Shiites, Shia, Shi'a什叶

General Information一般资料

The Shiites ( a name derived from the Arabic shiat Ali, "the party of Ali" ) constitute one of the two major branches of Islam, the other, larger branch being the Sunnites.什叶派( 阿里“的名字来源于阿拉伯语shiat阿里,”党 )构成逊尼派之一是两个主要分支伊斯兰教,另一方面,规模较大的分行。Following the death of Muhammad, disagreement arose as to the necessary qualifications and exact function of his successors as leaders (Imams) of the Muslim community.穆罕默德去世后,便产生了分歧必要的资格和作为穆斯林社区领袖(伊玛目),他的继任者的确切功能。The Shiites are those who insisted that only members of the Prophet's clan, specifically, the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatima and her husband Ali, could qualify.什叶派是那些谁坚持认为,先知的家族只有成员,特别是穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛和她的丈夫阿里的后裔可以出线。Although Ali became (655) the fourth caliph, he was murdered in 661, and the majority recognized the Umayyad Muawiya I as caliph.虽然阿里成为(655)第四哈里发,他被谋杀的661,大部分确认为哈里发的倭马亚Muawiya我。The Shiites, however, supported the claims of Ali's sons: Hasan, who died mysteriously c.什叶派,但是,支持阿里的儿子声称:哈桑,谁离奇死亡角669, and Husayn, who was killed by Umayyad troops at Kerbala in 680 (Kerbala, in Iraq, became the major pilgrimage center for the Shiites). 669,和Husayn,谁被打死伍玛亚德部队在卡尔巴拉在680(卡尔巴拉,在伊拉克,成为主要的什叶派朝圣中心)。

Shiism has three major subdivisions as well as numerous offshoots.什叶派有三个主要的分支机构以及众多的分支。The majority are called Twelvers (Ithna Ashariyya), because they recognize 12 imams, beginning with Ali; the 12th disappeared in 873 but will return as the Mahdi (messiah).大部分被称为Twelvers(Ithna Ashariyya),因为他们认识到十二伊玛目阿里开头;第12届消失在873,但将返回马赫迪(救世主)。Twelver Shiism became the state religion of Persia (Iran) under the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century; it retains that position in the present - day Islamic republic of Iran. Twelver什叶派成为下,在16世纪萨法维王朝的波斯(伊朗)的国教,它保留在目前的位置 - 日伊朗伊斯兰共和国。The other two major subdivisions are the Seveners (Ismailis) and the Fivers (Zaydites).其他两大主要分支是Seveners(伊斯玛)Fivers(Zaydites)。

Shiism emphasizes the spiritual function of the Prophet's successor, the imam, in whom the Prophetic Light is ever present in this world.什叶派强调先知的继任者,伊玛目,在其中的预言光永远在这个世界存在的精神功能。He is believed to be divinely protected against sin and error and to have an infallible understanding of the Koran, a supernatural knowledge of future events, and intercessory powers.他被认为是神圣的保护,防止罪恶和错误,并有一可兰经,对未来事件的超自然知识犯错的理解和代祷的权力。

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Bibliography: 参考书目:
JR Cole and NR Keddie, eds., Shi'ism and Social Protest (1986); M Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam (1985); A Tabatabai, Shi'ite Islam (1975). Jr的科尔和NR凯迪合编,什叶派和社会抗议(1986年);的。m魔门,就什叶派伊斯兰教(1985)导言,一个Tabatabai,什叶派伊斯兰教(1975年)。

Shia Islam什叶派穆斯林

General Information一般资料

The followers of Ali were known as the Shia (partisans) of Ali.阿里的追随者被称为什叶派(党派)的阿里。 Although they began as a political group, the Shia, or Shia Muslims, became a sect with specific theological and doctrinal positions.虽然他们作为一个政治团体,什叶派,什叶派穆斯林或开始变成了具体的神学和教义派的立场。 A key event in the history of the Shia and for all Muslims was the tragic death at Karbala of Husayn, the son of Ali, and Muhammad's daughter Fatima.在一个什叶派穆斯林的历史和所有重要的事件是在卡尔巴拉的侯赛因,对阿里的儿子,穆罕默德的女儿法蒂玛惨死。Husayn had refused to recognize the legitimacy of the rule of the Umayyad Yazid, the son of Mu'awiyah, and was on his way to rally support for his cause in Kûfah.侯赛因拒绝承认的倭马亚亚西德,穆阿维叶的儿子统治的合法性,并在途中,他在Kûfah团结事业的支持了。His plans were exposed before he arrived at Kûfah, however, and a large Umayyad army met him and 70 members of his family at the outskirts of the city.他的计划被曝光之前,他在Kûfah到达,但是,一遇到大的倭马亚军队在这个城市的郊区他和他的家人70。The Umayyads offered Husayn the choice between a humiliating submission to their rule or a battle and definite death.侯赛因提供了倭马亚王朝之间的屈辱提交给他们的统治或战斗和明确的生死抉择。Husayn chose to fight, and he and all the members of his family with him were massacred.侯赛因选择了战斗,他和所有他与他的家人被屠杀。The incident was of little significance from a military point of view, but it was a defining moment in the history of Shia Islam.这一事件几乎没有任何意义从军事角度来看,但它是一个在什叶派伊斯兰历史的决定性时刻。Although not all Muslims are Shia Muslims, all Muslims view Husayn as a martyr for living up to his principles even to death.虽然并非所有的穆斯林什叶派穆斯林,所有穆斯林看作是殉道者辜负他的原则,甚至死亡侯赛因。

The Twelver Shia, or Ithna-'Ashariyya, is the largest of the Shia Muslim sects. Twelver 什叶派,Ithna - 'Ashariyya,是最大的教派的什叶派穆斯林。They believe that legitimate Islamic leadership is vested in a line of descent starting with Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, through Ali's two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and then through Husayn's descendants. These were the first 12 imams, or leaders of the Shia Muslim community.他们认为,合法的伊斯兰领导,属于侯赛因一行,下降开始与穆罕默德的表弟和女婿阿里,通过阿里的两个儿子,哈桑和然后通过侯赛因的后代。 这是第12伊玛目,或领导人在什叶派穆斯林社区。The Shia Muslims believe that Muhammad designated all 12 successors by name and that they inherited a special knowledge of the true meaning of the scripture that was passed from father to son, beginning with the Prophet himself.什叶派穆斯林相信穆罕默德指定名称的所有12个继承人,他们继承了一个对可以从父亲传给儿子经文的真正含义的专业知识,与自己的先知的开始。 This family, along with its loyal followers and representatives, has political authority over the Shia Muslims.这个家庭,连同其忠实追随者和代表,在什叶派穆斯林的政治权威。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈迈德学Dallal


General Information一般资料


Shiites (Arabic, "partisans") are the only surviving major sectarian movement in Islam.什叶派(阿拉伯语,“游击队员”)是唯一幸存的伊斯兰教主要教派运动。


The Shiites emerged out of a dispute over the succession to Muhammad.什叶派浮现出比穆罕默德的继承纠纷。After the assassination of the fourth caliph, Ali, in 661, the Shiites (partisans of Ali) were those Muslims claiming that it had been Ali's right to succeed Muhammad directly and that the previous caliphs had therefore been usurpers.之后的第四代哈里发阿里在661,暗杀什叶派(游击队员阿里)是那些穆斯林声称它已阿里穆罕默德继承权,而以前的直接哈里发因此被篡夺。 They maintained that only the descendants of Ali and his wife, Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, were entitled to rule the Muslim community.他们认为,只有阿里和他的妻子法蒂玛,穆罕默德的女儿,子孙都有权统治穆斯林社区。 This doctrine, known as legitimism, was rejected by the majority of the Muslim community, who came to be known as Sunnites.这一学说,被称为正统,被拒绝了逊尼派穆斯林社区的多数,谁知道来的

Distinctive Beliefs and Practices独特的信仰和习俗

The Shiites developed a doctrine of the infallibility, sinlessness, and divine right to authority of the descendants of Ali, whom they called Imams.什叶派开发出犯错误,清白的学说,和神圣的权利,阿里人的后裔,他们所谓的伊玛目权威。The main body of Shiites recognize 12 imams and are called the "Twelvers"; the Ismailis recognize 7 and are called the "Seveners."主体的什叶派伊玛目,12承认被称为“Twelvers”;的伊斯玛仪派承认7和被称为“Seveners。” The last imam disappeared in 880, and Shiites to this day await his return, when they believe that justice will be established on earth.最后消失在伊玛目880,并以这一天什叶派等待他回来,当他们相信正义将是地球上建立的。

The Imam, as the Shiites conceive him, is a repository of wisdom, absolute in his political and religious authority. Under the theoretical aegis of the 12th imam, Shiite religious leaders exercise immense influence. They are more likely to take an innovative approach to religious issues and to defy political authority than Sunnites.伊玛目,他作为什叶派设想,是在和他的政治宗教权威信息库的智慧,绝对的。 根据第12伊玛目主持的理论,什叶派宗教领袖行使巨大的影响力。他们更可能采取一种创新的方法,宗教和藐视的问题比逊尼派政治权威。

During the early centuries of Islam, the Shiites, politically defeated and persecuted, became an underground movement and adopted the principles of taqwa (which in this case means "dissimulation of faith") and of an esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an (Koran).在伊斯兰教什叶派,政治上打败和迫害,早在几百年成为一个地下运动,并通过了taqwa的原则(在这种情况下意味着“信仰异化”)和一本古兰经(古兰经)深奥的解释。 Thus, Shiites believe that beneath the explicit and literal meaning of the Qur'an are other levels of meaning, which are known only to the imam, who can reveal them to chosen followers.因此,什叶派认为,下方的古兰经明确和字面意思是其他层次的含义,这是已知的唯一的伊玛目,谁能够揭示他们选择的追随者。 These principles, useful to the movement when it was politically powerless, are still accepted by Shiites. They also affirm the validity of a form of temporary marriage called muta. Shiites pay the tax called zakat (originally levied by Muhammad to help the poor and later levied by Muslim states) to their religious leaders rather than to state authorities, as they did before achieving political power (for instance, in Iran in the 15th century).这些原则,有益的运动时,它在政治上无能为力,仍然接受了什叶派穆斯林。 他们还肯定了婚姻的有效性临时的一种形式称为突变。什叶派缴税称为扎卡特(原穆罕默德征收来帮助穷人和更高征收的穆斯林国家)到他们的宗教领袖,而不是国家机关,因为他们在实现政治权力(例如,在15世纪伊朗)没有。 As a result, many Shiite leaders in Iran and Iraq have immense wealth and property.因此,在伊朗和伊拉克的许多什叶派领导人巨大的财富和财产。

Development and Extent发展和范围

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Shia Islam had a large following throughout the Middle East, but the spread of the popular mystical movement known as Sufism seems to have greatly diminished its strength.在第10和11世纪,什叶派伊斯兰教在整个中东地区拥有大批追随者,但流行的运动称为神秘的苏菲主义的蔓延似乎已大大削弱其实力。 Today Shiites are in the majority in Iran, and large numbers are found in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, India, Pakistan, and parts of Central Asia.今天,什叶派在伊朗的大多数,大量存在于伊拉克,叙利亚,黎巴嫩,印度,巴基斯坦和中亚部分地区。Their total number exceeds 165 million.他们的总人数超过1.65亿美元。

In recent years several Shiite leaders, including the Iranian political leader the Ayatollah Khomeini, advocated rapprochement and solidarity with Sunni Islam.近年来一些什叶派领导人,包括伊朗的政治领袖霍梅尼,主张和解,并与逊尼派伊斯兰团结。

Fazlur RahmanFazlur拉赫曼


General Information一般资料

Imam (Arabic, "leader" or "exemplar"), in general usage in Islam, is the political head of the Muslim community or the person who leads prayer services.伊玛目(阿拉伯语,“领导者”或“模范”),在一般使用伊斯兰教,是穆斯林社区或线索的人谁祈祷政治领导。The Prophet Muhammad and his early successors-including those of the Umayyad caliphate-performed both functions; the head of state himself led Friday prayers in the central capital mosque, and his governors did the same in provincial capitals.先知穆罕默德和他早期的接班人,包括那些伍麦叶哈里发,履行两种职能;国家元首亲自领导的中央资金清真寺周五祈祷,而他却在省会省长相同。 Later, however, administrative and political functions were separated from religious ones.然而,后来的行政和政治职能从宗教的分离。

In Shia Islam, the term imam is applied to the person who is both the political and religious leader. He must be descended from Ali and Fatima (the son-in-law and daughter of the Prophet Muhammad). 在什叶派穆斯林,阿訇一词应用的人,谁是在政治和宗教领袖。他必须)后裔阿里和法蒂玛(儿子女婿和女儿的先知穆罕默德。No imam, however, except Ali, ever ruled, and beginning with the sixth imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, all eschewed political power. The imam is regarded by the main body of Shiites as immune from error and sin and by the Ismailis as a veritable incarnation of God. Both sects believe the last imam to be in concealment and await his return.没有伊玛目,不过阿里,除,曾统治和权力开始与第六伊玛目,贾法铝萨迪克,所有回避政治。 依阿牧视为是由错误和什叶派穆斯林为主体的罪,免于被作为伊斯玛名副其实的神的化身。两个教派认为过去阿訇要在隐瞒和等待他回来。

Fazlur RahmanFazlur拉赫曼


Advanced Information先进的信息


The term Shi'a is Arabic for 'group' or 'faction'.什叶派一词是'组'或'派'阿拉伯语。It is applied to those who believe that, after the death of the Prophet, the Imamate (the political and religious leadership of the Muslim community) should have gone to 'Ali - the cousin and son-in-law of the prophet - and his descendants as a divine right.它是适用于那些谁相信,经过的先知死亡,伊斯兰教长(在穆斯林社会的政治和宗教领导人)应该去阿里 - 的表弟和先知女婿 - 他后代作为一个神圣的权利。The three caliphs who preceded 'Ali - Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman - were not intended by Muhammad to be his immediate successors.' - 艾布伯克尔,阿里欧麦尔和'奥斯曼 - 三个谁之前由穆罕默德哈里发不打算做他的直接继承人。

The Imam is regarded by Shi'ites not merely as a political leader but as a metaphysical being, one who is without sin, whose doctrinal pronouncements are infallible and who bestows true knowledge on humanity.伊玛目被视为是什叶派不只是作为一个政治领袖,但作为一种形而上学的存在,一个谁没有罪,他的教义的言论是万无一失的,谁赐给人类的真正的知识。 The Imams are referred to within the Shi'ite tradition as masum - free from error or sin - and are regarded by the majority of Shi'as as twelve in number.伊玛目是指在传统的masum什叶派 - 从错误或罪过自由 - 并且由12号什叶派中的大多数认为。The last Imam, the Mahdi, is believed not to have died but to be in hiding and will appear at the end of time in order to bring about the victory of the Shi'a faith.最后的伊玛目,马赫迪是不信已经死亡,但要想在隐藏和将在年底出现的时间,以使有关的什叶派信仰的胜利。

Unlike the Sunnis, who perform prayers five times a day, the Shi'ites pray three times a day: in the morning, in the afternoon, and at night. Like other Muslims, they perform ritual ablutions before prayer. 不同的是逊尼派,谁执行一天五次祈祷,祈祷的什叶派每天三次:上午,下午和晚上。在其他穆斯林一样,他们的祈祷仪式之前执行浴室。 However, they customarily place a tiny tablet of clay brought from a holy place on the spot where their forehead will touch the ground.然而,他们习惯了从一个地点,当场在他们的额头接触地面粘土带来神圣的地方小片。They also build very sumptuous monuments to their saints, organize pilgrimages to the tombs of the Imams and their descendants, and turn death and martyrdom into the focal point of their devotion.他们还建立非常华丽的纪念碑的圣人,组织朝圣的伊玛目和他们的后代的墓葬,并把他们的奉献焦点死亡和殉难。

In the sphere of law the principal difference between Shi'a and Sunni is that Shi'a allows for temporary marriage, called mu'tah, which can legally be contracted for a fixed period of time on the provision of a fixed dower.在法律领域的什叶派和逊尼派之间的主要区别是,什叶派的临时婚姻称为mu'tah,可以合法地在一段时间上规定一个固定的嫁妆固定期限合同允许。 With regard to theology, the Shi'a, particularly the Zaydis and Imamis, differ from the Sunnis in adopting the principles of the Mu'tazilite school of theology.关于神学,什叶派,特别是Zaydis和Imamis,不同于逊尼派在通过学校的神学Mu'tazilite的原则。 A controversial aspect of Shi'a theology is called taqiya, which means dissimulation of one's real beliefs.一个有争议的什叶派神学方面是所谓taqiya,这意味着一个人的真正信仰异化。This doctrine allows believers to hide their true beliefs for the sake of their own self-protection in the face of persecution.这一学说允许信徒隐藏自己的自我,在面对保护而遭受迫害的真正的信仰。


The movement that came to be known as Shi'a first appeared as a political tendency resulting from the conflict between the supporters of the Prophet's son in law, 'Ali, and the Umayyad dynasty over who should have authority over the Muslim community.这个运动,后来被称为什叶派第一次作为一个政治从法律冲突的先知的儿子的支持者,'阿里和有关谁应该对穆斯林社会的倭马亚王朝的权威造成倾向出现。 Following the assassination of 'Ali, his supporters claimed that leadership should go to 'Ali's descendants.随着刺杀阿里,他的支持者声称,领导应该到阿里的后裔。The conflict was exacerbated by the assassination in 671 of Ali's son, Husain, at the hands of government troops, an event which gave the movement a distinctively religious, as well as political, impulse.冲突加剧了在政府军手中暗杀阿里的儿子,侯赛因,671,这给了一个事件运动的独特的宗教,以及政治,冲动。

According to mainstream Shi'a (The Twelver Shi'is) there have been twelve Imams who have succeeded the Prophet Muhammad.根据主流什叶派(该Twelver Shi'is)已有十二个成功谁先知穆罕默德伊玛目。These are: 1) Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (d.661); 2) al-Hasan (d.670); 3) al-Husayn (d.680); 4) Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (d.713); 5) Muhammad al-Baqir (d.733); 6) Ja'far al-Sadiq (d.765); 7) Musa al-Kazim (d.799); 8) 'Ali al-Rida (d.818); 9) Muhammad al-Jawad (d.835); 10) 'ali al-Hadi (d.868); 11) al-Hasan al-'Askari (d.874); 12) Muhammad al-Mahdi.它们是:1)阿里的表弟和女婿穆罕默德(d.661),2)哈桑(d.670),3)铝侯赛因(d.680),4)阿里Zayn人 - '阿比丁(d.713)5)穆罕默德Baqir(d.733),6)Ja'far基地萨迪克(d.765)7)香蕉基地Kazim(d.799),8)'阿里日达(d.818),9)穆罕默德贾瓦德(d.835); 10)'阿里哈迪(d.868); 11)铝哈桑'Askari(d.874); 12)穆罕默德马赫迪。

The early history of the Shi'ite branch of Islam is characterised by a series of unsuccessful insurrections against the dominant Sunnis and the subsequent persecution of the Shi'is by the Sunnis.对伊斯兰教的什叶派分支早期历史的特点是对占主导地位的逊尼派和由逊尼派人的起义失败Shi'is随后的一系列迫害。 However, in the 10th century the Shi'is acquired a substantial measure of self-determination as a result of the establishment of various independent Shi'i dynasties which came to control much of the Muslim world.然而,在10世纪的Shi'is收购作为各种独立的什叶派朝代来控制造成穆斯林世界建立一个自决重大措施。In Iraq and Iran a dynasty called the Buyids held sway.在伊拉克和伊朗的朝代称为Buyids当道。Syria was controlled by the Shi'i Hamdanid dynasty.叙利亚控制的什叶派Hamdanid王朝。Egypt and much of North Africa was under the control or influence of the Isma'ili Fatimid dynasty.埃及和北非的大部分是根据控制或Isma'ili法蒂玛王朝的影响力。

In the 11th century, however, these dynasties were swept away by Turkish tribes who were invading the region from Central Asia and who came to adopt Sunni, rather than, Shi'i Islam.在11世纪,然而,这些朝代的冲走谁被入侵,从中亚地区,谁来采取,而不是什叶派伊斯兰教逊尼派,土耳其部落。 These were followed by invasions by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries, the first of which was particularly devastating for both Sunni and Shi'i Muslims.这些都是由在13和14世纪蒙古人入侵后,其中第一项是特别为什叶派穆斯林逊尼派和毁灭性的。

Shi'i independence was once again reestablished with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty in Iran at the beginning of the 16th century.什叶派独立再次重新建立与该萨法维王朝在伊朗兴起于16世纪初。The establishment of the Safavids exacerbated tensions between the Sunni and Shi'i areas of the Islamic world.该Safavids之间建立加剧逊尼派和什叶派的伊斯兰世界地区的紧张局势。The rise of the Ottoman empire to the west led to a long series of struggles between the two empires for control of Iraq.在奥斯曼帝国对西方上升导致了对伊拉克之间的控制两个帝国长期的一系列斗争。It was, however, internal weaknesses followed by the invasion of Iran by the Safavids' Afghani subjects that led to the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722.这是,然而,由于伊朗的Safavids',导致了萨法维王朝在1722年秋季主体入侵阿富汗之后内部的弱点。

After a brief attempt to reimpose Sunni Islam on Iran by its new Shah, Nadir Khan (r.1736-47), and a period of anarchy and factional fighting following Nadir Khan's assassination in 1747, the country came under the authority of Karim Khan (r.1750-79) whose wise rule brought temporary stability and prosperity to the region.经过短暂的尝试重新设定其新沙阿,纳迪尔汗(r.1736 - 47),以及无政府主义和派系斗争时期以下纳迪尔汗在1747年伊朗伊斯兰暗杀逊尼派,该国受到的卡里姆汗管理局( r.1750 - 79),其明智的统治,使暂时的稳定和繁荣的地区。Following the death of Karim Khan in 1779 the country was led by a series of weak leaders until a new dynasty, the Qajars, established themselves and ruled Iran until 1909.继卡里姆汗在1779年死亡的国家是由弱领导人系列LED,直到一个新王朝,Qajars,确立了自己和统治,直到1909年伊朗。 The reign of the Qajars coincided with the beginnings of the attempt to modernise Iran in the context of the growing impact of the European presence in Iran.该Qajars统治恰逢现代化的企图在伊朗的欧洲业务的影响越来越大背景下伊朗的开端。

The attempt to modernise and westernise Iran was taken further by the final ruling dynasty the Pahlavis (1925-1979).现代化的尝试和westernise伊朗采取的最终裁决王朝的Pahlavis(1925年至1979年)进一步。 Following the ascendancy of the Pahlavis a series of laws were passed which were designed to erode the power of Islamic law in favour of a form of secularised civil law.继Pahlavis崛起了一系列法律获得通过的旨在削弱一个世俗化的民事法律的形式有利于伊斯兰法律的权力。In 1928 a law was passed making it illegal to wear traditional dress.在1928年通过一项法律,使非法穿传统服饰。In the 1931 the power of the religious courts was reduced.在1931年的宗教法庭的权力减少。In 1936 the use of the veil was forbidden.在1936年被禁止使用面纱。Between 1941 and 1953 the Shah was forced to abdicate because of his support for the National Socialists during the second world war.1941年至1953年巴列维国王被迫退位,因为他为国家社会党的支持,在第二次世界战争。 On his return he continued the process of secularisation and westernisation.在他的回报,他继续和西方世俗化的过程。

Growing opposition to the Shah's westernising policies on the part of the clergy and their supporters, accompanied by increased political corruption and oppression within Iran, led to the downfall of the Shah in 1979 and its replacement with an Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatullah Khomeini.生长反对巴列维国王的westernising对神职人员和他们的支持者,通过加强政治腐败和压迫的陪同下在伊朗的部分政策,导致在1979年垮台的沙阿及其与一个受Ayatullah霍梅尼统治伊斯兰共和国的替代品。 The regime immediately introduced the Shi'i version of the shari'ah, thereby undoing the modernising reforms that had been introduced by the Pahlavis and their predecessors.该政权立即介绍了什叶派伊斯兰教教法的版本,从而解开正在现代化,民政事务总署已在Pahlavis及其前任推行的改革。 Although Ayatullah Khomeini died in 1989, the Islamic revolution which he founded continues to dominate the political and religious life of Iran.虽然Ayatullah霍梅尼于1989年去世,伊斯兰革命,他创办继续占主导地位的伊朗政治和宗教生活。


See Islam.见伊斯兰教。


The Twelver Shi'i population in 1980 was estimated to be 72,750,000.该Twelver什叶派在1980年人口估计为7275.0万。 There are important Shi'i communities in the following countries: Iran (34,000,000); Pakistan (12,000,000); India (10,000,000); Iraq 7,500,000; the former Soviet Union (4,000,000); Turkey (1,500,000); Afghanistan (1,300,000); Lebanon (1,000,000); Kuwait (270,000); Saudi Arabia (250,000); Bahrain (160,000); Syria (50,000).有一些重要的什叶派社区在以下国家:伊朗(34000000),巴基斯坦(12,000,000),印度(40万),伊拉克7,500,000,前苏联(4,000,000),土耳其(150万),阿富汗(1,300,000),黎巴嫩( 1,000,000),科威特(27万),沙特阿拉伯(25万),巴林(160,000);叙利亚(50,000)。There are also small Shi'i communities in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Australia and New Zealand (Momen 1985, 282).也有小的什叶派在欧洲,非洲,北美和南美,澳大利亚和新西兰(魔门1985年,282)社区。

Headquarters / Main Centre总部/主要中心

The tradition has no headquarters.这个传统一直没有总部。It is above all dominant in Iran.它首先是在伊朗占主导地位。

Bülent Þenay比伦特埃杰Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project世界宗教概况项目

General Essay on Shi'a Islam伊斯兰教什叶派一般征文

Advanced Information先进的信息

The branch of Islam that is called Shi'a has its origins in a series of disputes within the early Muslim community over who has the right to rule the community.伊斯兰教的一个分支,被称为什叶派一直处于早期的穆斯林社区内的一系列纠纷,谁拥有统治权社会的起源。Shi'ites believe that shortly before his death the Prophet Muhammad publicly nominated his cousin and son-in-law, 'Ali, to be his successor.什叶派相信,不久他去世之前的先知穆罕默德公开提名他的表弟和女婿,阿里,成为他的继任者。However, according to Shi'ites, contrary to the expressed wishes of the Prophet, the community came under the leadership of three of his companions: Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman ibn 'Affan.然而,根据什叶派,违背了先知所表达的意愿,受到了社会各界对他的三个同伴领导:艾布伯克尔,欧麦尔,和'奥斯曼本阿凡。 It was only as a consequence of the assassination of 'Uthaman in 656 that 'Ali himself was chosen as caliph.它只是在656的Uthaman'阿里本人被选为作为哈里发的暗杀的后果。

Not everyone accepted 'Ali's authority.不是每个人都接受'阿里的权威。A rebellion led by 'A'isha, the daughter of Abu Bakr and wife of the Prophet, was defeated by 'Ali's supporters at the Battle of the Camel, which took place near Basra in 656.阿里率领的支持者A'isha,在艾布伯克尔女儿和妻子的先知,被打败'在骆驼,发生在巴士拉附近的656处战场上的反叛。 (The battle is so-called because 'Ali observed the battle while seated on a camel.) A second rebellion, led by Mu'awiyya of the Ummayad clan, culminated in the inconclusive battle of Sefin in Iraq. (战斗是所谓因为'阿里观察战斗而坐在骆驼上。)第二叛乱,由Mu'awiyya的Ummayad家族中的Sefin在伊拉克的战斗最终定论,领导。 The conflict between 'Ali and Mu'awiyya was brought to an end in 661 when 'Ali was stabbed to death by a Kharijite in front of a mosque in his capital city Kufa.之间的矛盾,阿里和Mu'awiyya被带到661至结束时,阿里被刺死在一个由在首都城市库法清真寺前Kharijite。 'Ali's death enabled Mu'awiyya to establish himself as the next caliph.阿里之死使Mu'awiyya确立为自己的下一个哈里发。

The response of 'Ali's sons, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, to the ascendancy of the Umayyads was to remain silent in the hope that, on the death of Mu'awiyya, the caliphate would be transferred back to the Prophet's family.在阿里的儿子响应,哈桑和al -侯赛因,到了倭马亚王朝崛起是留在这,在Mu'awiyya死亡,哈里发将转回到先知的家庭的希望保持沉默。When, however, the caliphate was passed on to Mu'awiyya's son, Yazid, Husayn was persuaded to rebel against the Ummayads.但是,当哈里发是转嫁到Mu'awiyya的儿子,亚齐德,侯赛因被说服反对Ummayads造反。The rebellion proved to be futile.叛乱被证明是徒劳的。In 680 Husayn, his family and seventy of his followers were intercepted and massacred at a site called Karbala', near Kufa.在680侯赛因,他的家人和他的追随者被截获和七十称为卡尔巴拉附近的库法的网站,屠杀。This event, which is commemorated annually by Shi'ites, is generally regarded as the point at which Shi'ism emerged as a religious movement in its own right.此事件,这是值得纪念的,每年由什叶派,被普遍认为是什叶派的点位作为其本身的宗教运动出现了。

Central to Shi'i belief is the doctrine of the Imam. The status of the Imam within Shi'i Islam is different from that of the Sunni caliph. 什叶派信仰的核心是伊玛目教义的。伊斯兰教什叶派的伊玛目状态在不同的逊尼派哈里发是从那个了。The Sunni caliph is the spiritual and political head of the community.逊尼派哈里发是社会的精神和政治领袖。The Shi'i Imam, however, is not only the political and religious leader of the Shi'i community; he is also considered to be infallible and free of sin and, therefore, one whose unique spiritual status enables him to mediate between the human world and the invisible world.在什叶派伊玛目,不过,不仅是对什叶派社区的政治和宗教领袖,他也被认为是可靠的和罪恶的自由,因此,一其独特的精神状态使他能够在人类之间进行调解世界和无形世界。

The various schisms that have taken place within the tradition are largely to do with disputes over who has the right to inherit the Imamate.那些地方的传统内采取各种分裂主要是跟在谁有权继承纠纷的伊斯兰教长。The solid lines in the chart depict groups which have separated themselves from the dominant tradition as a result of disagreements over who is the rightful heir to the Imam.图中的实线描绘有脱离传统,占主导地位的分歧过谁是合法继承了自己的伊玛目组的结果。The broken lines reveal groups who have adopted doctrines and practices that are so different from those of the mainstream Islam that they are considered by mainstream Shi'a to have placed themselves outside of the Islamic tradition.虚线表明谁通过了理论和实践,是如此不同于主流伊斯兰教的主流,他们是什叶派认为已把自己的伊斯兰传统外界团体。

The main branch of Shi'ite Islam is called Imamiyyah or Twelver Shi'ism.伊斯兰教的什叶派主要分支被称为Imamiyyah或Twelver什叶派。This branch claims that there have been twelve Imams who have descended from the Prophet Muhammad.这个分支声称,已有十二伊玛目从谁先知穆罕默德的后裔。With the exception of the third Imam, Husayn, who became Imam after his brother abdicated his claim to the caliphate, the Imamate has been passed down from father to son.随着第三伊玛目,侯赛因,谁成为伊玛目后,他的弟弟异常退位他自称哈里发的伊斯兰教长已传了从父亲到儿子。The twelfth Imam, however, did not have any sons and did not designate a successor.第十二伊玛目,不过,没有任何的儿子,并没有指定接班人。According to Shi'i tradition, this Imam did not die but is concealed and will return one day to establish a reign of peace on earth.根据什叶派的传统,这伊玛目没有死,而是隐蔽,会回来的一天能建立一个和平的地球上的统治。The twelfth Imam is known as the Mahdi.第十二伊玛目马赫迪是被称为。

The first major schisms took place in the 8th century.第一次重大分裂发生在8世纪。The first of these was led by Zayd b.'Ali, the son of the fourth Imam and half-brother of the fifth Imam.这些首先是领导的宰德B的阿里,第四和第五伊玛目伊玛目半的弟弟的儿子。He challenged the principle that the Imamate should automatically go to the eldest son of the previous Imam; the Imamate should instead be available to any descendant of 'Ali who was worthy of the position.他要求的原则,即伊斯兰教长应自动转到伊玛目前大儿子的伊斯兰教长反而应当提供给任何阿里的后裔谁是值得的立场。 Zayd's followers came to be known as Zaydis.栽德的追随者后来被Zaydis而闻名。Zaydi communities continue to the present day in the Yemen region.Zaydi社区继续在也门地区至今。

In the same century a second dispute arose over who should succeed the sixth Imam, Jaf'ar al-Sadiq (d.765).在同一个世纪的第二个争议出现谁应该接替第六伊玛​​目,Jaf'ar基地萨迪克(d.765)。 The Imamate was originally intended to go to al-Sadiq's eldest son, Isma'il.最初的伊斯兰教长打算去基地萨迪克的长子,伊斯梅尔。 However, because Isma'il predeceased his father by five years, al-Sadiq nominated his younger son, al-Must'alis, to be the next Imam.但是,由于伊斯梅尔先于他的父亲五年,基地萨迪克提名他的小儿子,基地Must'alis,成为下一个阿訇。This decision was not accepted by certain groups.这一决定是不接受某些群体。Some claimed that Isma'il did not in fact die but was in hiding, and would return as the Mahdi.有些声称,伊斯梅尔并没有死,但实际上是在藏匿,并将返回马赫迪。Others recognised that Isma'il had died but argued that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's son Muhammad.其他人认为已经死亡,但伊斯梅尔认为,伊斯兰教长应该去伊斯梅尔的儿子穆罕默德。

Both groups were overshadowed by another faction: the Fatimids.两组人员都被掩盖了另一个派别:法蒂玛王朝。The Fatimids rose to power in Egypt at the beginning of the 10th century and established a dynasty which they claimed to be directly descended from 'Ali through Isma'il to themselves.法蒂玛王朝上台埃及在10世纪初,建立了一个王朝,他们声称是通过直接从伊斯梅尔阿里的后裔对自己负责。As professed descendants of 'Ali, the Fatimids claimed the title of Imam for themselves.作为阿里声称后裔,法蒂玛王朝夺去了伊玛目为自己的标题。The Fatimid dynasty lasted from 909 to 1171, during which period they set themselves up as rivals to the Ummayad caliphs who were based in Baghdad.持续的法蒂玛王朝从909到1171,在此期间,他们设置的Ummayad谁在巴格达的哈里发对手而上。

The Isma'ilis who lived in Iraq and the Persian Gulf were divided in their attitude towards the Fatimids.谁的Isma'ilis在伊拉克和波斯湾活了分工,对法蒂玛王朝的态度。Some accepted Fatimid authority; others rejected it.一些公认的法蒂玛权威;别人拒绝。This latter group, which came to be known as Qarmartis, continued to regard Muhammad ibn.这后一组,这后来被称为Qarmartis,继续把穆罕默德伊本。Isma'il as the Mahdi.伊斯梅尔的马赫迪。This group survived until the 14th century.这组下来,直到14世纪。

The next schism to take place within Isma'iliyyah happened in the early decades of the 11th century.下一个分裂的地方范围内采取Isma'iliyyah发生在11世纪最初几十年。An Isma'ili missionary called al-Darazi proclaimed the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021), to be God, and denounced both Islam and Isma'iliyyah to be mere superstitions.一个Isma'ili传教士称为al -达拉日宣布了第六届法蒂玛哈里发,阿布'阿里曼苏尔哈基姆(985-1021),是神,并谴责伊斯兰和Isma'iliyyah都将仅仅是迷信。 It is not exactly certain when this event occurred; the earliest evidence of it is a letter of November 1017 written to al-Darazi rebuking him for his unorthodox teachings.这不是完全肯定发生此事件时,它的最早的证据是书面的al -达拉日1017年11月,他信斥责他非正统的教诲。 Following the death of al-Hakim the sect was driven out of Egypt into Syria where it flourished and continues to the present day and is known as the Druzes.继哈基姆死亡的教派被逐出出埃及进入叙利亚那里蓬勃发展,并持续到今天,被认为是Druzes而闻名。The Druzes are also important minority groups within Israel and the Lebanon.该Druzes也是在以色列和黎巴嫩重要的少数民族群体。

In the final decade of the 11th century Isma'iliyyah itself split into two groups: Nizariyyah and Musta'liyyah.在11世纪最后十年Isma'iliyyah本身分成两组:Nizariyyah和Musta'liyyah。 Following the death of the Fatimid Imam, al-Mustansir, in 1094, his two sons, Nizar and al-Must'ali, fought with each other over who had the right to inherit the Imamate.继法蒂玛伊玛目,铝Mustansir,在1094年去世,他的两个儿子,尼扎尔和Al - Must'ali,打每超过其他谁有权继承的伊斯兰教长。Al-Must'ali prevailed and imprisoned and executed his brother.铝Must'ali盛行和监禁和执行他的弟弟。Nizar's followers fled Egypt and established themselves in Iran, from where they spread to India.尼扎尔的追随者逃往埃及,确立了自己在伊朗,从那里蔓延到印度。Indian Nizaris are today known as Khojas.印度Nizaris为Khojas称为今天。Al-Must'ali's descendants continued in Egypt until the fall of the Fatimid dynasty.铝Must'ali的子孙继续在埃及,直到法蒂玛王朝灭亡。Today Must'alis are to be found in India, China, Russia and South-East Asia.今天Must'alis是在印度,中国,俄罗斯和东南亚发现。

In addition to groups that seceded from Isma'iliyyah, a number of groups have emerged from within the Imamiyyah branch of Shi'a.此外,从Isma'iliyyah脱离联邦的群体,群体内部已经出现了什叶派Imamiyyah分支。The first of these are the Nusayris.这些首先是Nusayris。the Nusayris trace their origins to the eleventh Shi'i Imam, al-Hasan al-'Askari (d.873), and his pupil Ibn Nusayr (d.868).在Nusayris追踪它们的起源第十一届什叶派伊玛目,哈桑铝'Askari(d.873),和他的学生伊本Nusayr(d.868)。 the sect, however, seems to have been organised by a certain al-Khasibi who died in Aleppo in about 969.该教派,但是,似乎已经由某基地Khasibi谁死在阿勒颇约969举办。His grandson, al-Tabarani, moved to al-Ladhiqiyya on the Syrian coast, where he refined the Nusayri religion and, with his pupils, converted much of the local population.他的孙子,基地Tabarani,搬到基地Ladhiqiyya关于叙利亚海岸,在那里他完善了Nusayri宗教,并与他的学生,许多当地居民转换。 Today Nusayriyyah exists as a minority, but politically powerful, religion in Syria.今天Nusayriyyah的存在是为少数,但政治上强大,在叙利亚宗教。

Following the Nusayri schism the Imami tradition remained relatively stable until the 19th century when a number of millenarian sects emerged anticipating the return of the hidden Imam.继Nusayri分裂的伊马米传统一直维持到19世纪时,一个教派的千禧年出现了一些预期的隐藏伊玛目回报相对稳定。One such sect, the Babis, was founded by Ali Muhammad Shirazi, who claimed initially to be the Bab (gate) of the hidden Imam and then the hidden Imam himself.这样的一个教派,Babis,是由阿里穆罕默德Shirazi的,谁声称最初是巴布(门)的隐藏伊玛目,然后自己隐藏的伊玛目。 These claims led to his arrest in 1845 and execution in 1850.这些索赔导致他在1845年被捕,1850年执行。In 1863 one of the Shirazi's followers, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri, proclaimed himself to be the prophetic figure foretold by the Bab.1863年的Shirazi的追随者,米尔扎侯赛因阿里努里,一自称是先知预言数字的巴布。Shirazi taught that God had been manifest in many different forms, and that he was the most recent (but not final) manifestation. Shirazi的告诉我们,上帝已经体现在许多不同的形式,他是最近期的(但不是最后一次)的表现。Since its inception the Baha'i faith has developed into a world wide religion completely independent of its Shi'ite roots.公司自成立以来,巴哈伊信仰已发展成为世界各地的什叶派宗教根源完全独立。Baha'is do not consider themselves to be Muslims and are not regarded as Muslims by any Islamic tradition.巴哈教徒不认为自己是穆斯林,并且不作为任何穆斯林认为伊斯兰传统。

Bülent Þenay比伦特埃杰Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project世界宗教概况项目

Bibliography : 参考书目

Betts, Robert Brenton. The Druze. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.贝茨,罗伯特布伦顿黑文。 德鲁兹。耶鲁大学出版社,1988。

Brockelmann, Carl. History of the Islamic Peoples. Trans.Brockelmann,卡尔。 民族史研究伊斯兰。转运。Joel Carmichael and Moshe Perlmann.乔尔Carmichael和卡察夫Perlmann。London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1948.伦敦:Routledge出版社和基根保罗,1948年。

Cole RI, Juan and Nicki R. Keddie. Shi'ism and Social Protest. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.科尔国际扶轮,胡安和尼基河凯迪黑文。 什叶派和社会抗议。耶鲁大学出版社,1986。

Daftary, Farhad. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Daftary,法哈德:。的Isma'ilis他们的历史和理论:。剑桥剑桥大学出版社,1990。

Esslemon, JE Baha'u'llah and the New Era. London: the Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1974.Esslemon,乙脑巴哈欧拉和新时代:。伦敦的巴哈伊出版社,1974。

Gross, Jo-Ann. Muslims in Central Asia. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990.格罗斯的Jo - Ann达勒姆穆斯林在亚洲。杜克大学出版社,1990。

Halm, Heinz. Shi'ism. Trans.哈姆,海因茨。 什叶派。转运。Janet Watson.珍妮特沃森。Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.爱丁堡:爱丁堡大学出版社,1991。

Harris, Ian et al. Longman Guide to Living Religions. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1994.哈里斯等人伊恩埃塞克斯。 朗文生活指南宗教。哈洛,朗文,1994。

Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins: a Radical Sect in Islam. Al-Saqi Books, 1985.刘易斯,伯纳德:。刺客激进的伊斯兰教。教派在铝Saqi的图书,1985。

Makarem, Sami Nasib. The Druze Faith. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books, 1974. Makarem,萨米Nasib纽约。 德鲁兹信仰。德尔马,新大篷车图书,1974。

Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. New haven: Yale University Press, 1985.魔门,Moojan:。什叶派伊斯兰教概论学说的历史和对Twelver:什叶派。黑文耶鲁大学出版社,1985。

Nasr, Seyyed Hosein, Hamid Dabashi and Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (eds.) Shi'ism: Doctrines, Thought, and Spirituality. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.纳斯尔,赛义德Hosein,赛义德哈米德Dabashi和瓦利礼纳斯尔(合编) 什叶派:,思想和灵性。教义奥尔巴尼:国家1988年纽约大学出版社。

Pinault, David. The Shiites: Ritual and Popular Piety in a Muslim. London: IB Taurus and Co. Ltd., 1992.皮诺,大卫:。什叶派穆斯林和流行。孝在仪式伦敦:国际文凭金牛座和有限公司,1992。

Richard, Yann. Shi'ite Islam. Trans.理查德,晏。 什叶派伊斯兰教。转运。Antonia Nevill.安东尼内维尔。 Oxford, Blackwell, 1995.牛津,Blackwell出版社,1995。

Smith, Peter. The Babi and Baha'i Religion: From Messianic Shi'ism to a World Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.史密斯,。彼德:巴比和巴哈教的宗教,在创建世界救世主的什叶派宗教:。剑桥剑桥大学出版社,1987。

Sunni-Shi'i Relationships逊尼派和什叶派的关系

Shi'a Viewpoint什叶派观

One of the most important socio-political issues in life is that of leadership, its quality, authority and method of appointment.最重要的社会政治生活中的一个问题是,领导,其品质,权威和任命的方法。The Qur`an and the prophetic teachings emphasize obedience to Allah, His Prophet and the upright 'people of authority'.`一本古兰经和先知的教诲强调服从真主,他的先知和正直的权威人。No Muslim disagrees with this.没有穆斯林不同意这种说法。It is only with the method of legitimizing a 'person of authority' that differences occur and around which the Sunni and Shi'i theologies diverge.这是只有在一个合法化的权威的人'的差异发生周围是逊尼派和什叶派神学分歧的方法。

During the early centuries of Islam the terms Sunni and Shi'i meant different things at different times, as did many other names designating various schools of thought.在世纪初的伊斯兰教逊尼派和什叶派的条款在不同的时期意味着不同的事情,就像许多划定各类学校的思想的其他名称。 It was not until the eleventh and twelfth centuries that the current pattern of usage stabilized.直到第十一届和第十二届世纪认为,使用目前的格局趋于稳定。

Sunni essentially means one who follows the Sunnah, which is the desired aim of every sincere Muslim.逊尼派的主要手段之一谁遵循圣行,这是每一个真诚的穆斯林的理想目标。It has come to mean, however, those Muslims who follow the Sunnah and Jama'ah, that is, the way of Muhammad and the consensual majority of Muslims.现在已经来的意思,然而,这些穆斯林谁遵循圣行,Jama'ah,也就是穆罕默德的方式,协商一致的穆斯林占多数。 The term was first adopted by a faction of Muslims who had accepted Abbasid rule, stressing the importance of its continuity with the Marwani past.这个术语最早是通过对穆斯林派谁接受阿巴斯统治,强调其与Marwani过去连续性的重要性。It was well over a century after Muhammad that the term Sunni began to be widely used to distinguish between the largest common group (which is the literal meaning of Jama'ah) and the Shi'i, that is, those who were loyal to `Ali's party.这是一个远远超过这个词后,穆罕默德逊尼派开始被广泛使用的最大区别常见的组(这是Jama'ah字面意义)和什叶派的世纪,也就是那些谁是忠于`阿里的党。 It also implied those who strictly and exclusively referred to the Hadith as opposed to engaging in theological and philosophical discourse as a means of gaining guidance.它也意味着那些谁严格和专门提到了圣训而不是在从事神学和哲学话语作为获得指导的一种手段。In latter-day usage Sunni has become synonymous with 'orthodox', though it would be more accurate to employ the term Jama'ah to signify the popular mainstream.在后期的日常使用逊尼派已经成为'正统'的代名词,虽然这将是更准确地聘请长期Jama'ah以示流行的主流。

In the early years after the Prophet's death the term Shi`i meant 'follower' or 'partisan', with particular reference to `Ali.早在年后的先知死亡的长期施`我的意思是'追随者'或'游击队',并特别提到'阿里。The Shi'as believe that the Prophet had categorically appointed `Ali Ibn Abi Talib as his successor at the gathering of Ghadir Khum.在什叶派相信先知断然任命`作为他在继任者的Ghadir坤收集阿里本阿比Talib。`Ali in turn nominated as his successor his eldest son Hasan, who then nominated his brother Husayn and so on through another ten generations of the Prophet's descendants. `阿里又提名他为他的继承人的长子哈桑,谁再提名等,通过先知的后裔十代他的另一个弟弟侯赛因。Although the Sunnis all acknowledge the event at Ghadir Khum, they take the Prophet's message as merely an acknowledgement of `Ali's merit rather than a definite political appointment.虽然逊尼派都承认在Ghadir坤事件,他们采取的只是一个确认的`阿里的功绩,而不是一个明确的政治任命先知的消息。

In the end, however, the successor to the Prophet was elected by a group of Medinan elders (while the Prophet was being buried).最后,然而,对先知的继任者当选由Medinan长老(同时先知被掩埋组)。The first Muslim ruler (later to be called Caliph) was Abu Bakr, the Prophet's father-in-law and a close and loyal Companion.第一个穆斯林统治者(后来被称为哈里发)是艾布伯克尔,先知的岳父岳母和亲密和忠实的伴侣。Though `Ali and his followers made occasional protests, they did not contest or revolt against the early Caliphs.虽然阿里和他的追随者`偶尔作出抗议,他们没有提出异议或反对早期哈里发起义。`Ali himself remained loyal to the cause of Islam and served wherever and whenever he could alongside his predecessors.`阿里仍然忠于自己的事业和伊斯兰教无论何时何地,他曾跟随他的前人。Upon the demise of the third Caliph, however, `Ali was elected the fourth.当第三哈里发消亡,然而,'阿里被选为第四位。

The general Sunni stance on leadership was that peace under an unjust ruler was better than anarchy under a just one.一般的逊尼派领导人的立场是,在一个不公正的统治者比和平更无政府状态下只有一个。 For the Shi`i, justice in the government of human affairs could not grow if the ruler did not reflect the Prophet.对于施`我,在人类事务不能生长,如果统治者没有反映先知政府绳之以法。The ruler had the status of a prophetic figure who, in the Prophet's absence, should be the ultimate spiritual and temporal authority.标尺有一个先知人物的地位谁,在先知的情况下,应是最终的精​​神和时间的权威。The prophetic mantle was taken up by the Sufis in the person of their Shaykhs or teachers.预言地幔是由苏菲派在其Shaykhs或教师的人。This fact is significant because while most Sufis were Sunni, the necessity for enlightened leadership reflects the essential nature of transmission of knowledge and guidance.这一事实很重要,因为虽然大多数苏菲是逊尼派,为开明领导的必要性体现了知识的传播本质和指导。Hence the Shi`is turned to their Imams.因此,施`是转向他们的伊玛目。

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri伊Fadhlalla Haeri

Also, see:此外,见:
Islam, Muhammad伊斯兰教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an可兰经,可兰经
Pillars of Faith支柱的信仰
Abraham 亚伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham全书亚伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari启示-h adiths从第一册的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari信仰-h adiths从第二册的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari知识-h adiths从第三册的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari时代的祈祷-h adiths从书展1 0个基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari缩短祈祷(在taqseer ) -h adiths从书展2 0铝布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari朝圣(朝觐) -h adiths从书展2 6铝布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari争取事业的阿拉(杰哈德) -h adiths图书5 2铝布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari同一性,独特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths图书9 3铝布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanafiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)malikiyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)shafi'iyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)hanbaliyyah学校神学(逊尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)maturidiyyah神学(逊尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)ash'ariyyah神学(逊尼派)
Mutazilah Theologymutazilah神学
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)ja'fari神学(什叶派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)nusayriyyah神学(什叶派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)zaydiyyah神学(什叶派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)伊玛目(什叶派)
Druze 德鲁兹
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)qarmatiyyah (什叶派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail伊斯梅尔,司马义。
Early Islamic History Outline早在伊斯兰历史纲要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿维森纳
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone天房,黑石头
Ramadan 斋月
Sunnites, Sunni逊尼派,逊尼派
Shiites, Shia什叶派,什叶派
Mecca 麦加
Medina 麦迪
Sahih, al-Bukharisahih ,铝-布哈里
Sufism 苏非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主义
Abu Bakr阿布巴克尔
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭马亚王朝
Fatima 法蒂玛
Fatimids (Shia)法蒂玛王朝(什叶派)
Ismailis (Shia)伊斯玛仪教派(什叶派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 萨拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar伊斯兰日历
Interactive Muslim Calendar互动穆斯林日历

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