Rosh Hashanah犹太新年

General Information一般资料

Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew for "head of the year") is the Jewish New Year, commemorating the creation of the world.犹太新年(简称“今年头”希伯来文)是犹太新年,纪念世界的创造。It is celebrated in early fall, Tishri 1 by the Jewish calendar.它是著名的初秋,提斯利1由犹太历。Rosh Hashanah is a solemn occasion, the Day of Judgment, ushering in the penitential season that culminates ten days later on Yom Kippur.犹太新年是一个庄严的时刻,在审判日,在悔罪赛季达到高潮十天后迎来的赎罪日。

The distinctive feature of the synagogue service is the blowing of a ram's horn (Shofar).该犹太教堂服务的显着特点是一个羊角(Shofar)扑面而来。The liturgy of the day stresses the sovereignty of God and the hope that all humans will at last recognize him as Father and King.这一天的礼仪强调神的主权,并希望所有的人将最终认识到他作为父亲和国王。

The festival is celebrated for two days by the traditionally observant, whereas Reform Jews keep it for one day, in accord with biblical law.这个节日是庆祝两天由传统观察力,而改革的犹太人保持一天它与圣经的法律协议。On the afternoon of the first day it is customary to go to a river or pond and recite tashlich, scriptural verses on repentance and forgiveness of sin.在第一天下午,习惯去河流或池塘和背诵悔改和赦罪tashlich,圣经的经文。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
H Schauss, Jewish Festivals (1969).H Schauss,(1969)犹太节日。


Rosh Hashanah犹太新年

General Information一般资料

Rosh Hashanah (Hebrew, "beginning of the year") is the Jewish New Year, celebrated on the first and second days of the Jewish month of Tishri (falling in September or October) by Orthodox and Conservative Jews and on the first day alone by Reform Jews.犹太新年(希伯来文,“年初”)是犹太新年,庆祝的提市黎月(九月或十月下降)由东正教犹太人和犹太保守每月第一和第二天,第一天独改革犹太人。 It begins the observance of the Ten Penitential Days, a period ending with Yom Kippur that is the most solemn of the Jewish calendar.它开始的十悔罪天,期间与赎罪日是犹太人最严肃的日历结束遵守。Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are known as the High Holy Days.犹太新年和赎罪日被称为高圣日。

In the Bible, Rosh Hashanah is mentioned only as a day of remembrance and of the sounding of the ram's horn.在圣经中,犹太新年是只提到作为一个纪念日和对羊角鸣响。These two characteristics of the day, interwoven with the theme of the proclamation of God's kingship, became the major components of the New Year's observance in later Judaism.当天这两个特点,与神的王权宣布主题交织在一起,成为了新年的庆祝的主要组成部分在以后的犹太教。They are emphasized in the liturgy by the repetition of "verses of remembrance","verses that mention the ram's horn," and "sovereignty verses."他们强调的“诗句的纪念”,“诗句中提到的羊角”,并重复“主权的诗句。”在礼仪 The first of these is important because it represents the sense of continuing creation and development of the world that Judaism emphasizes on this anniversary of creation.其中第一项是重要的,因为它代表了继续建立和犹太教在这个世界的创造周年强调发展意识。Because good and evil actions greatly influence the future, it is emphasized that God "remembers," and mention is made of the meritorious acts of the Hebrew patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob to urge emulation of their holiness as the path to redemption.因为善恶的行动极大地影响未来,它强调的是上帝“记住”,并提到了希伯来始祖亚伯拉罕,以撒,雅各督促路径为赎回其圣洁仿真的立功行为作出。

Indeed, the most prominent scriptural passage in the Rosh Hashanah liturgy is that of the binding of Isaac (see Genesis 22), which forms the portion from the Torah designated for reading on that day.实际上,最突出的犹太新年礼仪圣经经文的艾萨克约束力(见创世纪22),形成从Torah部分的那一天阅读指定的。This passage leads into the theme of the ram's horn; in the service in the synagogue the shofar, a wind instrument made of ram's horn to represent the horn of the animal sacrificed in Isaac's stead, is blown.这段话引出到了羊角主题,在在犹太教堂的shofar服务,管乐器的羊角向代表在以撒的牺牲代替动物角,被烧断。Early peoples often made noise at the New Year to drive away demons; the Jews transformed this practice into a blowing of the horn to prefigure the moment when God would destroy the evil in the world, "blow the ram's horn, and come with the whirlwinds."早期的人民往往是在新年的噪音赶走恶魔,犹太人变成了一个喇叭吹这种做法预示的那一刻,当上帝将毁灭世界的邪恶,“吹羊角,并与龙卷风来“ At that moment, it is held in the "sovereignty verses," God will be king over all the earth, as he is now king over those who accept him in a renewal of commitment on Rosh Hashanah.那一刻,它是在举行的“主权的诗句,”神将超过地球上所有的国王,因为他现在对这些谁接受了关于犹太新年承诺重建他的国王。


Rosh Ha-Shanah犹太哈Shanah

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

Eighth treatise of the order Mo'ed; it contains (1) the most important rules concerning the calendar year together with a description of the inauguration of the months by the nasi and ab bet din; (2) laws on the form and use of the shofar and on the service during the Rosh ha-Shanah feast.该命令第八论文Mo'ed,它包含(1)最重要的规则是否有历年的由椰浆和AB打赌喧嚣月就职描述在一起;(2)法律的形式和使用在shofar和服务在犹太公顷Shanah盛宴。

Contents.内容。

The old numerical Mishnah commences with an account of the four beginnings of the religious and the civil year (i. 1); it speaks of the four judgment-days of the pilgrim festivals and Rosh ha-Shanah (i. 2); of the six months in which the messengers of the Sanhedrin announce the month (i. 3); of the two months the beginnings of which witnesses announce to the Sanhedrin even on the Sabbath (i. 4), and even if the moon is visible to every one (i. 5); Gamaliel even sent on the Sabbath for forty pairs of witnesses from a distance (i. 6); when father and son (who as relatives may otherwise not witness together) behold the new moon they must set out for the bet din (i. 7), since they do not absolutely belong to those that are legally unfit for this purpose (i. 8).米示拿旧数值开始与对宗教的四个起点和民间一年(一1)帐户,它的四个节日的朝圣者和ROSH HA - Shanah(一2)判断天说话;的半年哪个公会的使者宣布本月(一3);在两个月的开端,其中向证人宣布公会甚至在安息日(一4),即使月球是可见的每一(一5);加马利亚甚至派出了四对安息日的证人对从远处(一6),当父亲和儿子(谁的亲属,否则可能不会一起见证)看哪新的月球,他们必须订明赌DIN(一7),因为它们不完全属于那些合法作此用途(一8)不适宜。 The weak and sick are borne on litters, and are protected against the attacks of the Sadducees; they must be provided with food, for witnesses are bound to journey even on the Sabbath (i. 9).弱,病是传染的垃圾,并反对撒都该人的攻击保护,他们必须提供食物,甚至对证人也必然在安息日(一9)的旅程。Others went along to identify the unknown (ii. 1).其他人跟着去了识别未知(白介素1)。In olden times bonfire-signals on the mountains announced to all as far as Babylon that the month had been sanctified.在古代山上篝火,信号宣布所有像巴比伦远,当月已经成圣。The custom of having witnesses and messengers was introduced after the Sadducees had attempted to practise deception (ii. 2, 3, 4).而有证人和使者自被引入后,撒都该人曾试图瞒天过海(白介素2,3,4)。

The large court called "Bet Ya'azeḳ" was the assembly-place for the witnesses (ii. 5); bountiful repasts awaited them, and dispensations from the Law were granted to them (ii. 6); the first pair of witnesses was questioned separately concerning the appearance of the moon, and other witnesses cursorily (ii. 7).大法院所谓的“投注Ya'azeḳ”是为证人装配到位(白介素5);丰富宴等待他们,并从法律特许人授予他们(白介素6);证人的第一对分别质疑有关月亮的外观,和其他证人粗略(白介素7)。 Then the ab bet din called out to a large assembly, "Sanctified!"然后AB打赌喧嚣叫了一个大型集会,“神圣!”all the people crying out aloud after him (ii. 8).所有的人大声呼喊后,他(白介素8)。Gamaliel II.加马利亚二。had representations of the moon which he showed to the witnesses.有月亮的,他表现出的证人陈述。Once there arose a dispute between him and Joshua regarding the Tishri moon; the latter, in obedience to the nasi, came on foot to Jamnia on the day which he had calculated to be the Day of Atonement, and the two scholars made peace (iii.).一旦出现他和约书亚之间的争端就提斯利月亮;后者,在服从椰浆,徒步詹姆尼来的,他已经计算是赎罪日一天,两位学者提出的和平(三。) There were various obstacles to the sanctification of the months, as when time was lacking for the ceremony, or when there were no witnesses present before the bet din.有各种障碍,成圣的几个月,由于缺乏时间时为礼,或在没有证人在打赌喧嚣中。In the first case the following day became the new moon; in the second case the bet din alone performed the sanctification.在第一种情况下次日成为新的月球,在第二种情况下的赌注喧嚣单独执行的圣洁。

The Shofar.该Shofar。

The Mishnah treats also of the shofar (iii. 2); the horn of the cow may not be used (iii. 3); the form of the trumpet for Rosh ha-Shanah, the fast-day, and Yobel is determined (iii. 5); injuries to the shofar and the remedies are indicated (iii. 6); in times of danger the people that pray assemble in pits and caves (iii. 7); they pass the house of worship only on the outside while the trumpets sound (iii. 8); they are exhorted to be firm by being reminded of Moses' uplifted hands in the war with the Amalekites.该mishnah对待也是shofar(III. 2);的牛角,不得使用(III. 3);的小号的犹太公顷Shanah,快速一天,Yobel形式确定(III 5);的shofar和补救受伤表示(III. 6),在危险时代的人们,祈祷集会,坑和洞穴(III. 7),它们只能通过在外面的房子,而崇拜喇叭声音(III. 8),它们是被告诫要由摩西手中抬升提醒在与亚玛力人战争公司。In such times the deaf-mutes, insane, and children are legally unfit for blowing the trumpets.在这种时代的聋哑,精神失常,孩子在法律上为吹小号不适宜。

Even if the festival fell on the Sabbath, Johanan ben Zakkai had the trumpets blown at Jamnia, while at one time this was done only in the Temple and the surrounding places (iv. 1); he also fixed the lulab outside of the Temple for seven days, and forbade the eating of new grain on the second day of Passover (iv. 2); he extended the time for examining witnesses until the evening, and had them come to Jamnia even in the absence of the ab bet din (iv. 3).即使在节日安息日下跌,约哈难奔Zakkai曾在詹姆尼吹小号,而在同一时间,这是只有在寺庙和周围的地方(iv. 1)做,他也固定了外面的庙lulab七天,并禁止新的粮食在逾越节(iv. 2)第二天吃,他延长了审查,直到傍晚证人的时间,甚至在AB打赌喧嚣的情况下他们来詹姆尼(四3)。The Mishnah then treats of the order of the prayers (iv. 4), of the succession of the Malkuyot, Zikronot, and Shoferot, of the Bible sentences concerning the kingdom of God, Providence, and the trumpet-call of the future (iv. 5), and of the leader in prayer and his relation to the teki'ah (iv. 6); descriptions of the festival are given in reference to the shofar (iv. 7); then follows the order of the traditional trumpet-sounds (iv. 8); and remarks on the duties of the leader in prayer and of the congregation close the treatise (iv. 9).该mishnah再处理的祷告的顺序(iv. 4),对Malkuyot,Zikronot和Shoferot继承,关于上帝的,上帝王国的圣经句子,和小号通话的未来(四5),并在祈祷和他的关系到teki'ah(iv. 6)领导者;节日的描述是在参考了shofar(iv. 7)鉴于,然后遵循传统秩序喇叭声音(iv. 8)和关于在祷告领袖和会众的职责言论关闭论文(iv. 9)。

The Tosefta.在陀瑟他。

Curious as is the order of subjects followed in this treatise, in which several mishnaic sources have been combined, the Tosefta follows it, adding comments that form the basis of the Gemara in both Talmuds.好奇的是在这个论文,其中一些已被合并的mishnaic来源其次科目顺序,陀瑟他它后面,添加注释,形成两个Talmuds的革马拉的基础。 The contents of the Mishnah with the corresponding sections of the Tosefta are as follows: General calendar for the year, i.与陀瑟他的相应部分的的mishnah内容如下:普通日历年度岛1-4 = Tosef.1-4 = Tosef。 i.1-13.1-13。Regulations concerning the months' witnesses, i.条例关于个月的证人岛5-ii.5 - II。1 (connecting with i. 4) = Tosef.1(一4连接)= Tosef。i.15-ii.15 - II。1 (abbreviated).1(略)。 Historical matter regarding fire-signals and messengers and their reception on the Sabbath, ii.历史问题有关消防信号和使者和在安息日,二他们的接待。2-6 = Tosef.2-6 = Tosef。 ii.II。2 (abbreviated).2(略)。 The continuation of the laws of ii.对II法律的延续。1 concerning witnesses (ii. 7, 8), and the questioning of witnesses, and the sanctification of the months are entirely lacking in the Tosefta.1关于证人(白介素7,8),以及询问证人,而月成圣是完全缺乏的陀瑟他。Historical data concerning Gamaliel and the disputewith Joshua, ii.关于加马利亚和disputewith约书亚,二历史数据。8-9 = Tosef.8-9 = Tosef。 ii.II。3 (a mere final sentence). 3(仅最后一句)。Continuation of the laws of ii.继续对二的规律。7 concerning witnesses, iii. 7有关证人,三。1 = Tosef. 1 = Tosef。iii.三。1, 2.1,2。Regulations regarding the shofar and its use, iii.条例有关shofar和它的使用,三。2-5 = Tosef.2-5 = Tosef。 iii.三。3-6a.3 - 6A。Haggadic sentence on devotion = Tosef.Haggadic判处奉献= Tosef。iii.三。6b.6B。Final remarks on the shofar and on its obligations, iii.结束语对shofar和履行其义务,三。6-end = Tosef.6月底= Tosef。iv.四。1.1。Ordinances of Johanan ben Zakkai concerning Rosh ha-Shanah and the Sabbath, and other matters = Tosef.约哈难奔Zakkai条例有关犹太公顷Shanah和安息日,和= Tosef其他事项。iv.四。2.2。Order of worship, iv.订购崇拜,四。5-end = Tosef.5月底= Tosef。iv.四。4-end.4月底。Mishnah ii.米示拿第二。7 seems to have been transposed according to Tosef.7似乎已经转按Tosef。iv.四。3, but it belongs there according to its contents.3,但它属于有根据其内容。

In quoting many of Gamaliel's ordinances the Mishnah emphasizes the authority of the patriarchal house by recounting the dispute between the patriarch and his deputy Joshua and showing how the latter was forced to yield.在援引加马利亚的条例很多的mishnah强调通过叙述之间的族长和他的副手约书亚纠纷,并显示如何后者被迫产生的宗法家权威。 The Tosefta omits the ordinances of Gamaliel and of Johanan ben Zakhai, and the dispute of the two leaders of the school-house, nor does it mention anything of the power of any tannaitic dignitary; the Tosefta is here a product of the time of the Amoraim.在陀瑟他忽略了约哈难的加马利亚和本Zakhai条例,以及对学校内部两国领导人之争,也没有提及任何tannaitic权贵权力事情;的陀瑟他是这里的时间产品亚摩兰。 The dignity of the nasi is not emphasized, because acumen and scholarship prevailed in the schoolhouse, and there was no desire to let old precedences (see 'Eduyot) come to the fore again.该椰浆尊严是不突出,因为智慧和奖学金,在校舍占了上风,也没有意愿让旧的优先级(见“Eduyot)再次脱颖而出。 Even the Mishnah contains some additions from the time of the Amoraim (see, for example, iv. 2, where a gap must be filled from the Tosefta).即使该mishnah包含从亚摩兰一些时间增加(见,例如,四,2,其中的差距必须填写从陀瑟他)。

Wilhelm Bacher, Ludwig A. Rosenthal威廉巴切尔,路德维希答:罗森塔尔
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Bibliography: M. Rawiez, Rosh Hashana (transl.), Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1886; JH Gummin, Rosh Hashana (Theologische Studien), pp. 31-74, 179-200, Utrecht, 1890; Zuckermann, Materialien zum Entwurf der Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung, Breslau, 1882; Rosenthal, Ueber den Zusammenhang der Mischna, i.参考书目:M. Rawiez,犹太新年(transl.),法兰克福发表了主,1886年; JH Gummin,犹太新年(Theologische(研究)),第31-74,179-200,乌得勒支,1890年; Zuckermann,Materialien ZUM Entwurf DER Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung,布雷斯劳,1882年,罗森塔尔,Ueber巢穴Zusammenhang DER Mischna岛26-28, 70-71; Scheinin, Die Schule in Jamnia, Leipsic, 1879. 26-28,70-71;舍伊宁,模具在詹姆尼,Leipsic,1879学派。


New-Year新的一年

Jewish Viewpoint Information犹太观信息

-Biblical Data:圣经的数据:

In the earliest times the Hebrew year began in autumn with the opening of the economic year.在最早的时候希伯来年开始与开放的经济今年秋天。There followed in regular succession the seasons of seed-sowing, growth and ripening of the corn under the influence of the former and the latter rains, harvest and ingathering of the fruits.随后陆续有定期的种子播种,生长和下前影响玉米,而后者则降雨,收获和成果的聚集成熟的季节。In harmony with this was the order of the great agricultural festivals, according to the oldest legislation, namely, the feast of unleavened bread at the beginning of the barley harvest, in the month of Abib; the feast of harvest, seven weeks later; and the feast of ingathering at the going out or turn of the year (; see Ex. xxiii. 14-17; xxxiv. 18, 22-23; Deut. xvi. 1-16).按照这种和谐是伟大的农业节日秩序,根据最古老的立法,即在大麦收割开始盛宴的无酵饼,在亚笔月,收获的盛宴,七个星期后,和(见防爆二十三14-17;。XXXIV 18,22-23;。申命记十六1-16)对在外出或岁末年初的聚集盛宴。This system of dating the New-Year is that which was adopted by the Semites generally, while other peoples, as the Greeks and Persians, began the year in spring, both methods of reckoning being primarily agricultural and based on the seasons of seed-time and harvest.这种约会新的一年制的是,这是由闪米特人普遍采用,而其他国家的人民,由于希腊人和波斯人,开始了一年的春天,正在清算的主要农产品和种子时间季节的两种方法和收获。

The Regnal Year.该Regnal年。

The regnal year was evidently reckoned in the same way as late as the end of the seventh century BC This is evident from the account of the eighteenth year of King Josiah, in which only by such a reckoning can sufficient time be allowed for the events of that year which precede the celebration of the Passover, assuming, of course, that the Passover was celebrated at the usual time in the spring (II Kings xxii. 3, xxiii. 21-23).今年的regnal显然忽视只要在公元前七世纪,这是从约西亚王,十八年占明显结束较晚,只有通过这种认识可以有足够的时间用于事件允许以同样的方式当年这之前的逾越节庆典,假设,当然,是在逾越节的春天通常时间(II国王二十二。3,二十三21-23)庆祝。 Only in the same way can the fourth year of Jehoiakim be made to synchronize with the twenty-first year of Nabopolassar, in which the battle of Carchemish was fought, and also with the first year of Nebuchadrezzar, the Babylonian year having been reckoned from the spring (Jer. xxv. 1, xlvi. 2).只有在以同样的方式,才能使约雅敬第四年作出同步的Nabopolassar,在其中Carchemish战役战斗,同时还与尼布甲尼撒第一年第二十一届年,巴比伦年已被忽视的春季(耶二十五1,XLVI 2)。The second half of the Hebrew year would thus correspond to the first half of the Babylonian year.在希伯来文下半年将因此对应的巴比伦上半年。In Ezek.在以西结书。xl.XL。1 the prophet has his vision at the beginning of the year, apparently in the month of Tishri. 1,先知在今年年初他的远见,显然在提斯利月。The Levitical law places the beginning of the Sabbatical year in the autumn, on the tenth day of the seventh month, according to the later reckoning (Lev. xxv. 9).利未的法律学位,在休假年秋季开始,在第七个月的第十天,据后来推算(利未记二十五9)。It has been pointed out also that the story of the Flood places the beginning of the deluge on the seventeenth day of the second month, which would, on an autumn reckoning, coincide with the beginning of the rainy season (Gen. vii. 11; Josephus, "Ant." i. 3, § 3).据指出,还指出,洪水的故事放置在第二月17日,这将上一个秋天的推算,恰逢雨季开始(创七11日开始的洪水;约瑟夫,“蚂蚁”一3,§ 3)。

Possibly Two Modes of Reckoning.可能两个决战模式。

There is much difference of opinion as to whether or not there was in preexilic times a second mode of reckoning from the vernal equinox.有意见太大的区别,以是否有在preexilic时代是一个推算从春分第二种模式。This inference has been drawn from such passages as II Sam.这一推断已经绘就从这种通道为二山姆。xi.十一。1, I Kings xx.1,我王XX。 22, 26, and II Chron. 22,26,和二专栏。xxxvi.三十六。10.10。The expression used here, "at the return of the year," is, however, sufficiently explained as "the time when kings go out"; that is to say, the usual time for opening a military campaign.这里使用的表达,“在今年的回归”,但是,足以为“国王的时候走出去”的解释,也就是说,对于平时打开一个军事行动的时间。 Of course if the law of the Passover (Ex. xii. 1; Lev. xxiii. 5; Num. ix. 1-5, xxviii. 16-17) is pre-exilic, the question admits of no further argument.当然,如果法律的逾越节(出十二1;。利未记二十三5;。序号九1-5,二十八16-17)是前放逐,不承认的问题进一步论证。 It seems, however, to be now very generally accepted that this law in its present form is not earlier than the sixth century and that it represents post-exilic practise.看来,不过,现在是非常普遍认为,这在目前的形式法律不超过六世纪早期和它代表后放逐的做法。According to this legislation, which henceforth prevailed, the month Abib, or Nisan (March-April), became the first of the year.根据这一立法,今后占了上风,当月亚笔或尼散月(3-4月),成为今年首。It is possible that this change was due, in part at least, to the influence of the Babylonian sacred year, which likewise began with the month Nisan.这可能是这种变化的原因,至少部分,到巴比伦神圣的一年,这也与尼散月开始的影响。It appears, however, that the festival of the New-Year continued to be observed in the autumn, perhaps originally on the tenth, and later on the first day of the seventh month, Tishri.它的出现,然而,对新的一年继续观察节日在秋季,也许本来就十分,后来在第七月的第一天,提斯利。Josephus asserts (lci 3, § 3) that while Moses appointed Nisan to be the first month for the sacred festivals and other solemnities, he preserved the original order of the months for buying and selling and for the transaction of other business.约瑟夫断言(LCI 3,§ 3),虽然摩西尼散月被任命为神圣的节日和其他solemnities第一个月,他保留了几个月购买和销售及其他商业交易的原始顺序。The Seleucidan calendar, from 312 BC, placed the beginning of the year in the autumn; but it appears that the Palestinian Jews still reckoned from the spring and dated the Seleucidan era according to that reckoning (see Schürer, "The Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ," 2d ed., Eng. transl., I. i 36-46, on the dates in the Books of Maccabees; comp. Esth. iii. 7).该Seleucidan日历,从公元前312,放置了在今年秋季开始,但现在看来,巴勒斯坦的犹太人仍然忽视的春天并注明日期的Seleucidan时代根据这一推算(见Schürer,“在当时的犹太人民。耶稣基督,“2D版,英文译,一,我36-46,就在马加比书的日期;。排版Esth三7)。

How Celebrated.如何庆祝。

It is altogether probable that the beginning of the year was celebrated from ancient times in some special way, like the New Moon festival.这是完全可能的是,今年年初从远古时代在一些特殊的方式,如朔节庆祝。The earliest reference, however, to such a custom is, probably, in the account of the vision of Ezekiel (Ezek. xl. 1) which, as stated above, took place at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month (Tishri ?).最早的参考,但是,这样的习俗是,可能,在以西结(结XL 1),其中,如上所述,发生在今年年初进行视力帐户上的第十天本月(提斯利?)。On the same day the beginning of the year of jubilee was to be proclaimed by the blowing of trumpets (Lev. xxv. 9).同一天,在银禧年初,是由吹小号(利未记二十五9)宣告成立。According to the Septuagint rendering of Ezek.根据以西结书译本渲染。xlv.XLV。20, special sacrifices were to be offered on the first day of the seventh month as well as on the first day of the first month.20,特殊牺牲了要在第七次月的第一天,以及在第一个月的第一天提供。This first day of the seventh month was appointed by the Law to be "a day of blowing of trumpets" ().这第七次月的第一天被任命的法是“一天的小号吹”()。There was to be a holy convocation; no servile work was to be done; and special sacrifices were to be offered (Lev. xxiii. 23-25; Num. xxix. 1-6; comp. ib. x. 1-10).有将是一个神圣的召开,没有奴性的工作要做,以及特殊的牺牲是必须提供的(利未记二十三23-25​​;。数二十九1-6;。排版IB十1-10) 。This day was not expressly called New-Year's Day, but it was evidently so regarded by the Jews at a very early period (see RH i. 1).这一天被称为没有明确新的一年的一天,但它显然是这样认为在一个非常早期的犹太人(见RH一1)。

Bibliography: Hastings, Dict.参考书目:黑斯廷斯,快译通。Bibl.Bibl。sv Time; Cheyne and Black, Encyc.SV时间;进益和黑色,百科全书。Bibl.Bibl。sv Year and New Year; Benzinger, Arch.; Dillmann, Monatsberichte, Societas Regia Scientiarum, Berlin, 1881.SJF McL.SV年和新年; Benzinger,建筑; Dillmann,Monatsberichte,Societas核桃Scientiarum,柏林,1881.SJF MCL。

-In Rabbinical Literature:- 在犹太教文学:

The Rabbis recognize four beginnings of the year from different standpoints: (1) the 1st of Nisan for regnal dating; it was based on the Exodus (comp. I Kings vi. 1); (2) the 1st of Tishri, as, agricultural New-Year the beginning of the harvest (Ex. xxiii. 16, xxxiv. 22); (3) the 1st of Elul for reckoning tithes of cattle (R. Eleazer, however, would reckon these from the 1st of Tishri); and (4) the 1st, or, according to Bet Hillel, the 15th of Shebaṭ, the New-Year for Trees.拉比承认从不同的角度四个年度的开端:(1)对regnal约会尼散月1日,它是在出埃及记(comp.我王六1)为基础;(2)第1提斯利,如,农业新的一年开始的收获(出二十三16,三十四22);(3)Elul推算的牛什一税一(R. Eleazer,但是,这估计从提市黎月1日这些);和(4)各1次,或根据投注希勒尔,对Shebaṭ15日,为树新的一年。

According to the Talmud, servants were formally freed on the 1st of Tishri, but were allowed to remain on the homesteads of their former masters and to enjoy themselves for ten days, until Yom Kippur, when the trumpet was blown (Lev. xxv. 9) as a signal for their departure, and for the restoration of the fields to their original owners (RH 8b).根据犹太法典,公务员被正式释放在提斯利月1日,但被允许继续留在其前主人的家园,享受自己的十天,直到赎罪日,当被吹小号(利未记二十五。9 )作为其出发的信号,并为恢复自己的领域(RH 8B)原所有者。This is cited to explain the passage in Ezek.这是在以西结书引用来解释的通道。xl.XL。1; "the beginning of the year in the tenth day of the month," which refers to the jubilee year that occurred on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Exile ('Ar. 12a). 1,“在本月十日开始的一年”,它指的是禧年上的流亡二十五周年(“AR 12A。)发生。

Rosh ha-Shanah.犹太公顷Shanah。

The observance of the 1st of Tishri as Rosh ha-Shanah, the most solemn day next to Yom Kippur, is based principally on the traditional law to which the mention of "Zikkaron" (= "memorial day"; Lev. xxiii. 24) and the reference of Ezra to the day as one "holy to the Lord" (Neh. viii. 9) seem to point.而在提市黎月1日作为犹太公顷Shanah,最隆重的一天旁边的赎罪日,主要是基于遵守的法律,其中传统的“Zikkaron”(=“阵亡将士纪念日”;列弗二十三24)提和以斯拉作为一个参考的一天“归耶和华为圣”(尼八9)似乎指向。 The passage in Psalms (lxxxi. 5) referring to the solemn feast which is held on New Moon Day, when the shofar is sounded, as a day of "mishpaṭ" (judgment) of "the God of Jacob" is taken to indicate the character of Rosh ha-Shanah.通过在诗篇(lxxxi. 5)指的是在庄严的盛宴新月日,当shofar已经吹响举行,作为“mishpaṭ”天“的雅各的神”,是用来表明(判断)字符的犹太公顷Shanah。 Rosh ha-Shanah is the most important judgment-day, on which all the inhabitants of the world pass for judgment before the Creator, as sheep pass for examination before the shepherd (RH i. 2; See Day of Judgment).犹太公顷Shanah是最重要的判断天,其上所有的判断了世界前传居民的创造者,作为羊的牧羊人前(RH一2;见审判日)审查通过。 Three books of account are opened on Rosh ha-Shanah wherein the fate of the wicked, the righteous, and those of an intermediate class (not utterly wicked) are recorded.三是打开帐簿上犹太公顷Shanah其中的邪恶,正义的命运,一个中间类(不完全邪恶)的记录。The names of the righteous are immediately inscribed, and they are sealed "to live."义人的名字立即刻,他们封“住。”The middle class are allowed a respite of ten days till Yom Kippur, to repent and become righteous (RH 16b); the wicked are "blotted out of the book of the living" (Ps. lxix. 28).中产阶级是允许的十天,直到赎罪日,要悔改,成为正义的(RH 16B)喘息;恶人是“抹杀了出书的生活”(诗篇lxix 28)。

The zodiac sign of the balance for Tishri is claimed to indicate the scales of judgment, balancing the meritorious against the wicked acts of the person judged.该星座的提斯利平衡声称表示判断的尺度,权衡的判断人的邪恶行为的立功表现。The taking of an annual inventory of accounts on Rosh ha-Shanah is adduced by R. Naḥman b.一个账户年度清单上犹太公顷Shanah是举出采取由R.Naḥman湾Isaac from the passage in Deut.艾萨克从申通道。xi.十一。12, which says that the care of God is directed from "the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year" (RH 8a).12,说是上帝的护理从“甚至所不欲,年底年初”(RH 8A)执导。The 1st of Tishri was considered by the best authorities as the beginning of Creation; eg, by R. Eliezer, against the opinion of R. Joshua, however, who held the 1st of Nisan as the first day of Creation (RH 11a; Targ. Jonathan on Gen. vii. 11, counts the second month as Marḥeshwan).该提市黎月1日审议了最佳当局创立伊始,例如,由R.埃利泽,反对R.约书亚意见,但是,谁持有的创造的第一天(RH 11A的尼散月1日;塔尔格。乔纳森在将军七,11,计数为Marḥeshwan第二个月)。On Rosh ha-Shanah the means of sustenance of every person are apportioned for the ensuing year (BB 10a); so also are his destined losses.在犹太公顷Shanah的每个人都分配方式寄托对来年(BB 10A),所以也注定是他的损失。The indications of the weather prognostications, according to R. Zebid, may likewise be ascertained on Rosh ha-Shanah: If the day be warm, it indicates a warm year; if cold, it foretells generally a cold year (ib. 147a).天气的预言指示,根据R. Zebid,同样可能在犹太公顷Shanah确定:如果当天是温暖,表示热烈的一年,如果冷,它预示一般冷年(同上147A)。

Omens of Good Luck.预兆的好运气。

As an omen of good luck for the New-Year, Abaye said one should eat on Rosh ha-Shanah pumpkins, fenugreeks, leeks, beets, and dates (Hor. 12a), because they all grow quickly and because, it is declared, their names in Aramaic mean "plentiful" or "forgiveness."作为一个好的运气了新一年的预兆,Abaye说应该吃犹太公顷Shanah南瓜,fenugreeks,韭菜,甜菜和日期(Hor. 12A),因为它们都生长迅速,因为它被声明,阿拉姆在他们的名字的意思是“充足”或“宽恕”。Ezra told the people on Rosh ha-Shanah (the first of the seventh month) to "eat the fat, and drink the sweet" (Neh. viii. 10).以斯拉告诉犹太公顷Shanah(第七届月第一)市民“吃脂肪,喝甜”(尼八10)。The prevailing custom was to partake of some specially palatable meal on New-Year's eve.普遍的习俗是参加一些对新的一年的前夕,特别可口餐。"In France in the twelfth century the custom was to supply the table with red apples; in Provence, with grapes, figs, and a calf's head, or anything new, easily digested, and tasty, as an omen of good luck to all Israel" (Maḥzor Vitry, p. 362). “在法国在12世纪定制是供应红苹果的表,在普罗旺斯,葡萄,无花果,和小牛的头,或任何新的东西,容易消化,又好吃作为吉祥的预兆,所有以色列“(Maḥzor维特里,第362页)。 R. Jacob Mölln (14th cent.) in his "Maharil" mentions the custom of eating apples with honey and a deer's head in remembrance of the 'Aḳedah incident. R.雅各Mölln(第14美分)在他的“Maharil”提到吃蜂蜜和在“Aḳedah事件纪念鹿的头上苹果的习俗。Another reason for eating an animal's head is to presage that the consumer will be "ahead" and not backward in his undertakings during the ensuing year.另一个吃动物的头的原因是预示着,消费者将是“未来”,而不是在他的事业的落后在随后的一年。But one may not eat nuts on Rosh ha-Shanah, as the numerical value of the letters in the Hebrew term for nut, , is equivalent to that of the letters = "sin" ("ḥet, minus the vowel = 17), and also for the more plausible reason that nuts stimulate saliva and consequently distract one's mind from his prayers on the solemn day.但有可能不会吃犹太公顷Shanah坚果,因为在长期的螺母希伯来字母的数值,相当于字母=“罪”(“HET,减去元音= 17)认为,和也为更合理的原因,坚果刺激唾液,因而分散在庄严的一天他祈祷自己的头脑。

In modern times the table is served with grapes, other fruits, and honey.在近代表送达葡萄,其他水果和蜂蜜。After the benediction of "Ha-Moẓeh" the bread is dipped in the honey, when the following benediction is recited: "May it please the Lord our God and God of our fathers to renew for us a good and sweet year."之后,“哈Moẓeh”​​的面包蘸蜂蜜中,祝福祝福时,以下是吟诵道:“请耶和华我们的神,神我们的父辈为我们延续良好的和甜的一年。” The feasting is in anticipation that the prayers will be acceptable, and in reliance on the goodness of God.在灯红酒绿是在预期的祈祷会,并在关于神的善良的依赖可以接受的。In ancient times the Jews on Rosh ha-Shanah were dressed in white.在远古时代的犹太公顷Shanah犹太人身着白色。"Unlike the accused who is dressed in black before the tribunal, the Jews are dressed in white on the Day of Judgment" (Yer. RH i. 3).“与被告是谁在法庭一袭黑衣,犹太人都穿着白色的审判日”(Yer. RH一3)。The idea of a good omen probably introduced the custom in the Middle Ages of greeting one another on New-Year's eve with "Le shanah ṭobah tikkateb" = "Mayest thou be inscribed for a good year," with reference to the book of life of the righteous.一个好的兆头想​​法可能推出“乐shanahṭobahtikkateb”=“Mayest你是一个好年题写的”参照的生活的书,在迎接影像于新的一年的前夕另一个中世纪定制义。

The Second Day.第二日。

Only the 1st of Tishri was celebrated as New-Year's Day in Palestine prior to the time of R. Johanan b.只有第1提斯利庆祝在巴勒斯坦之前的R.约哈难B.时间新 - 元旦Zakkai; but ever since, Palestine, like other countries, observes Rosh ha-Shanah for two days (see Palestine, Laws Relating to). Zakkai,但自那时以来,巴勒斯坦同其他国家一样,观察了两天犹太公顷Shanah(见巴勒斯坦,有关的法律)。The Zohar lays stress on the universal observance of two days, and claims that the two passages in Job (i. 6 and ii. 1), "when the sons of God came to present themselves before the Lord," refer to the first and second days of Rosh ha-Shanah, observed by the Heavenly Court before the Almighty (Zohar, Pineḥas, p. 231a).佐哈尔平躺在两天的普遍遵守的压力,并声称在招聘两个通道(一6和二1),“当上帝的儿子来到自己目前在主面前,”是指第一和第二天的犹太公顷Shanah,由天工院观察之前,全能(佐哈尔,Pineḥas,第231A)。

For the services on Rosh ha-Shanah, see Prayer; for the ceremony and significance of the shofar-calls, see Shofar; and for the ceremony of "tashlik" on the first day of Rosh ha-Shanah, see Tashlik; see, also, Day of Judgment; Greeting, Forms of; Month; Seliḥot.有关犹太公顷Shanah的服务,请祈祷;为礼及shofar唱出的意义,看到Shofar,并为“tashlik”关于犹太公顷Shanah第一天仪式,看到Tashlik见,也,日的判决;问候,形式;一个月;Seliḥot。

Isidore Singer, JF McLaughlin, Wilhelm Bacher, Judah David Eisenstein伊西多尔歌手,JF麦克劳克林,威廉巴切尔,犹大大卫爱森斯坦
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.犹太百科全书出版1901-1906之间。

Bibliography: 参考书目:
Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 581-603; Carl Rehfuss, Sermon for Rosh ha-Shanah, 1839, in Kayserling, Bibliothek Jüdischer Kanzelredner, pp. 359-368, Addresses to Young Children, xxii. Shulḥan“Aruk,OraḥḤayyim,581-603;卡尔Rehfuss,为犹太公顷Shanah,1839年,在Kayserling,Bibliothek Jüdischer Kanzelredner,第359-368讲道,地址幼儿,22。202-212, London, 1858; Schwab, Contribution to the History of Reform of the Jewish Ritual, i., St. Joseph, Mo., 1904; idem, in Jewish Messenger, Oct. 3, 10, 1902; Some New Year's Cards, in Jew. 202-212,伦敦,1858;,贡献给了犹太仪式岛,圣若瑟,密苏里州,1904年改革的历史施瓦布,同上,在犹太人的使者,10年10月3日,1902年,一些新年在犹太人卡。 Chron.专栏。Sept. 18, 1903.一九○三年九月十八日。



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