Philosophical Terms哲学条款

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(Editor's Note:(编者注:
This is a capsule presentation of many philosophical positions.这是许多哲学立场胶囊介绍。Most of these positions are closely related to Christianity or are responses to it.这些职位大多是密切相关的基督教或正在采取的对策。In the cases that have Christian or other religious significance, BELIEVE includes thorough presentations of these subjects.)在案件有基督教或其他宗教意义,相信这些科目包括彻底介绍。)

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absolutism 专制主义
The doctrine that there is one explanation of all reality-the absolute-that is unchanging and objectively true.该学说认为有一个解释所有的现实,绝对的,这是不变的,客观真实。Absolutists (such as GWF Hegel) hold that this absolute, such as God or mind, is eternal and that in it all seeming differences are reconciled. Absolutists(如黑格尔)认为,这绝对如上帝或心态,是永恒的,在这一切看似是调和的分歧。
agnosticism 不可知论
The belief that it is impossible to know whether God exists, or to have any other theological knowledge.相信它是不可能知道上帝是否存在,或有任何其他的神学知识。English thinkers TH Huxley (1825-95) and Bertrand Russell were influential agnostics.英国思想家赫胥黎(1825年至1895年)和罗素都是有影响的不可知论者。
altruism 利他主义
The ethical theory that morality consists of concern for and the active promotion of the interests of others.民族理论,道德构成的关心和对他人的利益,积极推广。Altruists strongly disagree with the doctrine of egoism, which states that individuals act only in their own self-interest.利他主义者强烈反对享乐主义,极端个人主义学说,其中规定,个人的行为在他们自己的利益而已。
Aristotelianism 亚里士多德
The thinking and writings of Aristotle, influential until the fall of Rome, when all but his writings on logic were lost to Christian civilization in Europe.的思想和亚里士多德,有影响力的著作,直到罗马,当所有,但他的著作逻辑失去了在欧洲的基督教文明兴衰。However, his works were preserved in Syrian and Arabic cultures and were revived at the end of the twelfth century.然而,他的作品被保存在叙利亚和阿拉伯文化,并在十二世纪末恢复。
asceticism 禁欲主义
The view that attention to the body's needs is evil, an obstacle to moral and spiritual development, and displeasing to God.据认为,注意身体的需要,是邪恶的,道德和精神发展的障碍,并取悦上帝。According to this view, humans are urged to withdraw into an inner spiritual world to reach the good life.根据这种观点,人类是敦促到内在精神世界撤回达到美好的生活。
atheism 无神论
The rejection of the belief in God.作者对上帝的信仰拒绝。Some atheists have held that there is nothing in the world that requires a God in order to be explained.一些无神论者也认为,没有在世界上需要一个上帝,以解释什么。Atheism is not the same as agnosticism, which holds that we can have knowledge neither of the existence nor of the nonexistence of God.无神论是不一样的不可知论,它认为我们可以既不存在也不是不存在的神的知识一样。
British idealism (neo-Hegelianism)英国唯心主义(新黑格尔主义)
The philosophy of Hegel as revived in England and Scotland in the mid-nineteenth century.黑格尔的哲学,恢复在英格兰和苏格兰在十九世纪中叶。The most prominent members of this school were TH Green (1836-82), Bernard Bosanquet (1848 - 1923), and FH Bradley (1846 - 1924).这所学校最突出的成员被次绿色(1836年至1882年),伯纳德博萨凯特(1848年至19​​23年),和FH布拉德利(1846至1924年)。 They were united in their opposition to empiricism and utilitarianism and in their emphasis on mind and spirit as primary.他们分别在美国,他们反对经验主义和功利主义增加了她们的思想和精神为主要重点。
Buridan's ass布里丹的驴
A story, falsely attributed to the fourteenth-century thinker John Buridan, in which an ass, faced with two equally desirable bales of hay, starves to death because he cannot find a good reason for preferring one bale to the other.一个故事,错误地归因于十四世纪思想家约翰布里丹,其中一屁股,有两个同样不可取捆干草面临饿死,因为他不能找到一个宁愿一罢了到其他的好理由。
conceptualism 概念论
The theory that general ideas, such as the idea of man or of redness, exist as entities produced by the human mind and that they can exist in the minds of all men.该理论认为,一般的想法,如对人或发红的想法,,存在人的心灵所产生的实体,它们可以存在于所有人的心中。This view is typically contrasted with nominalism and realism.这种观点是典型的对比与唯名论和现实主义。
cosmogony 宇宙起源
A theory or story about the origin of the universe, either scientific or mythological.一个理论或有关宇宙起源的故事,无论是科学还是神话。Cosmogonies are also called creation myths.宇宙也称为创造神话。
cosmology 宇宙学
The systematic study of the origin and structure of the universe as a whole.的起源和宇宙的结构作为一个整体系统的研究。In such philosophers as Plato, Aristotle, and Kant, cosmology was based on metaphysical speculation; today cosmology is a branch of the physical sciences.在诸如柏拉图,亚里士多德,康德等哲学家,宇宙学是基于形而上的投机活动,今天的宇宙学是一个物理科学的分支。
deism 自然神论
A philosophical viewpoint appearing in England in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and in France in the eighteenth century.一种哲学观点出现在十七和十八世纪里,在​​法国,在18世纪在英国。Deists hold that although God created the universe and its laws, He then removed Himself from any ongoing interaction with the material world.自然神论者认为,虽然上帝创造了宇宙和它的法律,然后​​他移离任何物质世界与自己目前的互动关系。
deontology 义务论
The ethical philosophy that makes duty the basis of all morality.伦理的哲学,使责任的一切道德的基础。According to deontological theorists, such as Kant, some acts-such as keeping a promise or telling the truth-are moral obligations regardless of their consequences.据理论家如康德义务论,一些行为,如不让一个承诺或说真话,不管其后果是道义上的义务。
determinism 决定
The view that every event has a cause and that everything in the universe is absolutely dependent on and governed by causal laws.据认为,每一个事件的原因,并认为宇宙万物是绝对依赖,并受到因果规律支配。Since determinists believe that all events, including human actions, are predetermined, determinism is typically thought to be incompatible with free will.自determinists相信,所有的活动,包括人的行动,是预定的,决定论,是典型的被认为不符合自由意志。
dualism 二元论
Any philosophical theory holding that the universe consists of, or can only be explained by, two independent and separate forces, such as matter and spirit, the forces of good and evil, or the supernatural and natural.任何哲学理论认为宇宙的构成,或只能由两个独立的分裂势力,如物质和精神,解释的,善良与邪恶的力量,或超自然的和自然的。 See also mind-body problem.另见身心问题。
duty责任
According to many ethical theories, the basis of the virtuous life.根据许多伦理理论,君子生活的基础。The Stoics held that man has a duty to live virtuously and according to reason; and Kant held that his categorical imperative is the highest law of duty, no matter what the consequences.斯多葛学派认为,人有责任向公众生活的合乎道德,并根据原因,以及康德认为,他绝对势在必行,这是最高的法律责任,无论什么样的后果。
empiricism 经验主义
The view that all knowledge of the world derives solely from sensory experience, using observation and experimentation if needed; empiricism also holds that reason on its own can never provide knowledge of reality unless it also utilizes experience.那种认为世界上所有的知识源于单从感官经验,利用观察和实验,如果需要,经验主义还认为,其原因本身不能提供知识的现实,除非它也运用经验。 See also British empiricism.另见英国经验主义。
Enlightenment (Age of Reason)启蒙运动(理性时代的)
A period that stretched from the early seventeenth to the early nineteenth century, especially in France, England, and Germany.一个绷从早期第十七至十九世纪初,特别是在法国,英国,德国,期限。Its thinkers strove to make reason the ruler of human life; they believed that all men could gain knowledge and liberation.其原因思想家力图使人类生活的主宰,他们相信所有的人可以获取知识和解放。Major Enlightenment figures include Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, and Montesquieu in France; Bacon, Hobbes, and Locke in England; and Leibniz, Lessing (1729-81), and Herder (1744 - 1803) in Germany.主要启示数字包括伏尔泰,卢梭,狄德罗,孟德斯鸠在法国,培根,霍布斯,洛克,在英格兰和莱布尼茨,莱辛(1729年至1781年)和赫尔德(1744年至1803年)在德国。
eschatology 末世
In theology, the study of "final things," such as death, resurrection, immortality, the second coming of Christ, and the day of judgment.在神学中,“最后的东西”,如死亡,复活,永生,第二次来的基督,并研究了审判的日子。
existentialism 存在主义
A philosophy of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.一个十九世纪和二十世纪的哲学。The dogma holds that since there are no universal values, man's essence is not predetermined but is based only on free choice; man is in a state of anxiety because of his realization of free will; and there is no objective truth.教条认为,由于没有普遍的价值,人的本质不是预先确定,但基于自由意志的选择,人在,因为他的自由意志的实现焦虑状态;,也没有客观真理。 Major existentialists were Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Sartre, Heidegger, Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969), and the religious existentialists Martin Buber and Gabriel Marcel (1889 - 1973).主要存在主义者克尔凯郭尔,尼采,萨特,海德格尔,雅斯贝尔斯(1883 - 1969),和宗教存在马丁布伯和加布里埃尔马塞尔(1889年至1973年)。
fatalism 宿命论
The belief that "what will be will be," since all past, present, and future events have already been predetermined by God or another all-powerful force.相信“会是怎样将”,因为所有的过去,现在和未来的事件已经预定了上帝或另一种全能的力量。In religion, this view may be called predestination; it holds that whether our souls go to Heaven or Hell is determined before we are born and is independent of our good deeds.在宗教,这种看法可能是所谓的宿命,它认为,无论我们的灵魂去天堂或下地狱的决心面前,我们都是土生土长的,是我们的好行为无关。
free will自由意志
The theory that human beings have freedom of choice or self-determination; that is, that given a situation, a person could have done other than what he did.该理论认为,人类有选择的或自决的自由,那就是,鉴于情况下,一个人可以做得比其他他做了什么。Philosophers have argued that free will is incompatible with determinism.哲学家认为,自由意志是不符合宿命论。See also indeterminism.另见非决定论。
golden rule金科玉律
The fundamental moral rule of most religions, especially Christianity, that states, "Do unto others as you would have others do unto you."大多数宗教的根本,特别是基督教,即国家,道德规则“不要告诉别人,你希望别人怎样对待你。”
Hegelianism (neo-Hegelianism)黑格尔(新黑格尔主义)
A school of thought associated with Hegel in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, especially in England, America, France, and Italy.一个思想与黑格尔在十九世纪和二十世纪初,尤其是在英国,美国,法国,意大利等学校。FG Bradley (1846 - 1924), Josiah Royce (1855 - 1916), and Benedetto Croce (1866 - 1952) were prominent members; they emphasized the importance of spirit and the belief that ideas and moral ideals are fundamental. FG的布拉德利(1846年至1924年),乔赛亚罗伊斯(1855至1916年)和克罗齐(1866年至1952年)被突出的成员,他们强调,重要的精神和信念的思想和道德理想,是根本。
Hobson's choice霍布森的选择
A choice offered without any real alternative- therefore, not really a choice at all.选择提供,没有任何一个真正的替代,因此,不是一个真正的选择的余地。
Humanism 人道主义
Any philosophic view that holds that mankind's well-being and happiness in this lifetime are primary and that the good of all humanity is the highest ethical goal.任何哲学的观点认为,人类的福祉,在这人生的幸福都是小学和全人类的好是最高的道德目标。Twentieth-century humanists tend to reject all beliefs in the supernatural, relying instead on scientific methods and reason.二十世纪人文主义者往往拒绝超自然的所有信仰,依靠科学的方法和理由来代替。The term is also used to refer to Renaissance thinkers, especially in the fifteenth century in Italy, who emphasized knowledge and learning not based on religious sources.这个词也用来指文艺复兴时期的思想家,特别是在意大利,谁不强调知识和学习的基础上的宗教渊源十五世纪。
idealism 唯心主义
A term applied to any philosophy holding that mind or spiritual values, rather than material things or matter, are primary in the universe.一个术语适用于任何哲学认为思想或精神价值,而不是物质的东西或事情,是主要在宇宙中。See also British idealism.另见英国唯心主义。
immortality 不朽
The view that the individual soul is eternal, and thus survives the death of the body it resides in. See also transmigration of souls.认为个人的灵魂是永恒的,因而它的生存居住英寸又见灵魂轮回身体死亡。
indeterminism 非决定论
The view that there are events that do not have any cause; many proponents of free will believe that acts of choice are capable of not being determined by any physiological or psychological cause.据认为,有事件,没有任何理由;不少倡议者的自由意志,相信行为的选择,不被任何生理或心理的原因决定的能力。
justice 正义
According to most philosophers, starting with Plato, the harmonious balance between the rights of the various members of a society.根据大多数哲学家,柏拉图,之间的一个社会的各个成员的权利的和谐平衡开始。Justice is usually understood as including such social virtues as fairness, equality, and correct and impartial treatment.正义是通常理解为包括公正,平等,正确和公正的待遇等社会美德。
logical positivism逻辑实证主义
A twentieth-century school founded in the 1920s in Europe that was extremely influential for American and English philosophers. 20世纪的学校始建于20世纪20年代在欧洲这是为美国和英国极有影响力的哲学家。It advocated the principle of verifiability, according to which all statements that could not be validated empirically were meaningless.它主张的可核查的原则,根据所有的报表,无法验证经验是毫无意义的。 Logical positivism held that this principle showed that all of metaphysics, religion, and ethics was incapable of being proved either true or false.逻辑实证主义认为,这一原则表明,形而上学,宗教,伦理,一切都被证明,无论是真或假的能力。See also Vienna Circle.另见维也纳学派。
Manichaeanism Manichaeanism
A religious-philosophical doctrine that originated in Persia in the third century and reappeared throughout the next 1300 years.一个宗教哲学的理论,起源于波斯,在三世纪和整个未来一三○○年又出现了。It holds that the entire universe, especially human life, is a struggle between the opposing forces of good and evil (light and darkness).它认为,整个宇宙中,尤其是人的生命,是一个善良与邪恶之间(光明与黑​​暗)的反对势力的斗争。
Marxism 马克思主义
The political, economic, and philosophical theories developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in the second half of the nineteenth century.政治,经济和哲学的卡尔马克思和弗里德里希恩格斯发展了十九世纪下半叶的理论。The philosophical side of Marxism is called dialectical materialism; it emphasizes economic determinism.马克思主义哲学方面被称为辩证唯物主义,它强调经济决定论。See also dialectical materialism.另见辩证唯物论。
materialism 唯物主义
The theory that holds that the nature of the world is dependent on matter, or that matter is the only fundamental substance; thus, spirit and mind either do not exist or are manifestations of matter.该理论认为,认为世界的本质是依赖于物质,或物质是唯一的基本物质,因此,精神和心灵要么不存在,或者是物质的表现形式。
meta-ethics 元伦理学
A branch of philosophy that analyzes ethics.哲学的分支,分析道德。It is concerned with such issues as, How are moral decisions justified?它关注的是,如何道德合理等问题的决定?What is the foundation of any ethical view?什么是任何伦理观的基础?What language is used to state moral beliefs?什么语言是用于国家的道德观念?
metaphysics 形而上学
The branch of philosophy concerned with the ultimate nature of reality and existence as a whole.该分支机构的哲学与现实和存在的终极性的整体关注。Metaphysics also includes the study of cosmology and philosophical theology.形而上学的,还包括研究宇宙学和哲学神学的研究。 Aristotle produced the first "system" of metaphysics.亚里士多德形而上学的第一个生产“系统”。
monad单子
According to Leibniz, the ultimate and indivisible units of all existence.据莱布尼茨,所有的存在最终的和不可分割的单位。Monads are not material, like atoms; each monad is self-activating, a unique center of force.单子是不是物质,如原子,每个单子是自我激活,这是独特的中心力量。All monads are in a "pre-established harmony" with each other and with God, the supreme monad.所有的单子都在“预先确定的和谐”相互之间以及与上帝,至高无上的单子。
monism 一元论
The theory that everything in the universe is composed of, or can be explained by or reduced to, one fundamental substance, energy, or force.认为,在宇宙万物是组成的或可以解释或减少,一个根本的物质,能量或力量的理论。
mysticism 神秘主义
Any philosophy whose roots are in mystical experiences, intuitions, or direct experiences of the divine.任何哲学,其根源是在神秘的经验,直觉,或神圣的直接经验。In such experiences, the mystic believes that his or her soul has temporarily achieved union with God.在这样的经验,神秘认为他或她的灵魂已暂时取得了与神的结合。Mystics believe reality can be known only in this manner, not through reasoning or everyday experience.神秘主义者认为,现实的,可只知道以这种方式而不是通过推理或日常经验。
myth of Er神话二
A parable at the end of Plato's Republic about the fate of souls after bodily death; according to Plato, the soul must choose wisdom in the afterlife to guarantee a good life in its next cycle of incarnation.在柏拉图的共和国关于灵魂的身体死亡的命运结束后比喻,据柏拉图的灵魂,必须选择在来世的智慧,以保证在其下一个周期的化身一个美好的生活。
naturalism 自然主义
A philosophic view stating that all there is in reality is what the physical and human sciences (for example, physics or psychology) study and that there is no need to posit any supernatural forces or being, such as God, mind, or spirit.一个哲学观点表示,所有有在现实中是什么物理和人文科学(例如,物理或心理)的研究,以及有没有必要假定任何或超自然力量被如神,心,或精神。
naturalistic fallacy自然主义谬误
A belief of many twentieth-century philosophers in England and America that it is invalid to infer any statements of morality (for example, "Men ought to act kindly") from factual statements (for example, "Kindness is a natural quality").许多二十世纪在英国和美国哲学家认为它是无效的推断道德任何语句(例如,“男人应该以友善的行为”)的(例如,“爱心,是一个天然的质量”)的事实陈述。 The notion tries to derive ought from is and was first described by Hume.这一概念试图从中应该由是,最早是由休谟描述。
natural law自然法
The theory that there is a higher law than the manmade laws put forth by specific governments.该理论认为,有一个更高的法律以外的人为法律提出具体的政府规定。This law is universal, unchanging, and a fundamental part of human nature.这部法律是普遍的,一成不变的,人性的一个基本组成部分。Advocates of this view believe that natural law can be discovered by reason alone.这种观点的支持者认为,自然法,可以发现原因孤单。The theory originated with the Stoics and was elaborated on by St. Thomas Aquinas, among others.该理论起源于斯多葛,并阐述了由圣托马斯阿奎那,等等。
natural rights自然权利
Certain freedoms or privileges that are held to be an innate part of the nature of being a human being and that cannot be denied by society.某些自由或正在举行是一个对人类的本性是一个天生的一部分,权限不能否认的社会。These are different from civil rights, which are granted by a specific nation or government.这些都是从民事权利,这是由特定的民族或政府授予不同。Philosophers have differed on which rights are natural, but usually included are life, liberty, equality, equal treatment under the law, the pursuit of happiness, and equality of opportunity.哲学家有不同的哪些权利是自然的,但通常包括生命,自由,平等,平等相待,根据法律,对幸福的追求,和机会平等。 Locke's influential views on natural rights inspired the writers of the American Constitution.洛克的自然权利的有影响力的意见鼓舞了美国宪法的作家。
Neoplatonism 柏拉图
A school of philosophy that flourished from the second to the fifth centuries AD It was founded by Plotinus and was influential for the next thousand years.一所学校的理念,从第二个蓬勃发展到AD它是由普罗提诺,并为明年5000年有影响力的第五世纪。
nihilism 虚无主义
A term first used in Fathers and Sons (1862) by the Russian novelist Turgenev.任期首次使用,在父亲和儿子(1862年)由俄国小说家屠格涅夫。Ethical nihilism is the theory that morality cannot be justified in any way and that all moral values are, therefore, meaningless and irrational.道德虚无主义的理论,道德是不能以任何方式和理由,所有的道德价值观,因此,毫无意义的,不合理的。Political nihilism is the social philosophy that society and its institutions are so corrupt that their complete destruction is desirable.政治虚无主义是社会哲学,社会及其机构,使腐败彻底销毁是可取的。Nihilists may, therefore, advocate violence and even terrorism in the name of overthrowing what they believe to be a corrupt social order.虚无主义可能,因此,崇尚暴力,即使是在推翻了他们认为是一个腐败的社会秩序名称恐怖主义。
nominalism 唯名论
The view that general terms, such as "table," do not refer to essences, concepts, abstract ideas, or anything else; "table" makes sense only because all tables resemble each other.认为一般条款,如“表”,而不是指本质,概念,抽象的概念,或其他任何“表”是有道理的,只是因为所有的表像对方。 According to this view, such general terms do not have any independent existence.根据这种观点,这样的一般条款,并无任何独立存在。
objectivism 客观主义
The view that there are moral truths that are valid universally and that it is wrong to knowingly gain pleasure from causing another pain.据认为,有迹象表明是有效的普遍认为这是错误的明知而获得,造成另一种痛苦的欢乐道德真理。
obligation 义务
In ethics, a moral necessity to do a specific deed.在伦理,道德的必要性做一个具体的行动。Some ethicists, following Kant, hold that moral obligations are absolute.一些伦理学家,继康德认为,道德义务是绝对的。
Ockham's razor奥卡姆剃刀
A principle attributed to the fourteenth-century English philosopher William of Ockham.一个原则归因于十四世纪的英国哲学家奥卡姆的威廉。It states that entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity, or that one should choose the simplest explanation, the one requiring the fewest assumptions and principles.它的实体不应再乘以超出必要性,或者说每个人都应该选择最简单的解释,一,规定最少的假设和原则的国家。
ontology 本体论
A branch of metaphysics that studies the nature of existence or reality, as such, as opposed to specific types of existing entities.这方面的一个研究存在的或现实的本质,因而,相对于现有的实体的具体类型的形而上学的分支。
operationalism (operationism)操作主义(operationism)
A philosophy of science according to which any scientific concept must be definable in terms of concrete, observable activities or the operations to which it refers.一个哲学的科学根据,任何科学的概念必须在具体的,看得见的活动或行动方面定义,它是指。
pantheism 泛神论
The belief that God and the universe are identical; among modern philosophers, Spinoza is considered to be a pantheist.相信上帝和宇宙是一致的,其中现代哲学家,斯宾诺莎被认为是一个泛神论者。
Pascal's wager帕斯卡的赌注
An argument made by Blaise Pascal for believing in God.一种论调由帕斯卡在信神。Pascal said that either the tenets of Roman Catholicism are true or they are not.帕斯卡尔说,无论是罗马天主教教义是真的还是他们没有。If they are true, and we wager that they are true, then we have won an eternity of bliss; if they are false, and death is final, what has the bettor lost?如果他们是真的,我们打赌说,他们是真的,那么我们已经取得了一个永恒的极乐世界,如果他们是假的,死是最终决定,投注者失去了什么? On the other hand, if one wagers against God's existence and turns out to be wrong, there is eternal damnation.另一方面,如果一个人对上帝的存在赌注,并证明是错的,有永恒的诅咒。
personalism 人格
A term applied to any philosophy that makes personality (whether of people, God, or spirit) the supreme value or the source of reality.一个术语适用于任何哲学,使人格(无论是在人,神,或精神),最高价值或实际来源。Personalism as a movement flourished in England and America in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.和人物,如英国和美国盛行于十九世纪和二十世纪的运动。Personalists are usually idealists.通常是理想主义者。
pessimism 悲观主义
The philosophic attitude holding that hope is unreasonable, that man is born to sorrow, and that this is the worst of all possible worlds.哲学的态度,认为希望是不合理的,人是天生的悲痛,并认为这是所有可能的世界最差。Schopenhauer's philosophy is an example of extreme pessimism.叔本华的哲学是一个极度悲观的例子。
philosopher king哲学家王
In Plato's Republic, a philosopher trained by formal study in disciplines including mathematics and philosophy.在柏拉图的共和国,在包括数学和哲学学科的正规学习培训的一个哲学家。 Plato emphasized that philosopher kings' leadership would be shown by their ability to see the Forms, or universal ideals.哲学家柏拉图强调,国王的领导下将他们的能力,看看表,或表现普遍​​理想。
philosophy of mind心灵哲学
The area of philosophy that studies the mind, consciousness, and mental functions such as thinking, intention, imagination, and emotion.该地区的哲学研究的思想,意识,思维等,意向,想像和情感心理功能。It is not one specific branch of philosophy, but rather an aspect of most traditional branches, such as metaphysics, epistemology, and aesthetics.它不是一个特定分支哲学,而是一个最传统的分支,如形而上学,认识论和美学的方面。
philosophy of religion宗教哲学
A branch of philosophy concerned with such questions as, What is religion?哲学的分支,这些问题有关的,什么是宗教?What is God?什么是上帝? Can God's existence be proved?可上帝的存在证明呢?Is there immortality?有不朽?What is the relationship between faith, reason, and revelation?之间有什么信仰,理性和启示的关系?Is there a divine purpose in the world?是否有在世界神圣目的是什么?
philosophy of science科学哲学
The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of science.哲学的一个分支,研究科学的本质。 It is particularly concerned with the methods, concepts, and assumptions of science, as well as with analyzing scientific concepts such as space, time, cause, scientific law, and verification.它特别关注的方法,观念和科学假设,以及与分析,如空间,时间,原因,科学规律和验证的科学概念。
Platonism 柏拉图主义
Thoughts and writings developed in the fifth century BC in Athens by Plato, the greatest student of Socrates.思想和公元前五世纪雅典的柏拉图,苏格拉底的最大的学生开发的著作。Platonism's chief tenet is that the ultimate reality consists of unchanging, absolute, eternal entities called Ideas or Forms; all earthly objects are not truly real but merely partake in the Forms.柏拉图主义的主要宗旨是,最终的现实不变的,绝对的,永恒的实体,所谓的理念或形式组成;世间的一切物体都没有真正的实质,而只是参与形式。
Plato's cave柏拉图的洞穴
An analogy in Plato's Republic between reality and illusion.现实与虚幻之间的一个比喻在柏拉图的共和国。The main image is of men who see on the walls of a cave only the shadows of the real objects moving around outside the cave.主要形象是男人谁对一个山洞只有阴影部分的真实物体移动以外的洞穴,周围墙上看到的。When these men leave the cave and see the real objects, they cannot, upon returning to the cave, convince those who have never left of the reality of the objects.当这些人离开洞穴,看到了真正的对象,他们无法回国后的洞窟,说服那些从来没有谁对现实的物体了。
pluralism 多元化
The view that there are more than two kinds of fundamental, irreducible realities in the universe, or that there are many separate and independent levels of reality.据认为,有两个以上的基本的,现实的各种束缚,在宇宙中,还是有许多单独的和独立的现实水平。
positivism 实证
A theory originated by French philosopher Auguste Comte.理论来源于法国哲学家孔德。 It holds that all knowledge is defined by the limits of scientific investigation; thus, philosophy must abandon any quest for knowledge of an ultimate reality or any knowledge beyond that offered by science.它认为,所有的知识是确定的科学调查的范围,因此,哲学必须放弃任何对知识的最终现实或任何超越知识,通过提供科学的追求。 See also logical positivism.另见逻辑实证主义。
Pragmatism 实用主义
An American philosophy developed in the nineteenth century by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839 - 1914) and William James, and elaborated on in the twentieth century by John Dewey.一位美国在十九世纪的哲学发展由查尔斯桑德斯皮尔士(1839年至1914年)和威廉詹姆斯,并阐述了在二十世纪的杜威。 Its central precepts are that thinking is primarily a guide to action and that the truth of any idea lies in its practical consequences.其核心信条是:思想,首先是一个行动指南,并认为真理的任何想法在于,它的实际后果。
principle (or law) of noncontradiction原则(或法律)无矛盾
Dating back to Aristotle, this universally accepted "law of thought" has two parts: a statement cannot be both true and false; nothing can both have a quality, like red, and not have it, at the same time.历史可以追溯到亚里士多德,这普遍被接受的“法律思想”有两个部分:一个语句不能既是真实和虚假的,没有都可以优质,像红色,而不是在同一时间。
rationalism 唯理论
The philosophic approach that holds that reality is knowable by the use of reason or thinking alone, without recourse to observation or experience.哲学的做法,认为现实是思维的原因,或单独使用可知,无追索权的观察和经验。See also seventeenth-century rationalists.也见十七世纪的理性主义。
realism 现实主义
The major medieval and modern view on the problem of universals other than nominalism.主要的中世纪和现代视野中的共性比唯名其他问题。Extreme realism, which is close to Plato's theory of Forms, holds that universals exist independently of both particular things and the human mind; moderate realism holds that they exist as ideas in God's mind, through which He creates things.极端现实主义,这是接近柏拉图的形式理论,认为,共性存在的两种东西,尤其是与人的头脑独立;温和的现实主义认为,他们在上帝的心中,透过他所创造的东西的想法存在。
relativism 相对主义
The precept that people's ideas of right and wrong vary considerably from place to place and time to time; therefore, there are no universally valid ethical standards.该信条的正确和错误的人们的观念变化很大,从地方到地方和时间,时间,因此,不存在普遍有效的道德标准。
Scholasticism 烦琐哲学
A general term referring to the Christian philosophy of the Middle Ages, especially at the medieval universities.一个通用术语指的是中世纪的基督教哲学,特别是在中世纪的大学。The Scholastics basically followed Aristotle's empiricism, using highly analytical logical and linguistic methods of argumentation, especially with respect to the problem of universals.该scholastics基本上沿袭了亚里士多德的经验主义,用高度的分析逻辑和语言方法的论证,特别是有关问题的共性。
solipsism 唯我主义
The theory that one cannot know anything other than his or her own thoughts, feelings, or perceptions; therefore, other people and the real world must be projections of one's own mind with no existence in and of themselves.该理论认为,人可以不知道什么比他或她自己的想法,感受或看法等,因此,其他人与现实世界要一个自己的预测,由于没有考虑其本身的存在。 See also egocentric predicament.另见自我中心困境。
spiritism 招魂
A term referring to the belief that spirits of the dead communicate with the living, for instance, at seances or through a medium.一个术语,指人们相信与生活,举例来说,在降神会或通过媒体,死沟通精神。
spiritualism 招魂
The view that the ultimate reality in the universe is the spirit.认为宇宙中的终极实的精神。 Advocates of this view may disagree about the nature of the spirit.提倡这种观点可能不同意有关的精神实质。
Stoicism 斯多葛派
A Greek school founded by Zeno in the third century BC Stoics held that men should submit to natural law and that a man's chief duty is to conform to his destiny.学校成立由希腊芝诺在公元前三世纪斯多葛学派认为,男性应该服从自然法,并认为人的行政责任,是符合他的命运。 They also believed the soul to be another form of matter, and thus not immortal.他们还认为,灵魂,以另一种方式的问题,因此没有不朽的。
supernaturalism 超自然
The belief that there are forces, energies, or beings beyond the material world-such as God, spirit, or occult forces-that affect events in our world.这个信念,有力量,精力,或人超越了物质世界,如神,精神,或神秘的力量,在我们的世界影响的事件。
syllogism 三段论
A kind of deductive reasoning or argument.一种演绎推理或论调。As defined by Aristotle, it was considered the basis of reasoning for over two thousand years.按照亚里士多德的定义,它被认为是推理超过两千年的基础。In every syllogism, there are two statements (premises) from which a conclusion follows necessarily.在每一个三段论,有两个报表(处所),从其中一个结论如下未必。Syllogisms are of three basic logical types, as illustrated by these examples:三段论有三个基本的​​逻辑那样,这些例子说明类型:
tabula rasa白板
A Latin phrase meaning "blank slate," used by Locke to describe the state of the human mind at birth.一个拉丁词,意思是“一张白纸”,由洛克用来形容人出生时的心境。Locke believed there are no innate ideas and that the mind gets all of its ideas from experience.洛克认为,不存在任何先天的思想和心灵得到的经验其所有的想法。
teleological ethics目的论伦理学
In contrast with deontological ethics, this moral theory holds that whether an action is morally right depends solely on its expected consequences.与义务论伦理学相反,这种道德理论认为,无论是道义上的行动权利,完全取决于其预期的后果。See also utilitarianism.另见功利主义。
Thomism 托马斯主义
The philosophical and theological system developed by St. Thomas Aquinas in the thirteenth century.哲学和神学系统开发多瑪斯在十三世纪。One of its chief principles is that philosophy seeks truth through reason while theology seeks it through revelation from God; therefore, the two are compatible.它的主要原则之一,就是哲学求真务实理性,而神学的目的是通过从上帝的启示,因此,两者是相容的。
transcendent 超越
Beyond the realm of sense experience.超越感觉经验的境界。In many religious views, God is held to be transcendent.在许多宗教的看法,上帝是向被超越。
Transcendentalism 超验
A nineteenth-century movement developed in New England and expounded by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803 - 82) and Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 62). 19世纪时运动的发展,在新英格兰和爱默生阐述(1803 - 82)和亨利大卫梭罗(1817 - 62)。It maintains that beyond our material world of experience is an ideal spiritual reality that can be grasped intuitively.它坚持认为超出了我们的物质世界的经验,是一种理想的精神现实的,可以直观地掌握。
transmigration of souls 轮回的灵魂
The belief that the same soul can, in different lifetimes (incarnations), reside in different bodies, human or animal.的信念,同样的灵魂,可以在(化身)不同的寿命,居住在不同的机构,人类或动物。 While typically a part of most Eastern religions, the doctrine came into Western philosophy from Pythagoras and his contemporaries in the sixth century BC and especially through Plato.虽然通常是大多数东方宗教的一部分,从毕达哥拉斯学说生效和他同时代的西方哲学在公元前六世纪,特别是通过柏拉图。
utilitarianism 功利主义
A theory of morality holding that all actions should be judged for rightness or wrongness in terms of their consequences; thus, the amount of pleasure people derive from those consequences becomes the measure of moral goodness.阿论道德控股的一切行动应判断在计算其后果为对或是错,因此,保额的乐趣的人来自这些后果,成为了道德上的善措施。 Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, in the nineteenth century, were the chief proponents of this view.杰里米边沁和穆勒,在十九世纪,持这种看法的主要支持者。See also principle of utility.又见实用的原则。
utopianism 乌托邦
The belief in the possibility or desirability of not just a better but a perfect society.在信仰的可能性还是不只是一个更好的可取性,但一个完美的社会。The term derives from Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516), which depicts an ideal state.一词源于托马斯莫尔爵士的乌托邦(1516年),其中描绘了一个理想的状态。Utopian states also appear in the writings of Plato and Bacon.乌托邦式的国家也出现在柏拉图和培根的著作。
Young Hegelians青年黑格尔派
A group of thinkers in Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century whose views strongly influenced Karl Marx.集团在德国思想家在十九世纪的马克思意见强烈影响上半年。They were followers of Hegel who believed that the political conditions under which they lived were irrational.他们是黑格尔的信徒谁相信,所依据的条件是不合理的政治生活。They held that the goal of philosophy should be to promote a revolution of ideas and critical thinking about the world.他们认为,哲学的目标应该是促进革命的思想和对世界的批判性思维。Ludwig Feuerbach (1804 - 72) was the most important of the Young Hegelians.路德维希费尔巴哈(1804 - 72)是青年黑格尔派最重要的。


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