General Information一般资料

In Roman Catholicism, purgatory (from the Latin purgare, "to cleanse") is the place or state after death where those who have died in a state of grace but not free from imperfection expiate their remaining sins before entering the visible presence of God and the saints; the damned, on the other hand, go directly to hell.在罗马天主教,炼狱(来自拉丁语purgare,“清洗”)是地方或死亡后的状态,谁死在一个国家的宽限期,但不能从不完善免费赎罪才进入神的存在,可见其剩余的罪圣人,该死的,另一方面,直接下地狱。

The living are encouraged to offer Masses, prayers, alms, and other acts of piety and devotion on behalf of those in purgatory.的生活,鼓励群众提供,祈祷,施舍,并虔诚和献身精神的其他行为的炼狱中的代表。The suffering of purgatory is less a concept of physical pain than one of postponement of the "beatific vision."痛苦的炼狱,是少了身体的痛苦比推迟一概念的“幸福的愿景。”Purgatory will end with the Last Judgment at the close of the world.炼狱将结束在世界密切最后的审判。

The official Roman Catholic teaching on purgatory was defined at the councils of Lyon (1274) and Ferrara-Florence (1438-45) and reaffirmed at Trent (1545-63). This doctrine was rejected by leaders of the Reformation who taught that persons are freed from sin through faith in Jesus Christ and go straight to heaven.罗马天主教会的正式定义炼狱教学在1438年至1445年)在议会的里昂(1274)和费拉拉,佛罗伦萨(和)重申了遄达(1545年至1563。 这一理论是拒绝了领导人的改革谁告诉我们,人脱离了罪,通过基督耶稣的信仰,直接进入天堂。The Orthodox church also rejects the theology of purgatory, although it encourages prayers for the dead in some undefined intermediate state. 东正教教会也拒绝炼狱神学的,尽管它鼓励国家祈祷死者的中间部分不确定的。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
Arendzen, John Peter, Purgatory and Heaven (1960); Le Goff, J., The Birth of Purgatory, trans. Arendzen,约翰彼得,炼狱和天堂(1960年);勒高夫,学者,在炼狱诞生,跨。by A. Goldhammer (1984; repr. 1986).由A. Goldhammer(1984; 1986年再版。)。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The teachings of the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches set forth a place of temporal punishment in the intermediate realm known as purgatory, in which it is held that all those who die at peace with the church but who are not perfect must undergo penal and purifying suffering.罗马天主教和希腊东正教教堂的教义中规定的炼狱称为中间领域,它是在举行了颞处罚的地方,所有这些谁死在与教会和平,但谁不完美的,必须接受刑事和净化苦难。 Only those believers who have attained a state of Christian perfection are said to go immediately to heaven.只有那些谁已经达到了一个完美的状态,基督教信徒,据说马上去天堂。All unbaptized adults and those who after baptism have committed mortal sin go immediately to hell.所有的成年人和未受洗礼的洗礼后,谁犯了弥天大罪立即去地狱。The great mass of partially sanctified Christians dying in fellowship with the church but nevertheless encumbered with some degree of sin go to purgatory where, for a longer or shorter time, they suffer until all sin is purged away, after which they are translated to heaven.神圣的部分与死亡,但基督徒团契教会大质量不过堆满了某种程度的罪恶炼狱的地方去,较长或较短的时间,他们遭受的一切罪恶,直到被清除了,之后将被翻译成天堂。

The sufferings vary greatly in intensity and duration, being proportioned in general to the guilt and impurity or impenitence of the sufferer.变化很大的苦难的强度和持续时间,一般到被内疚和杂质或患者不知悔改匀称。They are described as being in some cases comparatively mild, lasting perhaps only a few hours, while in other cases little if anything short of the torments of hell itself and lasting for thousands of years.他们被描述为在某些情况下是比较温和的,持久的也许只有几个小时,而在其他情况下几乎没有什么短地狱的折磨自己,几千年来持久。 But in any event they are to terminate with the last judgment.但无论如何他们要终止​​与最后判决。Gifts or services rendered to the church, prayers by the priests, and Masses provided by relatives or friends in behalf of the deceased can shorten, alleviate, or eliminate the sojourn of the soul in purgatory.礼品或提供的服务去了教堂,由神父祈祷,​​并通过亲属或死者可以缩短,减轻或消除炼狱的灵魂寄居在朋友提供群众代表。

Protestantism rejects the doctrine since the evidence on which it is based is found not in the Bible but in the Apocrypha (II Macc. 12:39-45). 新教反对伪学说的证据,因为它是总部设并不在圣经,但(二排雷。12:39-45)。

L Boettner L Boettner
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
AJ Mason, Purgatory; EH Plumptre, The Spirits in Prison; HW Luckock, After Death; B. Bartmann, Purgatory; H. Berkhof, Well-Founded Hope.欧塞尔梅森,炼狱,高血压普拉普特雷,监狱中的精神;硬件Luckock后死亡;二Bartmann,炼狱阁下;伯克霍夫的,有根据的希望。


Catholic Information天主教新闻

The subject is treated under these heads:这个题目下处理这些头:

I. Catholic Doctrine一,天主教的教义



IV.四。Duration and Nature持续时间和性质

V. Succouring the Dead五Succouring死海


VII.七。Invocation of Souls调用灵魂

VIII.八。Utility of Prayer for the Departed为祈祷实用行者


Purgatory (Lat., "purgare", to make clean, to purify) in accordance with Catholic teaching is a place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions.炼狱(拉丁语,“purgare”,使清洁,净化)与天主教教学是按照一个地方或颞处罚条件的谁,离开这神的恩典的生命,是不是完全摆脱可原谅的错误,或未缴足的满意度,由于他们的罪过。 The faith of the Church concerning purgatory is clearly expressed in the Decree of Union drawn up by the Council of Florence (Mansi, t. XXXI, col. 1031), and in the decree of the Council of Trent which (Sess. XXV) defined:教会的信仰是关于炼狱明确表达了联盟制定了由安理会的佛罗伦萨注册法令(曼西,吨三十一,山口。1031),并在安理会的遄达法令,达(sess.二十五)定义:

"Whereas the Catholic Church, instructed by the Holy Ghost, has from the Sacred Scriptures and the ancient tradition of the Fathers taught in Councils and very recently in this Ecumenical synod (Sess. VI, cap. XXX; Sess. XXII cap.ii, iii) that there is a purgatory, and that the souls therein are helped by the suffrages of the faithful, but principally by the acceptable Sacrifice of the Altar; the Holy Synod enjoins on the Bishops that they diligently endeavor to have the sound doctrine of the Fathers in Councils regarding purgatory everywhere taught and preached, held and believed by the faithful" (Denzinger, "Enchiridon", 983). “鉴于天主教教会,圣灵的指示,从神圣的经文和教合一议会和主教在这最近的父亲非常古老的传统(sess.六,上限已XXX。。阶段作业二十二cap.ii,三)有一个炼狱,而其中的灵魂是由信徒们的投票选举帮助,但主要由坛接受的牺牲;圣主教会议的主教,他们勤奋努力有声音的学说责成关于议会在炼狱各地为人父教和鼓吹,持有及信徒相信“(登青格,”Enchiridon“,983)。

Further than this the definitions of the Church do not go, but the tradition of the Fathers and the Schoolmen must be consulted to explain the teachings of the councils, and to make clear the belief and the practices of the faithful.进一步比这个教会的定义不走了,但父亲和传统的schoolmen必须咨询,解释议会的​​教诲,并作出明确的信念和忠诚的做法。

Temporal Punishment颞处罚

That temporal punishment is due to sin, even after the sin itself has been pardoned by God, is clearly the teaching of Scripture.这是由于颞处罚罪,甚至在自己的罪已被上帝赦免,显然是圣经教学。 God indeed brought man out of his first disobedience and gave him power to govern all things (Wisdom 10:2), but still condemned him "to eat his bread in the sweat of his brow" until he returned unto dust.神人确实带来了他给了他第一次抗命,有权支配一切事物(智慧10时02分),但仍谴责他“吃他在他的额头上的汗水面包”,直到他归到尘土。 God forgave the incredulity of Moses and Aaron, but in punishment kept them from the "land of promise" (Numbers 20:12).神赦免了摩西和亚伦的怀疑,但在处罚不断从“充满希望的土地”(民数记20:12)他们。The Lord took away the sin of David, but the life of the child was forfeited because David had made God's enemies blaspheme His Holy Name (2 Samuel 12:13-14).主带走了大卫罪,但孩子的生活被没收,因为大卫发神的仇敌亵渎他的圣名(撒下12:13-14)。In the New Testament as well as in the Old, almsgiving and fasting, and in general penitential acts are the real fruits of repentance (Matthew 3:8; Luke 17:3; 3:3).在新约,以及在旧的,施舍和禁食,一般悔罪行为是悔改的实际成果(马太三点08分;路加福音17:3; 3:3)。The whole penitential system of the Church testifies that the voluntary assumption of penitential works has always been part of true repentance and the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, can. xi) reminds the faithful that God does not always remit the whole punishment due to sin together with the guilt.整个系统的教会悔罪证明,在作品自愿悔罪假设一直是部分确有悔改并安理会的遄达(sess.十四,可以的。十一)提醒信徒,上帝并不总是汇整处罚,由于连同罪有罪。 God requires satisfaction, and will punish sin, and this doctrine involves as its necessary consequence a belief that the sinner failing to do penance in this life may be punished in another world, and so not be cast off eternally from God.神要求表示满意,并会惩罚罪,这种学说作为其必然结果涉及的罪人未能做到这辈子苦修可能受到惩罚在另一个世界,所以不会被抛弃,从神永恒的信念。

Venial Sinsvenial罪孽

All sins are not equal before God, nor dare anyone assert that the daily faults of human frailty will be punished with the same severity that is meted out to serious violation of God's law.所有的罪过都没有上帝面前一律平等,任何人也不敢肯定,人类脆弱的日常故障将与同样是严重的处罚外,神的法的严重违反处罚。 On the other hand whosoever comes into God's presence must be perfectly pure for in the strictest sense His "eyes are too pure, to behold evil" (Habakkuk 1:13).另一方面凡进入神的面前来,必须在严格的意义完全纯为他的“眼睛太纯,要看哪邪”(哈巴谷书1:13)。For unrepented venial faults for the payment of temporal punishment due to sin at time of death, the Church has always taught the doctrine of purgatory.用于支付的颞处罚由于死亡时的罪悔改可原谅的错误,教会一直教的炼狱的教义。

So deep was this belief ingrained in our common humanity that it was accepted by the Jews, and in at least a shadowy way by the pagans, long before the coming of Christianity.如此之深是在我们共同人性的信念根深蒂固,它接受了犹太人,并至少在一个阴暗的异教徒方式早在基督教的盛行。 ("Aeneid," VI, 735 sq.; Sophocles, "Antigone," 450 sq.).(“埃涅阿斯纪”,六,735平方米;索福克勒斯“安提戈涅”,450平方米)。


Epiphanius (Haer., lxxv, PG, XLII, col. 513) complains that Acrius (fourth century) taught that prayers for the dead were of no avail.埃皮法尼乌斯(Haer.,lxxv,前列腺素,四十二,彩色。513)抱怨说,Acrius(第四世纪)告诉我们,为死者祈祷也没有用了。 In the Middle Ages, the doctrine of purgatory was rejected by the Albigenses, Waldenses, and Hussites.在中世纪,炼狱教义拒绝了比根斯派,瓦勒,和胡斯派。St. Bernard (Serm. lxvi in Cantic., PL CLXXXIII, col. 1098) states that the so-called "Apostolici" denied purgatory and the utility of prayers for the departed.圣伯纳(Serm.在Cantic lxvi。,特等CLXXXIII,彩色。1098)指出,所谓的“Apostolici”否认炼狱和祈祷实用离去。Much discussion has arisen over the position of the Greeks on the question of purgatory.出现了许多讨论在对问题的炼狱希腊人的立场。It would seem that the great difference of opinion was not concerning the existence of purgatory but concerning the nature of purgatorial fire; still St. Thomas proves the existence of purgatory in his dissertation against the errors of the Greeks, and the Council of Florence also thought necessary to affirm the belief of the Church on the subject (Bellarmine, "De Purgatorio," lib. I, cap. i).这似乎是很大的差别的意见是不涉及的炼狱的存在,但有关炼狱火灾性质;仍然圣托马斯证明了他的论文对希腊人的错误炼狱的存在和安理会的佛罗伦萨也认为要肯定了教会关于这个问题的信念(贝拉明,“德Purgatorio,”库。本人,帽。一)。 The modern Orthodox Church denies purgatory, but is rather inconsistent in its way of putting forth its belief.现代东正教否认炼狱,相反却是在其地提出其信仰的方式不一致。

At the beginning of the Reformation there was some hesitation especially on Luther's part (Leipzig Disputation) as to whether the doctrine should be retained, but as the breach widened, the denial of purgatory by the Reformers became universal, and Calvin termed the Catholic position "exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit" (Institutiones, lib. III, cap. v, 6).在改革开始,有一些路德的一部分,至于是否原则应予保留(莱比锡纠纷)犹豫,特别是,但为突破口扩大,由改革者炼狱拒绝成为普遍的,卡尔文称为天主教会的立场“ exitiale commentum狴crucem基督evacuat。。。狴fidem nostram evertit labefacit等“(Institutiones,随机应变。三,帽。五,六)。Modern Protestants, while they avoid the name purgatory, frequently teach the doctrine of "the middle state," and Martensen ("Christian Dogmatics," Edinburgh, 1890, p. 457) writes: "As no soul leaves this present existence in a fully complete and prepared state, we must suppose that there is an intermediate state, a realm of progressive development, (?) in which souls are prepared for the final judgment" (Farrar, "Mercy and Judgment," London, 1881, cap. iii).现代新教徒,而他们的名字避免炼狱,经常教导学说的“中间状态”,并马坦森(“基督教教义”,爱丁堡,1890年,第457页)写道:“由于没有灵魂离开本存在一个完全完整和准备状态,我们必须假设有一个中间状态,一个逐步发展的领域,(?),其中的灵魂也开始准备对最后判决“(勒,”慈悲与判断,“伦敦,1881年,帽。三)。


The Catholic doctrine of purgatory supposes the fact that some die with smaller faults for which there was no true repentance, and also the fact that the temporal penalty due to sin is it times not wholly paid in this life.炼狱天主教教义的假设的事实,一些规模较小的地壳断层其中有没有真正的忏悔,也是事实,即颞处罚罪是由于它不是完全生活在这个时代支付死亡。 The proofs for the Catholic position, both in Scripture and in Tradition, are bound up also with the practice of praying for the dead.对于天主教会的立场证明无论在圣经和传统,是联系在一起也与为死者祈祷的做法。For why pray for the dead, if there be no belief in the power of prayer to afford solace to those who as yet are excluded from the sight of God?对于为什么为死者祈祷,若没有在祷告的力量负担安慰的是,那些谁尚未从视线之外的上帝的信仰?So true is this position that prayers for the dead and the existence of a place of purgation are mentioned in conjunction in the oldest passages of the Fathers, who allege reasons for succouring departed souls.所以,真正的这是对死者和地方存在的下法在祈祷中的父亲,谁指控为理由,最古老的通道succouring结合上述立场出发的灵魂。 Those who have opposed the doctrine of purgatory have confessed that prayers for the dead would be an unanswerable argument if the modern doctrine of a "particular judgment" had been received in the early ages.那些反对过谁的炼狱学说已经承认为死者祈祷,那是一个无法回答的参数,如果一个“特殊判决”现代主义已经在早期的年龄好评。 But one has only to read the testimonies hereinafter alleged to feel sure that the Fathers speak, in the same breath, of oblations for the dead and a place of purgation; and one has only to consult the evidence found in the catacombs to feel equally sure that the Christian faith there expressed embraced clearly a belief in judgment immediately after death.但是,我们只要阅读以下据称确信,父亲说话,用同样的口气对死者供奉和一个下法的地方,证词和一门只征询地下墓穴发现的证据,同样的感觉肯定,基督教的信仰,在那里接受明确表示相信,在判决后立即死亡。 Wilpert ("Roma Sotteranea," I, 441) thus concludes chapter 21, "Che tale esaudimento", etc.: Wilpert(“罗马Sotteranea:”我,441),从而结束第21章,“车故事esaudimento”等:

Intercession has been made for the soul of the dear one departed and God has heard the prayer, and the soul has passed into a place of light and refreshment." "Surely," Wilpert adds, "such intercession would have no place were there question not of the particular, but of the final judgment.调解已经作出了亲爱的人离去,神已经听见了祈祷的灵魂,灵魂已经成为一个光明和休息的地方通过。“”当然,“Wilpert补充说,”这样的调解就没有到位,那里的问题不是特别,但最后的判断。

Some stress too has been laid upon the objection that the ancient Christians had no clear conception of purgatory, and that they thought that the souls departed remained in uncertainty of salvation to the last day; and consequently they prayed that those who had gone before might in the final judgment escape even the everlasting torments of hell.有些压力也一直奠定了反对意见后,古老的基督徒炼狱没有明确的概念,他们认为,在离开的灵魂拯救的不确定性仍然是最后一天,因此他们祈祷,那些可能在谁面前消失最后的判决,甚至逃避永恒的地狱的折磨。 The earliest Christian traditions are clear as to the particular judgment, and clearer still concerning a sharp distinction between purgatory and hell.最早的基督教传统是明确的,以特定的判断,还涉及一个更清晰的炼狱与地狱之间明显的区分。The passages alledged as referring to relief from hell cannot offset the evidence given below (Bellarmine, "De Purgatorio," lib. II, cap. v).据称,它是指该通道从地狱到救济不能抵消下面给出的证据(贝拉明,“德Purgatorio,”库。二,帽。五)。Concerning the famous case of Trajan, which vexed the Doctors of the Middle Ages, see Bellarmine, loc.关于图拉真有名的案例,这烦恼中世纪的医生,见贝拉明,同上。cit., cap.前。,帽。Viii.八。

Old Testament旧约全书

The tradition of the Jews is put forth with precision and clearness in 2 Maccabees.犹太人的传统是把准确和清晰来回2马加比。Judas, the commander of the forces of Israel,犹大,以色列的部队指挥官

making a gathering .制作一个聚会。..sent twelve thousand drachmas of silver to Jerusalem for sacrifice to be offered for the sins of the dead, thinking well and religiously concerning the resurrection (For if he had not hoped that they that were slain should rise again, it would have seemed superfluous and vain to pray for the dead).发送一万二千银德拉克马耶路撒冷为牺牲,为死者的罪孽和宗教思想以及关于复活(因为如果他不希望他们被杀死应会再次上扬,它会显得多余和徒劳的,提供为死者祈祷)。 And because he considered that they who had fallen asleep with godliness, had great grace laid up for them.而且因为他认为他们已经爱上了谁虔诚睡着了,有很大的恩典奠定了他们。It is therefore a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins.因此,它是神圣的,健康的思想为死者,他们可能会从罪孽松动祈祷。(2 Maccabees 12:43-46) (2马加比12:43-46)

At the time of the Maccabees the leaders of the people of God had no hesitation in asserting the efficacy of prayers offered for the dead, in order that those who had departed this life might find pardon for their sins and the hope of eternal resurrection.在时间的马加比神人民的领袖们在肯定了为死者祈祷,疗效提供毫不犹豫,为了使那些已经离开谁这辈子可能会发现赦免他们的罪,复活的永恒的希望。

New Testament新约全书

There are several passages in the New Testament that point to a process of purification after death.有在新约中的若干段落指向死后的净化过程。Thus, Jesus Christ declares (Matthew 12:32): "And whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but he that shall speak against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, nor in the world to come."因此,耶稣基督声明(马太12:32):“何处的人讲对人子的,应当原谅他:但他说,应发言反对圣灵,它不得赦免他,无论是在这个世界上,也不在世界来。“ According to St. Isidore of Seville (Deord. creatur., c. xiv, n. 6) these words prove that in the next life "some sins will be forgiven and purged away by a certain purifying fire."据圣伊西多尔塞维利亚(Deord. creatur。角十四,注6)这些话表明,在未来的生活“一些罪恶将得到赦免,通过一定的净化清除火了。”St. Augustine also argues "that some sinners are not forgiven either in this world or in the next would not be truly said unless there were other [sinners] who, though not forgiven in this world, are forgiven in the world to come" (De Civ. Dei, XXI, xxiv).圣奥古斯丁还认为“这是不能原谅的一些罪人无论在世界还是在未来也不会真正说,除非有其他[罪人]谁,但在这个世界上不原谅,是在世界来原谅”(代哀。棣,二十一,二十四)。 The same interpretation is given by Gregory the Great (Dial., IV, xxxix); St. Bede (commentary on this text); St. Bernard (Sermo lxvi in Cantic., n. 11) and other eminent theological writers.同样的解释是给予高利大(Dial.,四,第39届),圣比德(此文本评论)(。Sermo在Cantic lxvi,注11)圣伯纳和其他著名神学作家。

A further argument is supplied by St. Paul in 1 Corinthians 3:11-15:另一种说法是提供的圣保罗在哥林多前书3:11-15:

"For other foundation no man can lay, but that which is laid; which is Christ Jesus. Now if any man build upon this foundation, gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay stubble: Every man's work shall be manifest; for the day of the Lord shall declare it, because it shall be revealed in fire; and the fire shall try every man's work, of what sort it is. If any man's work abide, which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward. If any man's work burn, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved, yet so as by fire." “用于其他方面的基础没有人可以提出,但认为这是奠定,这是基督耶稣现在,如果任何人建立在此基础上,金,银,宝石,木材,干草茬:。每个人的工作应体现;为主的日子应宣布它,因为它应在火发现和火要试验各人的工作是什么动物,如果任何人的工作,遵守,是因他所建于是,他应得到的奖励,如果。。任何人的工作,烧伤,他就要受亏损:但他本人还应当保存,以便火“。

While this passage presents considerable difficulty, it is regarded by many of the Fathers and theologians as evidence for the existence of an intermediate state in which the dross of lighter transgressions will be burnt away, and the soul thus purified will be saved.虽然这段话提出相当大的困难,因此被神父和神学家的许多作为一个中间状态,其中的打火机越轨糟粕将烧掉了存在的证据,从而净化和灵魂将被保存。 This, according to Bellarmine (De Purg., I, 5), is the interpretation commonly given by the Fathers and theologians; and he cites to this effect:为此,根据贝拉明(。德Purg,我,5),通常是由父亲和神学家所作的解释,以及他为此列举:

St. Ambrose (commentary on the text, and Sermo xx in Ps. cxvii), St. Jerome, (Comm. in Amos, c. iv), St. Augustine (Comm. in Ps. xxxvii), St. Gregory (Dial., IV, xxxix), and Origen (Hom. vi in Exod.).圣刘汉铨(在文字评论,Sermo第XX在PS。cxvii),圣杰罗姆(Comm.在阿莫斯角四),圣奥古斯丁(Comm.在PS。三十七),圣格雷戈里(拨号。,四,第39届)和奥利(Hom.在exod六。)。

See also St. Thomas, "Contra Gentes,", IV, 91.另见圣托马斯,“魂斗罗氏族”,四,91。For a discussion of the exegetical problem, see Atzberger, "Die christliche Eschatologie", p.如需训诂问题的讨论,见Atzberger,“模具christliche Eschatologie”,第275.275。


This doctrine that many who have died are still in a place of purification and that prayers avail to help the dead is part of the very earliest Christian tradition.这一学说,许多谁已经死亡是一种自然的净化和祈祷的地方利用,以帮助死者仍是极最早的基督教传统的一部分。Tertullian "De corona militis" mentions prayers for the dead as an Apostolic ordinance, and in "De Monogamia" (cap. x, PL, II, col. 912) he advises a widow "to pray for the soul of her husband, begging repose for him and participation in the first resurrection"; he commands her also "to make oblations for him on the anniversary of his demise," and charges her with infidelity if she neglect to succour his soul.德尔图良的“德冠militis”中提到的作为一个使徒条例死人祈祷,并在“德Monogamia”(第十,特等,二,山口。912),他建议一寡妇“,为她的丈夫的灵魂祈祷,乞求休息的他,在第一次复活的参与“,他还命令她”,使对他的逝世纪念日为他供物“,并指控她,如果她不忠忽视救助他的灵魂。 This settled custom of the Church is clear from St. Cyprian, who (PL IV, col. 399) forbade the customary prayers for one who had violated the ecclesiastical law.这位教会解决自定义很明显,从圣塞浦路斯,谁(特等四,山口。399)禁止一个谁违反了法律的习惯教会祈祷。"Our predecessors prudently advised that no brother, departing this life, should nominate any churchman as his executor; and should he do it, that no oblation should be made for him, nor sacrifice offered for his repose." “我们的前辈审慎表示,没有兄弟,离开这种生活,应提名任何遗嘱执行人牧师和他应该这样做,没有供奉应为他造的,也不是为他牺牲休息提供。”Long before Cyprian, Clement of Alexandria had puzzled over the question of the state or condition of the man who, reconciled to God on his death-bed, had no time for the fulfilment of penance due his transgression.塞浦路斯前龙,克莱门特的亚历山德里亚有疑惑的状态或谁,和解对他的逝世,床神人条件问题,有没有履行应有的忏悔他的罪过的时间。 His answer is: "the believer through discipline divests himself of his passions and passes to the mansion which is better than the former one, passes to the greatest torment, taking with him the characteristic of repentance for the faults he may have committed after baptism. He is tortured then still more, not yet attaining what he sees others have acquired. The greatest torments are assigned to the believer, for God's righteousness is good, and His goodness righteous, and though these punishments cease in the course of the expiation and purification of each one, "yet" etc. (PG IX, col. 332).他的回答是:“通过纪律信徒剥离他的激情传递给自己和豪宅,比前一个好,传递给最大的折磨,正与他的洗礼后,他可能犯有过错的忏悔特点。他折磨之后,还多,还没有达到他所看到的其他人获得。最大的折磨是分配给信徒为神的公义,好,和他的善良正义的,尽管这些惩罚停止在赎罪和净化的过程每一个“,但”等公司(PG九,彩色。332)。

In Origen the doctrine of purgatory is very clear.在奥利炼狱的教义是很清楚的。If a man departs this life with lighter faults, he is condemned to fire which burns away the lighter materials, and prepares the soul for the kingdom of God, where nothing defiled may enter.如果一个人离开这个打火机故障的生活,他是注定要火烧毁了更轻的材料,并准备为神,在那里没有玷污可能进入王国的灵魂。 "For if on the foundation of Christ you have built not only gold and silver and precious stones (1 Corinthians 3); but also wood and hay and stubble, what do you expect when the soul shall be separated from the body? Would you enter into heaven with your wood and hay and stubble and thus defile the kingdom of God; or on account of these hindrances would you remain without and receive no reward for your gold and silver and precious stones? Neither is this just. It remains then that you be committed to the fire which will burn the light materials; for our God to those who can comprehend heavenly things is called a cleansing fire. But this fire consumes not the creature, but what the creature has himself built, wood and hay and stubble. It is manifest that the fire destroys the wood of our transgressions and then returns to us the reward of our great works." “因为如果基督的基础上建立你不仅金,银,宝石(哥林多前书3);?而且木材和干草和茬,你能指望什么当灵魂须从体内分离你会进入使用您的木材和干草和留茬天堂,从而玷污神的国度;?。障碍或对这些帐户将您仍然没有收到任何与你的金,银,宝石奖励,也不是这只是它仍然那么你致力于将火烧伤的轻质材料,因为我们的上帝可以理解那些天上的事,谁被称为清洁火火消耗但这不是生物,但什么是生物具有自己建,木材,干草和茬。。这是明显的火灾破坏了我们的过犯木材,然后返回到我们,我们的伟大作品的奖励。“ (PG, XIII, col. 445, 448).公司(PG,十​​三,彩色。445,448)。

The Apostolic practice of praying for the dead which passed into the liturgy of the Church, is as clear in the fourth century as it is in the twentieth.至于为死人的进入教会礼仪过去了,祈祷使徒的做​​法是在第四世纪,因为它明显是在二十世纪。St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Catechet. Mystog., V, 9, PG, XXXIII, col. 1116) describing the liturgy, writes: "Then we pray for the Holy Fathers and Bishops that are dead; and in short for all those who have departed this life in our communion; believing that the souls of those for whom prayers are offered receive very great relief, while this holy and tremendous victim lies upon the altar."圣西里尔耶路撒冷(。。Catechet. Mystog,五,九,前列腺素,三十三,山口1116)描述的礼仪中,写道:“那我们祈求圣神父和主教的都死了,在所有这些短谁这是我们已经离开共融的生活;认为这些对他们来说,祈祷得到很大提供救济,而这种神圣和巨大的受害者在坛在于灵魂“。 St. Gregory of Nyssa (PG, XLVI, col. 524, 525) states that man's weaknesses are purged in this life by prayer and wisdom, or are expiated in the next by a cleansing fire.圣格雷戈里的nyssa公司(PG,四十六,彩色。524,525)人的缺点是清除在此生活的祈祷和智慧,或者是在未来赎由清洁火状态。 "When he has quitted his body and the difference between virtue and vice is known he cannot approach God till the purging fire shall have cleansed the stains with which his soul was infested. That same fire in others will cancel the corruption of matter, and the propensity to evil." “当他已经辞去他的身体,在德性与副不同的是知道他不能接近,直到泻火神必已清洗的污渍,用它自己的灵魂染上了。在别人同样的火将取消物质腐败,邪恶的倾向。“ About the same time the Apostolic Constitution gives us the formularies used in succouring the dead.大约在同一时间的使徒宪法赋予我们在succouring死者所使用的处方。"Let us pray for our brethren who sleep in Christ, that God who in his love for men has received the soul of the departed one, may forgive him every fault, and in mercy and clemency receive him into the bosom of Abraham, with those who in this life have pleased God" (PG I, col. 1144). “让我们为我们的兄弟在基督里睡谁,谁在他的上帝为男人的爱已得到灵魂离开之一,可以原谅他一切故障祷告,慈悲和宽大接收到亚伯拉罕的怀里他与那些谁这辈子都高兴上帝“(微微,中校。1144)。 Nor can we pass over the use of the diptychs where the names of the dead were inscribed; and this remembrance by name in the Sacred Mysteries--(a practice that was from the Apostles) was considered by Chrysostom as the best way of relieving the dead (In I Ad Cor., Hom. xli, n. 4, G., LXI, col. 361, 362).我们也不能越过使用diptychs那里的死者的名字被刻,由名字在这个神圣的奥秘和纪念 - (这种做法是从使徒)进行了审议金口作为缓解的最佳途径死了(在我的广告肺心病。,坎。四十一,北四湾,LXI的山口。361,362)。

The teaching of the Fathers, and the formularies used in the Liturgy of the Church, found expression in the early Christian monuments, particularly those contained in the catacombs.的父亲教学,在教会礼仪中使用的处方,发现在早期基督教特别是那些在地下墓穴中的古迹,表达。On the tombs of the faithful were inscribed words of hope, words of petition for peace and for rest; and as the anniversaries came round the faithful gathered at the graves of the departed to make intercession for those who had gone before.在墓葬的忠诚的希望被列入的话,对和平请愿的话和得到休息,并且随着纪念日来到轮在坟墓的离去,使那些谁去了调解前聚集的忠实。 At the bottom this is nothing else than the faith expressed by the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio"), and to this faith the inscriptions in the catacombs are surely witnesses.在底部这不啻是由安理会的遄达达(sess.二十五,“德Purgatorio”)表示,其他的信念,这个信念,并在墓穴的题字是肯定的证人。 In the fourth century in the West, Ambrose insists in his commentary on St. Paul (1 Corinthians 3) on the existence of purgatory, and in his masterly funeral oration (De obitu Theodosii), thus prays for the soul of the departed emperor: "Give, O Lord, rest to Thy servant Theodosius, that rest Thou hast prepared for Thy saints. . . . I loved him, therefore will I follow him to the land of the living; I will not leave him till by my prayers and lamentations he shall be admitted unto the holy mount of the Lord, to which his deserts call him" (PL, XVI, col. 1397).在第四世纪在西方,刘汉铨在他的坚持圣保罗(哥林多前书3)评上了炼狱的存在,并在他精湛的祭文(德obitu Theodosii),从而为灵魂的离去皇帝祈祷: 。。。。“给,主啊,祢的仆人狄奥多西休息,剩下的这些祢准备你的圣徒,我爱他,所以我将跟随他到居住地,我不会离开,直到我的祈祷,他悲叹他应被接纳你们圣山的主,以他的沙漠叫他“(特等,十六,彩色。1397)。 St. Augustine is clearer even than his master.圣奥古斯丁是清晰,甚至比他的主人。He describes two conditions of men; "some there are who have departed this life, not so bad as to be deemed unworthy of mercy, nor so good as to be entitled to immediate happiness" etc., and in the resurrection he says there will be some who "have gone through these pains, to which the spirits of the dead are liable" (De Civ. Dei, XXI, 24).他描述了两个条件的男子,“谁也有一些已经离开这辈子,没那么坏,被认为不值得怜悯,也没有那么好心,有权立即快乐”等,并在复活,他说有有些谁“透过这些痛苦经历,对此死者的灵魂会被”(德持续输注。棣,21,24)。 Thus at the close of the fourth century:因此,在第四世纪结束:

not only were prayers for the dead found in all the Liturgies, but the Fathers asserted that such practice was from the Apostles themselves;不但所有的礼拜仪式中发现死者祈祷,但父亲声称,这种做法本身是从使徒;

those who were helped by the prayers of the faithful and by the celebration of the Holy Mysteries were in a place of purgation;那些谁被信徒们的祈祷和对神圣的奥秘庆典帮助的下法是在一个地方;

from which when purified they "were admitted unto the Holy Mount of the Lord".从中纯化时,他们“被录取,就对主圣山”。

So clear is this patristic Tradition that those who do not believe in purgatory have been unable to bring any serious difficulties from the writings of the Fathers.因此,明确这是教父的传统,那些谁不相信在炼狱中一直未能实现从著作的父亲任何严重的困难。The passages cited to the contrary either do not touch the question at all, or are so lacking in clearness that they cannot offset the perfectly open expression of the doctrine as found in the very Fathers who are quoted as holding contrary opinions (Bellarmine "De Purg.", lib. I, cap. xiii).该通道引用相反要么不碰质询,还是如此清晰缺乏,他们不能抵消在非常祖宗的学说谁是为持有相反的意见(贝拉明“德Purg报价完全开放的表达。“lib中。本人,帽。十三)。



The very reasons assigned for the existence of purgatory make for its passing character.对于存在的炼狱分配的非常原因就其传递特性。We pray, we offer sacrifice for souls therein detained that "God in mercy may forgive every fault and receive them into the bosom of Abraham" (Const. Apost., PG, I col. 1144); and Augustine (De Civ. Dei, lib. XXI, cap.xiii and xvi) declares that the punishment of purgatory is temporary and will cease, at least with the Last Judgment.我们祈祷,我们为灵魂牺牲其中被拘留,“上帝的怜悯饶恕每一个故障和接收到的亚伯拉罕怀中”(Const. Apost,前列腺素,本人彩色1144。。)。和奥古斯丁(德持续输注棣, lib中。二十一,cap.xiii和第XVI)宣布,在炼狱的惩罚是暂时的,将停止至少与最后的审判。"But temporary punishments are suffered by some in this life only, by others after death, by others both now and then; but all of them before that last and strictest judgment." “但暂时受到一些惩罚是这辈子唯一的,其他人死后,别人无论是现在,然后,但他们都在此之前,最后和严格的判断。”

Nature of Punishment大自然的惩罚

It is clear from the Liturgies and the Fathers above cited that the souls for whose peace sacrifice was offered were shut out for the time being from the sight of God.它是从礼仪及以上列举的父亲,为和平而牺牲的英灵的是提供被关闭了从神面前被超时清楚。They were "not so good as to be entitled to eternal happiness".他们是“不太好,以享有永恒的快乐”。Still, for them "death is the termination not of nature but of sin" (Ambrose, "De obitu Theodos."); and this inability to sin makes them secure of final happiness.不过,对他们“死亡是不自然的,但终止罪”(刘汉铨,“德obitu Theodos”);这罪不能使他们最终的幸福安全。This is the Catholic position proclaimed by Leo X in the Bull "Exurge Domine" which condemned the errors of Luther.这是天主教会的立场由利奥十宣布在牛市“Exurge Domine”谴责路德的错误。

Are the souls detained in purgatory conscious that their happiness is but deferred for a time, or may they still be in doubt concerning their ultimate salvation?在炼狱意识到,他们的幸福,但一时间延期拘留的灵魂,也可能他们还有疑问是关于他们的最终救赎?The ancient Liturgies and the inscriptions of the catacombs speak of a "sleep of peace", which would be impossible if there was any doubt of ultimate salvation.古代的礼仪和墓穴的铭文讲了一个“和平的睡眠”,这将是不可能的,如果有任何疑问的最终得救。Some of the Doctors of the Middle Ages thought uncertainty of salvation one of the severe punishments of purgatory.在中世纪的一些医生认为是拯救了炼狱的严惩one的不确定性。(Bellarmine, "De Purgat." lib. II, cap. iv); but this opinion finds no general credit among the theologians of the medieval period, nor is it possible in the light of the belief in the particular judgment. (贝拉明,“德Purgat。”库二,第IV。),但这个意见没有找到之间的中世纪时期的神学家一般信贷,也不是在信仰,在特定的光线判断可能。 St. Bonaventure gives as the reason for this elimination of fear and of uncertainty the intimate conviction that they can no longer sin (lib. IV, dist. xx, p.1, a.1 q. iv): "Est evacuatio timoris propter confirniationem liberi arbitrii, qua deinceps scit se peccare non posse" (Fear is cast out because of the strengthening of the will by which the soul knows it can no longer sin), and St. Thomas (dist. xxi, q. i, a.1) says: "nisi scirent se esse liberandas suffragia non peterent" (unless they knew that they are to be delivered, they would not ask for prayers).圣文德给作为此原因消除恐惧和不确定性的亲密信念,即他们可以不再罪(lib.四,区XX,第1页,A.1问四):“市盈率evacuatio timoris propter confirniationem liberi arbitrii,之四deinceps SCIT本身peccare非一团“(恐惧是因为演员的意愿加强,其中的灵魂知道它不能再出罪)和圣托马斯(dist.二十一,问:我,一个0.1)说:“暂准scirent本身Esse品牌liberandas suffragia非peterent”(除非他们知道他们要交付,他们也不会要求祈祷)。


In the Bull "Exurge Domine" Leo X condemns the proposition (n. 38) "Nec probatum est ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis ipsas esse extra statum merendi aut augendae caritatis" (There is no proof from reason or Scripture that they [the souls in purgatory] cannot merit or increase in charity).在牛市“Exurge Domine”利奥x谴责命题(注:38)“NEC probatum EST ullis引渡rationibus引渡scripturis IPSAS Esse品牌额外statum merendi引渡augendae caritatis”(没有从理性或圣经证明他们[的灵魂中炼狱]可以不值得或慈善机构增加)。For them "the night has come in which no man can labour", and Christian tradition has always considered that only in this life can man work unto the profit of his own soul.对于他们“来晚了,其​​中没有人能劳动”,和基督教的传统一直认为,只有在这个人的工作生活可以献给自己的灵魂利润。 The Doctors of the Middle Ages while agreeing that this life is the time for merit and increase of grace, still some with St. Thomas seemed to question whether or not there might be some non-essential reward which the souls in purgatory might merit (IV, dist. xxi, q. i, a. 3).中世纪的医生虽然同意,这是对生命价值的增加和时间的宽限期,还与圣托马斯似乎有些问题是否有可能有一些非必要的奖励这在炼狱的灵魂可能优点(IV ,区二十一,问:我,A. 3)。Bellarmine believes that in this matter St. Thomas changed his opinion and refers to a statement of St. Thomas ("De Malo", q. vii, a. 11).贝拉明认为,在这件事情改变了他的圣托马斯的意见,指的是圣托马斯(“德圣马洛”,问七,A. 11)语句。Whatever may be the mind of the Angelic Doctor, theologians agree that no merit is possible in purgatory, and if objection be urged that the souls there merit by their prayers, Bellarmine says that such prayers avail with God because of merit already acquired "Solum impetrant ex meritis praeteritis quomodo nunc sancti orando) pro nobis impetrant licet non merendo" (They avail only in virtue of past merits as those who are now saints intercede for us not by merit but by prayer).无论可能是天使的医生心目中,神学家同意,没有的优点是可以在炼狱,如果异议被敦促他们的亡灵祈祷有可取之处,贝拉明说,与神,因为已获得“Solum impetrant优点,利用这种祈祷前meritis praeteritis quomodo NUNC sancti orando)亲nobis impetrant licet非merendo“(他们利用只有在那些谁是圣人,我们现在说情不值得,而是由过去的优点美德祈祷)。(loc. cit. II, cap. iii). (如上二,帽。三)。

Purgatorial Fire炼狱火

At the Council of Florence, Bessarion argued against the existence of real purgatorial fire, and the Greeks were assured that the Roman Church had never issued any dogmatic decree on this subject.在佛罗伦萨会议,Bessarion极力反对真正的炼狱火的存在,而希腊人保证,罗马教会从来没有发出任何关于这一问题的教条式的法令。 In the West the belief in the existence of real fire is common.在西方中的实火存在的信念是常见的。Augustine in Ps.奥古斯丁在PS。 37 n.37 N.3, speaks of the pain which purgatorial fire causes as more severe than anything a man can suffer in this life, "gravior erit ignis quam quidquid potest homo pati in hac vita" (PL, col. 397). 3,痛苦的炼狱火的原因更比任何一个人可以承受这辈子严重的讲,“gravior erit伊格尼斯华富quidquid potest HOMO帕蒂在HAC维他”(PL,彩色397)。Gregory the Great speaks of those who after this life "will expiate their faults by purgatorial flames," and he adds "that the pain be more intolerable than any one can suffer in this life" (Ps. 3 poenit., n. 1).高利大讲那些谁在此之后的生活“将赎罪的炼狱火焰的错误,”他补充说:“这更难以忍受的痛苦比任何人可以承受这生命”(诗3 poenit。,注1) 。Following in the footsteps of Gregory, St. Thomas teaches (IV, dist. xxi, q. i, a.1) that besides the separation of the soul from the sight of God, there is the other punishment from fire.在格雷戈里的后尘,圣托马斯教授(四区二十一,问:我,A.1),除了灵魂从神面前的分离,有火从其他处罚。 "Una poena damni, in quantum scilicet retardantur a divina visione; alia sensus secundum quod ab igne punientur", and St. Bonaventure not only agrees with St. Thomas but adds (IV, dist. xx, p.1, a.1, q. ii) that this punishment by fire is more severe than any punishment which comes to men in this life; "Gravior est omni temporali poena. quam modo sustinet anima carni conjuncta".“乌纳poena damni,在量子scilicet retardantur a divina visione;特别sensus继发孔型狴AB igne punientur”,和圣文德不仅同意圣托马斯,但增加了(四区XX,第1页,A.1。问二)火的惩罚,这是比任何惩罚它涉及到生活在这个男性严重;“。Gravior EST全方位temporali poena华富MODO sustinet灵魂狂欢conjuncta”。How this fire affects the souls of the departed the Doctors do not know, and in such matters it is well to heed the warning of the Council of Trent when it commands the bishops "to exclude from their preaching difficult and subtle questions which tend not to edification', and from the discussion of which there is no increase either in piety or devotion" (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio").这把火如何影响到离开的医生不知道的灵魂,并在这些问题上是很好地听从安理会的遄达警告主教的命令时,“从他们的说教排除困难和微妙的问题,这往往不熏陶“,并从讨论当中有没有增加或无论是在虔诚的奉献”(Sess. XXV,“德Purgatorio”)。


Scripture and the Fathers command prayers and oblations for the departed, and the Council of Trent (Sess. XXV, "De Purgatorio") in virtue of this tradition not only asserts the existence of purgatory, but adds "that the souls therein detained are aided by the suffrages of the faithful and principally by the acceptable sacrifice of the altar."圣经和祈祷的父亲的命令,为离去oblations,以及安理会的遄达(Sess. XXV,“德Purgatorio”)在这个传统的美德,不仅断言炼狱的存在,但补充道:“这其中的灵魂是被拘留的资助由忠实的suffrages和主要由坛接受的牺牲。“ That those on earth are still in communion with the souls in purgatory is the earliest Christian teaching, and that the living aid the dead by their prayers and works of satisfaction is clear from the tradition above alleged.地球上的共融中仍然在炼狱的灵魂,是最早的基督教教学,生活援助,而由他们的祈祷和满意工程死者是从上述指称传统清楚。 That the Holy Sacrifice was offered for the departed was received Catholic Tradition even in the days of Tertullian and Cyprian, and that the souls of the dead, were aided particularly "while the sacred victim lay upon the altar" is the expression of Cyril of Jerusalem quoted above.这神圣的牺牲是所提供的离去,甚至在收到良和塞浦路斯,日子和天主教的传统,死者的灵魂,特别是资助“,而神圣的受害者在坛上奠定”是西里尔耶路撒冷的表达引述以上。 Augustine (Serm. clxii, n. 2) says that the "prayers and alms of the faithful, the Holy Sacrifice of the altar aid the faithful departed and move the Lord to deal with them in mercy and kindness, and," he adds, "this is the practice of the universal Church handed down by the Fathers."奥古斯丁(Serm.。clxii,注2)说,“祈祷和施舍的忠实,在神圣的祭坛援助牺牲忠实离开和移动主与他们交易的怜悯和善良,而且,”他补充道“这是普世教会的父亲交给了实践。” Whether our works of satisfaction performed on behalf of the dead avail purely out of God's benevolence and mercy, or whether God obliges himself in justice to accept our vicarious atonement, is not a settled question.我们的工作是否满意上进行的纯粹是出于上帝的仁慈和怜悯死利用代表,还是上帝责成司法自己接受我们的替代赎罪,是不是解决问​​题。 Francisco Suárez thinks that the acceptance is one of justice, and alleges the common practice of the Church which joins together the living and the dead without any discrimination (De poenit., disp. xlviii, 6, n. 4).弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯认为接受是正义的,并声称教会的普遍做法,不受任何歧视地连接在一起的生活和死亡(德poenit。,DISP。XLVIII,6,注4)。


The Council of Trent (Sess. XXV) defined that indulgences are "most salutary for Christian people" and that their "use is to be retained in the Church".安理会的遄达(Sess. XXV)定义的宽容是“为基督教的人最有益的”,它们的“用途是在教会保留”。It is the common teaching of Catholic theologians that这是该天主教神学家共同教学

indulgences may be applied to the souls detained in purgatory; and that indulgences are available for them "by way of suffrage" (per modum suffragii).宽容可以适用于被拘留在炼狱的灵魂,并认为放纵是为他们提供“经由普选”(每modum suffragii)。

(1) Augustine (De Civ. Dei, XX, ix) declares that the souls of the faithful departed are not separated from the Church, which is the kingdom of Christ, and for this reason the prayers and works of the living are helpful to the dead. (1)奥古斯丁(德CIV。业会,XX,九)宣称的忠实离去的灵魂没有脱离教会,这是基督的王国,并为这个原因,祈祷和生活的作品是有帮助的死者。 "If therefore", argues Bellarmine (De indulgentiis, xiv) "we can offer our prayers and our satisfactions in behalf of those detained in purgatory, because we are members of the great body of Christ, why may not the Vicar of Christ apply to the same souls the superabundant satisfaction of Christ and his saints--of which he is the dispenser?" “因此,如果”,认为贝拉明(德indulgentiis,十四)“我们可以提供在炼狱中被拘留的人代表我们的祷告,我们的满意,因为我们是基督的大机构的成员,所以可能不是基督牧师适用于同样的灵魂,基督和他的圣徒有余满意 - 其中他是饮水机“?This is the doctrine of St. Thomas (IV, Sent., dist. xlv, q. ii, a. 3, q. 2) who asserts that indulgences avail principally for the person who performs the work for which the indulgence is given, if they but secondarily may avail even for the dead, if the form in which the indulgence is granted be so worded as to be capable of such interpretation, and he adds "nor is there any reason why the Church may not dispose of its treasure of merits in favour of the dead, as it surely dispenses it in favour of the living".这是圣托马斯主义(四,已发送。,区XLV,问二,A. 3,问:2)谁声称,宽容的人利用谁执行了该放纵给定的工作主要是,其次,如果他们可以利用,但即使是死的,如果在其中放纵被授予表单发这样措辞是这样解释的能力,他补充道:“也没有任何理由,教会不得出售其珍惜在死者的青睐优点,因为它在一定省却有利于它的生存“。

(2) St. Bonaventure (IV, Sent., dist. xx, p. 2, q. v) agrees with St. Thomas, but adds that such "relaxation cannot be after the manner of absolution as in the case of the living but only as suffrage (Haec non tenet modum judicii, sed potius suffragii). This opinion of St. Bonaventure, that the Church through its Supreme Pastor does not absolve juridically the souls in purgatory from the punishment due their sins, is the teaching of the Doctors. They point out (Gratian, 24 q. ii, 2, can.1) that in case of those who have departed this life, judgment is reserved to God; they allege the authority of Gelasius (Ep. ad Fausturn; Ep. ad. Episcopos Dardaniae) in support of their contention (Gratian ibid.), and they also insist that the Roman Pontiffs, when they grant indulgences that are applicable to the dead, add the restriction "per modum suffragii et deprecationis". This phrase is found in the Bull of Sixtus IV "Romani Pontificis provida diligentia", 27 Nov. 1447. (2)圣文德(IV,已发送。,区XX,第2,问:V)同意圣托马斯,但补充说,这种“放松不能赦免后,如在地的生活情况但只是作为普选(Haec非宗旨modum judicii,SED potius suffragii),这圣文德意见,即通过其最高法院教会牧师并不能免除法律上的处罚,由于他们的罪孽,在炼狱的灵魂,是教学医生他们指出(Gratian,24问:二,2,can.1),在那些谁已经离开这个生活中的案例,判断是保留给神;他们声称的格拉西(插曲广告Fausturn权威; EP。广告。Episcopos Dardaniae)在支持他们的论点(Gratian同上),他们还坚持说,罗马教宗,当他们给予宽容是适用于死,添加限制“每modum suffragii等deprecationis”,这句话是发现在Sixtus IV“罗姆Pontificis provida diligentia”,1447年11月27日公牛。

The phrase "per modum suffragi et deprecationis" has been variously interpreted by theologians (Bellarmine, "De indulgentiis", p.137).这句话“每modum suffragi等deprecationis”已经由神学家不同的解释(贝拉明,“德indulgentiis”,137页)。Bellarmine himself says: "The true opinion is that indulgences avail as suffrage, because they avail not after the fashion of a juridical absolution 'quia non prosunt per modum juridicae absolutionis'."贝拉明自己说:“真正的民意是,普选的宽容无济于事,因为他们利用后的法人赦免”quia非prosunt每modum juridicae absolutionis“时尚没有。”But according to the same author the suffrages of the faithful avail at times "per modum meriti congrui" (by way of merit), at times "per modum impetrationis" (by way of supplication) at times "per modum satisfactionis" (by way of satisfaction); but when there is question of applying an indulgence to one in purgatory it is only "per modum suffragii satisfactorii" and for this reason "the pope does not absolve the soul in purgatory from the punishment due his sin, but offers to God from the treasure of the Church whatever may be necessary for the cancelling of this punishment".但根据同一作者在“每modum meriti聪”时代的忠实利用(通过择优方式),在“每modum impetrationis”倍倍(以恳求的方式)“每modum satisfactionis”的suffrages(按方式满意度),而当有应用在炼狱一种奢侈的一个问题,它仅仅是“每modum suffragii satisfactorii”基于这个原因,“教皇并不能免除处罚,由于在从他的罪恶炼狱的灵魂,但提供给上帝从教会任何可能对本处罚取消“必要珍惜。

If the question be further asked whether such satisfaction is accepted by God out of mercy and benevolence, or "ex justitia", theologians are not in accord - some holding one opinion, others the other.如果问题进一步询问是否满意,是接受了上帝的慈悲胸怀,或“前justitia”,神学家不在协议 - 一些持有一种意见认为,其他人的。Bellarmine after canvassing both sides (pp. 137, 138) does not dare to set aside "either opinion, but is inclined to think that the former is more reasonable while he pronounces the latter in harmony with piety ("admodum pia").贝拉明拉票后,双方(第137,138)不敢设立“要么意见,但倾向于认为前者更合理,而他发音与虔诚和谐后者(”admodum PIA“)。


That an indulgence may avail for those in purgatory several conditions are required:一个放纵可以利用在炼狱的几个条件是必需的:

The indulgence must be granted by the pope.在放纵必须被授予由教皇。There must be a sufficient reason for granting the indulgence, and this reason must be something pertaining to the glory of God and the utility of the Church, not merely the utility accruing to the souls in purgatory.必须有一个充分的理由给予宽容,并因此必须有一些关于神的荣耀和教会的工具,而不仅仅是工具累积在炼狱的灵魂。 The pious work enjoined must be as in the case of indulgences for the living.虔诚的工作责成必须作为在为生活放纵的情况。

If the state of grace be not among the required works, in all probability the person performing the work may gain the indulgence for the dead, even though he himself be not in friendship with God (Bellarmine, loc. cit., p. 139).如果国家的宽限期是其中规定的工程没有,在所有的概率执行工作的人可能会获得对死者的放纵,即使他自己在与神(贝拉明,同上引书,第139页)友谊不。 Francisco Suárez (De Poenit., disp. Iiii, s. 4, n. 5 and 6) puts this categorically when he says: "Status gratiae solum requiritur ad tollendum obicem indulgentiae" (the state of grace is required only to remove some hindrance to the indulgence), and in the case of the holy souls there can be no hindrance.弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯(。德Poenit,DISP IIII,第4,注5和6)放在这个时候,他断然说:“状态gratiae solum requiritur广告tollendum obicem indulgentiae”(恩典的状态只需要排除一些障碍到放纵),并在神圣的灵魂的情况下,就没有障碍。This teaching is bound up with the doctrine of the Communion of Saints, and the monuments of the catacombs represent the saints and martyrs as interceding with God for the dead.这样的教学势必与对圣人的团体主义,以及地下墓穴的纪念碑代表的圣人和与上帝祈求死者为烈士。The prayers too of the early liturgies speak of Mary and of the saints interceding for those who have passed from this life.在祈祷太多的早期礼仪可言玛丽和圣徒为那些谁从这种生活通过祈求。Augustine believes that burial in a basilica dedicated to a holy martyr is of value to the dead, for those who recall the memory of him who has suffered will recommend to the martyr's prayers the soul of him who has departed this life (Bellarmine, lib. II, xv).奥古斯丁认为,专用于神圣的烈士a教堂墓地,是价值的死为那些谁记得他记忆谁遭受了将建议烈士的祈祷他的灵魂谁已经离开这个生活(贝拉明,LIB。二,十五)。 In the same place Bellarmine accuses Dominicus A Soto of rashness, because he denied this doctrine.在同一个地方贝拉明指责Dominicus索托的盲动,因为他否认了这一学说。


Do the souls in purgatory pray for us?不要在炼狱的灵魂为我们祈祷?May we call upon them in our needs?愿我们呼吁它们在我们的需要?There is no decision of the Church on this subject, nor have the theologians pronounced with definiteness concerning the invocation of the souls in purgatory and their intercession for the living.目前没有关于这个问题的教会的决定,也没有与有关的炼狱生活,为他们说情的灵魂调用确定性明显的神学家。In the ancient liturgies there are no prayers of the Church directed to those who are still in purgatory.在古代礼仪有向那些谁是炼狱仍然没有教会祈祷。On the tombs of the early Christians nothing is more common than a prayer or a supplication asking the departed to intercede with God for surviving friends, but these inscriptions seem always to suppose that the departed one is already with God.在早期基督徒的坟墓没有比祈祷或祈求要求离开与上帝共同的朋友说情的生存,但这些铭文似乎总是假设离开一个是已经与神。St. Thomas (II-II:83:11) denies that the souls in purgatory pray for the living, and states they are not in a position to pray for us, rather we must make intercession for them.圣托马斯(II - II:83:11)否认,在炼狱的灵魂祈祷的生活,并声明他们有能力为我们祷告,而我们必须为他们说情不。 Despite the authority of St. Thomas, many renowned theologians hold that the souls in purgatory really pray for us, and that we may invoke their aid.尽管圣托马斯的权威,许多著名的神学家认为,在炼狱的灵魂真的祈祷我们,我们可以调用它们的援助。Bellarmine (De Purgatorio, lib. II, xv,) says the reason alleged by St. Thomas is not at all convincing, and holds that in virtue of their greater love of God and their union with Him their prayers may have great intercessory power, for they are really superior to us in love of God, and in intimacy of union with Him.贝拉明(德Purgatorio,L​​IB,第二十五)说,由圣托马斯指控的原因是不是所有有说服力的,认为在他们更大的神,他们的爱与他的工会凭借他们的祈祷可能有很大的代祷力量,因为他们是真正优越于上帝的爱,而在与他亲密的联盟给我们。 Francisco Suárez (De poenit., disp. xlvii, s. 2, n. 9) goes farther and asserts "that the souls in purgatory are holy, are dear to God, love us with a true love and are mindful of our wants; that they know in a general way our necessities and our dangers, and how great is our need of divine help and divine grace".弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯(。德poenit,DISP四十七,第2,注9)越走越远,并声称“在炼狱的灵魂是神圣的,是亲爱的上帝,爱与真实的爱我们,是我们要牢记;他们在一般的方式知道我们的必需品,我们的危险,多么伟大,是我们神圣的帮助和神圣的恩典“的需要。

When there is question of invoking the prayers of those in purgatory, Bellarmine (loc. cit.) says it is superfluous, ordinarily speaking, for they are ignorant of our circumstances and condition.当有援引炼狱中的人的祈祷问题,贝拉明(如上)说,这是多余的,通常来说,因为他们是我们的环境和条件一无所知。 This is at variance with the opinion of Francisco Suárez, who admits knowledge at least in a general way, also with the opinions of many modern theologians who point to the practice now common with almost all the faithful of addressing their prayers and petitions for help to those who are still in a place of purgation.这是在同弗朗西斯科苏亚雷斯,谁承认,至少在一般意义的知识见解差异,与许多谁点的做法现在几乎所有的解决他们的请愿书友们共同祈祷和现代神学家的意见,也有助于那些谁是在一个地方的下法依然。 Scavini (Theol. Moral., XI, n. l74) sees no reason why the souls detained in purgatory may not pray for us, even as we pray for one another. Scavini(Theol.道德。席,北L74)认为没有理由拘留在炼狱的灵魂祈祷可能不会对我们来说,即使我们彼此祈祷。He asserts that this practice has become common at Rome, and that it has the great name of St. Alphonsus in its favour.他声称,这种做法已成为在罗马共同的,并且它的圣阿方对其有利的伟大的名字。St. Alphonsus in his work the "Great Means of Salvation", chap.圣阿方在他的作品“伟大的拯救办法”,第一章。I, III, 2, after quoting Sylvius, Gotti, Lessius, and Medina as favourable to his opinion, concludes: "so the souls in purgatory, being beloved by God and confirmed in grace, have absolutely no impediment to prevent them from praying for us. Still the Church does not invoke them or implore their intercession, because ordinarily they have no cognizance of our prayers. But we may piously believe that God makes our prayers known to them".一,三,后2引用的有利他的意见Sylvius,高帝,Lessius,和麦地那,最后说:“所以在炼狱的灵魂,是敬爱的上帝的恩典和确认,完全没有障碍,以防止他们祈祷我们,但教会没有调用它们或恳请他们说情,因为通常他们没有认识到我们的祈祷,但我们可以虔诚地相信上帝让他们知道我们的祈祷“。 He alleges also the authority of St. Catharine of Bologna who "whenever she desired any favour had recourse to the souls in purgatory, and was immediately heard".他还声称对博洛尼亚的圣凯瑟琳权威谁“,每当她想要的任何优惠求助于在炼狱的灵魂,并立即听到了”。


It is the traditional faith of Catholics that the souls in purgatory are not separated from the Church, and that the love which is the bond of union between the Church's members should embrace those who have departed this life in God's grace.它是在炼狱的灵魂是不​​脱离教会,并认为这是爱的工会之间的教会的成员债券应包括那些已经离开谁在上帝的恩典这辈子天主教的传统信仰。 Hence, since our prayers and our sacrifices can help those who are still waiting in purgatory, the saints have not hesitated to warn us that we have a real duty toward those who are still in purgatorial expiation.因此,因为我们的祈祷和牺牲,我们可以帮助那些谁仍然在炼狱等待,圣人都毫不迟疑地告诫我们,我们有一个对那些谁是真正的炼狱赎罪仍税。 Holy Church through the Congregation of Indulgences, 18 December 1885, has bestowed a special blessing on the so-called "heroic act" in virtue of which "a member of the Church militant offers to God for the souls in purgatory all the satisfactory works which he will perform during his lifetime, and also all the suffrages which may accrue to him after his death" (Heroic Act, vol. VII, 292).圣教会通过放纵众,1885年12月18日,已经赋予了所谓的“英雄行为”特别祝福的美德,其中“是教会的成员武装提供的灵魂,神炼狱所有令人满意的作品他将履行他的一生中,也都可能产生的suffrages死后“(英雄行为,第一卷第七,292)给他。 The practice of devotion to the dead is also consoling to humanity and eminently worthy of a religion which seconds all the purest feelings of the human heart.而献身也安慰死者的做法是对人类和突出的宗教,秒所有的人心里最纯净的感情值得。"Sweet", says Cardinal Wiseman (lecture XI), "is the consolation of the dying man, who, conscious of imperfection, believes that there are others to make intercession for him, when his own time for merit has expired; soothing to the afflicted survivors the thought that they possess powerful means of relieving their friend. In the first moments of grief, this sentiment will often overpower religious prejudice, cast down the unbeliever on his knees beside the remains of his friend and snatch from him an unconscious prayer for rest; it is an impulse of nature which for the moment, aided by the analogies of revealed truth, seizes at once upon this consoling belief. But it is only a flitting and melancholy light, while the Catholic feeling, cheering though with solemn dimness, resembles the unfailing lamp, which the piety of the ancients is said to have hung before the sepulchres of their dead." “甜”说,枢机怀斯曼(演讲席),“是垂死的人,谁,有意识的缺陷,认为有别人为他说情,当他的功德安慰自己的时间已经过期,舒缓的受害幸存者认为他们具备了强有力的手段减轻他们的朋友,在悲伤的第一时刻,这种情绪往往会压倒宗教偏见,铸就了他的膝盖上,他身边的朋友仍是不信,并抢夺他无意识的祈祷休息;这是一个性质,就目前而言,通过揭示真理的类比的帮助下,抓住一次基于这个信念安慰的冲动,但它只是飞来飞去,忧郁的光,而天主教的感觉,虽然欢呼与庄严暗淡,类似的不懈灯,这对古人的虔诚,据说有前死者的坟墓挂。“

Publication information Written by Edward J. Hanna.出版信息书面由爱德华J.汉娜。Transcribed by William G. Bilton, Ph.D.转录由威廉G Bilton,博士学位。In memory of Father George P. O'Neill - Former pastor of St. John the Baptist Church, Buffalo, NY The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XII.在父亲乔治P.奥尼尔存储器 - 圣施洗约翰教堂,布法罗,纽约天主教百科全书,卷十二,前牧师。Published 1911.发布1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat 6月1日,1911。Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人头马lafort,性病,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


Orthodox Church Information东正教信息

Purgatory refers to a doctrine in the Roman Catholic Church which posits that those who die in a state of grace undergo a purification in order to achieve the holiness necessary to enter heaven (Catechism of the Catholic Church 1030). [1] 炼狱是指一种学说在罗马天主教会的假定,那些谁在一个国家的宽限期模具经过净化,以达到圣洁要进入天堂(天主教要理1030)[1]

The Orthodox Church has neither explicitly recognized the term "purgatory" nor officially accepted such a state, which is distinct from the more general being "asleep in the Lord."东正教教会既没有明确承认所谓“炼狱”,也不是正式接受这样的状态,这是从更一般的不同是“睡着了主。”In his book entitled Why Do We Reject Purgatory? , Coptic Shenouda III presents many theological and biblical arguments against Purgatory.在题为我们为什么拒绝炼狱?他的书,对科普特Shenouda三介绍炼狱许多神学和圣经的论点。 For example, he refers to 1 Thess 4:16,17, "And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord", in which Paul describes the Last Day saying that those faithful who are still alive will meet the Lord with those who rise from the dead and then remain with Him always, and wonders, "Are these faithful (alive on the Last Day) exempt from Purgatory? Or is God showing partiality towards them?" [2]例如,他提到帖前4:16,17“,并在基督里死了人必先复活。然后我们谁活着,仍然会被卷入一起在云中与他们见面,在空中与主,而因此,我们将永远与上帝“,其中保罗介绍说,在最后一天的忠实谁仍然活着将与那些谁从死里复活,然后与他仍一如既往,奇事的上帝,”这些忠实(在最后一天活着)从炼狱豁免?或者是上帝对他们表现出偏袒?“[2]

However, a response to this objection from the Catholics is perhaps found in the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas, in the discussion of the Final Conflagration.然而,从天主教徒反对针对这一发现也许是在托马斯阿奎那神学大全,在最后火灾的讨论。The Final Conflagration is the fiery apocalyptic transformation, accepted by the Fathers, of the Old Heaven and Old Earth into the New Heaven and New Earth on the Last Day, immediately preceding the General Resurrection and General Judgment.最后的火灾是火热的启示转变,由父亲接受,旧天堂,进入新的天地在最后一天新地旧地球,紧接一般复活和一般判断。 It is said that for those still living at the time of the Conflagration, it will transform their bodies; thus technically, in Catholic thought, those found living may also die for a brief moment (ie, the "twinkling of an eye" mentioned in 1 Corinthians).有人说,对于仍然在火灾时的生活,它将会改变自己的身体,因此在技术上,在天主教思想,生活的发现还可能为一瞬间死亡(即“瞬间”中提到哥林多前书)。

According to the Summa, the Final Conflagration will act as "purgatory" for those found living who still need cleansing/healing: "There are three reasons why those who will be found living will be able to be cleansed suddenly. One is because there will be few things in them to be cleansed, since they will be already cleansed by the previous fears and persecutions. The second is because they will suffer pain both while living and of their own will: and pain suffered in this life voluntarily cleanses much more than pain inflicted after death, as in the case of the martyrs, because "if anything needing to be cleansed be found in them, it is cut off by the sickle of suffering," as Augustine says (De Unic. Bap. xiii), although the pain of martyrdom is of short duration in comparison with the pain endured in purgatory. The third is because the heat will gain in intensity what it loses in shortness of time." [3]根据大全,最后火灾将作为“炼狱”对于那些生活谁仍然需要找到清洁/愈合:“有三个原因,会发现那些谁生活将能够被清洗突然之一是因为有在他们几件事情要进行清理,因为它们会被已经由以前的恐惧和迫害清洗二是因为它们都将遭受痛苦而生活和自己的意愿:在此生活和痛苦遭遇自愿洗净比疼痛造成的死亡后,如在烈士的情况下,因为“如果有什么需要被清洗在他们身上,这是切断痛苦的镰刀,”作为奥古斯丁说(德新闻中心。BAP第十三),虽然殉难的痛苦是短暂的,在炼狱中遭受的痛苦相比,第三个是因为热量会在强度上获得它在短促的时间损失。“[3]

That said, Greek Orthodox Metropolitan Kallistos Ware acknowledges several schools of thought among the Orthodox on the topic of purification after death.尽管如此,希腊东正教大都会Kallistos洁具承认其中关于死后净化主题正统思想的几所学校。This divergence indicates that the Catholic interpretation of purgatory, more than the concept itself, is what is universally rejected.这种分歧表明,炼狱天主教的解释,不是这个概念本身,就是普遍拒绝。Also, there are Orthodox sources that indicate some sins can be forgiven after death [4];(Mt 12:32) but which also reject the notion of purgatory because of the indulgences and idea of purgatorial fire that are tied to it.此外,有一些罪恶,指出后能死亡[4]原谅东正教来源;(玛12:32),但其中也拒绝炼狱因为放纵和炼狱火想法,都与它的概念。

Some Eastern Orthodox sources, including the Ecumenical Patriarchate, consider Purgatory to be among "inter-correlated theories, unwitnessed in the Bible or in the Ancient Church" that are not acceptable within Orthodox doctrine, [5] and hold to a "condition of waiting" [6] as a more apt description of the period after death for those not borne directly to heaven.一些东正教人士透露,包括基督教主教,考虑炼狱能够跻身“间相关理论,在圣经或在古老的教堂unwitnessed,”那是不属于可以接受的正统学说,[5]和坚持的等待“条件“[6]作为死后不直接承担天堂的时期更贴切。 This waiting condition does not imply purification, which they see as being linked to the idea "there is no hope of repentance or betterment after death."这个等待条件并不意味着净化,这是他们作为是联系在一起的想法看“没有悔改或死后改善的希望。”Prayers for the dead, then, are simply to comfort those in the waiting place.为死者祈祷,然后,只是安慰那些在等待的地方。

Other Orthodox believe in the "toll gate" theory by which the dead go to successive "toll gates" where they meet up with demons who test them to determine whether they have been guilty of various sins during life and/or tempt them to further sin. [7] If they have not repented and been absolved of those sins, or if they give in to sin after death, they will be taken to Hell.其他东正教相信,在“收费站”的理论,其中死者到连续“收费门”,他们遇见了与恶魔谁检验,以确定他们是否已犯的罪在各种生活和/或引诱他们进一步罪[7]如果他们没有悔过,被赦免的罪,或者如果他们给后死亡罪,他们将被带到地狱。

Some Church Fathers, such as St. Cyprian and St. Augustine of Hippo, seemed to believe in a purification after death.有些教父,如圣塞浦路斯和圣奥古斯丁的河马,似乎相信死后净化。However, the character of this purification is never clarified, and especially (as St. Mark of Ephesus underlined at the Council of Florence) it seems there is no true distinction between heaven, hell and the so-called purgatory: all souls partake differently in the same mystical fire (which, according to St. Isaac of Syria, is God's Love) but because of their spiritual change they are bound to different reactions: bliss for those who are in communion with him; purification for those in the process of being deified; and remorse for those who hated God during their earthly lives.然而,这是从来没有澄清净化性格,特别是(如圣以弗所马克在佛罗伦萨理事会强调)似乎之间不存在天堂,地狱和所谓的炼狱真正的区别:参加不同的方式在所有的灵魂同样神秘的火灾(其中,根据圣叙利亚以撒,是上帝的爱),而是因为他们的精神改变它们绑定到不同的反应:对于那些谁在与他交流的幸福,在被处理的净化神化,并为那些谁恨上帝在他们的尘世生活悔恨。 Because of this confusion and inability of the human language to understand these realities, the Church refrains from theological speculation.由于这种混乱和人类的语言,了解这些现实无力,教会refrains从神学的猜测。 Instead, she affirms the unbroken Tradition of prayers for the dead, the certainty of eternal life, the rejection of reincarnation, and the communion of the Saints (those living and those who have fallen asleep in the Lord) in the same Body of Christ which is the Church.相反,她确认为死者祈祷完整的传统,永恒的生命,轮回拒绝和共融的圣人(那些生活和那些谁在主下降睡着)在基督的同一机构的肯定是教会。 Private speculation is thus still possible as it was in the time of the Church Fathers.因此,私人炒作仍有可能因为它是在教会的神父时间。

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