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The Sadducees were a Jewish religious sect that flourished from about 200 BC until the fall of Jerusalem in AD 70.该撒都该是一个犹太宗教教派,从大约公元前200年蓬勃发展,直到耶路撒冷在公元70年下降。 A priestly and aristocratic group, the Sadducees owed their power to political alliance with the Romans, who ruled their land. They opposed the Pharisees' use of Oral Law and held only to the Pentateuch (the first five books of the Old Testament). They also differed with the Pharisees on many theological tenets: for example, they did not believe in resurrection and the immortality of the soul.一个祭司和贵族集团,撒都该人欠他们的权力,他们与土地的政治联盟,罗马人,谁统治。 他们反对法利'利用法律口腔只举行的五(首五卷旧约)。它们也与许多不同的神学信条法利:例如,他们不相信在复活和不朽的灵魂。According to the New Testament, the Sadducees played a leading role in the trial and condemnation of Jesus.根据新约,撒都该发挥了审判和谴责耶稣的主导作用。

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Bibliography 参考书目
Buehler, William Wagner, The Pre-Herodian Civil War and Social Debate: Jewish Society in the Period 76-40 BC and the Social Factors Contributing to the Rise of the Pharisees and the Sadducees (1974); Manson, Thomas Walter, Sadducee and Pharisee--The Origin and Significance of the Name (1938).低速,威廉瓦格纳,预希律内战和社会辩论:犹太人社会在公元前期76-40和社会因素分析的法利赛人和撒都该人(1974年)上升;曼森,托马斯沃尔特,撒都该和法利赛人 - 起源和名称(1938)的意义。


Advanced Information先进的信息

The Sadducees were an important Jewish group that flourished in Palestine from the late second century BC to the late first Christian century.该撒都该是一个重要的犹太团体的蓬勃发展,从公元前二世纪后期在巴勒斯坦已故的第一个基督教世纪。


The most reliable information about the Sadducees is found in three bodies of ancient literature: the writings of Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War (written ca. AD 75), Antiquities of the Jews (ca. AD 94), and Life (ca. AD 101); the NT, particularly the Synoptic Gospels and Acts (ca. AD 65-90; Matt. 3:7; 16:1-12; 22:23-34; Mark 12:18-27; Luke 20:27-38); and the rabbinic compilations (ca. AD 200 and later; Mishnah, Ber. 9:5; Erub. 6:2; Par. 3:3, 7; Nidd. 4:2; Yad. 4:6-8).关于撒都该人是最可靠的信息中找到三具尸体的古代文学:弗拉菲乌斯约瑟夫,犹太战争(。书面约公元75),犹太人(约公元94)古物,与生活(约公元的著作101);新台币,特别是天气福音和行为(约公元65-90;马特3时07; 16:1-12,22:23-34,马可福音12:18-27。路加福音20时27 - 38)和拉比汇编(约公元200及更高版本;米示拿,误码率9:5;。Erub 6:2。帕3:3,7;。尼德4:2。。亚德瓦4:6-8 )。Two observations about these sources should be made.这些来源的两种意见应。First, with the possible exception of Josephus' War, all these sources are decidedly hostile towards the Sadducees.首先,随着约瑟夫的战争可能是个例外,所有这些来源果断对撒都该人的敌对。Second, many of the rabbinic references, especially those found in the Talmud and later works, are of doubtful historical reliability.第二,拉比特别是那些在塔木德和后来的作品,发现引用,许多人是历史的可靠性令人怀疑。Thus, our knowledge of the Sadducees is perforce severely limited and one-sided.因此,我们对撒都该人的知识是Perforce的极为有限的和片面的。

Name and Nature名与实

Historically, the question of the derivation and meaning of the name "Sadducees" has been closely tied to the issue of the nature of the group.历史上,推导问题和名称,意思是“撒都该人”一直紧密联系在一起的该组的性质问题。Ever since Abraham Geiger argued that the Sadducees were the priestly aristocracy, the majority of scholars have held that their name was derived from "Zadok," the name of the high priest during Solomon's reign (I Kings 2:35; cf. Ezek. 44:15; 48:11).自从亚伯拉罕盖格认为,撒都该人是祭司贵族,大多数学者都认为,他们的名字是从“扎多克”的大祭司在所罗门的年号(王2时35分取得的所得;。。比照以西结书44 :15; 48:11)。Thus the Sadducees are thought to have been the party of the Zadokite priestly elite.因此,撒都该人被认为已对Zadokite祭司精英聚会。There are problems with this construct, however.没有与此构造的问题,但是。The "Zadok" etymology does not explain the doubling of the "d".在“扎多克”词源无法解释的“D”的一倍。Moreover, when the Sadducees appeared on the scene, the ruling priests were Hasmoneans, not Zadokites.此外,当撒都该人在现场出现,祭司哈斯摩年王朝统治,而不是Zadokites。It is unlikely that the Hasmoneans would have allied themselves with a rival priestly group whose very name called into question the legitimacy of the Hasmonean high priesthood.这是不可能的哈斯摩年王朝将与竞争对手结盟祭司组,其名称本身提出质疑的合法性的Hasmonean高神父自己。

More recently, many scholars have argued that the Sadducees were essentially a loose confederation of wealthy and powerful men (this would include members of the priestly aristocracy) who took a secular-pragmatic, rather than a religious-ideological, stance with regard to the nation and its laws.最近,许多学者都认为,撒都该人基本上是一个人的富裕和强大的松散的邦联(这将包括祭司贵族成员)谁花了世俗务实,而不是一个宗教的思想,关于国家的立场,和法律。 Along with this view, new etymologies for "Sadducees" have been offered.随着这种看法,因为“撒都该人”提供了新的词源。TW Manson proposed that behind the name stood the Greek title syndikoi, meaning "fiscal officials."星期日曼森建议,站在后面的名字标题syndikoi希腊,意为“财政官员。”R. North suggested that the Sadducees saw themselves as administrators of justice and that their name was derived from an otherwise unattested Piel adjective sadduq ("just").河北建议,撒都该人认为自己为司法行政人员,他们的名字来源于一个形容词sadduq否则unattested彼尔(“公正”)。 These and other etymologies solve some problems, but raise new ones; at bottom, they all remain speculative.这些和其他词源解决一些问题,但新的提高;在底部,它们都保持投机。In light of the total absence of Sadducean sources, it would seem wise to admit that both the precise nature of the Sadducees and the derivation of their name remain uncertain.鉴于Sadducean来源完全没有根据,看来明智的承认,无论是撒都该人的确切性质和其名称派生仍然不明朗。


Equally uncertain are the details of Sadducean history.同样不确定的是Sadducean历史细节。The meager evidence suggests the following outline.微薄的证据表明下列大纲。The Sadducees solidified as a group soon after the Maccabean revolt (167-160 BC).作为一个群体,固化后不久,马加比起义(167-160 BC)的撒都该人。They were heirs to a persistent tendency within the Jewish aristocracy to see Judaism as a temple-centered religion rather than a law-centered way of life.他们在犹太贵族一个持久的趋势继承人,视寺院为中心的宗教,而不是一个法律为中心的生活方式犹太教。Because they supported the Hasmonean policy of military and economic expansion, they gradually came to exercise tremendous influence in John Hyrcanus's court (134-104 BC).因为他们支持的军事和经济扩张Hasmonean政策,他们逐渐地行使约翰hyrcanus的法院(134-104 BC)的巨大影响。Their influence predominated until the end of Alexander Jannaeus's reign (76 BC).他们的影响力为主,直到亚历山大Jannaeus的统治地位(76年)结束。Under Queen Alexandra (76-67 BC) the Sadducees lost their power, and their numbers were greatly reduced.在皇后亚历山德拉(76-67年)撒都该人失去他们的权力,他们的人数大为减少。They fared little better under Herod the Great (37-4 BC), who deeply mistrusted the native Jewish aristocracy.他们表现更好一点下大希律王(公元前37-4),谁深深不信任本地犹太贵族。With the imposition of direct Roman rule (AD 6), Sadducean fortunes revived.与直接罗马统治(公元6)征收,Sadducean财富复活。Between AD 6 and 66 the Sadducees not only became a major power within the Sanhedrin, but, for many years, they were able to control the high priesthood as well.在公元6和66撒都该人不仅成为公会内的一个大国,但是,多年来,他们能够控制高以及神职人员。The revolt of 66-70 spelled the end for the Sadducees.66-70起义的拼写为撒都该人结束。Although they had sought to forestall the revolt, the Romans had no use for a failed aristocracy.尽管他们曾试图阻止叛乱,罗马人也没有一个失败的贵族使用。With the destruction of the temple and the dissolution of the nation, the Sadducees faded into oblivion.随着寺庙的破坏和民族的解散,撒都该消失在遗忘。


The Sadducees are said to have rejected all Jewish observances not explicitly taught in the pentateuchal law.撒都该人据说已经拒绝没有明确pentateuchal法,教所有的犹太纪念活动。In their legal debates, the Sadducees consistently pushed for a strict and narrow application of the law.在他们的法律辩论,撒都该为不断推动法律的严格和狭窄的应用。They repudiated the notions of resurrection and rewards and punishments after death.他们否定死后复活和奖惩的概念。According to Josephus, they even denied the immortality of the soul.据约瑟夫,他们甚至被剥夺了不朽的灵魂。The Sadducees tended to diassociate God from human affairs.撒都该人往往diassociate从人类事务的神。For this reason, they maintained that human choices and actions were totally free, unrestrained by divine interference.基于这个原因,他们认为,人的选择和行动完全自由,奔放的神圣干涉。Consistent with this emphasis on human autonomy, the Sadducees denied the existence of angels and preterhuman spirits.与此相一致强调对人的自主权,撒都该人否认鬼神存在天使和超人。

Most scholars have held that these beliefs mark off the Sadducees as conservatives who stubbornly resisted the innovations of the Pharisees and others.大多数学者都认为,这些信念划为保守派顽固地抵制了谁的法利赛人和撒都该人的创新。It should be noted, on the other hand, that these beliefs could just as easily describe hellenized aristocrats who wanted to minimize as much as possible the claims of their ancestral religion on their daily lives.应当指出,另一方面,这些信念可以很容易地描述谁想要尽可能减少希腊化贵族对他们的日常生活,他们祖先的宗教主张。

Sadducees and the NT撒和NT

Unlike the Pharisees, the Sadducees are consistently painted in a bad light by the NT writers.不同的是法利赛人,撒都该是一贯画在一个光线不好的新台币作家。Their opposition to Jesus and the early church is presented as monolithic and constant.他们反对耶稣和早期教会是作为整体和常数。Reasons for the hostility are not hard to imagine.对于敌对的原因是不难想象的。To the Sadducees, Jesus and his early followers would have appeared as destabilizing forces in delicate balance between limited Jewish freedom and totalitarian Roman rule.要撒,耶稣和他的早期追随者将出现在有限的犹太人之间的自由和极权罗马统治的微妙平衡不稳定力量。But just as significantly, the Sadducees could not have had anything but contempt for a movement that proclaimed the present reality of the resurrection and the unconditional necessity of repentance.但是,正如显着,撒都该人不能有任何的运动,宣布了复活和无条件的悔过书,但目前的现实必要性蔑视。

S Taylor S泰勒
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)(Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 参考书目
Josephus, The Jewish War 2.8.2, 14; Antiquities of the Jews 13.5.9, 13.10.6, 18.1.4, 20.9.1; and Life 10; A Geiger, Sadducaer und Pharisaer; GH Box, "Who Were the Sadducees?"约瑟夫,犹太战争2.8.2,14;和生活10;;犹太人的13.5.9,13.10.6,18.1.4,20.9.1古物,Sadducaer有限公司Pharisaer盖格;生长激素盒“谁是撒都该人?“ Exp 15:19-38; TW Manson, "Sadducees and Pharisees, The Origin and Significance of the Names," BJRL 22:144-59; R. North, "The Qumran Sadducees," CBQ 17:164-88; J. Le Moyne, Les Sadduceens; WW Buehler, Pre-Herodian Civil War and Social Debate; HD Mantel, "The Sadducees and the Pharisees," in The World History of the Jewish People, VIII, 99-123; JM Baumgarten, "The Pharisaic-Sadducean Controversies about Purity and the Qumran Text," JJS 31:157-70.进出口15:19-38;荃湾曼森,“撒都该人和法利赛人的起源和名称,意义”BJRL 22:144-59,河北,“昆兰撒,”CBQ 17:164-88的J.莱莫因,莱斯Sadduceens;二战低速,预希律内战和社会辩论;高清曼特尔说:“撒都该人和法利赛人,”在的犹太人民,八,99-123世界历史; JM鲍姆嘉通“的Pharisaic - Sadducean争议的纯度和库姆兰文本“JJS 31:157-70。

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