Semites闪米特人

General Information一般资料

Semites are peoples who speak Semitic languages; the group includes Arabs, Aramaeans, Jews, and many Ethiopians. In a Biblical sense, Semites are peoples whose ancestry can be traced back to Shem, Noah's eldest son. 闪米特人是人民谁讲犹太人的语言,该集团包括阿拉伯人,阿拉姆人,犹太人,许多埃塞俄比亚人在圣经的意义上说,闪米特人是人民的祖先可以追溯到闪,诺亚的长子 The ancient Semitic populations were pastoral Nomads who several centuries before the Christian Era were migrating in large numbers from Arabia to Mesopotamia, the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, and the Nile River delta.古代闪族人口为牧民游牧谁前几个世纪的基督教时代是在从沙特阿拉伯到美索不达米亚,地中海沿岸,尼罗河三角洲和大量迁移。 Jews and other Semites settled in villages in Judea, southern Palestine.犹太人和在朱迪亚,南部其他闪米特人定居巴勒斯坦村庄。

Present day speakers of Semitic languages are as diverse in physical, psychological, cultural, and sociological characteristics as are speakers of Indo European languages. The most prominent Semites today are Arabs and Jews. They are different in many ways, and they have absorbed a variety of European traits through centuries of migration and trade.现今的犹太人的语言讲是在生理,心理,文化和社会学的特点不同的是印度欧洲语言讲,最突出的闪米特人今天是阿拉伯人和犹太人,他 ​​们在许多方面是不同的,他们吸收了各种通过移民和贸易世纪的欧洲特性。The origin of Semitic languages, however, and many similarities in the stories of Islam and Judaism reflect a common ancient history.闪族语言的起源,然而,在伊斯兰教和犹太教的故事有许多相似之处反映一个共同的古老历史。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
B Lewis, Semites and Anti Semites (1987); J Morgenstern, Rites of Birth, Marriage, Death, and Kindred Occasions among the Semites (1966); S Moscati, Ancient Semitic Civilizations (1957); WR Smith, The Religion of the Semites (1890).乙刘易斯,闪米特和反闪米特人(1987年),J摩根斯坦,出生礼,结婚,死亡,和类似的场合之中,闪米特人(1966年),S Moscati,古代(1957)闪米特文明; WR史密斯,闪米特人的宗教(1890年)。


Additional Information其他信息

A Semite is someone descended from Sem or Shem, the eldest son of Noah. (See the article from the 1912 Edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, presented below.) 阿闪米特人是从SEM或闪,诺亚长子人的后裔(见从天主教百科全书介绍如下,1912年版的文章。)

A HEBREW is someone descended from Heber (or, "Eber"), one of the great-grandsons of Shem.希伯来语是从希伯(或“希伯”),对闪的重孙one后裔的人。So all Hebrews are Semites, but not all Semites are Hebrews.因此,所有希伯来人是闪米特人,但并非所有闪米特人是希伯来人。( Both Sunnite Arabs and Jews are Semites, and Hebrews, as well as Jews. )两个逊尼派阿拉伯人和犹太人的反犹主义,而希伯来人,以及犹太人。)

Six generations after Heber, Abraham was born to his line, so Abraham was both a Hebrew and a Semite, born of the line of Heber and Shem.六代后,希​​伯,亚伯拉罕出生到他的行,所以亚伯拉罕既是希伯来文和闪米特人,对希伯和闪线诞生。

Ishmael was born of Abraham, and (Sunnite) Arabs (and specifically Muslims) consider themselves to be descendants of him, so they are both Semitic and Hebrews. Isaac was born of Abraham, then Jacob of Isaac. 伊斯梅尔出生亚伯拉罕和(逊尼派),阿拉伯人(特别穆斯林)认为自己是他的后裔,所以他们都是犹太人和希伯来人。以撒是亚伯拉罕,以撒雅各则出生。 Jacob's name was changed to "Israel," and he fathered 12 sons.雅各的名字改为“以色列”,他的父亲12个儿子。His sons and their descendants are called Israelites, and they would therefore be both Semitic and Hebrew.他的儿子和他们的后代被称为以色列人,他们会因此既犹太人和希伯来文。However, this would not make either Abraham or Isaac "Israelites."不过,这不会使任何亚伯拉罕或以撒“以色列人”。Those who poorly use the words "Jew" and Israelite, call Abraham a Jew, even though Abraham was not even an Israelite, and where the word "Jew" is not used in the Bible until 1,000 years AFTER Abraham.这些谁不好用“犹太人”和以色列人,叫亚伯拉罕是犹太人,尽管亚伯拉罕甚至没有一个以色列人,并在单词“犹太人”是不是在圣经使用,直至千多年后亚伯拉罕。

One of Jacob-Israel's children was Judah (Hebrew - Yehudah).雅各和以色列的儿童中有一个是犹大(希伯来语 - Yehudah)。His descendants were called Yehudim ("Judahites").他的后裔被称为Yehudim(“Judahites”)。In Greek this reads Ioudaioi ("Judeans").在希腊这个读取Ioudaioi(“Judeans”)。The confusing thing here is that almost all Bible translations employ the word "Jew," which is a modern, shortened form of the word "Judahite."在混乱的事情是,几乎所有的圣经翻译聘请字“犹太人”,这是一个现代化,缩短了词形“Judahite。” Every time you come to the word "Jew" in the Old Scriptures, you should read "Judahite;" and every time you come to the word "Jew" in the New Scriptures, you should read it as "Judean."每当你来到这个词“犹太人”的旧圣经,你应该阅读“Judahite,”每一次你来的单词“犹太人”新经文,你应该阅读,因为它“朱迪亚。”

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Semites闪米特人

Catholic Information天主教信息

The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa. The expression is derived from the Biblical table of nations (Genesis 10), in which most of these peoples are recorded as descendants of Noah's son Sem (Shem) .术语闪米特人应用到紧密的语言,其栖息地,是亚洲和部分非洲有关人民团体,表达是来自各国的圣经表(创10),其中这些民族大多为诺亚的后代记录儿子SEM(闪)。

The term Semite was proposed at first for the languages related to the Hebrew by Ludwig Schlözer, in Eichhorn's "Repertorium", vol.闪米特人一词首先提出相关的路德维希Schlözer希伯来文的语言,在艾希霍恩的“Repertorium”,第二卷。 VIII (Leipzig, 1781), p. VIII(莱比锡,1781),第161.161。Through Eichhorn the name then came into general usage (cf. his "Einleitung in das Alte Testament" (Leipzig, 1787), I, p. 45. In his "Gesch. der neuen Sprachenkunde", pt. I (Göttingen, 1807) it had already become a fixed technical term. Since then the name has been generally adopted, except that modern science uses it in a somewhat wider sense to include all those Peoples who are either demonstrably of Semitic origin, or who appear in history as completely Semitized.艾希霍恩的名称,然后通过生效的一般用法(参见他(莱比锡,1787),我,第45页“在DAS阿尔特旧约导论”,在他的“Gesch。DER neuen Sprachenkunde”角I(哥廷根,1807)它已经成为一个固定的技术术语。此后,名称已被普遍采用,只是在使用现代科学意义上有所扩大到包括所有这些人民谁不是明显的犹太人血统,或谁在历史上出现完全Semitized 。

CLASSIFICATION分类

In historic times all Western Asia (see below), with the exception of the peninsula of Asia Minor, was Semitic.在历史时期所有西亚(见下文)与小亚细亚半岛的例外,是犹太人。From the philological point of view the Semitic peoples are divided into four chief Babylonian-Assyrian Semites (East Semites), Chanaanitic Semites, (West Semites), Aramaic Semites (North Semites), and Arabian Semites (South Semites).从语言学的角度来看闪米特民族分为四个主要巴比伦 - 亚述闪米特人(东闪米特人),Chanaanitic闪米特人,(西闪米特人),(北闪米特人)阿拉姆闪米特人,与(南闪米特人)阿拉伯闪米特人。 The last-named group is divided into North and South Arabians, of which last the Abyssinians are a branch.最后命名组分为南北阿拉伯人,其中最后的阿比西尼亚的一个分支。The first three groups are usually termed North Semites, in contrast to the Arabian group, or South Semites.第3组通常被称为北闪米特人,而相比之下,阿拉伯集团,或南闪米特人。But the classification of the Babylonian with the Aramaic and Chanaanitic Semites is not permissible from the philological point of view.但巴比伦的阿拉姆语和Chanaanitic闪米特人的分类是不是从语言学的角度来看允许的。

TERRITORY领地

The great mountain-chains which begin at the Syro-Cilician boundary, and then curving towards the south-west extend to the Persian Gulf, separate on the north and east the territory of the Semites from that of the other peoples of Western Asia.伟大的山链子开始在Syro - Cilician边界,然后朝着西南方向弯曲延伸到波斯湾,在北部和东部的来自西亚的闪米特人其他民族的领土分开。It includes the Syro-Arabian plain with the civilized countries extending to the east and west and the Arabian Peninsula which joins it on the south.它包括与文明国家扩展到东部和西部和阿拉伯半岛的南部加入它Syro -阿拉伯平原。The lowlands to the east are formed by the Euphrates and the Tigris, and include the homes of two very ancient civilizations, in the north the rather undulating Mesopotamia, in the south the low Babylonian plain; the land extending to the west from the lower Euphrates is called Chaldea.到东部低地所形成的幼发拉底河和底格里斯河,并包括两个非常古老文明的家园,在北方,而起伏的美索不达米亚,在南方低巴比伦平原,土地延长从低到西部幼发拉底河被称为迦勒底。 These are the territories of the East Semitic tribes and states.这是东方闪米特族和国家的领土。On the west lies Northern Syria, then the Lebanon Mountains with the intervening Coelo-Syria, the oasis of Damascus, the seat of an ancient culture, the Hauran, and in the midst of the desert the oasis of Palmyra (Tadmor).在西部位于叙利亚北部,黎巴嫩山则与干预Coelo - 叙利亚,在大马士革的绿洲,是一个古老的文化座椅,Hauran,并在沙漠中间的巴尔米拉(Tadmor)绿​​洲。These territories were at a later period occupied principally by Aramaic tribes.在这些被占领土阿拉姆部落主要是一个后期。 The territory on the coast extending westwards from Lebanon, and Palestine, which joins it on the south, are the principal seats of the Chanaanitic Semites.海岸上的领土延伸向西从黎巴嫩和巴勒斯坦,这是一起在南部,都是Chanaanitic闪米特人的主要席位。The mountainous country to the east of Arabia and the Sinaitic peninsula extending to the west of Arabia, belong to Arabia proper, the territory of the South Semites.多山的国家,在阿拉伯半岛东部和西乃半岛延伸至阿拉伯半岛西部,属阿拉伯正确,南方闪米特人的领土。

ORIGINAL HOME原来的家

The tribes which inhabited these territories, and to some extent still inhabit them, show in language, traits, and character a sharply characterized individuality which separates them distinctly from other peoples.这些部落的聚居地区,并在一定程度上仍居住在其中,显示语言,特征和个性的尖锐的个性特征区别于其他民族他们明显。 Their languages axe closely related to one another, not being almost independent branches of language, like the great groups of Indo-Germanic languages, but rather dialects of a single linguistic group.他们的语言斧头彼此密切相关,几乎没有独立的分支语言像印度日耳曼语言的伟大群体,而是一个语言群体的方言。Physically, also, the Semitic form it is found in Arabia.物理,此外,犹太人的形式存在于阿拉伯。Here also the phonetics and partly also the grammatical structure of the Semitic language, are most purely, as the vocabulary is most completely, preserved.这里也是语音和部分也是闪米特语言的语法结构,是最纯粹的,因为词汇是最完整,保存。From these as well as from other circumstances the conclusion has been drawn that Arabia should be considered the original home of the Semitic peoples.从这些以及其他情况下,结论已经得出,沙特阿拉伯,应认为是犹太人的民族原始的家。All the racial peculiarities of the Semites are best explained from the character of a desert people.所有的闪米特人的种族特性是最好的解释从一个沙漠人的性格。All Semites settled in civilized lands are, therefore, to be considered offshoots of the desert tribes, which were detached one after the other from the parent stem.在文明的土地上落户的所有闪米特人,因此,被认为是沙漠部落的分支,这是脱离父母干一个接一个。This pressing forward towards civilized lands was a continuous movement, often in a slow development lasting through centuries but often also in mighty and sudden invasions, the last of which appears in that of the Arabs of Islam.这个迫切的是对文明的土地上向前连续运动,往往在经过几个世纪的持久发展缓慢,但往往也威武突然入侵,最后其中的伊斯兰阿拉伯人出现。 The further question as to how the original ancestors of the Semites came to Arabia, is for the present beyond historical knowledge.作为如何对闪米特人的原始祖先来到沙特阿拉伯进一步的问题,是超越历史知识存在。

EAST SEMITES东闪米特人

The first emigrants from Arabia who succeeded in acquiring new landed possessions were the Semitic Babylonians.来自阿拉伯的谁在获取新降落的财产继承首先是犹太人移民巴比伦人。In Babylonia the invaders proceeded to adopt the highly-developed civilization of an ancient non-Semitic people, the Sumerians, and with it the cuneiform alphabets which the latter had invented.在巴比伦侵略者着手采用一种古老的非犹太人的人,苏美尔人高度发达的文明,它的其中后者发明了楔形文字字母。When this invasion occurred is not known; but that it was accomplished in several stages, and after temporary settlements on the borders, is unquestionable.当发生这种入侵是不知道,但它是分几个阶段完成,并经临时安置点上的边界,是毋庸置疑的。By 3000 BC the dominion of the Semites in Babylonia was an accomplished fact.到公元前3000年的闪米特人在巴比伦统治的既成事实。

Ethnologically considered, the Babylonians are a mixed people, composed partly of the Sumerian and the most ancient Semitic emigrants, partly also of the continuously invading West Semites, and further more of Kassites and other people, all of whom were amalgamated. Ethnologically认为,巴比伦人是一个混合的人,这部分的苏美尔和最古老的犹太人移民组成,部分也不断入侵西闪米特人,并进一步Kassites和其他人,所有的人都合并了。 The principal seat of the Semitic element was in the north, in the land of Accad, while in the south the Sumerians were most numerous.闪族元素的主要席位是在北方,在阿卡德土地,而在南部的苏美尔人是最多的。Under Sargon and Naram-Sin was completed the amalgamation of the Sumerian and the Accadian (Semitic) civilization, which in the age of Hammurabi appears as an accomplished fact.在萨尔贡和Naram善是完成了苏美尔和Accadian(犹太人)的文明,这在汉谟拉比时代作为既成事实出现合并。The mighty expansion of the kingdom to the Mediterranean naturally resulted in the wide extension of the Sumerian-Accadian civilization, and for a millennium and a half Babel was the intellectual centre of Western Asia.王国的强大扩展到地中海自然造成了苏美尔人,Accadian文明广泛的延伸,为千年半巴贝尔是西亚的智力中心。As is proved by the Tel-el-Amarna letters, the Babylonian language and script were known in Western Asia as well as in Egypt and Cyprus, at least at the courts of the rulers.由于是由电话- EL -阿玛尔纳信证明,巴比伦的语言和文字被称为西亚以及在埃及和塞浦路斯,至少在统治者的法院。At an early period the Semites must have invaded the mountainous territory to the east of Babylonia.在早期阶段的闪米特人必须有入侵的巴比伦东部山区的领土。Not until about 2300 BC do we find a foreign element in Elam.直到大约公元前2300年我们发现,在埃兰外国元素。Before this time, according to inscriptions which have been found, Babylonian Semites lived there.在此之前,根据已发现的铭文,巴比伦的闪米特人生活在那里。

On the Accadian border dwelt the Semitic tribes of Mesopotamia, which are included under the general term Subari.住在Accadian边境美索不达米亚的闪族部落,这是下的总称Subari包括在内。 The centre of this region is desert, but on the banks of the Euphrates, Chaboras, and Tigris are strips of land capable of cultivation, upon which at an early period Semitic settlements were established for the most part probably under local dynasties.这个地区的中心是沙漠,但在幼发拉底河,Chaboras和底格里斯河的银行是土地能种植带,在正处于早期犹太人定居点建立了大部分在局部时期可能。 The Subari include also the Assyrians, who founded on the right bank of the Tigris - between the mouths of the two Zab rivers a city which bore the same name as the race and its god.该Subari还包括亚述人,谁对底格里斯河右岸成立 - 在这两个扎卜河的城市,随着比赛的孔,其神同名的嘴巴。All these tribes and states were under the influence of Babylonia and its civilization, and Babylonian-Semitic was their official and literary language.所有这些部落和国家都是在巴比伦及其文明的影响,和巴比伦的犹太人是他们的官方和文学语言。But while in Babylonia the Semitic element was amalgamated with different strata of the original population, in Mesopotamia the Semitic type was more purely preserved.但是,在巴比伦的犹太人的因素是合并了原人口与不同阶层,在美索不达米亚的闪族类型是更纯粹的保留。

Briefly recapitulating the political history of the Eastern Semites, we may distinguish four periods.简要扼要东闪米特人的政治历史,我们可以区分四个时期。The first includes essentially the fortunes of the ancient Babylonian realm; the second witnesses the predominance of Assur, involved in constant struggles with Babylonia, which still maintained its independence.第一类包括了古代巴比伦王国的命运本质上,占主导地位的是亚述第二证人,在巴比伦,仍然保持其独立性不断斗争有关。 During the third period Amur, after the overthrow of Babylonia, achievers the summit of its power; this is followed, after the destruction of Nineveh, by the short prosperity of the new Babylonian Kingdom under the rule of the Chaldeans.在第三期阿穆尔之后,巴比伦,成就了它的力量峰会推翻,这是其次,在尼尼微毁灭,由新巴比伦王国下的迦勒底人统治短暂的繁荣。 This power, and with it the entire dominion of the Semites in south-western Asia, was overthrown by the Persians.这种权力,并与它的西南部地区闪米特人的整个统治,被推翻的波斯人。

CHANAANITIC SEMITESCHANAANITIC闪米特人

This designation was chosen because the races belonging to this group can best be studied in the land of Chanaan.这个称号是因为选择的比赛属于该组最好是在土地Chanaan研究。They represent a second wave of emigration into civilized territory.他们代表了文明的领土移民进入第二次浪潮。About the middle of the third millennium before Christ they were a race of nomads in a state of transition to settled life, whose invasions were directed against the East as well as the West.关于第三个千年的中间公元前他们是在一个游牧民族过渡到定居生活,其反对东执导,以及西方国家侵略的种族。About this time there constantly appear in Babylonia the names of gods, rulers, and other persons of a distinctly Chanaanitic character.大约在这个时候还有不断出现在巴比伦的神,统治者和一个明显Chanaanitic性质的其他人的姓名。To these belongs the so called first Babylonian dynasty, the most celebrated representative of which is Hammurabi.对于这些属于所谓的第一次巴比伦王朝,最著名的有代表性的是汉谟拉比。Its rule probably denotes the high tide of that new invasion of Babylonia, which also strongly influenced Assyria.它的规则可能表示的那巴比伦,亚述也强烈地影响新的入侵高潮。In time the new stratum was absorbed by the existing population, and thereby became a part of Babylonian Semitism.随着时间的推移,新阶层是由现有的人口,从而成为巴比伦的犹太人的一部分。Through the same invasion the civilized territory of the West received a new population, and even Egypt was affected.通过同样的入侵,西方文明的地区获得了新的人口,甚至埃及的影响。For the Hyksos (shepherd kings) are in the main only the last offshoot of that Chanaanitic invasion, and in their rulers we see a similar phenomenon as that of the Chanaanitic dynasty of Babylonia.对于希克索斯(牧羊人国王)在主只有该Chanaanitic入侵的最后分支,并在他们的统治者,我们看到的巴比伦Chanaanitic王朝类似的现象。 As regards the Semites in Chanaan itself, the earliest wave of the invasion, which in consequence of subsequent pressure was ultimately pushed forward to the coast, is known to us under the name of the Phoenicians.至于Chanaan本身的闪米特人的入侵,这在以后的压力,最终结果是推着海岸,是已知的最早的浪潮下,我们腓尼基人的名称。 A picture of the conditions of the races and principalities of Palestine in the fifteenth century BC is given in the Tel-el-Amarna letters.一对种族和巴勒斯坦公国在公元前十五世纪的条件图片中给出了电话,EL -阿玛尔纳信。In them we find a series of Chanaanitic glosses, which show that even at that time the most important of those characteristic peculiarities had been developed, which gave their distinctive character to the best known Chanaanitic dialects, the Phoenician and the Hebrew.在他们身上,我们找到了Chanaanitic美化系列,这表明,即使在当时最重要的特征特性已经被开发出来,这给了他们独特的性格最有名的Chanaanitic方言,腓尼基和希伯来文。 Further examples of Chanaanitic language of the second millennium, especially as regards the vocabulary, are the Semitic glosses in the Egyptian.进一步的例子,第二个千年Chanaanitic语言,特别是有关的词汇,在埃及的犹太人掩盖。

To the Chanaanitic races settled in Palestine belong also the Hebrew immigrants under Abraham, from whom again the Moabites and Ammonites separated.为了在巴勒斯坦定居的Chanaanitic比赛也属于下亚伯拉罕希伯来移民,从他们再次摩押人和亚扪人分开。 A people closely related to the Hebrews were also the Edomites in the Seir mountains, who later appear under the name of Idumaeans in Southern Judea.密切相关的希伯来一个人也是在西珥山以东,谁后来出现在南部的犹太Idumaeans名称。These mountains had before them been settled by the Horities who were partly expelled, partly absorbed by the Edomites.这些山面前有得到解决的谁是部分驱逐Horities,部分由以东吸收。A last wave of the immigration into Chanaan are the Israelites, descendants of the Hebrews, who after centuries of residence in Egypt, and after forty years of nomadic life in the desert, returned to the land of their fathers, of which they took possession after long and weary struggles.入境事务为Chanaan最后一波是以色列人,希伯来人的后裔,谁百年之后居住在埃及,经过四十多年的游牧生活沙漠,回到了他们的父亲的土地,他们占有了之后长和疲倦的斗争。 That the influence of Chanaanitic Semitism extended far into the North is proved by the two Zendsirli inscriptions: the so-called Hadad inscription of the ninth century, and the Panammu inscription of the eighth century, the language of which shows a Chanaanitic character with Aramaic intermixture.这是Chanaanitic反犹太主义的影响远远延伸到北证明由两个Zendsirli铭文:第九届世纪所谓的哈达题词,以及八世纪Panammu题词,语言,其中显示了阿拉姆混合液Chanaanitic字符。 On the other hand, the so-called building inscription of Bir-Rokeb, dating from the last third of the eighth century, is purely Aramaic - a proof that the Aramaization of Northern Syria was in full progress.另一方面,在比尔 - Rokeb所谓的建设题词,从十八世纪最后三分之一约会,纯粹是阿拉姆 - 一个证明了叙利亚北部Aramaization全面进展。

ARAMAIC SEMITES阿拉姆闪米特人

These represent a third wave of Semitic immigration.这些代表着犹太人移民的第三次浪潮。In cuneiform inscriptions dating from the beginning of the fourteenth century BC They are mentioned as Ahlami.在从公元前十四世纪开始约会楔形文字铭文他们提到Ahlami。Their expansion probably took place within the fifteenth and fourteenth centuries BC from the plain between the mouth of the Euphrates and the mountains of Edom.他们的扩张可能发生在第十五届和公元前十四世纪从幼发拉底河之间的口以东的山区和平原的地方。As early as the reign of Salmanasar I (1300) they had pressed far into Mesopotamia and become a public scourge, in consequence of which the stream of immigration could not longer be restrained.早在Salmanasar我(1300),他们已经远远压到美索不达米亚,并成为在公共祸害的后果,其中,入境事务处流无法再克制,统治初期。 During the new expansion of Assyrian power under Tiglath-Pileser I (1118-1093 BC) his reports enumerate victories over the Aramaeans.在亚述权力下Tiglath - Pileser I(公元前1118年至1093年)新扩建的报告中列举过的阿拉姆人的胜利。Their further advance into the territory of the Euphrates and towards Syria took place about 1100-1000 BC By then ninth century all Syria was Aramiaicized; many small states were formed, principally successors of the Hittite Kingdom.他们进入幼发拉底河对叙利亚的领土,进一步推进了地方公元前约1100年至1000年,届时第九世纪叙利亚Aramiaicized,许多小国组成,赫梯王国的主要接班人。 The most important Arammaean principality was that of Damascus, which was destroyed by Tiglath-Pileser III in 732.最重要的Arammaean公国是大马士革,这是由Tiglath - Pileser III摧毁732的。In like manner the remaining Aramaic states succumbed.同样地,其余阿拉姆国家屈服。A new rebellion was suppressed by Sargon, and with this the rule of the Aramaeans in Syria ended.一个新的叛乱被镇压了萨尔贡,以及与此在叙利亚的阿拉姆人的统治结束。In the meanwhile, the Aramaean element in Mesopotamia was constantly growing stronger.在此期间,在美索不达米亚Aramaean因素是不断壮大。At the beginning of the ninth century we hear of a number of small Aramaic states or Bedouin territories there.在第九世纪开始时,我们听到一个小阿拉姆国家或地区的贝都因人有多少。They were subdued under Assurnasirpal (Asshur-nasir-pal) III (884-860), and the independence of their princes was destroyed by his successor Salmanasar (Shalmaneser) II.他们制服下Assurnasirpal(亚述 - 纳西尔- PAL)三(884-860),以及他们的王子由他的继任者的独立性Salmanasar(撒缦以色)II销毁。Nevertheless, the immigration continued.然而,移民仍在继续。In the struggles of Assyria the Aramaeans of Mesopotamia always made common cause with its enemies and even under Assurbanipal they were allied with his opponents.在亚述斗争的美索不达米亚阿拉姆人总是与它的敌人的共同事业,即使在Assurbanipal他们与对手结盟。 From this time we hear nothing more of them.从这个时候我们听到而已其中。They were probably absorbed by the remaining population.他们可能吸收剩余人口。

Their language alone, which the Arammans in consequence of their numerical superiority forced upon these countries, survived in the sphere of the North Semitic civilization, and was not obliterated until the Islam's conquest.他们的语言,仅是在其数值在这些国家被迫优势,后果Arammans存活在北犹太人文明领域,并直到伊斯兰教的征服抹杀。 The potent Arabic displaced the Aramaic dialects with the exception of a few remnants.强效阿拉伯语流离失所的少数残余异常的阿拉姆语方言。Since the second half of the eighth century the use of Aramaic as a language of intercourse can be proved in Assyria, and about the same time it certainly prevailed in Babylonia among the commercial classes of the population.自八世纪下半叶的阿拉姆语作为一种性交语言的使用可在亚述证明,大约在同一时间肯定盛行在巴比伦人口中的商业类。 In the West also their language extended in a southerly direction as far as Northern Arabia.在西方,也延长了他们的语言偏南方向尽可能北部阿拉伯。For Aramaic had become the general language of commerce, which the Semitic peoples of Western Asia found themselves compelled to adopt in their commercial, cultural, and political relations.对于阿拉姆已成为商业的通用语言,这对西亚的闪族人民发现自己被迫采取在商业,文化和政治关系。The Aramaic elements of the population were absorbed by the other peoples of the existing civilized lands.人口的阿拉姆元素吸收现有文明的土地上的其他民族。They developed a distinct nationality in Damascus.他们制定了在大马士革不同国籍。In Mesopotamia itself, in the neighbourhood of Edessa, Mardin, and Nisibis, Aramaic individuality was long preserved.在美索不达米亚本身,在埃德萨,马尔丁和尼西比斯居委会,阿拉姆个性被长期保存。But the culture of this country was afterwards strongly permeated by Hellenism.但是,这个国家的文化是渗透着强烈的希腊之后。 One of the last political formations of the Aramaeans is found in Palmyra, which in the first century BC became the centre of a flourishing state under Arabian princes.在阿拉姆人的最后的政治单位之一,是发现在巴尔米拉,这是在公元前一世纪成为一个繁荣的状态下的阿拉伯王子的中心。 It flourished until the ambitious design of Odenathus and Zenobia to play the leading part in the East caused its destruction by the Romans.它蓬勃发展,直到Odenathus和塞诺维娅雄心勃勃的设计中发挥主导作用的东罗马人造成的破坏。A small fragment of Aramaic-speaking population may be still found in Ma'lula and two other villages of the Anti-Lebanon.一个阿拉姆语人口的一小片段可能仍然发现Ma'lula和两个反黎巴嫩其他村庄。So-called New Syrian dialects, descendants of the East Aramaic, are spoken in Tur'Abdin in Mesopotamia, to the east and north of Mosul, and in the neighbouring mountains of Kurdistan, as well as on the west shore of Lake Urmia.所谓新的叙利亚方言,东阿拉姆的后裔,是在美索不达米亚Tur'Abdin说,东部和北部的摩苏尔,并在库尔德斯坦邻近山区,以及对乌尔米耶湖西岸。 Of these Aramaic-speaking Christians a part lives on what was clearly ancient Aramaic territory; but for those on Lake Urmia we must assume a later immigration.其中阿拉姆语的基督徒生活的一部分清楚什么是古老的阿拉姆领土,但对于那些乌尔米耶湖上,我们必须承担更高​​的移民。 Nestorian bishops of Urmia are mentioned as early as AD 1111.的乌尔米耶景教主教提到在公元1111年初。

ARABIC-ABYSSINIAN SEMITES阿拉伯语的阿比西尼亚闪米特人

A. Arabs A.阿拉伯人

The most powerful branch of the Semitic group of peoples, are indigenous to Central and Northern Arabia, where even today the original character is most purely preserved.对人民犹太人组最强大的分支,是土著到中部和北部沙特阿拉伯,在那里即使在今天,原来性格是最纯粹的保留。At an early period they pressed forward into the neighbouring territories, partly to the North and partly to the South.在早期阶段,他们同步推进到邻近地区,部分原因是北方和南方的部分原因。In accordance with linguistic differences they are divided into North and South Arabians.按照与语言差异,他们分为南北阿拉伯人。Northern Arabia is composed partly of plains and deserts, and is, therefore, generally speaking, the home of wandering tribes of Bedouins.沙特阿拉伯北部部分组成的平原和沙漠,因此,一般来讲,​​流浪贝都因人部落的家。The South, on the other hand, is fertile and suitable for a settled population.南,另一方面,肥沃,为解决人口合适。 For this reason we find here at an early date political organizations, and the sites of ruins and inscriptions bear witness to the high culture which once prevailed.为此,我们在这里找到早日政治团体和遗迹和铭文的土地见证了高雅文化的一次胜利。The natural richness of the country and its favourable situation on the seacoast made the South Arabians at an early period an important commercial people.该国并在其海岸自然的丰富性作出有利的形势在早期阶段的一个重要商业人士南阿拉伯人。In the fertile lowlands of the South Arabian Djôf the Kingdom of Ma'in (Minaeans) flourished.在南方阿拉伯Djôf肥沃的低地王国的Ma'in(Minaeans)蓬勃发展。It is generally dated as early as the middle of the second millennium before Christ, although for the present it is better to maintain a somewhat sceptical attitude as regards this hypothesis.它一般是只要给了公元前第二个千年中早期,尽管目前最好是保持一个有点怀疑的态度,对于这种假设。At all events, the Minaeans, at an early period, probably avoiding the desert by a journey along the eastern coast, emigrated from North-eastern Arabia.在所有事件,Minaeans,在早期阶段,可能避免了旅途沿东部海岸的沙漠,移民从东北沙特阿拉伯。To the south and south-east of the Minaeans were the Katabans and the Hadramotites, who were cognate in language and who stood in active commercial relations with Ma'in, under whose political protectorate they seem to have lived.到南部和东南部的Minaeans是Katabans和Hadramotites,谁是同源的语言,谁站在活跃的商业关系Ma'in其政治的保护下,他们似乎生活。 The spirit of enterprise of this kingdom is shown by the foundation of a commercial colony in the north-western part of the peninsula in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Akabah, viz., Ma'in-Mussran (Mizraimitic, Egypt Ma'in).这个王国的企业精神是所表现出的商业殖民地,半岛西北部的的Akabah,即海湾,Ma'in - Mussran邻里部分基础(Mizraimitic,埃及Ma'in) 。The downfall of the Ma'in kingdom was, according to the usual assumption, connected with the rise of the Sabaean kingdom.该Ma'in王国灭亡了,按照通常的假设,与Sabaean王国的产生有关。The Sabaeans had likewise emigrated from the North, and in constant struggles had gradually spread their dominion over almost all Southern Arabia.该Sabaeans了同样来自北方的移民,并在不断的斗争已逐渐遍及几乎所有阿拉伯半岛南部的统治。Their capital was Ma'rib.他们的资本马里卜。Their numerous monuments and inscriptions extend from about 700 BC until almost the time of Mohammed.他们的许多古迹和铭文延长至约公元前700年,直到几乎是穆罕默德的时间。At the height of its power, Saba received a heavy blow by the loss of the monopoly of the carrying trade between India and the northern regions, when the Ptolemies entered into direct trade relations with India.在其权力的高度,萨巴收到的印度与北部地区进行贸易,垄断损失了沉重的打击时,托勒密分为直接贸易关系进入了印度。Still the Sabaean Kingdom maintained itself, with varying fortune, until about AD 300.英国仍然是Sabaean保持本身具有不同的财富,直到大约公元300。After its fall the once powerful Yeman was constantly under foreign domination, at last under Persian.在它的秋天,一次强大的野蛮是不断在外国统治下的波斯在最后。Ultimately, Southern Arabia was drawn into the circle of Islam.最终,南方阿拉伯被卷入伊斯兰圈。Its characteristic language was replaced by the Northern Arabic, and in only a few localities of the southern coast are remnants of it to be found: the so-called Mahri in Mahraland and the Socotri on the Island of Socotra.其特点是语言所取代北阿拉伯语,只在南部沿海一些地方是它的残留物被发现:在Mahraland所谓Mahri和对索科特拉岛Socotri。

Northern Arabia had in the meanwhile followed its own path.曾在北部阿拉伯同时遵循自己的道路。To the east of Mussran to far into the Syrian desert we hear of the activity of the Aribi (at first in the ninth century BC), from whom the entire peninsula finally received its name.到了Mussran东远到叙利亚沙漠我们对听到的Aribi活动(至少在公元前9世纪第一次),以从人的整个半岛终于接受了它的名称。 Assurbanibal, especially, boasts of important victories over them in his struggles with them for the mastery of Edom, Moab, and the Hauran (c. 650). Assurbanibal,特别是拥有重要的胜利在他的斗争和他们的以东,摩押的掌握,以及对他们的Hauran(约650)。Some of the tribes possessed the germs of political organization, as is shown in their government by kings and even queens.该部落的一些具有政治组织的病菌,如显示在他们的政府由国王和王后也。While these ancient Aribi for the most part constituted nomadic tribes, certain of their descendants became settled and achieved a high culture.虽然这些大部分古Aribi构成游牧部落,他们的后代一定成为解决,并取得了较高的文化。 Thus, about BC 200 we hear of the realm of the Nabataeans in the former territory of the Edomites.因此,约公元前200我们听到了在以东原境内的纳巴泰境界。From their cliff-town of Petra they gradually spread their dominion over North-western Arabia, Moab, the Hauran, and temporarily even over Damascus.从他们的佩特拉崖城镇,逐步遍及西北,沙特阿拉伯,摩押的Hauran,并暂时甚至超过大马士革的统治。Their prosperity was chiefly due to their carrying trade between Southern Arabia and Mediterranean lands.他们的繁荣,主要是由于其账面南部阿拉伯和地中海之间的土地交易。The language of their inscriptions and coins is Aramaic, but the names inscribed upon them are Arabic.其铭文和硬币的语言是阿拉姆语,但在他们的名字刻有阿拉伯文。In AD 106 the Nabataean Kingdom became a Roman province.公元106纳巴泰王国成为罗马省。Its annexation caused the prosperity of the above-mentioned Palmyra, whose aristocracy and dynasty were likewise descended from the Aribi.其吞并造成上述巴尔米拉,其贵族和王朝亦同样来自Aribi后裔繁荣。Subsequent to these many other small Arabian principalities developed on the boundary between civilized lands and the desert; but they were for the most part of short duration.继这些其他许多小的文明之间的土地和沙漠边界发达阿拉伯公国,但他们的大部分时间短了。Of greatest importance were two which stood respectively under the protection of the Byzantine Empire and the Persian Kingdom as buffer states of those great powers against the sons of the desert: the realm of the Ghassanites in the Hauran, and that of the Lahmites, the centre of which was Hira, to the south of Babylon.其中最重要的是两个站分别下,拜占庭帝国和作为缓冲这些大国的国家波斯王国保护,防止沙漠的儿子:在Hauran的Ghassanites境界,以及Lahmites认为,该中心其中的希拉,到巴比伦的南部。

In the second half of the sixth century AD, when Southern Arabia had outlived its political existence, Northern Arabia had not yet found a way to political union, and the entire peninsula threatened to become a battle-ground of Persian and Byzantine interests.在公元六世纪下半叶,当南部阿拉伯已失去其政治存在,北沙特阿拉伯尚未找到了政治联盟的方式,整个半岛的威胁成为波斯和拜占庭的利益争斗地面。 In one district alone, the centre of which was Mecca, did pure Arabism maintain an independent position.仅在一区,这是该中心的麦加,并纯阿拉伯主义保持独立地位。In this City, AD 570, Mohammed was born, the man who was destined to put into motion the last and most permanent of the movements which issued from Arabia.在这个城市,公元570,穆罕默德诞生,谁注定要投入运动的人最后也是最的运动,从沙特阿拉伯发出的永久性的。And so in the seventh century another evolution of Semitism took place, which in the victorious power of its attack and in its mighty expansion surpassed all that had gone before; the offshoots of which pressed forward to the Atlantic Ocean and into Europe itself.因此在第七世纪的另一个反犹太主义的演变发生,这在它的攻击力取得胜利,并在其强大的扩张超越了所有的前走后,其中分支同步推进到大西洋到欧洲本身。

B. AbyssiniansB.阿比西尼亚

At an early epoch South Arabian tribes emigrated to the opposite African coast, where Sabaean trade colonies had probably existed for a long time.在早期时代南阿拉伯部落移居到非洲海岸对面,那里Sabaean贸易殖民地有可能长时间存在。As early as the first century AD we find in the north of the Abyssinian mountain - lands the Semitic realm of Aksum.土地上的犹太人的阿克苏姆王国 - 早在公元一世纪,我们在阿比西尼亚山北发现早。The conquerors brought with them South Arabian letters and language, which in their new home gradually attained an individual character.征服者带来了南阿拉伯字母和语言,这在他们的新家逐步达到单个字符。From this language, the Ge'ez, wrongly called Ethiopian, two daughter-languages are descended, Tigré and Tigriña.从这个语言,Ge'ez,错误地称为埃塞俄比亚,两个女儿,语言的后裔,提格雷和虎纹。The confusion of this kingdom with Ethiopia probably owes its origin to the fact that the Semite emigrants adopted this name from the Graeco-Egyptian sailors, at a time when the Kingdom of Meroë was still in some repute.这种混乱可能与埃塞俄比亚王国欠它的起源的事实,闪米特人通过移民从希腊,埃及水手这个名字,而此时的Meroë王国仍然在一些声誉。 And so they called their kingdom Yteyopeya.于是他们叫他们的王国Yteyopeya。From Aksum as a base they gradually extended their dominion over all Abyssinia, the northern population of which today shows a purer Semitic type, while the southern is strongly mixed with Hamitic elements.从阿克苏姆他们为基地逐步扩大对所有阿比西尼亚,北方人口,其中今天显示了自己的统治纯犹太人的类型,而南部是强烈的含米特元素的混合。 At an early date the south must have been settled by Semites, who spoke a language related to Ge'ez, which was afterwards to a great extent influenced by the languages of the native population, particularly by the Agau dialects.早日南方必须得到解决的闪米特人,谁说话与Ge'ez,这是事后在很大程度上影响了当地居民的语言尤其是Agau方言,一种语言。 A descendant of this language is the Amharic, the present language of intercourse in Abyssinia itself and far beyond its boundaries.这种语言的后裔是阿姆哈拉语,在阿比西尼亚的性交本身并远远超出其边界存在的语言。

Publication information Written by F. Schühlein.出版信息F. Schühlein书面。Transcribed by Jeffrey L. Anderson.转录由杰弗里L.安德森。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.发布1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,DD,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约

Bibliography参考书目

See the articles on the separate titles treated above; also MASPERO, Histoire ancienne, des peuples de l'Orient classique (1895); MEYER, Gesch.见治疗上述单独的标题的文章,也马斯伯乐,Histoire安西安娜,德peuples DE L'东方的Classique(1895年); MEYER,Gesch。des Altertums, I (1909), extending to the sixteenth century BC; BARTON, Sketch of Semitic Origins (New York, 1902).DES Altertums,I(1909年),延伸至公元前十六世纪,巴顿,对犹太人的起源素描(纽约,1902年)。



Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历


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