Rastafarians拉斯特法里教徒

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Rastafarians are members of a Jamaican messianic movement dating back to the 1930s; in 1974 they were estimated to number 20,000 in Jamaica.拉斯特法里崇拜者是一个牙买加弥赛亚运动的成员可以追溯到20世纪30年代,在1974年他们估计在牙买加数20000。 According to Rastafarian belief the only true God is the late Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie (originally known as Ras Tafari ), and Ethiopia is the true Zion.据拉斯特法里唯一的真神的信仰是已故埃塞俄比亚皇帝海尔塞拉西(原塔法里被称为RAS)的,和埃塞俄比亚是真正的锡安。 Rastafarians claim that white Christian preachers and missionaries have perverted the Scriptures to conceal the fact that Adam and Jesus were black.拉斯特法里崇拜者宣称,白色的基督教传教士和传教士已经扭曲圣经来掩盖事实,即亚当和耶稣是黑人。Their rituals include the use of marijuana and the chanting of revivalist hymns.其仪式包括使用大麻和复兴诗歌吟诵。 Reggae music is the popular music of the movement.雷鬼音乐是流行音乐的运动。The Rastafarians, who stress black separatism, have exercised some political influence in Jamaica.在拉斯特法里崇拜者,谁强调黑人分裂主义,行使了一些在牙买加的政治影响。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
LE Barrett, The Rastafarians: Sounds of Cultural Dissonance (1977); B Sparrow and T Nicholas, Rastafari: A Way of Life (1979).乐巴雷特的拉斯特法里崇拜者:听起来文化失调(1977);乙麻雀和T尼古拉斯,Rastafari:生命之路(1979年)。


Haile Selassie海尔塞拉西

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Emperor of Ethiopia埃塞俄比亚皇帝

Haile Selassie was emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.埃塞俄比亚的海尔塞拉西皇帝是1930至74年。A cousin of Emperor Menelik II, he was born Tafari Makonnen on July 23, 1892.一个皇帝孟尼利克二世的表弟,他出生,1892年7月23日塔法里马康南Menelik was succeeded in 1913 by his grandson Lij Yasu, a converted Muslim.孟尼利克是成功于1913年由他的孙子Lij野洲,一辆经过改装的穆斯林。When Lij Yasu attempted to change the official religion of Ethiopia from Coptic Christianity to Islam, Tafari Makonnen drove him from the throne and installed (1916) his aunt as Empress Zauditu.当Lij雅俗企图改变从科普特基督教的埃塞俄比亚官方宗教伊斯兰教,塔法里马康南驱车从他的王位和安装(1916)他为皇后Zauditu阿姨。 Assuming the title Ras Tafari , he named himself regent and heir to the throne.假设标题Ras的塔法里 ,他自己命名为摄政和王位继承人。He became de facto ruler of the country and was crowned king in 1928.他成为德国家实际统治者,并在1928年加冕国王。Two years later, after the mysterious death of the empress, he became emperor as Haile Selassie I.两年后,当神秘的皇后死后,他后来被皇帝海尔塞拉西一

Haile Selassie ruled as an absolute monarch, centralizing Ethiopia and instituting a number of reforms, including the abolition of slavery.海尔塞拉西为绝对君主统治,集中埃塞俄比亚和实行一系列改革,包括废除奴隶制数量。In 1935, after the Italian Fascist troops of Benito Mussolini had invaded Ethiopia, Haile Selassie gained the admiration and sympathy of the world with his impassioned plea for aid from the League of Nations.在1935年后,墨索里尼的意大利法西斯军队入侵埃塞俄比亚,海尔塞拉西获得了与他的慷慨激昂的国际联盟援助请求的钦佩和同情的世界。 The league was powerless to act, however, and Mussolini consolidated his gains and officially annexed Ethiopia to Italy.该联盟是无力的行为,然而,墨索里尼巩固了自己的收益,并正式向意大利吞并埃塞俄比亚。Haile Selassie was forced into exile.海尔塞拉西被迫流亡国外。Ethiopia was liberated early in World War II, and Haile Selassie regained his throne in 1941.埃塞俄比亚是解放初期在第二次世界大战中,并在1941年海尔塞拉西恢复他的王位。

After the war he resumed his long-range plans to modernize Ethiopia.战争结束后,他恢复了长期计划以现代化埃塞俄比亚。He continued his autocratic rule, however, and opposition to him grew.他继续自己的独裁统治,但是,反对他长大。Beginning in 1960 a series of coups d'etat were attempted, and in reaction his rule became increasingly despotic.在1960年开始了一系列的政变企图,并在他的统治的反应变得越来越专制。Finally, in 1974 the army succeeded in seizing control.最后,在1974年军队成功地抓住控制。Haile Selassie was stripped of his powers, and later that year he was removed from the throne and placed under house arrest.海尔塞拉西被剥夺他的权力,后来这一年,他被解除了王位,并受到软禁。He died in Addis Ababa on Aug. 27, 1975.他死在亚的斯亚贝巴8月27日,1975年。

Bibliography 参考书目
Clapham, Christopher S., Haile Selassie's Government (1969); Haile Selassie I, The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I, trans.克拉珀姆,克里斯托弗学,海尔塞拉西的政府(1969年);海尔塞拉西我,海尔塞拉西皇帝本人,跨自传。by E. Ullendorff (1976); Kapuscinski, Ryszard, The Emperor, trans.由E. Ullendorff(1976年);卡布辛斯基,雷沙德雷,皇帝,跨。 by WR Brand and K. Mroczkowska-Brand (1983); Legum, Colin, Ethiopia: The Fall of Haile Selassie's Empire (1975); Marcus, Harold G., Haile Selassie: The Formative Years (1986); Mosley, Leonard, Haile Selassie: The Conquering Lion (1964); Shwab, Peter, ed., Ethiopia and Haile Selassie (1972) and Haile Selassie I (1979).由西铁品牌和K. Mroczkowska品牌(1983年);专攻,科林,埃塞俄比亚:海尔塞拉西的帝国衰亡(1975年);马库斯,哈罗德G,海尔塞拉西:形成年(1986年);莫斯利,伦纳德,海尔塞拉西塞拉西:。征服狮子(1964年); Shwab,彼得,教育署,埃塞俄比亚和海尔塞拉西(1972年)和海尔塞拉西口(1979年)。



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