Sikhs, Sikhism锡克教徒,锡克教

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Sikhs are followers of Sikhism, an Indian religion that originated in the Punjab in northwest India.是锡克教锡克教徒,印度教徒,在宗教起源于印度西北部旁遮普邦。In 1971, India had approximately 10.3 million Sikhs, 1.9% of the population. 1971年,印度拥有约1030万锡克教徒,1.9%的人口。Small communities of Sikhs also exist in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, Malaysia, and East Africa.锡克人的小社区也存在于英国,加拿大,美国,马来西亚和东非。

The movement was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak (1469 - 1539), who sought to combine Hindu and Muslim elements in a single religious creed. He taught "the unity of God, brotherhood of man, rejection of caste and the futility of idol worship." He was followed by nine masters, the last of whom was Guru Gobind Singh (1666 - 1708; guru 1675 - 1708), who involved his followers in an unsuccessful martial struggle against Mogul rule. 该运动成立于旁遮普省的古鲁那那(1469年至1539年),谁试图结合在一个单一的宗教信条印度教和穆斯林的元素 ,他教“上帝的团结,兄弟情谊的人,拒绝种姓和徒劳的偶像。崇拜“他是九个大师次之,其中最后一个是宗师Gobind Singh(1666年至1708年,大师1675年至1708年),谁参与了一次不成功的反对莫卧儿统治武术斗争他的追随者。

After Gobind's assassination, the Sikhs were persecuted by the Muslim Mogul rulers until 1799 when, under Ranjit Singh (1780 - 1839), they laid claim to a large part of northwest India.经过戈宾的暗杀,锡克教徒被迫害,直至1799时,在兰吉特辛格(1880至39年)由穆斯林莫卧儿统治者,他们声称奠定了西北印度的很大一部分。 After Ranjit's death his Sikh kingdom disintegrated into anarchy.兰吉特后的死亡他的锡克王国瓦解陷入无政府状态。The British moved into the Punjab, and the Sikh Wars followed (1845 - 46, 1848 - 49).英国移动到旁遮普,锡克教徒和战争后(1845年至1846年,1848年至1849年)。

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The Sikhs were defeated, and the British annexed the Punjab.锡克教徒被打败,英国吞并了旁遮普省。Sikhism did not recover until the 20th century, when the Sikhs were given control of their holy places (gurdwaras).锡克教没有恢复,直到20世纪,当锡克教徒分别给予他们(gurdwaras)圣地的控制。When the Indian subcontinent was partitioned in 1947, the western Punjab became Pakistani territory and the eastern Punjab part of India.当印度次大陆被分割在1947年,西部地区与巴基斯坦旁遮普成为东部旁遮普邦是印度的一部分。The Sikhs were victimized by the ensuing communal rioting, especially in Pakistan's Punjab, and about 2,500,000 moved from Pakistan into India.受害的锡克教徒在随后的公共骚乱,尤其是在巴基斯坦的旁遮普省,约250万从巴基斯坦进入印度。

The holiest place for Sikhs is the Golden Temple at Amritsar (now in the Indian state of Punjab) founded by the fourth guru, Ram Das (guru 1574 - 81).为锡克教徒最神圣的地方是在阿姆利则金庙(现在在印度的旁遮普州)的第四个大师,拉姆达斯(大师1574年至1581年)创立。 The fifth guru, Arjun (guru 1581 - 1606), gave Sikhism its holy book, the Granth Sahib, which contains hymns of Sikh gurus as well as those of Hindu and Muslim saints such as Kabir.第五大师,阿琼(大师1581至1606年),给了锡克教的圣书, 初经,其中包含锡克教大师赞美诗以及印度教和穆斯林圣人如卡比尔的。

Sikhs are readily identifiable by their turbans. They take a vow not to cut their hair as well as not to smoke or drink alcoholic beverages. 锡克教徒的头巾很容易被识别,他们采取发誓不修剪头发,以及不要吸烟或喝含酒精的饮料。When Gobind Singh founded (1699) the martial fraternity Khalsa ("pure"), his followers vowed to keep the five K's: to wear long hair (kesh), a comb in the hair (kangha), a steel bracelet on the right wrist (kara), soldier's shorts (kachha), and a sword (kirpan). The tradition persists to the present day.当戈宾德辛格成立(1699)的武术联谊会卡尔萨(“纯”),他的追随者发誓要保持五K的:戴在右手腕长头发(kesh),在头发梳(kangha),钢手镯(卡拉),士兵的短裤(kachha)和剑(kirpan),这个传统一直持续到今天。

Some of India's Sikhs favor the establishment of a separate Sikh nation.印度的锡克教徒,有人赞同的一个单独的锡克教国家的建立。In the early 1980s Akali Dal, a Sikh nationalist party, provoked a confrontation with the Indian government by demanding greater autonomy for Punjab.早在20世纪80年代阿卡利DAL,一个锡克民族主义党,挑起了与印度政府,要求更大的自主权旁遮普对抗。Unassuaged by the election of a Sikh, Zail Singh, to the largely ceremonial office of president of India in 1982, the militants continued to stage violent demonstrations.由一个锡克选举,Zail辛格,对印度总统在1982年基本礼仪办公室Unassuaged,武装分子继续阶段暴力示威。 As fighting between Sikhs and Hindus became widespread in Punjab, the central government took direct control of the state in 1983.作为锡克教徒和印度教徒之间的战斗成为旁遮普广泛,中央政府发生在1983年,国家直接控制。By April 1984 50,000 troops occupied Punjab and the neighboring state of Haryana.到1984年4月5万军队占领旁遮普邦和哈里亚纳邦的邻近国家。Sant Jarnail Bhindranwale, leader of Akali Dal's most intransigent faction, sought refuge from arrest in the Golden Temple.桑特Jarnail Bhindranwale,对阿卡利DAL的最强硬派领导人,寻求在金殿逮捕避难。

Karl H Potter卡尔H波特

Bibliography: 参考书目:
MA Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion (1909); WH McCleod, Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion (1968); G Singh, The Religion of the Sikhs (1971); H Singh, The Heritage of the Sikhs (1964); M Singh, Sikhism: Its Impact (1973).马,在锡克教宗教(1909)Macauliffe; WH McCleod,古鲁那那和锡克教宗教(1968),G辛格,对锡克教徒宗教(1971年),H辛格,对锡克教徒遗产(1964),M辛格,锡克教:它的影响(1973年)。

Basic Creed of the Sikhs基本信条的锡克教徒

General Information一般资料

The basic creed of the Sikhs - the Mul Mantra - gives the idea of Reality in a few telling words.锡克教徒的基本信条- MUL -给出了一些话告诉了现实的想法。 The creed is:的信条是:
Ekonkar Satnam, Karta Purkh, Nirbhav, Nirvair, Akal Murat, Ajoni, Suabhav, Gur Parsad.Ekonkar萨特南,Karta Purkh,Nirbhav,Nirvair,Akal缪拉,Ajoni,Suabhav,古尔Parsad。

In these words, Guru Nanak praises God and mentions some of His great attributes: He is Truth, self-created, beyond the limits of time, He can be realized through the grace of the Guru.在这些话,古鲁那那赞美上帝,并提到了他的伟大的一些属性:他是真理,自我创造,超越时间的限制,他可以通过大师的恩典实现。 Let us study the meaning of each word of the Mul Mantra.让我们研究每个的MUL咒词的含义。

Ekonkar :Ekonkar:
The only One Absolute God who is forever unfolding.唯一的一个绝对的神谁是永远的展开。He is the Absolute - the Transcendental.他是绝对 - 的超越。As such, He is Unknowable, Unfathomable.因此,他是不可知,深不可测。He is beyond description and beyond human comprehension.他是超越的描述和超出人类的理解。

Satnam :萨特南
His name is true.他的名字是真实的。He really exists.他真的存在。 He is not an idea or a hypothesis or an illusion.他不是一个想法或一个假设或幻想。As one who exists, He is ever changing.由于存在一个谁,他是不断变化的。He is never the same, evolving and growing.他是绝不相同,完善和扩大。Everything exists in Him and is caused by Him.一切都存在于他,是他造成的。His name is Truth.他的名字是真理。He is formless - He is "The Holy spirit" - NAM.他是无形的 - 他是“圣灵” - 不结盟运动。

Karta Purkh :Karta Purkh:
He is the creator of the cosmos.他是宇宙的创造者。He is responsible for the coming into existence of the whole universe.他是为使整个宇宙存在的未来负责。

Nirbhav :Nirbhav:
He is fearless.他无所畏惧。He is afraid of no one because He is the Lord of the universe.他是没有人害怕,因为他是宇宙的主。

Nirvair :Nirvair:
He is without any enmity.他没有任何敌意。His love and protection extend to all.他的爱和保护扩展到所有。This cuts at the root of the theory of the chosen prophets and the chosen people.在所选择的先知和所选择的人本理论的根切。Like God, a true Sikh must be fearless and impartial.像上帝,一个真正的锡克教徒,必须无所畏惧,不偏不倚。This will help to establish equality and justice.这将有助于建立平等和正义。

Akal Murat :Akal穆拉特
He is Timeless.他是永恒的。He is not subject to death.他并不受死刑。

Ajoni :Ajoni:
He is unborn.他未出生的。God does not take birth in any manner.神不参与任何方式的诞生。This is the very antithesis of the theory of incarnation.这是的化身理论的对立面。

Suabhav :Suabhav:
He is self-existent.他是自我存在的。He is unique in His own right.他是在他自己的权利是唯一的。

Gur Prasad :古尔普拉萨德
By the grace of the Guru, the Sikh can acquire knowledge of God到了上师的恩典,锡克教能获得神的知识

The short form of the creed is Ekonkar Satgur Prasad as used in the Guru Granth Sahib.在简短形式的信条是Ekonkar Satgur普拉萨德在初经使用。

Core Beliefs of the Sikhs核心信仰的锡克教徒

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Catholic Information天主教信息

The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped.而印度的好战派宗教,有它的起源在旁遮普省和其在圣城阿姆利则,他们的圣书的保存和崇拜的中心。The name Sikh signifies "disciple", and in later times the strict observants or elect were called the Khalsa.该名锡克教徒表示“弟子”,并在稍后的时间严格observants或选举被称为卡尔萨。The founder of the sect, Nanak (now called Sri Guru Nanak Deva), a Hundu belonging to the Kshastrya caste, was born near Lahore in 1469 and died in 1539.该教派的创始人,那纳克(现在叫斯里兰卡宗师Nanak德瓦),一个Hundu属于Kshastrya种姓,出生于1469年和拉合尔附近的1539年去世。 Being from childhood of a religious turn of mind, he began to wander through various parts of India, and perhaps beyond it, and gradually matured a religious system which, revolting from the prevailing polytheism, ceremonialism, and caste-exclusiveness, took for its chief doctrines the oneness of God, salvation by faith and good works, and the equality and brotherhood of man.从宗教的精神转童年之中,他开始漫步在印度各地,并可能超越它,并逐步走向成熟的宗教体系,从当时的多神教反感,ceremonialism和种姓制度的排他性,其主要发生理论中的神合一,以信心和良好的行为得救,和男子的平等和友爱。 The new religion spread rapidly and, under the leadership of nine successive gurus or teachers, soon became an active rival not only to the older Hinduism, but also the newer Mohammedanism of the reigning dynasties.新的宗教传播迅速,在九个连续大师或老师的领导下,很快成为一个活跃的对手,不仅对老年印度教,也是伊斯兰教统治的朝代更新。 The "disciples" were therefore somewhat ill-treated by the governing powers.而“弟子”们因此有些理事权力虐待。This persecution only gave fresh determination to the sect, which gradually assumed a military character and took the name of Singhs or "champion warriors"; under Govind Sing, their tenth and last guru (b. 1660; d. 1708), who had been provoked by some severe ill-treatment of his family by the Moslem rulers, they began to wage active war on the Emperor of Delhi.这种迫害只给了新的决心,该教派,逐渐承担了军事性质,并采取了Singhs名称或“冠军战士”;下Govind星,他们的第十和最后大师(生于1660; D. 1708),谁曾一些严重的对他的穆斯林统治者的家庭虐待挑起的,他们开始发动对德里皇帝活跃的战争。But the struggle was unequal.但斗争是不平等的。The Sikhs were defeated and gradually driven back into the hills.锡克教徒被击败,并逐步打入山上回来。The profession of their faith became a capital offence, and it was only the decline of the Mogul power, after the death of Aurungzeb in 1707, which enabled them to survive.该专业成了他们的信仰死罪,并且它仅仅是莫卧儿实力的下降之后,1707年Aurungzeb死亡,这使他们能够生存下去。 Then seizing their opportunity they emerged from their hiding places, organized their forces, and established a warlike supremacy over a portion of the Punjab round about Lahore.然后抓住他们的机会,他们摆脱了他们的藏身之处,有组织的部队,并建立了一个关于拉合尔旁遮普轮部分一个好战的霸权。

A reversal took place in 1762, when Ahmed Shah badly defeated them and defiled their sacred temple at Amritsar.1762年发生了逆转,当时艾哈迈德沙阿严重击败他们,他们在阿姆利则玷污神圣的殿堂。 In spite of this reverse they manged still to extend their dominion along the banks of the Sutlej and the Jumna Rivers, northwards as far as Peshawar and Rawalpindi, and southwards over the borders of Rajputana.在此相反,尽管他们manged仍然延长沿泉河和Jumna河岸的统治,向北据白沙瓦和拉瓦尔品第,并超过拉杰普塔纳边界向南。 In 1788 the Mahrattas overran the Punjab and brought the Sikhs under tribute.在1788年Mahrattas占领旁遮普和受到赞扬的锡克教徒。Upon the Mahrattas supervened the British, who received the allegiance of a portion of the Sikhs in 1803, and later on, in 1809, undertook a treaty of protection against their enemy Runjeet Singh, who although himself a prominent Sikh leader, had proved overbearing and intolerable to other portions of the sect.经Mahrattas supervened英国,谁获得1803年的一个部分的锡克教徒效忠,后来,在1809年,承诺对他们的敌人Runjeet辛格,谁虽然自己是一个突出的锡克教领袖,已证明霸道的保护条约,不能容忍该教派的其他部分。 Various other treaties between the British and the Sikhs, with a view of opening the Indus and the Sutlej Rivers to trade and navigation, were entered into; but as these agreements were not kept, the British declared war on the Sikhs in 1845.中英之间的锡克教徒,用开放的印度河和石上河贸易和导航视图,订立各种其他条约,但由于这些协议没有被保存下来,在1845年,英国宣布在锡克教徒的战争。 By 1848, partly through actual defeat, partly through internal disorganization and want of leaders, the Sikh power was broken; they gradually settled down among the rest of the population, preserving only their religious distinctiveness intact.到1848年,部分通过实际的失败,部分原因是通过内部混乱和领导人希望,锡克教徒的力量被打破,他们逐渐安定下来的人口当中,休息,只保留其独特的宗教完好。 According to the census of 1881 the number of Sikhs was reckoned at 1,853,426, which in the census of 1901 rose to 2,195,339.根据1881年人口普查的锡克教徒人数估计为1853426,这是在1901年人口普查上升至2195339。 At the time of writing the census of 1911 is not yet published.在编写的1911年人口普查时尚未公布。

Their sacred books, called the "Granth" (the original of which is preserved and venerated in the great temple of Amritsar) consists of two parts: "Adi Granth", the first book or book of Nanak, with later additions compiled by the fifth guru, "Arjoon, and with subsequent additions from later gurus down to the ninth, and contributions by various disciples and devotees; secondly, "The Book of the Tenth King", written by Guru Govind Sing, the tenth and last guru, chiefly with a view of instilling the warlike spirit into the sect. The theology contained in these books is distinctly monotheistic. Great and holy men, even if divinely inspired, are not to be worshipped-not even the Sikh gurus themselves. The use of images is tabooed; ceremonial worship, asceticism, and caste-restrictions are explicitly rejected. Their dead leaders are to be saluted simply by the watchword "Hail guru" and the only material object to be outwardly reverenced is the "Granth", or sacred book. In practice, however, this reverence seems to have degenerated into a superstitious worship of the "Granth"; and even a certain vague divinity is attributed to the ten gurus, each of whom is supposed to be reincarnation of the first of the line, their original founder -- for the Hindu doctrine of transmigration of souls was retained even by Nanak himself, and a certain amount of pantheistic language occurs in parts of the sacred hymns. Salvation is to be obtained only by knowledge of the One True God through the Sat Guru (or true spiritual guide), reverential fear, faith and purity of mind and morals -- the main principles of which are strictly inculcated as marks of the true Sikh; while such prevailing crimes as infanticide and suttee are forbidden. They place some restriction on the killing of animals without necessity, but short of an absolute prohibition. Peculiar to the sect is the abstention from tobacco, and in part from other drugs such as opium -- a restriction introduced by Guru Govind Sing under the persuasion that smoking was conducive to idleness and injurious to the militant spirit. At the present time an active religious revival is manifesting itself among the Sikhs, having for its object to purge away certain superstitions and social restrictions which have gradually filtered in from the surrounding Hinduism.他们的圣书,被称为“Granth”(其原来是保存并在阿姆利则大寺庙崇敬)两部分组成:由编译后的第五个补充“阿迪Granth”,第一册或那纳克的书,大师,“Arjoon,并与随后增加后大师从下到第九,和贡献各弟子和信徒;第二,”第十届王“一书,由大师Govind星,第十和最后一个大师写的,主要是与一个灌输到该教派的好战精神的看法。在这些书籍中所包含的神学明显一神教。伟大和神圣的男人,即使神圣的,不是被崇拜,甚至没有自己的锡克教大师的图像使用tabooed ;礼仪崇拜,禁欲主义和种姓限制的明确拒绝了他们的死领导人要敬礼的口号“冰雹大师”的唯一实物要向外reverenced简单说就是“Granth”,或圣书在实践中。然而,这似乎已经崇敬变成了“Granth”迷信崇拜堕落;模糊,甚至在一定神,是因为十大师,每个人应该是轮回的第一线,他们的原始创办人 - 为灵魂的轮回印度教的教义被保留甚至那纳克自己,一个泛神论的语言一定量的神圣赞美诗部分发生救恩是只能由唯一的真神六师通过知识获得(。或者真正的精神指导),虔诚的恐惧,信心和纯洁的心态和道德 - 主要是严格的,作为真正的锡克标志着灌输原则;而作为当时的女婴和殉夫自焚等罪行被禁止他们在一些地方限制。杀害动物没有必要,但绝对禁止短特有的教派是从烟草弃权,并在部分如鸦片等药物 - 介绍大师Govind劝说下唱的限制,吸烟有利于闲置和损害的战斗精神。在目前积极的宗教复兴是体现之间的锡克教徒本身,它的对象有一定的距离,以清除迷信,社会的限制已逐渐从周围印度教过滤。

Publication information Written by Ernest R. Hull.出版信息由Ernest R.赫尔写。Transcribed by John Looby.转录由约翰Looby。The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.天主教百科全书,卷十三。Published 1912.1912年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.纽约:罗伯特Appleton还公司。Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人头马lafort,DD,检查员。Imprimatur.认可。+John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York+约翰farley枢机主教,大主教纽约


CUNNINGHAM, "A History of the Sikhs" (Calcutta, 1904; MACGREGOR, "History of the Sikhs" (2 vols., London, 1846); COURT, "History of the Sikhs"' GOUGH, "The Sikhs and the Sikh Wars" (London, 1897); SAYED MOHAMED LATIF, "History of the Punjab" (Calcutta, 1891); SEWARAM SINGH THAPAR, "Sri Guru Nanak Deva" (Rawalpindi, 1904); BHAGAT LAKSHMAN SINGH, "A short Sketch of the life and Work of Guru Govind Singh" (Lahore, 1909); MACAULIFFE, "The Sikh Religion" (6 vols., Oxford, 1909); TRUMPP, "The Adi Granth, the Holy Scriptures of the Sikhs" (London, 1877), stigmatised by Macauliffe as an unreliable translation.坎宁安,“一个历史的锡克教徒”(加尔各答,1904; MACGREGOR,(2卷,伦敦,1846年)“的锡克人的历史”;苑“的锡克教徒史”“GOUGH”的锡克教徒和锡克战争“(伦敦,1897年),赛义德穆罕默德拉蒂夫”的旁遮普史“(加尔各答,1891年); SEWARAM SINGH塔帕尔,”斯古鲁那那德瓦“(拉瓦尔品第,1904年); BHAGAT拉克什曼辛格,”一个生活小品和工作宗师Govind辛格“(拉合尔,1909年); MACAULIFFE,他说:”锡克宗教“(6卷,牛津,1909年); TRUMPP,他说:”阿迪Granth,对锡克教徒的圣经“(伦敦,1877年),由Macauliffe诬蔑为一个不可靠的译本。

Also, see:此外,见:
Shri Guru Granth Sahib - text - Sikhism里宗师granth sahib -文字-锡克教

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