好的理由:非正式谬误介绍,三维版。(1985); Fearnside, W. Ward, and Holther, William B., Fallacy: The Counterfeit of Argument (1959). (1985年);费恩赛德,瓦特病房治疗,并Holther,威廉B,谬误:伪造之辩(1959年)。



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