Shintoism, Shinto神道

General Information一般资料

Shintoism was the primitive religion of Japan before the coming of Buddhism, which is currently the main religion of Japan. Shintoism is a very simple religion. It gives only one command, the necessity of being loyal to one's ancestors.神道教是日本前原始宗教的佛教,这是目前日本的主要宗教的到来。 神道是一个非常简单的宗教,它给人只有一个命令,忠于自己的祖先的必要性。

Its early aspects were naturalistic, which included spiritism, totemism, nature worship, and a crude sort of monotheism.其早期的方面是自然主义的,其中包括招魂,图腾崇拜,自然崇拜,以及一神教原油排序。 Early Japanese worshipped the sun, thunder, earth, volcanoes, tigers, serpents, trees, shrubs, vines, etc. and even stones.早期日本崇拜太阳,雷鸣,土,火山,虎,蛇,树木,灌木,藤本等,甚至结石。A later stage is more intellectual and ethically oriented.到了后期更是智力和道德导向。

The only deity actually recognized in higher Shintoism is the spiritualized human mind.唯一的神实际上是在更高的神道承认是精神化人的心灵。

For the masses, Shintoism has about 800,000 gods, mostly the deified heroes of the Japanese.对于群众, 神神道有大约80万,大多是日本的神化的英雄。The chief god is Amaterasu, the Sun God, from whom the Imperial Family of Japan traces its roots.这位负责人是天照大太阳神,从人的日本皇室的历史可追溯。

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General Information一般资料

A linguistic definition of Shinto is somewhat anathema to Shinto.神道语言的定义是有点诅咒神道。

But anyway, Shinto is awash with idols.但无论如何,神道与偶像泛滥。There is (almost) no god that you cannot point to.有(几乎)没有神,你不能点。Shinto approves of the representation of God in the material.神道批准神在材料的代表性。Having said that, in Shinto thought too there is an insistence that God is spiritual: the kami is the power in the mountain, the tree, the sun and not these objects themselves.话虽如此,在神道思想也有一个坚持,上帝是精神:对神明是山,树,太阳,而不是这些对象本身的力量。But Shinto is extremely "idol tolerant".但是,神道是极其“偶像宽容”。Conversely, Shinto is I believe, very logo-clastic, it believes that God can not and should not be expressed in words.相反,神 ​​道是我相信,非常标志碎屑,它认为神不能, 不应该用文字表达。

Shinto is a loose collection of faiths without any written commandments or creed.神道是一种信仰没有任何书面或信仰戒律松散的集合。It is conveyed by ritual, practice, and behaviour rather than by word.它传达的礼仪,实践和行为,而不是由文字。The following linguistic description of Shinto is, therefore, at best an external analysis rather than "Shinto doctrine" since Shinto avoids linguistic definition to the extent that other religions avoid idolatory.下面的神道语言描述,因此,在最好的一个外部的分析,而不是“神道主义”,因为神道避免语言定义的范围内,其他宗教避免idolatory。

An infinite number of gods or spirits are revered in Shinto, but at the supreme level in the Shinto cosmology is the unity of Nature from which all things are born.一个神或精神无限崇敬的数量在神道,但在神道宇宙学最高水平,是自然的统一,所有东西都是从出生。Humans depend upon the spirits, which are features of nature (such as mountains, waterfalls, trees and the sun) and our human ancestors.人类依赖的精神,这是自然的功能(如高山,瀑布,树木和太阳)和我们人类的祖先。The spirits depend upon humans and by being enshrined and how revered they come to be.人类的精神依赖和被供奉和崇敬他们如何来进行。

While born pure and at one with nature, humans become defiled through their participation in society.虽然出生在与大自然的纯净之一,成为人类通过他们参与社会玷污。In order to purify themselves they must worship the spirits.为了净化自己,他们必须崇拜的精神。Shintoists perform simple and often silent prayers, rituals and offerings to the spirits at Shrines and at altars within the home.神道教徒进行简单的,往往沉默祈祷,仪式,并在神社和在家庭祭坛的精神产品。They try to maintain an attitude of gratitude and humility.他们试图保持一种感恩和谦卑的态度。Shintoists believe that when they die they eventually become one with the spirits and in turn, with nature to which all things return.神道教徒相信,当他们死他们最终成为精神,从而之一,这是所有事物的本质回归。

The number 13 (of sects) came from the number that were approved by the Meiji (late nineteenth, early 20th century) Japanese government. 13号(教派)来自这是由明治(十九世纪末,20世纪初)日本政府批准的数量。Shinto was reorganised by the government.神道是由政府改组。This had the effect of这有效果

  1. Removing the "foreign" Buddhist elements卸下“洋”佛教元素
  2. Reducing the amount of lay spirituality and "superstision"减少的数额打下灵性和“superstision”
  3. Reorganising the remainder around the panthenon as described in the Kojiki myth. Reorganising围绕panthenon其余部分中所述的古事记神话。

As part of (2) the government had religions practioners register and they only recognised 13 religions sects outside of their new State/Shrine Shinto framework.由于部分(2)政府有宗教的执业者的名册外,他们只承认其新的国家/神社神道框架13宗教教派。

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Advanced Information先进的信息

Shinto is the indigenous religious tradition of Japan.神道是日本的土著宗教传统。Unlike some religions, Shinto has no historical founder; its roots lie deep in the prehistoric religious practices of the Japanese people.不像一些宗教,神道没有历史的创始人,其根源在于日本人民深史前宗教习俗。Nor does Shinto have any canon of sacred scriptures, although important elements of its mythology and cosmology may be found in ancient Japanese chronicles (the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki), and ritual prayers called norito were compiled into written collections at an early date.也不神道有任何神圣的经文典,虽然它的神话和宇宙学的重要组成部分可能在古(即古事记和Nihonshoki)日本发现记载,并呼吁norito祈祷仪式分为书面集合编译早日。

The name Shinto is actually the Sino Japanese reading for the more purely Japanese kami no michi , which means the "way of the kami."这个名字实际上是神道中更纯粹的日本神明无道之 ,这意味着日本读“的神明的方式。”The kami are innumerable Japanese deities that may be thought of as full fledged gods (such as the sun - goddess Amaterasu, from whom the imperial family is said to descend); the divinized souls of great persons (warriors, leaders, poets, scholars); the ancestral divinities of clans (uji); the spirits of specific places, often of natural beauty (woods, trees, springs, rocks, mountains); or, more abstractly, the forces of nature (fertility, growth, production).无数的神明都可能被认为是完全成熟的日本神神(如太阳 - 女神天照大神,从谁的皇室据说下降);的(战士,领袖,诗人,学者)伟大灵魂的人的神化;的氏族祖先神灵(宇治);具体地方的精神,经常的自然风光(森林,树木,泉水,岩石,山),或者,更抽象,自然的力量(生育,生长,​​生产)。

Kami are generally worshiped at shrines (jinja), which are established in their honor and house the go - shintai (sacred objects) in which the kami are said to reside.卡米一般都供奉在神社(神社),这是在他们的荣誉和房子去建立 - shintai(圣物),其中神明据说居住。Worshipers will pass under a sacred arch (torii), which helps demarcate the sacred area of the shrine.信徒将通过下一个神圣弓(牌坊),这有助于划定的圣地神圣领域。They will then purify themselves by washing their hands and rinsing their mouths, approach the shrine itself, make an offering, call on the deity, and utter a silent prayer.然后,他们将通过净化洗手和清洗自己的嘴巴,接近神社本身,做出产品,请神,和完全无声的祈祷。

Special times for worship include important moments in the life cycle of individuals (birth, youth, marriage, and, more recently, school entrance examinations) and festival dates (matsuris) that reflect the rhythm of the year: the New Year, the advent of spring, rice planting, midsummer, harvesting, and so on.特殊时期的崇拜包括重要的时刻,在个人的生命周期(出生,青少年,婚姻,以及最近,学校入学考试)和节日的日期(matsuris)反映,今年的节奏:在新的一年,问世春天,水稻种植,盛夏,收割,等等。 In addition, each shrine will usually have its own special matsuri particular to its own history or foundation.此外,每个神社通常有它自己的特殊祭特别是自己的历史和基础。On any of these occasions the shrine will be crowded with worshipers, many of whom may wish to have their fortunes told or to receive special blessings or purifications from the Shinto priests.在这些场合任何神社将与信众拥挤,其中许多人可能希望拥有自己的财富告诉或接收从神道神父特别祝福或净化。Certain shrines have also taken on national importance.神社也采取某些国家的重要性。The Grand Shrine of Ise, for example, is sacred to Amaterasu.伊势大社,例如,是神圣的天照大神。Because she is associated with the imperial family, her shrine is a national center of pilgrimage - the focal point for paying respect to the emperor and, through him, to Japan.因为她与皇室有关,她的靖国神社是一个国家的朝圣中心 - 支付方面的皇帝,并通过他向日本的焦点。

With the establishment of Buddhism in Japan during the Nara and Heian periods (710 - 1185 AD), Shinto quickly came under its influence as well as that of Confucianism and Chinese culture as a whole.随着佛教在日本建立在奈良和平安时期(710 - 1185 AD),神道很快受到它的影响力,以及儒学和整个中国文化。On the one hand, it became more highly structured, following the Buddhist lead.一方面,它变得更加高度结构化的,按照佛教的领先地位。 On the other hand, certain kami came to be thought of as manifestations of particular Buddhas or bodhisattvas.另一方面,某些神明后来被认为是佛或者菩萨的特殊表现。(Amaterasu, for example, was identified with the cosmic Buddha Vairocana.) Thus the two religions both mixed and coexisted at the same time. (天照大神,例如,是与宇宙佛毗卢遮那确定。)因此,两种宗教都混合,并在同一时间共存。

During the Tokugawa period (1603 - 1868), the Buddhist sects became tools of the feudal regime and neo Confucianism served as the guiding ideology.在德川时代(1603 - 1868年),佛教教派成为封建政权的工具和新儒家思想作为指导思想服务。Shinto was overshadowed in the process.神道的过程中蒙上了一层阴影。Gradually, however, certain nationalist scholars, reacting against what they considered foreign ideologies, turned more and more to Shinto as the source of a uniquely Japanese identity.渐渐地,然而,某些民族主义学者,反对什么反应,他们认为外国的意识形态,转向越来越多的神道作为一种独特的日本身份来源。

With the Meiji Restoration in 1868 - and the disestablishment of both the Tokugawa regime and the Buddhism that had accompanied it - Shinto naturally came to the fore.随着1868年明治维新 - 和双方的德川政权,认为它已经伴随着佛教政教分离 - 神道自然脱颖而出。In the 1880s the government guaranteed freedom of religion to practitioners of all faiths but also drew a distinction between shrine Shinto (sometimes called state Shinto) and sect Shinto.在19世纪80年代,政府保证宗教自由的所有从业人员,但也提请信仰之间的神社神道(有时也被称为国家神道)和教派神道的区别。 The former was a nominally secular organization by means of which the state transformed shrines into centers of a patriotic and nationalistic "cult" applicable to followers of all faiths.前者是指由该国转变成一个爱国和民族主义的“邪教”适用于所有宗教信徒中心的圣地名义上的世俗组织。

In the 1930s shrine Shinto was used by the ultranationalists and militarists as one of several vehicles for their views.在20世纪30年代神社神道是所使用的极端民族主义分子,并作为他们的意见军国主义几个车型之一。Sect Shinto, on the other hand, was a separate category for various popular religious groups (a total of 13 Shinto "denominations" were distinguished), which were thereby separated from the state sponsored shrines and had, like the Buddhist sects and Christian denominations, to rely on private, nongovernmental support.教派神道,另一方面,是对各种流行的宗教团体(13个神道“面额”共划分),其中从而脱离国家主办的圣地,并像佛教宗派和基督教教派,不同类别,依靠私人,非政府的支持。 These sect Shinto groups were, in many instances, the prototypes of various new religions that have emerged in Japan during the 20th century, especially since World War II.这些教派神道组在许多情况下,各种在日本已经出现在20世纪尤其是第二次世界大战以来,新宗教的原型。

With the end of World War II and the American occupation of Japan, the shrine Shinto system was dismantled and Shinto as a whole was disassociated from the state.随着二战的结束和美国占领日本,神社神道系统被拆除和神道作为一个整体是由国家脱钩。Following that period, however, the shrines were revitalized and today remain one of the sacred focuses of Japanese religious sentiment.经过这一时期,然而,神社被振兴,今天仍然是神圣的焦点之一,日本的宗教情绪。

Joseph M Kitagawa And John S Strong约瑟夫M北川和约翰s强

Bibliography: 参考书目:
WG Aston, Shinto: The Way of the Gods (1905); DC Holtom, Modern Japan and Shinto Nationalism (1963), and The National Faith of Japan (1938); G Kato, A Study of Shinto (1971); S Ono, Shinto: The Kami Way (1962).工作组阿斯顿,神道:众神之路(1905年); DC Holtom,近代日本民族主义和神道(1963年)和日本全国信仰(1938),G加藤,一个神道研究(1971年),S小野神道:逆神之路(1962)。


Additional Information其他信息

Shinto is an ancient Japanese religion.神道是一个古老的日本宗教。Beginning about 500 BC (or earlier) it was originally an amorphous mix of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism.约公元前500年开始(或更早)它最初是自然崇拜,生殖崇拜,占卜技巧,英雄崇拜,萨满教无定形结构。Its name was derived from the Chinese words "shin tao" (The Way of the Gods) in the 8th Century AD.它的名字是来自中国话“真道”,在公元8世纪(神灵的方式)。At that time, the Yamato dynasty consolidated its rule over most of Japan, divine origins were ascribed to the imperial family, and Shinto established itself as the official religion of Japan, along with Buddhism.当时,大和王朝巩固了其在日本的大多数规则,神圣的起源被归因于皇室,和神道确立为日本官方宗教与佛教本身。

The complete separation of Japanese religion from politics did not occur until just after World War II.日本宗教与政治完全分离并没有发生,直到第二次世界大战之后。The Emperor renounced his divinity at that time.皇帝放弃当时他的神性。

Shinto has no real founder, no written scriptures, no body of religious law, and only a very loosely-organized priesthood.神道也没有真正的创始人,没有书面经文,没有宗教法的身体,只有一个非常松散的组织神职人员。


Most Japanese citizens follow two religions: both Shinto and Buddhism.大多数日本国民遵循两个宗教:既神道和佛教。Buddhism first arrived in Japan from Korea and China during the 8th century AD.佛教初到韩国和中国在公元8世纪的日本。 The two religions share a basic optimism about human nature, and for the world.这两个宗教都有一个关于人性,并为世界的基本乐观。Within Shinto, the Buddha was viewed as another Kami (nature deity).在神道,佛是另一卡米 (自然神)。Meanwhile, Buddhism in Japan regarded the Kami as being manifestations of various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.同时,在日本被视为佛教的各种佛,菩萨表现的香美。

Shinto does not have as fully developed a theology as do most other religions.神道没有为充分开发了神学作为大多数其他宗教。Their religious texts discuss the High Plain of Heaven and the Dark Land which is an unclean land of the dead, but give few details.他们的宗教经文讨论了天人合一的高平原黑土地,是不洁的死土地,但给一些细节。Shinto creation stories tell of the history and lives of the Kami.神道创作故事告诉的历史和卡米生活。Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands.其中是一个神圣的夫妇,伊邪那岐 - 无命和伊邪那美,无命,谁催生了日本列岛。Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans.他们的子女成为了日本各部族的神。Amaterasu (Sun Goddess) was one of their daughters.天照大神(太阳女神)是他们的一个女儿。She is the ancestress of the Imperial Family.她是皇室祖先。Her descendants unified the country.她的后代统一的国家。Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth.她的弟弟,从天上下来Susano和整个地球漫游。 He is famous for killing a great evil serpent.他是著名的杀大恶蛇。The Sun Goddess is regarded as the chief deity.太阳女神被视为主要的神。There are numerous other deities who are conceptualized in many forms.有许多谁在许多其他形式的概念化神。

Some are related to natural objects and creatures, from food to rivers to rocks.有些人与自然物体和动物,从食物到岩石河流。There are Guardian Kami of particular areas and clans.有监护人的特定领域和氏族香美。Some are exceptional past people, including all but the last of the emperors.过去有些特殊的人,包括所有,但最后的皇帝。 Some are abstract creative forces.有些是抽象的创造性力量。They are seen as benign; they sustain and protect.它们被视为良性的,他们维持和保护。There are no concepts which compare to the Christian beliefs in the wrath of God, His omnipotence and omni-presence, or the separation of God from humanity due to sin.没有观念的比较,在神忿怒的基督教信仰,他的全能和全方位的存在,或上帝的分离人类因罪。

Ancestors are deeply revered and worshipped.祖先是深受尊敬和崇拜。All of humanity is regarded as Kami's child.人类的一切都视为卡米的孩子。Thus all human life and human nature is sacred.因此,所有人类生命和人类的本质是神圣的。Believers revere musuhi , the Kamis' creative and harmonizing powers.信徒敬仰musuhi的Kamis“创造性和协调权力。They aspire to have makoto , sincerity or true heart.他们渴望有 ,真诚或真实的心。This is regarded as the way or will of Kami.这被认为是结合的方式或卡米会。Morality is based upon that which is of benefit to the group.道德是基于认为这有利于本集团。Shinto emphasizes right practice, sensibility, and attitude.神道强调正确的做法,感性,和态度。

There are Four Affirmations in Shinto:四个神道肯定

The desire for peace, which was suppressed during World War II, has been restored.对和平的渴望,这是二战期间镇压,已经恢复。


Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, springs, etc. Each shrine is dedicated to a specific Kami who has a divine personality and responds to sincere prayers of the faithful.神道认识到许多神圣的地方:山,泉等各神社是专门为特定卡米谁拥有神圣的个性和响应的忠实真诚的祈祷。When entering a shrine, one passes through a Tori a special gateway for the Gods.当进入一个圣地,一个通过一个花托为神的特殊网关。It marks the demarcation between the finite world and the infinite world of the Gods.它标志着世界之间的有限和无限的神的世界的划分。In the past, believers practiced misogi, , the washing of their bodies in a river near the shrine.在过去,信徒实行misogi,其尸体在附近的神社河洗涤。In recent years they only wash their hands and wash out their mouths in a wash basin provided within the shrine grounds.近年来,他们只洗手和清洗在神社内的理由提供了一个洗脸盆自己的嘴巴。Believers respect animals as messengers of the Gods.作为神的使者信徒尊重动物。A pair of statues of Koma-inu (guard dogs) face each other within the temple grounds.阿的高丽- INU雕像对(守卫犬)面内的寺庙理由对方。Shrine ceremonies, which include cleansing, offerings, prayers, and dances are directed to the Kami. Kagura are ritual dances accompanied by ancient musical instruments.神社仪式,其中包括清洁,产品,祈祷,和舞蹈定向到香美。 神乐是古代乐器的陪同祭祀舞蹈。 The dances are performed by skilled and trained dancers.该舞蹈表演由熟练和训练有素的舞者。They consist of young virgin girls, a group of men, or a single man. Mamori are charms worn as an aid in healing and protection.他们组成的年轻处女的女孩,一群男人,或一个人。Mamori是作为一种辅助治疗和保护佩戴魅力。 There come in many different forms for various purposes.有不同的目的来为许多不同的形式。An altar, the Kami-dana (Shelf of Gods), is given a central place in many homes.一坛, 香美,达纳 (神的架子),给出了许多家庭的核心地位。

Seasonal celebrations are held at spring planting, fall harvest, and special anniversaries of the history of a shrine or of a local patron spirit.季节性庆祝活动举行春季播种,秋天收获,并在神社或当地的守护神精神历史特殊纪念日。Followers are expected to visit Shinto shrines at the times of various life passages.追随者,预计参观的各种生活通道时代神社。 For example, the annual Shichigosan Matsuri involves a blessing by the shrine Priest of girls aged 3 and 7 and boys aged 5.例如,每年Shichigosan祭涉及由3岁和7岁的男孩女孩5神社牧师的祝福。

Forms of Shinto形式神道

Around 1900 AD, Shinto was divided into:公元1900年左右,神道分为:

These three forms are closely linked.这三种形式是紧密联系在一起的。An image may be installed by a member of one of the Sectarian Shinto sects who worships at a particular shrine.一个图像可以安装由该教派神道教派在一个特定的神社谁崇拜一个成员。Shinto is a tolerant religion which accepts the validity of other religions.神道是一个宽容的宗教,接受其他宗教的有效性。 It is common for a believer to pay respect to other religions, their practices and objects of worship.这是一个信徒共同支付给其他宗教的尊重,他们的做法和崇拜的对象。

Shinto Texts神道文本

Many texts are valued in the Shinto religion.许多文本的价值在神道的宗教。Most date from the 8th century AD:大多数日期从公元8世纪:

Estimates of the number of Shintoists vary a lot.对神道教徒人数的估计有很大的差异。Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million.一些消息来源提供的数字范围为2.8至3.2亿美元。One states that 40% of Japanese adults follow Shinto; that would account for about 50 million Shintoists.一个国家,40%的日本成年人后续神道,这将占到约50万神道教徒。Others state that about 86% of Japanese adults follow a combination of Shinto and Buddhism; that would put the number of followers of Shinto at 107 million.其他国家,约有86%的日本成年人遵循的神道和佛教的结合,这将投入107万元对神道的信徒数量。

One source estimates 1000 followers of Shinto in North America.一位消息人士估计1000年在北美的神道教徒。The Canadian Census (1991) recorded 445 in Canada.加拿大政府(1991)记录在加拿大445。

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