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Polytheism is the belief in and worship of many gods. It contrasts with Monotheism, belief in one god, and Pantheism, identification of God with the universe. 是多神教的信仰和神灵崇拜很多。这宇宙的对比与一神教之一,信仰上帝,和泛神论的,神与鉴定。In polytheism the gods are personified, distinguished by functions, related to one another in a cosmic family, and the subjects of myths and legends.在多神教的神是人格化的,按职能区分,有关宇宙中的一个家庭一个,神话和传说的主题。

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The belief in a multitude of distinct and separate deities.在一个独特和独立的众多神灵信仰。It is formally contrasted with pantheism, the belief in an impersonal God identical with the universe, although the two doctrines can sometimes be found in the same religious tradition.这是正式对比与泛神论,在一个客观的上帝与宇宙同一的信仰,虽然这两个理论有时会在同一个宗教传统找到。Polytheism is distinguished from theism, also called monotheism, on the basis of polytheism's claim that divinity, while personal and distinguished from the universe, is many rather than one.多神教有别于有神论,也被称为一神论,在多神教的索赔理由是神,而个人和杰出的宇宙,而不是一个不少。Except for the great monotheisms of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, the world's religions are overwhelmingly polytheistic.除了犹太教,基督教和伊斯兰教的伟大一神教,世界宗教的绝大多数是多神教。Polytheism characterizes Hinduism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and Shintoism in the East, and also contemporary African tribal religions.多神教的特点印度教,大乘佛教,儒教,道教,在东部和神道,也是当代非洲部落的宗教。In the ancient world Egyptians, Babylonians, and Assyrians worshipped a plurality of deities, as did the ancient Greeks, Romans, and Norse.在古代世界埃及人,巴比伦人,亚述人崇拜和多元化的神明一样,古希腊人,罗马人,和北欧。Belief in several distinct deities serves to provide a focus for popular religious devotion when the official deity or deities of the religion are remote from the common person.在几个不同的神明信仰旨在提供一个集中流行的宗教奉献当官方神或神的宗教是从普通人的遥控器。

According to Ninian Smart, deities are formed around a number of aspects of life.据尼尼安智慧,神的周围形成一个对生活的多个方面。These include natural forces and objects such as fertility and atmospheric forces; vegetation such as trees, sacred herbs, and vineyards; animal and human forms such as serpents, cattle, and animal - human hybrids; and assorted functions such as love, agriculture, healing, and war.这些措施包括自然力量,如生育和大气力量的对象;如树木植被,神圣的草药,和葡萄园;动物,如蛇,牛人的形式,和动物 - 人类的杂种;和各种功能,如爱,农业,愈合和战争。

The birth of Western philosophy in ancient Greece occurred in a culture with a rich popular polytheism.西方哲学在古希腊诞生发生在一个拥有丰富流行的多神教的文化。Socrates was sentenced to death for "impiety" and "atheism" in denying the deities worshipped by Athens and for corrupting the youth.苏格拉底被判处死刑,“不虔诚”和“无神论”的否定神崇拜的雅典和腐蚀青年。Socrates firmly believed in the divine, and in fact believed himself to have a special mission from the gods.苏格拉底坚信,在神圣的,而事实上,相信自己有一个来自神的特殊使命。His theology was more philosophically and spiritually sophisticated than that of his contemporaries.他的神学,哲学和精神上更比他的同时代人复杂。It became in fact a matter of indifference in his thought whether gods were one or many, since he denied the distinct personality quirks and moral irregularities that served to differentiate them within the Greek pantheon.它成为事实上的冷漠在他的思想无论是一个或多个神,因为他否认了鲜明的个性怪癖和道德违规的服务来区分他们在希腊神殿。 His successor Plato carried on this tradition, and held that in a well run state there would have to be substantial revision in the Homeric mythology before allowing it to be used, because it depicted the gods performing evil and petty acts (Republic 376e - 383c).他的继任者进行柏拉图这一传统,并认为,在良好的运行状态也将不得不在荷马的神话重大修改之前允许它被使用,因为它描绘的神表演邪恶和零用行为(共和国376e - 383c) 。Thus the intellectual motive for maintaining a plurality of deities was disappearing from philosophy at an early stage.因此,维持一个多元化的神明知识分子从哲学的动机是消失在早期阶段。

Islam erroneously interprets the Christian Trinity as a polytheistic doctrine, and ancient Israel possibly contended with the devotion to other deities in addition to Yahweh. Nonetheless, it is clear that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam represent forms of theism incompatible with polytheism. 错误地解释伊斯兰教教义的多神教基督教三位一体为A,和古老的以色列可能耶和华争辩神通除了奉献到其他国家。然而,很明显,犹太教,基督教和伊斯兰教的代表形式的有神论多神教格格不入。 As the West becomes infiltrated with Eastern religions and their derivative movements, Western Christians will need directly to confront polytheism.由于西方与东方宗教和成为其衍生运动渗透,西方基督徒将需要直接面对多神教。

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Bibliography 参考书目
SGF Brandon, ed., A Dictionary of Comparative Religion; LE Goodman, Monotheism: A Philosophical Inquiry; JM Koller, Oriental Philosophies; Plato, Apology and Republic; N Smart, "Polytheism," Encybrit; GE Swanson, The Birth of the Gods: The Origin of Primitive Beliefs.。SGF公司布兰登,教育署,词典比较宗教学;乐古德曼,一神教:一个哲学查询; JM科勒,东方哲学,柏拉图,道歉和共和国ñ聪明,“多神教”Encybrit,葛斯旺森,众神的诞生:原始信仰的起源。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods.的信仰,以及,随之而来的许多神的崇拜。See the various articles on national religions such as the Assyrian, Babylonian, Hindu, and the ancient religions of Egypt, Greece, and Rome; see also ANIMISM, FETISHISM, TOTEMISM, GOD, MONOTHEISM, PANTHEISM, etc.见,如民族宗教的各项条款的亚述人,巴比伦人,印度教,以及埃及,希腊和罗马的古代宗教,又见万物有灵论,拜物教,图腾崇拜,神,一神论,泛神论,等等

Publication information The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.出版信息的天主教百科全书,卷十二。Published 1911.1911年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年6月1日。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰法利枢机主教,大主教纽约

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